WorldWideScience
1

Black cherry growth response to ambient ozone and EDU.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field-grown black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings were treated with the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) to evaluate height, diameter, and above-ground dry-weight biomass growth response to ambient ozone over four years. Nine blocks with 44 trees/block were used in a randomized complete block design with three foliar spray treatments: (1) 1000 ppm EDU mixed with a surfactant and water; (2) surfactant mixed with water; and (3) water only. In each growing season treatments were applied seven times at approximately 10-day intervals. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant (P< or =0.05) treatment and year effects for log-transformed height and diameter growth over the four-year period. After four years, EDU-treated trees were approximately 17% taller and stem diameters were 21% greater than non-EDU-treated trees. Total above-ground dry-weight biomass at the end of four years was 47% greater for EDU-treated trees compared to non-EDU-treated trees. PMID:15092135

Long, R P; Davis, D D

1991-01-01

2

Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects.

Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)]. E-mail: wmanning@microbio.umass.edu; Cooley, D.R. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Tuttle, A.F. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Frenkel, M.A. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Bergweiler, C.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)

2004-12-01

3

Effects of ambient ozone on first-year growth and physiology of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. ) seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black cherry seedlings of two open-pollinated families were exposed to ambient ozone in open plots (100%) and plots receiving non-filtered (95%), half-filtered (60%) and full-filtered (40%) concentrations via open-top chambers between early June and late-September 1992 in a replicated field experiment in central Pennsylvania. Seasonal 24-hour ambient ozone concentration averaged 34 ppb with a peak 1-hour concentration of 110 ppb. Foliar symptoms of ozone damage (adaxial stipple) occurred most prominently in open and non-filtered plots and differed between families. Net photosynthetic rate for both families was significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots on most dates, while ozone concentration had no consistent effect on leaf conductance or dark respiration. Leaf conductance of the ozone sensitive family was significantly greater than the ozone tolerant family on most dates. First-year height and diameter growth were significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots for both families.

Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Dunn, K. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-06-01

4

Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: A Lithuanian case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O3) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O3 concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O3 can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels. - Peak ozone concentrations is one of the key factors affecting Scots pine trees

5

Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. PMID:24507140

Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2014-03-01

6

Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

7

Effect of ambient ozone and acid mist on aphid development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ambient air with increased ozone concentrations and artificial acid mist on the population growth of two different aphid species was studied: Aphis fabae on Phaseolus vulgaris and Phyllaphis fagi on seedings of Fagus sylvatica. Whereas the ambient air inhibited growth of Aphis fabae, it stimulated population growth of Phyllaphis fagi. In Fagus, analysis of a phloem exudate revealed that the amino acid/sugar ratio was significantly increased by the ambient air compared to filtered air. In Phaseolus, no significant differences in amino acid or sugar content of the phloem exudate could be found. Acid mist inhibited population development in both aphid species; the strongest effect was observed in the first weeks after artificial infestation. PMID:15092475

Braun, S; Flückiger, W

1989-01-01

8

[Influence of ozone on snap bean under ambient air in two sites of northern China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been assumed the most phytotoxic air pollutant and the snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is known to be an ozone-sensitive species. Two genotypes (R123, ozone-tolerance, S156, ozone-sensitivity) of snap bean were explored in three places. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the snap bean was influenced under the current ambient ozone concentration. The findings indicated that the leaves of bean grown at Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), Chinese Academy of Sciences and ChangPing showed visible ozone symptoms under the ambient ozone concentration, and the averaged ozone injury proportion in S156 was 23.5% higher than R123 during the entire growth season. The ozone damage to the snap bean depends on the plant growing stages. The injury symptoms appeared just after flowering, increased from the stages of flowering to pod formation, and reached the maximum at the stages of pod maturation. The ratio of S156/R123 in pod yield was 0.48, and 0.24 and 0.73 in the RCEES, ChangPing and Harbin, respectively. The ratio close to 1 was assumed that the plant growth is not affected by ozone, and the lower ratio is, the more damage caused by ozone. Obviously, the current ambient ozone concentration of Beijing area has significantly caused the yield loss of snap bean. PMID:25338389

Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Jing-Song; Hu, En-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhao-Zhong

2014-08-01

9

Sensitivity of four hardwood species to ambient ozone in north central Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were performed to determine the injury growth response of four native species to ambient ozone on three ridgetop sites of the Allegheny Plateau of north central Pennsylvania. Open-top chambers were established at each site and seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were exposed to ambient air or to charcoal filtered air containing approximately 95, 60 or 40% of ambient ozone in randomized, complete blocks in 1988 and 1989. Black cherry seedlings were also exposed in 1990. Ozone was greatest in 1988 at all sites, and total ozone during the 3-year study was greatest at the westernmost sites. Foliar stipple injury of black cherry and yellow poplar were correlated positively with ozone within and among sites throughout the study. Premature leaf abscission of both species was significantly greater with higher ozone levels at one site in 1988 and 1989. Ozone stipple was not observed on red maple and red oak seedlings. Ambient ozone did not significantly decrease height, basal diameter, or leaf surface area of any species. Possible explanations for temporal and spatial ozone variation and subsequent plant response are discussed. 36 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Simini, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Davis, D.D.; Savage, J.E.; Comrie, A.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Pennsylvania Park, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

10

The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. - Highlights: ? Exposure of rice plants to elevated ozone during growth led to altered grain quality. ? Protein and lipid concentration increased whereas starch concentration and thousand kernel weight decreased. ? Rice grain, protein and iron yield tended to decrease in plants exposed to high ozone. ? These effects were responsive to different ozone levels and showed genotypic differences. ? The overall effect of nces. ? The overall effect of ozone o human nutrition is expected to be negative. - Ozone exposure during growth tends to increase the protein and lipid concentration in rice grains but decreases total grain and nutrient yields. These effects are dependent on ozone level and genotype.

11

Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe

12

Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

2004-07-01

13

Effects of a three-year exposure to ambient ozone on biomass allocation in poplar using ethylenediurea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions. -- Highlights: •A fast-growing ozone-sensitive poplar clone was treated with the ozone protectant ethylenediurea (EDU) for three years. •Ambient ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches. •Effects on stem length and diameter were not significant. •EDU protected from ozone visible foliar injury and reduction of biomass accumulation. -- Ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches, but did not affect stem length and diameter

14

Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): A meta-analytic review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O3) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O3-caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O3] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.

15

Growth-stage dependent crop yield response to ozone exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from four crop yield-loss field trials were examined to determine if analysis using an imposed phenological weighting function based on seasonal growth stage would provide a more accurate indication of impact of ozone exposure. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Moapa 69), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. California Dark Red kidney), fresh market and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. 6718 VF and VF-145-B7879, respectively) were grown at 9-11 ambient field plots within southern California comprising an ambient gradient of ozone. The growing season for each crop was artificially divided into 'quarters' composed of equal numbers of whole days and roughly corresponding to specific growth stages. Ozone exposure was calculated for each of these 'quarters' and regressed against final crop yield using 163 different exposure statistics. Weighting functions were developed using reciprocal residual mean square (1/RMS) or percentage of the best 100 exposure statistics of the 163 tested (TOP100) for each of the quarters. The third quarter of the alfalfa season was clearly most responsive to ozone as measured by both of the weighting functions. Third quarter ozone was also weighted highest by both weighting functions for dry bean. Fresh market and processing tomato were each influenced the greatest by second quartero zone as demonstrated by both weighting functions. The occurrence of ozone during physiologically important events (flowering and initial fruit set in second quarter for tomato; pod development in third quarter for dry bean) appeared to influence the yield of these crops the greatest. Growth-stage-dependent phenological weighting of pollutant exposure may result in more effective predictions of levels of ozone exposure resulting in yield reductions. PMID:15091620

Younglove, T; McCool, P M; Musselman, R C; Kahl, M E

1994-01-01

16

Comparative analysis of seed transcriptomes of ambient ozone-fumigated 2 different rice cultivars  

OpenAIRE

High ozone (O3) concentrations not only damage plant life but also cause considerable losses in plant productivity. To screen for molecular factors usable as potential biomarkers to identify for O3-sensitive and -tolerant lines and design O3 tolerant crops, our project examines the effects of O3 on rice, using high-throughput omics approaches. In this study, we examined growth and yield parameters of 4 rice cultivars fumigated for a life-time with ambient air (mean O3: 31.4–32.7 ppb) or fil...

Cho, Kyoungwon; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Kouji; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

2013-01-01

17

PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

18

COTTON YIELD LOSSES AND AMBIENT OZONE CONCENTRATIONS IN CALIFORNIA'S SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on controlled experiments and simulation modeling, ozone air pollution has been estimated to cause significant yield losses to cotton. he study reported here was conducted to verify losses for Acala cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.'SJ2') along a gradient of ambient ozone (O3) ...

19

GROWTH OF COTTON UNDER CHRONIC OZONE STRESS AT TWO LEVELS OF SOIL MOISTURE  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent field research has shown that ambient concentrations of ozone(O3) have the potential to reduce yield of a number of economically important crop species. Less emphasis has been placed on characterization of the effects of 03 on growth of the total plant that ultimately dete...

20

Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the great response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

21

Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10-4 cm3 s-1 with detection limit of 58.8 ?g m-3 h-1. Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozonesure assessments of ozone

22

Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

23

Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

2003-09-01

24

Heated stainless steel tube for ozone removal in the ambient air measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Heated stainless steel inlets were optimized for the ozone removal and for the measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes in ambient air. Five different inlets were used with different flows, temperatures and ozone and biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) concentrations. Both ozone removal capacities and recoveries of BVOCs were determined. Ozone and BVOCs were flushed through the inlet and recoveries were measured by an ozone monitor and adsorbent tube sampling of BVOCs with subsequent analysis with thermal desorption - gas chromatograph (GC) - mass spectrometer (MS). Recovery tests of BVOCs were conducted both with zero air and with ozone rich air. Inlets were optimized especially for online-GC and adsorbent tube measurements of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The results of this study show that it was possible to remove ozone without removing most VOCs with this set-up. Setting the temperature, stainless steel grade and flow correctly for different inlet lengths was found to have a crucial role. The results show that the ozone removal capacity increases with increasing temperature and inlet length. Stainless steel grade 316 was found to be more efficient than grade 304 with respect to ozone removal. Based only on the ozone removal capacity, the longest possible stainless steel inlet with heating would be the optimum solution. However, the recoveries of studied compounds had to be considered too. Of the tested set-ups, a 3 m inlet (¼ in. grade 304) heated to 120 °C with a flow of 1 or 2 l min-1 was found to give the best results with respect to the ozone removal efficiency and compound recovery. This inlet was removing ozone efficiently for at least 4 months when used for ambient air sampling at a rural forested site with a flow of 1 l min-1 (˜170 m3 of air flushed through the tube). A heated (140 °C) 1 m inlet (¼ in. grade 304 or ? in. grade 316) was able to remove ozone with a constant flow of 0.8-1 l min-1 for about two weeks (˜18 m3 of air) and had acceptable recoveries for all other studied compounds except for linalool. This inlet was found to be suitable also for ozone removal in adsorbent tube sampling when the flow is low (0.1 l min-1).

Hellén, H.; Kuronen, P.; Hakola, H.

2012-09-01

25

Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

1990-01-01

26

Response of different-aged black cherry trees to ambient ozone exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and exposure to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective exposure to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.

Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Pennyslvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA (United States))

1994-06-01

27

Colorimetric determination of ambient ozone using indigo blue droplet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um método simples e sensível, baseado em uma gota líquida, é descrito para medida do ozônio atmosférico. Uma gota de 30 µL de solução de índigo azul é suspensa em uma corrente de ar para amostragem. O ozônio coletado reage com a solução de índigo azul, provocando seu descoramento. O sensor colorimét [...] rico é composto por duas fibras ópticas; a fonte de luz monocromática usada foi um LED vermelho (625 nm). A curva analítica foi construída com concentrações padrão de ozônio, na faixa de 37 a 123 ppbv. O limite de detecção alcançado foi 7,3 ppbv. O método considerado mostrou-se de fácil aplicação e resposta rápida, com um tempo total de análise de apenas 5 minutos. Abstract in english A simple and sensitive method based on a liquid droplet is described for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. A 30 µL drop of indigo blue solution is suspended in a flowing-air sampling stream. The ozone collected reacts with the indigo solution resulting in its decolorization. The colorimetric sen [...] sor is composed of two optical fibers and the source of monochromatic light was a red LED (625 nm). The calibration curve was constructed with ozone standard concentrations ranging from 37 - 123 ppbv. The detection limit achieved was 7.3 ppbv. The method considered here showed itself to be easy to apply with a fast response and a total analysis time of only 5 minutes.

Erika P., Felix; Arnaldo A., Cardoso.

2006-04-01

28

AMBIENT HYDROCARBON AND OZONE CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A REFINERY  

Science.gov (United States)

An ambient air monitoring study to characterize airborne emissions from petroleum refineries was conducted near the Marathon oil refinery at Robinson, Illinois during June 17 - July 29, 1977. Ground-level sampling facilities and an airplane equipped with air pollutant monitoring ...

29

Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. PMID:19914752

Preisler, Haiganoush K; Zhong, Shiyuan Sharon; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

2010-03-01

30

Comparative analysis of seed transcriptomes of ambient ozone-fumigated 2 different rice cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

High ozone (O3) concentrations not only damage plant life but also cause considerable losses in plant productivity. To screen for molecular factors usable as potential biomarkers to identify for O3-sensitive and -tolerant lines and design O3 tolerant crops, our project examines the effects of O3 on rice, using high-throughput omics approaches. In this study, we examined growth and yield parameters of 4 rice cultivars fumigated for a life-time with ambient air (mean O3: 31.4-32.7 ppb) or filtered air (mean O3: 6.6-8.3 ppb) in small open-top chambers (sOTCs) to select O3-sensitive (indica cv Takanari) and O3-tolerant (japonica cv Koshihikari) cultivars for analysis of seed transcriptomes using Agilent 4 × 44K rice oligo DNA chip. Total RNA from dry mature dehusked seeds of Takanari and Koshihikari cultivars was extracted using a modified protocol based on cethyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction buffer and phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol treatment, followed by DNA microarray analysis using the established dye-swap method. Direct comparison of Koshihikari and Takanari O3 transcriptomes in seeds of rice plants fumigated with ambient O3 in sOTCs successfully showed that genes encoding proteins involved in jasmonic acid, GABA biosynthesis, cell wall and membrane modification, starch mobilization, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis are differently regulated in sensitive cv Takanari and tolerant cv Koshihikari. MapMan analysis further mapped the molecular factors activated by O3, confirming Takanari is rightly classified as an O3 sensitive genotype. PMID:24025514

Cho, Kyoungwon; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Kouji; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

2013-11-01

31

Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region  

OpenAIRE

A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h) over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and World Health Organization (WHO) for vegetation protection (AOT40) have been used to assess the air quality...

Roy, S.; Beig, G.; Ghude, S.

2009-01-01

32

The effect of different atmospheric ozone partial pressures on photosynthesis and growth of nine fruit and nut tree species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursery stock of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. O'Henry), nectarine (P. persica L. Batsch, cv. Fantasia), plum (P. salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman), apricot (P. armeniaca L., cv. Tilton), almond (P. dulcis Mill., cv. Nonpareil), prune (P. domestica L., cv. Improved French), cherry (P. avium L., cv. Bing), oriental pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Rehd., cv. 20th Century), and apple (Malus pumula Mill., cv. Granny Smith) were planted in open-top chambers on April 1, 1988 at the University of California's Kearney Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley (30 degrees 40' N 119 degrees 40' W). Trees were exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal-filtered air (C), ambient air (A), or ambient air + ozone (T)) from August 1 to November 17, 1988. The mean 12-h (0800 to 2000 h) ozone partial pressures measured in open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.030, 0.051, and 0.117 microPa Pa(-1) in the C, A and T treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO(2) assimilation rate decreased linearly with increasing 12-h mean ozone partial pressure for the almond, plum, apricot, prune, pear, and apple cultivars. Stomatal conductances of apricot, apple, almond, and plum decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Cross-sectional area relative growth rates of almond, plum, apricot, and pear decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and trunk growth of cherry, peach and nectarine were unaffected by the ozone treatments. Reduced leaf gas exchange probably contributed to ozone-induced growth reduction of the susceptible species and cultivars. Several of the commercial fruit tree species and cultivars studied were relatively tolerant to the ozone treatments. PMID:14972900

Retzlaff, W A; Williams, L E; DeJong, T M

1991-01-01

33

A Statistical Modeling Framework for Projecting Future Ambient Ozone and its Health Impact due to Climate Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse health effects of ambient ozone are well established. Given the high sensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations to meteorological conditions, the impacts of future climate change on ozone concentrations and its associated health effects are of concern. We describe a statistical modeling framework for projecting future ozone levels and its health impacts under a changing climate. This is motivated by the continual effort to evaluate projection uncertainties to inform public health risk assessment. The proposed approach was applied to the 20-county Atlanta metropolitan area using regional climate model (RCM) simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Future ozone levels and ozone-related excesses in asthma emergency department (ED) visits were examined for the period 2041-2070. The computationally efficient approach allowed us to consider 8 sets of climate model outputs based on different combinations of 4 RCMs and 4 general circulation models. Compared to the historical period of 1999-2004, we found consistent projections across climate models of an average 11.5% higher ozone levels (range: 4.8%, 16.2%), and an average 8.3% (range: -7% to 24%) higher number of ozone exceedance days. Assuming no change in the at-risk population, this corresponds to excess ozone-related ED visits ranging from 267 to 466 visits per year. Health impact projection uncertainty was driven predominantly by uncertainty in the health effect association and climate model variability. Calibrating climate simulations with historical observations reduced differences in projections across climate models. PMID:24764746

Chang, Howard H; Hao, Hua; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

2014-06-01

34

Effects of an ambient level of ozone on primate nasal epithelial mucosubstances. Quantitative histochemistry.  

OpenAIRE

Despite the absorption of inhaled oxidant gases by the nasal cavity, little effort has been made to characterize the effects of these oxidants on the nasal mucosa. This study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the character and amount of mucosubstances in epithelium of nasal mucosa. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to 0.00 or 0.15 ppm O3 (8 hr/day) for 6 or 90 days, anesthetized, and exsanguinated. Nasal cavities were fixed with Karnovsky's fixative, decalcified, and process...

Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Dungworth, D. L.

1987-01-01

35

Relationship between summertime ambient ozone levels and emergency department visits for asthma in central New Jersey.  

OpenAIRE

The 5-year retrospective study of the association between temperature and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma with mean ambient ozone levels between 10:00 and 15:00 was conducted in central New Jersey during the summer months. An association was identified in each of the years (1986-1990). Between 8 and 34% of the total variance in ED visits for asthma was explained by the two environmental variables in the step-wise multiple regression analysis. ED visits occurred 28% more frequently...

Weisel, C. P.; Cody, R. P.; Lioy, P. J.

1995-01-01

36

Long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and respiratory symptoms in a nonsmoking population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seventh-day Adventist nonsmokers, who, subsequent to 1966, had resided within 8 km (5 miles) of their 1977 residence (N = 3,914), completed the National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire in 1977 and again in 1987. For each participant, cumulative ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in excess of several cutoff levels were estimated by month and by interpolating ambient concentrations from state air-monitoring stations to their residential and workplace zip codes for the month. Statistically significant relationships between ambient concentrations of TSP and ozone, but not SO[sub 2], were found with several respiratory disease outcomes. Multivariate analyses adjusted for past and passive smoking and occupational exposures. Results are discussed within the context of standards setting for TSP and ozone. 25 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Abbey, D.E.; Petersen, F.; Mills, P.K.; Beeson, W.L. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

37

Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

Preisler, Haiganoush K., E-mail: hpreisler@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 800 Buchanan St, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Zhong Shiyuan, E-mail: zhongs@msu.ed [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1117 (United States); Esperanza, Annie, E-mail: annie_esperanza@nps.go [Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, 47050 Generals Highway Three Rivers, CA 93271 (United States); Brown, Timothy J., E-mail: tim.brown@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89521-10095 (United States); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej, E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Tarnay, Leland, E-mail: Leland_Tarnay@nps.go [Yosemite National Park, El Portal, CA 95318 (United States)

2010-03-15

38

Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

39

Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

S. Deb Roy

2009-07-01

40

Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O3 treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O3, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O3. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O3-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O3 susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. - Capsule: The therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures o therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures of central of the Iberian peninsula present a great sensitivity to ozone, as derived from growth- and biomass-related variables

41

CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION AND AIRWAY REACTIVITY DUE TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO TYPICAL AMBIENT OZONE (O3) LEVELS  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily ambient ozone levels between 0.08 and 0.12 ppm for periods exceeding 6 hours often occur in many urban, suburban, and rural areas of the United States and Europe. Substantial decrements in pulmonary functions, moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, and increased airway re...

42

Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

2004-07-01

43

Radial diffusive sampler for the determination of 8-h ambient ozone concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 8-h ozone radial diffusive sampler was evaluated according to the CEN protocol for the validation of diffusive samplers. All the parameters regarding the sampler characteristics were found to be consistent with the requirements of this protocol apart from the blank value, which must be evaluated and subtracted at each sampling. The nominal uptake rate was determined in laboratory conditions. However, the uptake rate depends on the mass uptake, temperature, humidity and on the combination of temperature and humidity. Based on laboratory experiments, an empirical model has been established which improved the agreement between the radial sampler and the reference method. This improvement was observed under several different meteorological and emission conditions of sampling. By using the model equation of uptake rate, the data quality objective of 30% for the expanded uncertainty included in the O3 European Directive, is easily attained. Therefore, the sampler represents an appropriate indicative method. - A passive sampler has been fully validated for monitoring 8-h ozone concentrations in ambient air

44

Effects of an ambient level of ozone on primate nasal epithelial mucosubstances. Quantitative histochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the absorption of inhaled oxidant gases by the nasal cavity, little effort has been made to characterize the effects of these oxidants on the nasal mucosa. This study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the character and amount of mucosubstances in epithelium of nasal mucosa. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to 0.00 or 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/ (8 hr/day) for 6 or 90 days, anesthetized, and exsanguinated. Nasal cavities were fixed with Karnovsky's fixative, decalcified, and processed for light microscopy, and sections were stained with alcian blue (pH 2.5)/periodic acid-Schiff or high iron diamine. Volume densities of secretory material in nasal epithelium were determined with the use of a Quantimet 900 image analyzer. After 6 days' exposure there were significant increases in both acidic and neutral glycoconjugates stored in transitional and respiratory epithelium. After 90 days there was significantly less mucosubstance than at 6 days. Only in the transitional epithelium did the total and sulfated mucosubstance remain greater than that of controls. Nasopharyngeal epithelium was minimally affected after 6 days of O/sub 3/ and unchanged after 90 days. It is concluded that exposures to ambient levels of O/sub 3/ induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium.

Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Dungworth, D.L.

1987-04-01

45

The role of elevated ozone on growth, yield and seed quality amongst six cultivars of mung bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) can be deleterious to plants by decreasing crop yield and quality. Present study was conducted on six cultivars of mung bean (HUM-1, HUM-2, HUM-6, HUM-23, HUM-24 and HUM-26) grown under ambient O3 (NFC) and elevated O3 levels (ambient+10 ppb; NFC+) in open top chambers (OTCs) for two consecutive years. Ozone monitoring data showed high mean ambient concentration of O3 at the experimental site, which was above the threshold value of 40ppb. Ozone exposure induced symptoms of foliar injury and also depicted accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which led to increased membrane damage vis-a-vis solute leakage. Root/shoot allometric coefficient (k), yield and seed quality showed negative response to O3. Differential response of mung bean cultivars against elevated O3 was assessed by comparing the levels of antioxidants, metabolites, growth, total biomass and yield. Cultivar HUM-1 showed maximum sensitivity towards O3 as compared to other cultivars. Findings of present study emphasized the possibility of selection of suitable O3 resistant cultivars for the areas experiencing high concentrations of O3. PMID:25450946

Chaudhary, Nivedita; Agrawal, S B

2015-01-01

46

Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O3]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O3] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O3] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: ? Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. ? We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. ? High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. ? Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soywhere these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

47

Effective interface passivation of a Ge/HfO2 gate stack using ozone pre-gate treatment and ozone ambient annealing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and electrical properties of a Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack are investigated. A thin interfacial GeO2 layer (?1 nm) is formed between Ge and HfO2 by dual ozone treatments, which passivates the Ge/high-k interface. Capacitors on p-type Ge substrates show very promising capacitance-voltage (C—V) characteristics by using in situ pre-gate ozone passivation and ozone ambient annealing after high-k deposition, indicating efficient passivation of the Ge/HfO2 interface. It is shown that the mid-gap interface state density atthe Ge/GeO2 interface is 6.4 × 1011 cm?2 · eV?1. In addition, the gate leakage current density of the Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack passivated by the dual ozone treatments is reduced by about three orders of magnitude compared to that of a Ge/HfO2/Al gate stack without interface passivation. (semiconductor technology)

48

Receptor model evaluation of the Southeast Michigan Ozone Study ambient NMOC measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale studies like the Southeast Michigan Ozone Study (SEMOS) have focused attention on quantifying and speciating inventories for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One approach for evaluating the accuracy of a VOC emission inventory is the development of a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model for ambient non-methane organic compound (NMOC) measurements. CMB evaluations of ambient hydrocarbon data provide a sample specific allocation of emissions to individual source categories. This study summarizes the results of an application of the CMB model to the NMOC data from the SEMOS study. Comparison of CMB results with emission inventory values for the Detroit area show that vehicle emissions are well represented by the inventory, as are architectural coatings and coke ovens. Estimated emissions from petroleum refineries and graphic arts industries are much lower in the inventory than determined from the receptor allocation. Under-reporting of fugitive VOC emissions from petroleum refineries is an ongoing problem. Emissions from graphic arts industries are underestimated in the inventory partly because of the broad characterization of the emission factor (i.e. mass emitted/capita), which may be less useful when specific locations and days are under consideration. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of the CMB approach when used prospectively to track the implementation of emission control strategies. While vehicle emission concentrations were unchanged from 1988 to 1993, measurement-based CMB results suggest a decrease in evaporative emissions during this period resulting from Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reductions (from 11.0 psi in 1988 to 8.6 psi in 1993) and fleet turnover. Changes in emissions from coke plants and petroleum refineries were also seen in the CMB allocations for these sources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Scheff, P.A.; Wadden, R.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Chung, J.; Wolff, G. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Public Health

1996-11-01

49

Integrated biomonitoring of air quality with plants and lichens: a case study on ambient ozone from central Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biennial integrated survey, based on the use of vascular plants for the bioindication of the effects of tropospheric ozone together with the use of automatic analysers of ozone, as well as the mapping of lichen biodiversity was performed in the area of Castelfiorentino (Tuscany, central Italy). Photochemically produced ozone proved to be a fundamental presence during the warm season, with maximum hourly means reaching 114 ppb, exceeding the information threshold as fixed by EU: the use of supersensitive tobacco Bel-W3 confirmed the opportunity of carrying out detailed cost-effective monitoring surveys. The potential for didactical and educational implications of this methodology are appealing. Critical levels set up for the protection of vegetation have exceeded considerably. The comparison of biomass productivity in sensitive and resistant individuals (NC-S and NC-R white clover clones, in the framework of an European network) provided evidence that ambient ozone levels are associated with relevant reduction (up to 30%) in the performance of sensitive material; effects on flowering were also pronounced. The economic assessment of such an impact deserves attention. Mapping of epiphytic lichen biodiversity--which has been used to monitor air quality worldwide--was not related to ozone geographical distribution as depicted by tobacco response. PMID:17267010

Nali, C; Balducci, E; Frati, L; Paoli, L; Loppi, S; Lorenzini, G

2007-05-01

50

CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT GROWTH AND CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone exposure decreases belowground carbon allocation and root growth of plants;however,the extent to which these effects persist and the cumulative impact of ozone stress on plant growth are poorly understood.To evaluate the potential for plant compensation,we followed the prog...

51

Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air  

Science.gov (United States)

The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P?5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

2013-12-01

52

Effects of ozone on the growth and quality of ladino clover (Trifolium repens L. )  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trifolium repens L., cv. Tillman, was exposed to acute levels of ozone at various ages in the vegetative life cycle to determine its effect on the growth and quality of exposed plants. The ozone treatment was observed to reduce the growth of ladino clover tops and roots, and the reductions found varied with concentration of ozone and age of plant at exposure. Nodulation was also reduced as a result of ozone exposure, and the reductions in this case varied with plant exposure age only. Nitrogenase activity was not significantly affected by ozone on a per nodule basis. However, findings suggest that nodule activity may have been slightly higher for plants exposed to ozone. This response varied with plant exposure age as well as ozone concentration. On a per plant basis nitrogenase activity of the exposed plants was significantly reduced at the first exposure age. Similarities in nitrogenase activity for exposed and nonexposed plants were observed at all other exposure ages. The quality of ladino clover as expressed by %N was significantly increased at the earlier exposure ages by ozone exposure. However, the total gram weight of N in the plant tissue was significantly reduced by the ozone treatment and tended to vary with ozone concentration and exposure age. Significant correlations between plant biomass and total N content were observed indicating that the main effect of ozone is on the quantity rather than the quality of ladino clover.

Letchworth, M.B.

1975-01-01

53

Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive) and 'R123' (O3-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O3 concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O3-sensitive and O3-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O3. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozoner of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU

54

Annual and seasonal trends of ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the South-Eastern French Mediterranean region, high ozone concentrations were measured since many years and specific symptoms like chlorotic mottles were detected on Arolla pines. We presented results for the 2000-2008 period concerning the trend analysis for ambient ozone concentrations and related forest damages, with the Mann and seasonal Kendall tests. Ozone precursor's emissions from Europe have been reduced over the last 20 years. Decreases in annual averages, median, 25th and 98th percentiles and maxima values were found. The seasonal trend analysis for the high-lying stations showed a decreasing trend for the warm season, when main ozone production is the photochemistry, and an increase for the cold period, caused by a reduced ozone titration. Statistics on Arolla Pine reveal strong correlations between mottling intensity and the high ozone concentrations. Finally, decreases for the ozone concentrations, and associated statistics, AOT40 values and for the mottling intensity on conifers needles were observed. - Trends of ambient ozone concentration, associated statistics and specific ozone-induced symptoms on conifers needles were studied in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period.

55

Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. - Epidemiological assessment of shoot growth suggests an ozone sensitivity of mature beech which is similar to seedlings

56

A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

57

Measurement of ozone in ambient air with microsensors : on-site campaign  

OpenAIRE

Ozone is actually one of the most important atmospheric pollutants in industrial countries. Measurement is well achieved by continuous monitors but a better information on ozone levels would be given by a denser monitoring network, made possible by using a lighter and cheaper technique like microsensors.Such sensors have been tested successfully in the laboratory. We have therefore undertaken a large on-site campaign, on air quality monitoring stations of the French Networks, to validate the ...

Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Moser, N.; Charpentier, C.; Moquet, A.; Borrel, H.

2004-01-01

58

Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O3/L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O3/L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O3/L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.eatment.

59

Characterization of radicals and high-molecular weight species from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction and ambient aerosol samples  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary organic aerosol formed during oxidation of different volatile organic compounds is composed from a number of final and intermediate reaction products. The final products include compounds in both low and high molecular weight range called also oligomer species. These compounds can be highly volatile, as well as being semi- or low-volatility compounds. This study characterized intermediate reactive radical products formed from previously often studied alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. In order to passivate those radical species nitrone spin traps were used. 5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrole-N-oxide (DMPO), and 5-dietoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) traps were able to successfully trap oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals produced from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. Electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used to scan spectra of formed spin trap adducts and the tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to elucidate its structures as well as structures of captured radicals. The same method was applied to analyze radical species present in ambient PM2.5 samples. Few carbon- (alkyl) and oxygen- (alkoxyl) centered radicals were captured with DMPO and DEPMPO traps. The second part of this study was focused on high molecular weight (high-MW) species formed from the same reaction (alpha-pinene/ozone), but found also in fine particulate matter fractions of ambient samples. LC/MS/MS analysis of dimer species from chamber study revealed fragments that can originate from peroxide structures. Proposed reaction for these peroxide dimer formation is self reaction of two peroxyl radicals, followed by the loss of oxygen molecule. These findings emphasize the role of peroxyl (ROO) radicals in formation of high-MW products and are in line with the high O:C ratio results reported in other studies. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) extracts of three size fractions of the ambient aerosol, PM1--2.5, PM0.1--1, and PMfulvic and hulic acids. However, absorption and emission maxima were shifted to lower wavelengths compared to aquatic standards, indicating the presence of lower MW species and a lower degree of aromaticity. Results showed that the samples collected during September and especially in October had higher MW and higher percentage of aromatic carbon when compared with samples collected during summer months (July/August). Spectroscopy results were confirmed with ESI/MS analysis. That analysis also confirmed presence of four different classes of compounds in ambient aerosols: carboxylic acids, poly-carboxylic acids, organosulfates, and organonitrates.

Pavlovic, Jelica

60

Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

1979-12-01

61

Effects of acute ozone exposure on growth, nodulation, and nitrogen content of ladino clover  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.) was subjected to two 2-h exposures, one week apart, of carbon-filtered air, 30 pphm ozone or 60 pphm ozone, in the facilities of the Southeastern Plant Environmental Laboratories. Plants were exposed at the following times: 14 + 21, 28 + 35, 42 + 49 or 56 + 63 days after seeding. Plants at each exposure age were harvested over a four-week period starting one week after the last exposure. Ozone reduced the growth of tops and roots. The magnitude of the effect varied with ozone concentration and plant exposure age. Both 30 and 60 pphm ozone reduced nodulation for the first three exposure ages. Nitrogenase activity per plant and per nodule was not significantly modified when compared with the appropriate controls. Total nitrogen was directly correlated with biomass.

Letchworth, M.B.; Blum, U.

1977-12-01

62

Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer [Forest Botany, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Stich, Susanne [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard [Section of Forest Genetics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Scherb, Hagen [Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bahnweg, Guenther, E-mail: bahnweg@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

2010-04-15

63

Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

64

77 FR 30160 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...  

Science.gov (United States)

...recommended by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...deadline passed, WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe...ozone NAAQS. WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe v...The EPA and WildEarth Guardians settled the case by entering...1) Establishing the air quality thresholds...

2012-05-21

65

The impact of ambient ozone on mountain spruce forests in the Czech Republic as indicated by malondialdehyde  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress, is measured over the long term in spruce Picea abies needles under real conditions in three Czech mountain border areas. The trends presented collate the MDA content in spruce needles with ambient ozone, temperature and precipitation as casual, and defoliation as a subsequent factor for the period 1994-2006. We have found the overall decreasing trends in MDA and defoliation. The highest MDA and defoliation are recorded in the Jizerske, the lowest in the Krusne hory Mts. Out of the examined variables the MDA is predicted best by mean temperature in vegetation season, median of O{sub 3} concentrations and AOT40; these three variables account for 34% of MDA1 and 36% of MDA2 variability. Our hypothesis that higher ambient O{sub 3} exposure results in higher MDA contents in P. abies needles under real conditions has not been approved. - The assumption that higher ambient O{sub 3} exposure results in higher MDA in Picea abies needles has not been approved in our study under real conditions in three Czech mountain forest areas.

Hunova, Iva, E-mail: hunova@chmi.c [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Sabatce 17, 143 06 Prague 4-Komorany (Czech Republic); Novotny, Radek; Uhlirova, Hana [Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Jiloviste Strnady (Czech Republic); Vrablik, Tomas; Horalek, Jan [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Sabatce 17, 143 06 Prague 4-Komorany (Czech Republic); Lomsky, Bohumir; Sramek, Vit [Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Jiloviste Strnady (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

66

The impact of ambient ozone on mountain spruce forests in the Czech Republic as indicated by malondialdehyde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress, is measured over the long term in spruce Picea abies needles under real conditions in three Czech mountain border areas. The trends presented collate the MDA content in spruce needles with ambient ozone, temperature and precipitation as casual, and defoliation as a subsequent factor for the period 1994-2006. We have found the overall decreasing trends in MDA and defoliation. The highest MDA and defoliation are recorded in the Jizerske, the lowest in the Krusne hory Mts. Out of the examined variables the MDA is predicted best by mean temperature in vegetation season, median of O3 concentrations and AOT40; these three variables account for 34% of MDA1 and 36% of MDA2 variability. Our hypothesis that higher ambient O3 exposure results in higher MDA contents in P. abies needles under real conditions has not been approved. - The assumption that higher ambient O3 exposure results in higher MDA in Picea abies needles has not been approved in our study under real conditions in three Czech mountain forest areas.

67

Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs

68

Effects of ozone on growth, lipid metabolism, and sporulation of fungi. [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; Alternaria oleraceae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fumigations with ozone at concentrations of 10 pphm or more for 4 hr repeated daily for 4 days suppressed radial growth and spore production of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the most sensitive species studied. Neither radial nor mass growth of Alternaria oleraceae, a more tolerant species, was inhibited by 60 pphm ozone, although spore production was significantly accelerated. Since ozone did not affect spore viability, the inoculum potential was greatly enhanced. Histological effects of ozone included loss of pigmentation in C. lindemuthianum and abundant formation of light-refractive globules in the hyphae. Chemical analyses of mycelial mats showed an average 28% decrease in neutral lipid content of ozone-fumigated cultures. No differences were detectable in fatty acid composition of fumigated cultures. While some lipids may have leaked into the substrate, it was suspected that ozone penetrated into vital sites within the cell-oxidizing sulfhydryl groups, thereby suppressing lipid synthesis. The actual degree of suppression in fumigated hyphae may have been greater than indicated, since much of the mycelia analyzed grew within the substrate and was not directly subjected to ozone. 14 references.

Treshow, M.; Harner, F.M.; Price, H.E.; Kormelink, J.R.

1969-09-01

69

EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS IN THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGIONS OF RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO A SIMULATED PATTERN OF URBAN AMBIENT OZONE  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron microscopic morphometry was used to study the development of lung injury during and after chronic (78 weeks) exposure to a pattern of ozone designed to simulate high urban ambient concentrations that occur in some environments. he dolly exposure regimen consisted of a 1 ...

70

Ozone Dosage Effect on C6 Cell Growth: in Vitro and in Vivo Tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

C6 rat glioma cells are one of the most aggressive carcinogenic tumors, due to high mortality rate in human beings and animals. The current treatment for this illness includes surgery and radio and chemotherapy, showing relapse in patients treat with those therapies. Since the ozone was found an effective bioreactive agent to inhibit growth of several carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In this research, therapeutic peritoneum insufflation of ozone/oxygen dissolved in the physiological solution of NaCl 0.9% was dosage for fifteen days on different groups of female mice with and advanced stage C6 tumor (n=6). The first of them was the control group which had not treatment, the second group was dosage with oxygen every second day, the third group was dosage with ozone every second day, and finally the fourth group was dosage with ozone dissolved every fifth day. The size of the tumor was higher in both groups dosed by ozone; nevertheless tumor activity measured by microPET was 98% less in the fourth group compared with the control group. That proves that the ozone provokes an increase in the tumor volume even though the decrease of the cell activity. Those results were confirmed by hydroperoxides quantification, cholesterol and triglycerides. Double Bond Index (DB-Index), which is a method that determines the quantity of double bonds in an organic sample, to confirm the variation of active sites in the ozone reaction. PMID:25353336

Pérez, Arizbeth; Santos Cuevas, Clara L; Chairez, Isaac; Poznyak, Tatyana; Ordaz-Rosado, David; García-Becerra, Rocío; Romero Piña, Mario E

2014-10-27

71

Impact of ozone on the growth of birch (Betula pendula) saplings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant correlation was found between reductions of growth and daylight AOT40 for Betula pendula saplings. - Saplings of one half-sib family of birch, Betula pendula, were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (OTCs) during two growing seasons 1997-1998. The ozone treatments were non-filtered air (NF, accumulated daylight AOT40 over the two growing seasons of 3.0 ?l l-1 h), non-filtered air with extra ozone (NF+, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 27.3 ?l l-1 h) and non-filtered air with additional extra ozone (NF++, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 120 ?l l-1 h). The birch saplings, including the roots, were harvested after the first and second growing seasons. After the first growing season, the NF++ treatment reduced the total wood biomass by 22%, relative to the NF treatment. There was no further reduction of the total wood biomass in the NF++ treatment after the second growing season. The root biomass was reduced by 30% after the first growing season. The shoot/root ratio, as well as the proportional biomass of leaves, were increased by ozone during both years. The ozone impact on the relative growth rate was estimated to -2% per 10 ?l l-1 h daylight AOT40 per growing season

72

Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In field O3-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O3-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O3-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

73

Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2008-11-15

74

Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O{sub 3}). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive.

Thomas, V.F.D. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vera.thomas@iap.ch; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Flueckiger, W. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

2006-09-15

75

Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 yr-1) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive

76

Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

2010-05-01

77

Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO2 and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO2 sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm-1) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag+, instead of Na+, Ca2+, or K+ ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO2 and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

78

Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO2 and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO(2) sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm(-1)) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag(+), instead of Na(+), Ca(2+), or K(+) ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO(2) and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature. PMID:20810210

Nikolov, Penko; Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya; Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Kumar, Narendra; Sarker, Dipak K; Pishev, Dimitar; Rakovsky, Slavcho

2010-12-15

79

Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures  

OpenAIRE

Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of ...

Gimeno, Benjami?n; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Torre Llorente, Daniel La; Elvira, S.

2004-01-01

80

Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the nd lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

81

Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential ({psi}{sub L}) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g{sub wv}) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P{sub n}), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g{sub wv} and P{sub n} demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone.

Schaub, M. [Graduate Ecology Program, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]. E-mail: jms34@psu.edu; Zhang, J.W. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ferdinand, J.A. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, J.E. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stevenson, R.E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Davis, D.D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, K.C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2005-02-01

82

Sesquiterpene Emissions from Vegetation - Chemical Analysis Technique for Ambient Measurements of the Contribution to the Formation of Ozone and Aerosols  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical technique for the measurement of sesquiterpenoid compounds (SQT; C15H24 and oxygenated isomers) emitted from vegetation is developed. SQT are suspected to contribute in aerosol-forming processes and heterogeneous reactions in the lower troposphere. SQT have been identified in plant emissions in numerous studies. However, their role in atmospheric processes remains uncertain. This uncertainty is mainly due to the lack of analytical capabilities for research of their ambient concentrations, surface-atmosphere fluxes and atmospheric reactions. SQT pose a challenge to the analytical chemist, and many questions regarding their reliable analysis remain unresolved. In this project, several analytical methodologies for the measurement of SQT such as whole air sampling techniques into bags and canisters and analysis by solid adsorption methods are being investigated and characterized. A calibration system has been built to generate well-defined gas-phase concentrations of individual SQT and SQT mixtures. This system is based on capillary diffusion and delivers steady output concentrations of SQT. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detection instrument provides automated and continuous on-line monitoring of the output concentrations. Potential analytical interferences, such as water and ozone, can be added to the analytes in order to study their effects on the SQT recovery rate and the analytical precision and accuracy. This research contributes towards improving the quality of SQT data from 1) measurements in experimental enclosure systems such as cuevettes, branch enclosures and chamber experiments, 2) monitoring at the ambient level and 3) studies of surface-atmosphere fluxes by tower gradient or relaxed eddy correlation methods. Furthermore, this project delivers a platform to research the non-isoprene portion of BVOC fluxes and it provides further insight how BVOC participate in the atmospheric formation of oxidants and aerosols.

Revermann, T.; Revermann, T.; Helmig, D.

2001-12-01

83

Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O3 under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant-1) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O3. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O3. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O3 under natural field conditions.

84

Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (USA))

1989-12-01

85

Daily ambient NO2 concentration predictions using satellite ozone monitoring instrument NO2 data and land use regression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ground measurements have contributed to revealing the association between ambient air pollution and health effects in epidemiological studies, exposure measurement errors are likely to be caused because of the sparse spatial distribution of ground monitors. In this study, we estimate daily ground NO2 concentrations in the New England region, U.S., for the period 2005-2010 using satellite remote sensing data in combination with land use regression. To estimate ground-level NO2 concentrations, we constructed a mixed effects model by taking advantage of spatial and temporal variability in satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric column NO2 densities. Using fine-scale land use parameters, we derived NO2 concentrations at point locations, which can be further used for subject-specific exposure estimates in epidemiological studies. A mixed effects model showed a reasonably high predictive power for daily NO2 concentrations (cross-validation R(2) = 0.79). We observed that the model performed similarly in each season, year, and state. The spatial patterns of model estimates reflected emission source areas (such as high populated/traffic areas) in the study region and revealed the seasonal characteristics of NO2. This study suggests that a combination of satellite remote sensing and land use regression can be useful for both spatially and temporally resolved exposure assessments of NO2. PMID:24437539

Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros

2014-02-18

86

Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (psi(L)) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g(wv)) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P(n)), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g(wv) and P(n) demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. PMID:15519730

Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Zhang, J W; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D; Steiner, K C

2005-02-01

87

EFFECTS OF ACIDITY OF SIMULATED RAIN AND ITS JOINT ACTION WITH AMBIENT OZONE ON MEASURES OF BIOMASS AND YIELD IN SOYBEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was performed to determine whether the presence of ozone modified the effects of acidity of simulated rain on growth and yield of soybean. Beeson, a type II cultivar, was grown in field chambers and exposed to simulated rain at 3 levels of acidity. Each level was ap...

88

Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2005-08-15

89

Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

90

Influence of growth ambient on the surface and structural properties of vanadium oxide nanorods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of growth ambient on the surface and structural properties of vanadium oxide nanorods have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The vanadium oxide nanorods, which were synthesized through an ambient controlled vapor transport process, exhibit different surface electronic properties depending upon the growth ambient. The Raman data indicates that the as-grown samples are orthorhombic V2O5 phase with a small variation of stoichiometry. Under highly oxidative conditions, nearly stoichiometry sample can be grown. If the samples were grown under less oxidizing conditions, an increase of structural disorder was observed. The observed V 2p core level spectra of both samples showed a single peak with chemical shifts corresponding to the V5+ and V4+. XPS results suggested that the highly oxidized vanadium ions (V5+) are gradually reduced to lower oxidation state (V4+) with the decreases of ambient oxygen levels during growth. The results clearly show that surface non-stoichiometry may be correlated with structural disorder of V2O5 nanorods. The growth ambient and post-annealing may influence the vanadium oxidation state and subsequent surface reactivity significantly.

91

Effect of ozone and sulphur dioxide singly and in combination on plant growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants were exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) singly or in combination to examine the effects of gas mixtures on plant growth. Chronic exposures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to these mixtures resulted in growth reductions from the mix treatment equal to the additive effect of the single gases. Chronic exposures of alfalfa (Medicago sativus) resulted in growth reductions from the mixed treatment that were less than the additive effects of the single gases. Single acute exposures of radish (Raphanus sativus) to O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ resulted in growth reductions in the mix treatment no different from the effects of the individual gases. None of the gas mixtures caused a greater growth reduction than would be expected from the additive effects of the single gases. This is in contrast with foliar injury, where gas mixtures frequently cause more foliar injury than the sum of the individual pollutants.

Tingey, D.T.

1975-01-01

92

Response of the macaque nasal epithelium to ambient levels of ozone. A morphologic and morphometric study of the transitional and respiratory epithelium.  

OpenAIRE

Although ozone (O3)-induced bronchiolitis has been morphologically characterized, effects of O3 on the upper respiratory tract have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposures to ambient levels of O3 induce lesions in the nasal mucosa. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to 0.00, 0.15, or 0.30 ppm O3 for 6 or 90 days, 8 hours/day. After exposure, nasal mucosa was processed for light and electron microscopy. Quantitative changes were evident in the na...

Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

1987-01-01

93

Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg Nha(-1)yr(-1)) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg Nha(-1) yr(-1). The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. PMID:16458397

Thomas, V F D; Braun, S; Flückiger, W

2006-09-01

94

78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of Actions Denying Petitions for...and publishes that such action is based on such a determination...national ambient air quality standards, the EPA determined that the actions are of nationwide...

2013-01-07

95

Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

1974-01-01

96

Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through {>=} 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

Ji Meng; Bell, Michelle L [School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Cohan, Daniel S [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-04-15

97

Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ? 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publicat-city studies further suggested publication bias.

98

Growth and production of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) treated with reduced, ambient, and enhanced UV-B radiation  

OpenAIRE

The effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. variety ‘Darja’), an important high elevation crop, was studied in order to estimate its vulnerability in changing UV-B environment. Plants were grown in outdoor experiments from July to October under reduced and ambient UV-B levels, and an UV-B level simulating 17% ozone depletion in Ljubljana. During the development the following parameters were monitored: light saturated photosynthetic activity, transpirat...

Gaberscik, Alenka; Voncina, Meta; Trost, Tadeja; Germ, Mateja; Bjo?rn, Lars Olof

2002-01-01

99

Ozone-induced expression of stress-related genes in arabidopsis thaliana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone is a major gaseous pollutant that is known to have detrimental effects on plant growth and metabolism. We have investigated the effects of ozone on Arabidopsis thaliana growth and the pattern of expression of several stress-related genes. A. thalina plants treated with either 150 or 300 parts per billion (ppb) ozone daily for 6 h exhibited reduced growth and leaf curling. Fresh and dry weights of ozone-treated plants were reduced 30 to 48% compared to ambient air controls. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that mRNA levels for glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a neutral peroxidase, and a cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dimutase (SOD) were higher in plants treated with 300 ppb ozone than in ambient air-treated controls. The mRNA levels of lipoxygenase and a catalase were not affected by ozone treatment. Of the transcripts examined, GST mRNA levels increased the most, showing a 26-fold induction 3 h after ozone treatment. The neutral peroxidase and SOD mRNA levels rose more slowly, with both reaching maximum levels corresponding to 5-fold and 3-fold induction, respectively, approximately 12 h after ozone treatment. These studies indicate that ozone-induced expression of stress-related genes in A. thaliana provides an excellent model system for investigating the molecular and genetic basis of ozone-induced responses in plants. 54 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Sharma, Y.K.; Davis, K.R. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1994-08-01

100

75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Washington, DC 20460. Mail Code: 2822T. Please include...DC Public Reading Room hours of operation will be...until such time as the 8-hour nonattainment area is...attainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS standard under...8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2010-08-24

101

77 FR 34221 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Elizabeth Crowe (WildEarth Guardians) filed a lawsuit seeking to...2008 ozone NAAQS. WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe v. Jackson...11-CV-01661). The EPA and WildEarth Guardians settled the case by entering...the most current, certified air quality data from...

2012-06-11

102

Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

1973-10-01

103

Phytotoxicity and growth responses of ornamental bedding plants to ozone and sulfur dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No appreciable signs of phytotoxicity were observed for 4 days following fumigation of plants (including begonias, petunias, snapdragons) with ozone of up to 80 parts per hundred million or sulfur dioxide of up to 400 pphm for 2 hr. Thereafter, there was considerable necrosis, particularly on begonias fumigated with the highest concentration of the pollutants. Growth suppression was reflected in reduced shoot and flower wt, and to a lesser degree in reduced flower number. Overall, begonias and petunias were the most sensitive. Coleus and snapdragons were moderately sensitive, while marigold, celosia, impatiens and salvia were tolerant. White Tausendschon was the most sensitive begonia cultivar while blue-flowered Capri was the most sensitive petunia. Mixed color petunias exhibited varying degrees of tolerance. Scarlet rainbow coleus was more sensitive than Pastel Rainbow. Measurements of growth alterations in plants were found very useful in determining latent forms of air pollutant injury.

Adedipe, N.O.; Barrett, R.F.; Ormrod, D.P.

1972-01-01

104

77 FR 46755 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ozone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards--First External Review Draft (August 2012...Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards--First External Review Draft (August 2012...Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards--First External Review Draft (August 2012)...

2012-08-06

105

Final report, ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with FMI (February 2012)  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of Finland maintained by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Walden, Jari; Kuronen, Pirjo

2012-01-01

106

Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011. PMID:24911370

Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

2014-09-01

107

Vertical and Horizontal Measurements of Ambient Ozone over a Gas and Oil Production Area using a UAV Platform  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 2013 wintertime Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS13), an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, coupled with an on-board UV ozone monitor, flew several spatial profiles near the location (Horse Pool) of other concentrated measurements by other co-investigators. The airframe, part of the Utah Water Research Laboratory's (UWRL) AggieAir UAV program, consisted of a custom-built, battery-operated plane with and 2.4 m (8 ft) wing span and a 12.7 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.5 cm payload bay with a carrying capacity of approximately 2.0 kg. With the current power system, the fully-loaded AggieAir UAV can fly for approximately 45 minutes at a nominal airspeed of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). The system can be operated either in manual control or be flown autonomously following preprogrammed waypoints via a built in GPS system. The AggieAir UAV systems were primarily designed for photographic and telemetry tracking projects. For the UBOS13 flights, a 2B Technologies Model 205 Ozone (O3) monitor was modified for minimal weight optimization, wrapped with lightweight insulation and secured into the UAV payload bay. Additionally, HOBO Model H08-001-02 shielded temperature/datalogger was secured to the exterior of the UAV from parallel thermal profile determination. During the study period, three demonstration flight profiles were obtained on February 17 and 18, 2013: two vertical 'curtain' profiles and a pair of 'stacked' horizontal profiles. As recorded by numerous ground-based monitoring sites, the ozone during the UAV test periods was characterized by initial trends of daytime O3 maximums over 130 ppb, followed by a meteorological front partially ventilating the Basin on the evening of Feb. 17th leading to decreased O3 minimums around 40 ppb. However, the ground level O3 rebuilt quickly to ground level maximums approaching 100 ppb. The vertical 'curtain' flown on the evening of Feb. 17th only reached a maximum elevation of about 2160 m ASL (600 m AGL) due to encountering upper level excessive winds as the low pressure front approached. However the flight was still able to capture a temperature profile indicating a well-mixed atmosphere below about 300 m AGL, sealed by a definitive inversion layer extending to the top of the measurement profile. The measured O3 profile went from about 140 ppb near the ground to around 60 ppb at the start of the inversion layer, and then remained essentially constant until the top of the elevation profile. The vertical profile late in the morning of the following day (after the front had passed), showed nearly straight vertical profiles of temperature (?2°C) and ozone (35-50 ppb) up to approximately 2400 m ASL (820 m AGL). The stacked horizontal profiles (1650 and 1750 m ASL) flown immediately after the vertical flight of Feb. 17th showed some differences on the horizontal scale, but it was unclear if these differences were associated with terrain differences (topography dropped rapidly to the south) or locational differences in precursor sources. The UAV measured ozone compared favorably to nearby co-investigators (NOAA/ESRL CSD TOPAZ Lidar and CU/INSTAAR tethered balloon).

Jensen, A.; Gowing, I.; Martin, R. S.

2013-12-01

108

Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 ?g m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 ?g m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 ?g m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

2014-03-01

109

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in open-top chambers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) was grown in open-top chambers under three carbon dioxide (ambient and seasonal mean concentrations of 550 and 680 ?mol mol-1 CO2) and two ozone concentrations (ambient and an 8 h day -1 seasonal mean of 50 nmol mol-1 O3) between emergence and final harvest. Periodic non-destructive measurements were made and destructive harvests were carried out at three key developmental stages (24, 49 and 101 days after emergence) to establish effects on growth and tuber yield. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 reduced above-ground dry weight at final harvest by 8.4% (P2 and O3 for any of the growth and yield variables examined. Non-destructive analyses revealed no significant effect of elevated CO2 on plant height, leaf number or green leaf area ratio. However, destructive harvests at tuber initiation and 500 deg Cd after emergence showed that above-ground dry weight (8 and 7% respectively) and tuber yield (88 and 44%) were significantly increased (P-1 CO2 treatment. Responses to 550 and 680 ?mol mol-1 CO2 were not significantly different for most parameters examined, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to the beneficial influence of CO2 enrichment. Significant effects2 enrichment. Significant effects on the above-ground dry weight and tuber yield were no longer apparent at final harvest, although tuber numbers were increased (P2, particularly in the smaller size categories. The results show that the O3 treatment imposed was insufficient to reduce tuber yields and that, although elevated CO2 enhanced crop growth during the early stages of the season, this beneficial effect was not sustained to maturity. (Author)

110

Foliar response and growth of apple trees following exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three cultivars of greenhouse-grown apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh.) were fumigated for single, 4-hour exposures with ozone (O/sub 3/) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0.40 and 0.80 ppm. Fumigations were performed in a plexiglass chamber situated within a controlled environment walk-in growth chamber. All 3 cultivars responded to treatments in a similar manner. When applied separately both gases induced characteristic foliar injury. In general, apple trees were more sensitive to 0.40 ppm O/sub 3/ than to 0.40 ppm SO/sub 2/; but they responded similarly to 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/. Foliar injury, leaf abscission, and shoot growth reduction were greatest when 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ and 0.80 ppm SO/sub 2/ were combined. The data showed a less-than additive response when the 2 pollutants were combined; a response due, in part, to the high amount of injury induced by single pollutants at these concentrations. All O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ fumigations resulted in stomatal closure.

Shertz, R.D.; Kender, W.J.; Musselman, R.C.

1980-01-01

111

Ozone Impacts on forest Growth: A Sensitivity Analysis for Norway spruce  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone is one of the most important damaging air pollutants for forests in Austria. The mean atmospheric ozone concentration varies between 22.5 and 51.5 ppb (parts per billion) depending on altitude. Based on the emissions of the precursor substances (nitrous oxides and volatile hydrocarbons), the concentrations increase around 0.2 ppb per year and exceed the threshold for effects on plants. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis is sensible to ozone load. This corresponds to a reduction of the potentially possible CO2 fixation and can be regarded as a proof of the damage potential of ozone. The defence capacity vis-à-vis increased ozone increases with increasing elevation. At higher elevations the higher natural stress potential is accompanied by a higher defence potential against ozone damage. Based on these findings the following working hypotheses were formulated: (i) Under the acceptance that ozone uptake leads to a reduction of volume increment, model calculations on volume increment should exhibit a systematic bias versus the ozone dose. (ii) For locations unencumbered by ozone, the model should underestimate, for strongly burdened locations it should overestimate volume increment. (iii) Error patterns should change with increasing elevation, due to the increasing defence potential. Results demonstrated that at elevations above 800 m a.s.l. no ozone effect was detectable via trends in errors versus ozone dose. At elevations below 800 m, a significant trend in errors from plots with low ozone doses to plots with high ozone doses was evident. Although the model used in this study includes no explicit ozone reactions, we can be confident at the 95 % level that Norway spruce trees growing below 800 m a.s.l. react to an increase in ozone dose with a reduction in volume increment. It is, however, important to emphasize that the evidence for increment reduction is qualitative evidence but does not allow the quantification of the ozone induced reduction in volume increment. A quantification of the reduction in volume increment requires the statistical validation of the dose-response relations on the basis of additional data series from sites with different ozone loads, elevations and site conditions.

Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.

2009-04-01

112

Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

1998-01-01

113

Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO{sub 2} sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm{sup -1}) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag{sup +}, instead of Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, or K{sup +} ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

Nikolov, Penko, E-mail: penmail@mail.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kumar, Narendra [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Abo/Turku (Finland); Sarker, Dipak K. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Pishev, Dimitar [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rakovsky, Slavcho [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2010-12-15

114

Evaluation of ozone precursor source types using principal component analysis of ambient air measurements in rural Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

The sources of photochemical precursors for ozone, primarily NOX (NO + NO2) and reduced carbon (CO and hydrocarbons), were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) of concurrent measurements of [NOX], [NOY] (total reactive oxidized nitrogen species), [CO], [SO2], [C3H8], [C6H6], and [O3] collected at a rural Alabama field site during the summers of 1990 and 1992. Two separate data matrices were analyzed, including a low measurement frequency matrix that included all of the variables and a high measurement frequency matrix that included all of the variables except for the hydrocarbons. The results of the PCA indicated that the major sources of NOY in the region are (1) coal-fired power plants and (2) biomass burning and/or paper mills. The identifications are based on the [CO]/[NOY] and [SO2]/[NOY] emission ratios derived from the measurements in comparison with the expected emission ratios that are based upon the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventory and upon laboratory experiments. The results indicated that the NAPAP inventory, integrated over the southeastern region of the United States, may overestimate the current [SO2]/[NOY] emission ratio from coal-fired power plants and may underestimate the [CO]/[NOY] emission ratio from paper mills. The results also suggest that biomass burning in the southeastern United States may be an important component in the NOY inventory, both as a point source associated with paper mills and as a seasonally dependent area source. The variation of [O3] observed at the site was primarily related to the variation of [NOY].

Buhr, Martin; Parrish, David; Elliot, Jaimi; Holloway, John; Carpenter, Jim; Goldan, Paul; Kuster, William; Trainer, Michael; Montzka, Stephen; McKeen, Stuart; Fehsenfeld, Fred

1995-11-01

115

Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

116

Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

Mainiero, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.mainiero@iap.c [Department for Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kazda, Marian, E-mail: marian.kazda@uni-ulm.d [Department for Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: haeberle@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Nikolova, Petia Simeonova, E-mail: nikolova@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer, E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

2009-10-15

117

Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O{sub 3} (40-50 ppb) and CO{sub 2}-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O{sub 3}. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not amend the detrimental effects of O{sub 3} on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} alone had only minor effects. An O{sub 3}-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O{sub 3} responses and CO{sub 2} amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment.

Raemoe, Kaisa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kaisa.koivisto@helsinki.fi; Kanerva, Teri [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Nikula, Suvi [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ojanperae, Katinka [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2006-11-15

118

Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O3. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO2 did not amend the detrimental effects of O3 on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO2 alone had only minor effects. An O3-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O3 responses and CO2 amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment

119

Evaluation and calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-power, and relatively low-cost, gas sensors have potential to improve understanding of intra-urban air pollution variation by enabling data capture over wider networks than is possible with 'traditional' reference analysers. We evaluated an Aeroqual Ltd. Series 500 semiconducting metal oxide O3 and an electrochemical NO2 sensor against UK national network reference analysers for more than 2 months at an urban background site in central Edinburgh. Hourly-average Aeroqual O3 sensor observations were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91) and of similar magnitude to observations from the UV-absorption reference O3 analyser. The Aeroqual NO2 sensor observations correlated poorly with the reference chemiluminescence NO2 analyser (R2 = 0.02), but the deviations between Aeroqual and reference analyser values ([NO2]Aeroq - [NO2]ref) were highly significantly correlated with concurrent Aeroqual O3 sensor observations [O3]Aeroq. This permitted effective linear calibration of the [NO2]Aeroq data, evaluated using 'hold out' subsets of the data (R2 ? 0.85). These field observations under temperate environmental conditions suggest that the Aeroqual Series 500 NO2 and O3 monitors have good potential to be useful ambient air monitoring instruments in urban environments provided that the O3 and NO2 gas sensors are calibrated against reference analysers and deployed in parallel.

Lin, C.; Gillespie, J.; Schuder, M. D.; Duberstein, W.; Beverland, I. J.; Heal, M. R.

2015-01-01

120

Use of AIRS, OMI, MLS, and TES Data in Assessing Forest Ecosystem Exposure to Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground-level ozone at high levels poses health threats to exposed flora and fauna, including negative impacts to human health. While concern is common regarding depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, portions of the urban and rural United States periodically have high ambient levels of tropospheric ozone on the ground. Ozone pollution can cause a variety of impacts to susceptible vegetation (e.g., Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine species in the southwestern United States), such as stunted growth, alteration of growth form, needle or leaf chlorosis, and impaired ability to withstand drought-induced water stress. In addition, Southern Californian forests with high ozone exposures have been recently subject to multiyear droughts that have led to extensive forest overstory mortality from insect outbreaks and increased incidence of wildfires. Residual forests in these impacted areas may be more vulnerable to high ozone exposures and to other forest threats than ever before. NASA sensors collect a wealth of atmospheric data that have been used recently for mapping and monitoring regional tropospheric ozone levels. AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) data could be used to assess forest ecosystem exposure to ozone. Such NASA data hold promise for providing better or at least complementary synoptic information on ground-level ozone levels that Federal agency partners can use to assess forest health trends and to mitigate the threats as needed in compliance with Federal laws and mandates. NASA data products on ozone concentrations may be able to aid applications of DSTs (decision support tools) adopted by the USDA FS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) and by the NPS (National Park Service), such as the Ozone Calculator, in which ground ozone estimates are employed to assess ozone impacts to forested vegetation.

Spruce, Joseph P.

2007-01-01

121

Ellipsometric study of ambient-produced overlayer growth rate on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films  

Science.gov (United States)

An ellipsometric study of ambient-reaction-produced BaCO3 overlayer growth on laser-ablated YBCO is presented as a function of time. The effects of the anisotropy of YBCO on the ellipsometric data inversion process are discussed, and it is concluded that with certain restrictions on the data acquisition method, the anisotropic substrate can be adequately modeled by its isotropic pseudodielectric function for the purpose of overlayer thickness estimation. It is found that after an initial period of rapid growth attributed to the chemical reaction of the exposed surface bonds, the BaCO3 overlayer growth is linear at 1-2 A per day. This slow growth rate is attributed to the complexity of the BaCO3-forming reaction, together with the need for ambient reactants to diffuse through the overlayer.

Sieg, Robert M.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Warner, Joseph D.

1993-01-01

122

Tropospheric ozone increases over the southern Africa region: bellwether for rapid growth in Southern Hemisphere pollution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in free-tropospheric (FT) ozone based on ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2008 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion (21° S, 55° E; ~2800 km NE of Irene in the Indian Ocean), have been reported. Over Irene a large increase in the urban-influenced boundary layer (BL, 1.5-4 km) was also observed during the 18-year period, equivalent to 30% decade-1. Here we show that the Irene BL trend is at least partly due to a gradual change in the sonde launch times from early morning to the midday period. The FT ozone profiles over Irene in 1990-2007 are re-examined, filling in a 1995-1999 gap with ozone profiles taken during the Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project over nearby Johannesburg. A multivariate regression model that accounts for the annual ozone cycle, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possible tropopause changes was applied to monthly averaged Irene data from 4 to 11 km and to 1992-2011 Réunion sonde data from 4 to 15 km. Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle and upper troposphere (UT; 4-11 km over Irene, 4-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with increases ~1 ppbv yr-1 over Irene and ~2 ppbv yr-1 over Réunion. These changes are equivalent to ~25 and 35-45% decade-1, respectively. Both stations also display smaller positive trends in summer, with a 45% decade-1 ozone increase near the tropopause over Réunion in December. To explain the ozone increases, we investigated a time series of dynamical markers, e.g., potential vorticity (PV) at 330-350 K. PV affects UT ozone over Irene in November-December but displays little relationship with ozone over Réunion. A more likely reason for wintertime FT ozone increases over Irene and Réunion appears to be long-range transport of growing pollution in the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone increases are consistent with trajectory origins of air parcels sampled by the sondes and with recent NOx emissions trends estimated for Africa, South America and Madagascar. For Réunion trajectories also point to sources from the eastern Indian Ocean and Asia.

Thompson, A. M.; Balashov, N. V.; Witte, J. C.; Coetzee, J. G. R.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

2014-09-01

123

Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM) and gas, to determine whether pollutant interactions alter (e.g. synergistically, antagonistically) the health response. This study examines the independent effects of fine (FCAPs) and ultrafine (UFCAPs) concentrated ambient particles on cardiac function, and determine the impact of ozone (O3) co-exposure on the response. We hypothesized that UFCAPs would cause greater decrement in mechanical function and electrical dysfunction than FCAPs, and that O3 co-exposure would enhance the effects of both particle-types.MethodsConscious/unrestrained radiotelemetered mice were exposed once whole-body to either 190 ¿g/m3 FCAPs or 140 ¿g/m3 UFCAPs with/without 0.3 ppm O3; separate groups were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or O3 alone. Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded continuously before, during and after exposure, and cardiac mechanical function was assessed using a Langendorff perfusion preparation 24 hrs post-exposure.ResultsFCAPs alone caused a significant decrease in baseline left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility, whereas UFCAPs did not; neither FCAPs nor UFCAPs alone caused any ECG changes. O3 co-exposure with FCAPs caused a significant decrease in heart rate variability when compared to FA but also blocked the decrement in cardiac function. On the other hand, O3 co-exposure with UFCAPs significantly increased QRS-interval, QTc and non-conducted P-wave arrhythmias, and decreased LVDP, rate of contractility and relaxation when compared to controls.ConclusionsThese data suggest that particle size and gaseous interactions may play a role in cardiac function decrements one day after exposure. Although FCAPs¿+¿O3 only altered autonomic balance, UFCAPs¿+¿O3 appeared to be more serious by increasing cardiac arrhythmias and causing mechanical decrements. As such, O3 appears to interact differently with FCAPs and UFCAPs, resulting in varied cardiac changes, which suggests that the cardiovascular effects of particle-gas co-exposures are not simply additive or even generalizable. Additionally, the mode of toxicity underlying this effect may be subtle given none of the exposures described here impaired post-ischemia recovery. PMID:25318591

Kurhanewicz, Nicole; McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Rachel; Tong, Haiyan; Walsh, Leon; Farraj, Aimen; Hazari, Mehdi S

2014-10-16

124

Effect of Ozone and Simulated Acid Rain on Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Peroxidase Activity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plant  

OpenAIRE

Faba beans (Vicia faba L. CV. Giza 400) were exposed to ozone (100 ppb) and simulated acid rain (SAR) at pH 3, separately and combined over 2-weaks period while grown in climate controlled growth chambers. Ozone fumigation (O3) exposure was for 5 h day -1, whereas acid rain exposure was for 2 h per week. The results showed that exposure to high O3 concentration (100 ppb) decreased the number and weight of root nodules, suppressed nitrogenase...

Laila Ezzel-Arab Abdel Nasser

2002-01-01

125

Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BTs) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NTs), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HBs) to the total BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BTs and terpene from NTs were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. A geographically weighted regression analysis with locally compensated ridge (LCR-GWR) with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs) suggests that addition of BT, SB, and NT areas can contribute to O3 increase, whereas addition of an HB area contributes to O3 decrease in the domain. Assessment results of the simulated spatial and temporal changes of O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios reveal that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 13 ppb. The simulated maximum 1 h O3 inter-deviations between different PFT scenarios have an asymmetric diurnal distribution pattern (low in the early morning, rising during the day, peaking at 05:00 p.m., and decreasing during the night) in the study domain. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of different PFT distribution data requires much caution when modeling (or forecasting) O3 air quality in complicated urban atmospheric conditions in terms of whether uncertainties in O3 prediction results are expected to be mild or severe.

Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

2014-07-01

126

Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O3 prediction results, we explored the PFT area-loss artifact that occurs due to geographical disparity between the PFT and leaf area index distributions, and can cause increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, the PFT-loss artifact must be a source of limitation in the MEGAN biogenic emission modeling and the CTM O3 simulation results. Time changes of CMAQ O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios suggest that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 10 ppb. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of representative PFT distributions becomes more critical for O3 air quality modeling (or forecasting in support of air quality decision-making and human health studies.

H.-K. Kim

2013-09-01

127

Diferentes ambientes e Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica Different ambient and Osmocote® for growth of tamarind (Tamarindus indica fruits seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes e doses de Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L. Um experimento foi instalado no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, empregando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos se constituíram dos diferentes ambientes de formação de mudas (casa de vegetação, telado e a céu aberto e de quatro doses de Osmocote®: 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 de substrato. Avaliaram-se a altura da muda (cm, comprimento da raiz (cm, número de folhas/planta, matéria seca da parte aérea (g, matéria seca da raiz (g e a matéria seca total (g. Os resultados demonstraram que o Osmocote® (15-10-10 pode ser recomendado para a formação de mudas de tamarindo, em doses de até 6,0 kg.m-3. O ambiente a céu aberto foi o que proporcionou melhor qualidade às mudas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ambient and Osmocote® (15-10-10 doses on the production of tamarind fruits seedlings. An experiment was carried out in a nursery at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Brazil, arranged in a randomized complete block outline and a 3x4 factorial scheme, with four replications and five plants per plot. The treatments were constituted by greenhouse, nursery and exposed sky, using different dosages of Osmocote® (15-10-10 were 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 of substrate. Seedling growth, height, number of leaves, aerial part, root and total dry matter were evaluated. The results showed that of Osmocote® (15-10-10 can be recommended for the formation of tamarind seedlings, at doses of until 6 kg m-3. Sky exposing was the one which provided better quality to the seedlings.

Vander Mendonça

2008-04-01

128

Diferentes ambientes e Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica) / Different ambient and Osmocote® for growth of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruits seedlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes e doses de Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L). Um experimento foi instalado no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, empregando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em es [...] quema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos se constituíram dos diferentes ambientes de formação de mudas (casa de vegetação, telado e a céu aberto) e de quatro doses de Osmocote®: 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 de substrato. Avaliaram-se a altura da muda (cm), comprimento da raiz (cm), número de folhas/planta, matéria seca da parte aérea (g), matéria seca da raiz (g) e a matéria seca total (g). Os resultados demonstraram que o Osmocote® (15-10-10) pode ser recomendado para a formação de mudas de tamarindo, em doses de até 6,0 kg.m-3. O ambiente a céu aberto foi o que proporcionou melhor qualidade às mudas. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ambient and Osmocote® (15-10-10) doses on the production of tamarind fruits seedlings. An experiment was carried out in a nursery at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Brazil, arranged in a randomized complete block outline and a 3x4 factorial scheme, with four [...] replications and five plants per plot. The treatments were constituted by greenhouse, nursery and exposed sky, using different dosages of Osmocote® (15-10-10) were 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 of substrate. Seedling growth, height, number of leaves, aerial part, root and total dry matter were evaluated. The results showed that of Osmocote® (15-10-10) can be recommended for the formation of tamarind seedlings, at doses of until 6 kg m-3. Sky exposing was the one which provided better quality to the seedlings.

Vander, Mendonça; Nildo Antônio Arruda de, Abreu; Henrique Antunes de, Souza; Glauco Antônio, Teixeira; Oscar Mariano, Hafle; José Darlan, Ramos.

2008-04-01

129

Increased growth factors play a role in wound healing promoted by noninvasive oxygen-ozone therapy in diabetic patients with foot ulcers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is a great challenge for clinicians. Although the oxygen-ozone treatment improves the diabetic outcome, there are few clinical trials to verify the efficacy and illuminate the underlying mechanisms of oxygen-ozone treatment on DFUs. In the present study, a total of 50 type 2 diabetic patients complicated with DFUs, Wagner stage 2~4, were randomized into control group treated by standard therapy only and ozone group treated by standard therapy plus oxygen-ozone treatment. The therapeutic effects were graded into 4 levels from grade 0 (no change) to grade 3 (wound healing). The wound sizes were measured at baseline and day 20, respectively. Tissue biopsies were performed at baseline and day 11. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) proteins in the pathologic specimens were determined by immunohistochemical examinations. The effective rate of ozone group was significantly higher than that of control group (92% versus 64%, P wound size reduction was significantly more in ozone group than in control group (P wound healing of DFUs via potential induction of VEGF, TGF-?, and PDGF at early stage of the treatment. (Clinical trial registry number is ChiCTR-TRC-14004415). PMID:25089169

Zhang, Jing; Guan, Meiping; Xie, Cuihua; Luo, Xiangrong; Zhang, Qian; Xue, Yaoming

2014-01-01

130

Effect of ambient temperature in neonate aspic vipers: growth, locomotor performance and defensive behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of temperature during incubation and gestation has been tested in various reptiles; the postnatal period has been rarely investigated however. Three groups of newborn aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) were placed under contrasted thermal regimes during 7 months: (1) a cool 23°C constant regime, (2) a warm 28°C constant regime, and (3) an optimal regime with free-access to a wide range of temperatures. Later, all the snakes were placed under hibernation conditions (6°C) during 3 months. Finally all the snakes were placed in the optimal thermal regime during 2 additional months. The total duration of the experiment was of 12 months. Body mass and feeding rates were recorded weekly, body size was measured monthly. We also assessed locomotor performance and recorded several behavioral traits (e.g., defensive and predatory behaviors). As expected, snakes raised under cool temperatures exhibited low feeding rate, growth rate, body condition, and they exhibited poor locomotor performance; they also displayed marked defensive behaviors (e.g., high number of defensive bites) whilst hesitating during longer periods to bite a prey. Such behavioral effects were detected at the end of the experiment (i.e., 5 months after exposure to contrasted thermal treatments [3 months of hibernation plus 2 months of optimal regime]), revealing long term effects. Surprisingly, growth rate and locomotor performance were not different between the two other groups, warm constant 28°C versus optimal regimes (albeit several behavioral traits differed), suggesting that the access to a wide range of ambient temperatures was not a crucial factor. PMID:23580460

Aïdam, Aurélie; Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

2013-07-01

131

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in open-top chambers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) was grown in open-top chambers under three carbon dioxide (ambient and seasonal mean concentrations of 550 and 680 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2}) and two ozone concentrations (ambient and an 8 h day {sup -1} seasonal mean of 50 nmol mol{sup -1} O{sub 3}) between emergence and final harvest. Periodic non-destructive measurements were made and destructive harvests were carried out at three key developmental stages (24, 49 and 101 days after emergence) to establish effects on growth and tuber yield. Season-long exposure to elevated O{sub 3} reduced above-ground dry weight at final harvest by 8.4% (P<0.05), but did not affect tuber yields. There was no significant interaction between CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} for any of the growth and yield variables examined. Non-destructive analyses revealed no significant effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on plant height, leaf number or green leaf area ratio. However, destructive harvests at tuber initiation and 500 deg Cd after emergence showed that above-ground dry weight (8 and 7% respectively) and tuber yield (88 and 44%) were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} treatment. Responses to 550 and 680 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were not significantly different for most parameters examined, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to the beneficial influence of CO{sub 2} enrichment. Significant effects on the above-ground dry weight and tuber yield were no longer apparent at final harvest, although tuber numbers were increased (P<0.05) under elevated CO{sub 2}, particularly in the smaller size categories. The results show that the O{sub 3} treatment imposed was insufficient to reduce tuber yields and that, although elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced crop growth during the early stages of the season, this beneficial effect was not sustained to maturity. (Author)

Lawson, T.; Craigon, J.; Black, C.R.; Colls, J.J.; Tulloch, A.-M.; Landon, G. [Nottingham Univ., School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

132

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... States (44.8%) live in areas with unhealthful levels of ozone. What Is Ozone? Ozone is a ... 296 counties that received an F for ozone levels. These people live where the monitored air quality ...

133

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Report Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in ... areas with unhealthful levels of ozone. What Is Ozone? Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atoms. ...

134

Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.  

OpenAIRE

Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different grow...

Feder, W. A.

1981-01-01

135

Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

M. Cazorla

2010-05-01

136

EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN APPLIED ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH AMBIENT RAIN ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FIELD-GROWN SNAP BEAN  

Science.gov (United States)

Field-grown snap bean plants were treated with simulated acidic rain applied either alone or in combination with ambient rain and the effects on growth and yield were determined. In plots where ambient rain was excluded, a retractable canopy was activated to shield the crop. Four...

137

Effects of growth medium and fertilizer rate on the yield response of soybeans exposed to chronic doses of ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives were to determine whether wide variation in fertilizer rates or type of growth medium would affect the response of soybeans, Glycine max 'Davis' exposed to chronic doses of ozone (O/sub 3/) in open-top field chambers. Responses to O/sub 3/ were compared for plants grown in the ground or in pots containing an artificial growth medium. In 1977, the yield of plants grown in pots containing soil, sand, and a mixture of perlite, peat moss, and vermiculite was greater than that of plants grown in the ground; in 1978, the reverse was true. However, the percentage yeild loss caused by O/sub 3/ was not affected by the growth medium either year. Separate tests were made for potted plants that received different levels of fertilizer. At moderate fertilizer rates, the yield response to different doses of O/sub 3/ was not significantly affected by fertilizer rate for either year. In 1978, plants with no fertilizer added were severely stunted and even relatively high doses of O/sub 3/ did not further decrease yield. The results suggest that plant response to O/sub 3/ will be fairly uniform over a range of substrate types and fertilizer rates when edaphic conditions are adequate to insure normal plant growth. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Heagle, A.S.; Letchworth, M.B.; Mitchell, C.A.

1983-01-01

138

Hyaluronan Mediates Ozone-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice*  

OpenAIRE

Ozone is a common urban environmental air pollutant and significantly contributes to hospitalizations for respiratory illness. The mechanisms, which regulate ozone-induced bronchoconstriction, remain poorly understood. Hyaluronan was recently shown to play a central role in the response to noninfectious lung injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyaluronan contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) after exposure to ambient ozone. Using an established model of ozone...

Garantziotis, Stavros; Li, Zhuowei; Potts, Erin N.; Kimata, Koji; Zhuo, Lisheng; Morgan, Daniel L.; Savani, Rashmin C.; Noble, Paul W.; Foster, W. Michael; Schwartz, David A.; Hollingsworth, John W.

2009-01-01

139

Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O3 and three N levels. Increased O3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O3-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: ? Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. ? The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. ? Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O3on counterbalanced the O3-induced increase in senescence biomass. ? Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

140

Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ, and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

S. Chatani

2014-04-01

141

Growth of catalyst-free high-quality ZnO nanowires by thermal evaporation under air ambient  

OpenAIRE

ZnO nanowires have been successfully fabricated on Si substrate by simple thermal evaporation of Zn powder under air ambient without any catalyst. Morphology and structure analyses indicated that ZnO nanowires had high purity and perfect crystallinity. The diameter of ZnO nanowires was 40 to 100 nm, and the length was about several tens of micrometers. The prepared ZnO nanowires exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The growth of the ZnO nanostructure was explained by the vapor-so...

Liu, Ping; Li, Yanbin; Guo, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenhua

2012-01-01

142

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... higher ozone readings and more frequent high ozone days. Sunlight and heat create conditions that increase the ... Fortunately, these cities had significantly fewer unhealthy ozone days than they had a decade ago thanks to ...

143

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... live in areas with unhealthful levels of ozone. What Is Ozone? Ozone is a molecule of three ... Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do News from the American Lung ...

144

Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O3); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O3). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

145

Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

2004-02-26

146

MOVPE growth of Al xIn1-xP using tertiarybutylphosphine in pure N2 ambient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of Al xIn1-xP alloy using tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as the phosphorus source in pure N2 ambient. The effect of the substrate temperature on the aluminum composition of Al xIn1-xP epilayers during the MOVPE growth has been studied. When the source flow rates were kept unchanged, the aluminum composition of the Al xIn1-xP epilayer increased monotonically when the substrate temperature, T g, was raised from 580 deg. C to 660 deg. C during the growth. It became saturated when T g reached 660 deg. C and above. The crystalline quality of the grown Al xIn1-xP epilayers has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. A linear relationship between the aluminum composition of the Al xIn1-xP epilayer and TMAl/(TMAl + TMIn) source flow ratio has been obtained when grown at the optimized growth temperature of T g = 630 deg. C. It has also been observed that the aluminum incorporation coefficient of Al xIn1-xP epilayers decreased when the V/III source flow ratio was increased during the MOVPE growth

147

Foliar injury, leaf gas exchange and biomass responses of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) half-sibling families to ozone exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open pollinated families of black cherry seedlings were studied to determine genotypic differences in foliar ozone injury and leaf gas exchange in 1994 and growth response following three growing seasons. An O(3)-sensitive half-sibling family (R-12) and an O(3)-tolerant half-sibling family (MO-7) planted in natural soil were studied along with generic nursery stock (NS) seedlings. Ozone exposure treatments were provided through open top chambers and consisted of 50, 75, and 97% of ambient ozone, and open plots from May 9 to August 26, 1994. Ambient ozone concentrations reached an hourly peak of 88 ppb with 7-hour averages ranging from 39 to 46 ppb. Seedlings in the 50 and 75% of ambient chambers were never exposed to greater than 80 ppb O(3). Visible foliar ozone injury (stipple) was significantly higher for R-12 seedlings than MO-7 seedlings and increased with increasing ozone exposures. For the chamber treatments averaged over all families, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rates, but there was a significant decrease in root biomass, and a significant decrease in root/shoot ratio between the 50 and 97% of ambient chambers. Stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rates were significantly different between families with R-12 seedlings generally greater than MO-7 seedlings. The R-12 seedlings had a 7.5 mmol m(-2) increase in ozone uptake compared to MO-7, and at the same cumulative O(3) exposure R-12 exhibited 40.9% stippled leaf area, whereas MO-7 had 9.2% stippled leaf area. Significant differences were observed in stem volume growth and total final biomass between the open-top chambers and open plots. Although R-12 had the most severe foliar ozone injury, this family had significantly greater stem volume growth and total final biomass than MO-7 and NS seedlings. Root:shoot ratio was not significantly different between MO-7 and R-12 seedlings. PMID:15093015

Kouterick, K B; Skelly, J M; Fredericksen, T S; Steiner, K C; Kolb, T E; Ferdinand, J A

2000-01-01

148

Quantitative constraints on the 17O-excess (?17O) signature of surface ozone: Ambient measurements from 50°N to 50°S using the nitrite-coated filter technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique and distinctive 17O-excess (?17O) of ozone (O3) provides a conservative tracer for oxidative processes in both modern and paleo-atmospheres and has acted as the primary driver of theoretical and experimental research into non-mass-dependent fractionation (NMDF) for over three decades. However, due to the inherent complexity of extracting O3 from ambient air, the existing observational dataset for tropospheric O3 isotopic composition remains quite small. Recent analytical developments have provided a robust and reliable means for determining ?17O(O3)trans., the transferrable ?17O signature of ozone in the troposphere (Vicars et al., 2012). We have employed this new methodology in a systematic investigation of the spatial and seasonal features of ?17O(O3)trans. in two separate field campaigns: a weekly sampling effort at our laboratory in Grenoble, France (45°N) throughout 2012 (n = 47) and a four-week campaign onboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern along a latitudinal transect from 50°S to 50°N in the Atlantic Ocean (n = 30). The bulk 17O-excess of ozone, denoted ?17O(O3)bulk, exhibited mean (±1?) values of 26.2 ± 1.3‰ (?17O(O3)trans. = 39.3 ± 2.0‰) and 25.9 ± 1.1‰ (?17O(O3)trans. = 38.8 ± 1.6‰) for the Grenoble and R/V Polarstern collections, respectively. This range of values is in excellent quantitative agreement with the two previous studies of ozone triple-isotope composition, which have yielded mean (±1?) ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.4 ± 9.0‰ (n = 89). However, the magnitude of variability detected in the present study is much smaller than that formerly reported. In fact, the standard deviation of ?17O(O3)bulk in each new dataset is lower than the uncertainty previously estimated for the filter technique (±1.7‰), indicating a low level of natural spatial and temporal variation in the 17O-excess of surface ozone. For instance, no clear temporal pattern in ?17O(O3) is evident in the annual record from Grenoble despite dramatic seasonal variations in ozone and atmospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) concentrations. However, a small but statistically significant difference is distinguishable in the R/V Polarstern record when comparing samples collected in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, which possessed average ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.2 ± 1.0‰ and 26.5 ± 0.7‰, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of the tropospheric ozone budget and the use of oxygen isotope ratios of secondary atmospheric species to derive information regarding oxidation pathways from modern and paleo-atmospheres.

Vicars, William C.; Savarino, Joël

2014-06-01

149

Effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth and physiology of cotton under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorous deficiency in soil limits crop growth and productivity in the majority of arable lands worldwide and may moderate the growth enhancement effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. To evaluate the interactive effect of these two factors on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum...

150

Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

Coleman, Beverly Kaye

2009-04-01

151

Ozone Watch  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the Ozone Hole Watch web site, where you can check on the latest status of the ozone layer over the South Pole. Satellite instruments monitor the ozone layer, and their data is used to create the images that depict the amount of ozone. The web site also contains links for classroom activities and instructional materials.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

152

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... compared to 2009-2011. Of the 25 metro areas most polluted by ozone, 22 had worse ozone problems. Weather played a factor. The warmer summers in 2010 and 2012 contributed to higher ozone readings and more frequent high ozone days. Sunlight and heat create conditions that ...

153

Diferentes ambientes e Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica) Different ambient and Osmocote® for growth of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruits seedlings  

OpenAIRE

Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes e doses de Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L). Um experimento foi instalado no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, empregando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos se constituíram dos diferentes ambientes de formação de mudas (casa de vegetação, telado e a céu a...

Vander Mendonça; Nildo Antônio de Arruda de Abreu; Henrique Antunes de Souza; Glauco Antônio Teixeira; Oscar Mariano Hafle; José Darlan Ramos

2008-01-01

154

Effect of Ozone and Simulated Acid Rain on Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Peroxidase Activity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faba beans (Vicia faba L. CV. Giza 400 were exposed to ozone (100 ppb and simulated acid rain (SAR at pH 3, separately and combined over 2-weaks period while grown in climate controlled growth chambers. Ozone fumigation (O3 exposure was for 5 h day -1, whereas acid rain exposure was for 2 h per week. The results showed that exposure to high O3 concentration (100 ppb decreased the number and weight of root nodules, suppressed nitrogenase activity and strongly induced stomatal closure. Combination between high O3 concentration and acid rain generally caused more closure of the stomata than other treatments. Water content and leaf area were significantly reduced in high O3 treatment. Furthermore, high O3 concentration increased the shoot/root ratio by reducing root growth more than shoot growth In contrast, low O3 concentration had no effect on these parameters. Acid rain, on the other hand, decreased root nodulation and N2-fixation, but it ameliorated O3 induced injury. The reduced O3 injury induced in the presence of acid rain treatment was probably achieved by decreasing O3 uptake through stomatal closure. Furthermore, leaves treated with acid rain became greener than those of control and other treatments due to the increase in chlorophyll concentration. Peroxidase (POD activity showed a positive response to ozone and acid rain treatments either combined or separately.

Laila Ezzel-Arab Abdel Nasser

2002-01-01

155

Silicon oxidation by ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding the oxidation of silicon has been an ongoing challenge for many decades. Ozone has recently received considerable attention as an alternative oxidant in the low temperature, damage-free oxidation of silicon. The ozone-grown oxide was also found to exhibit improved interface and electrical characteristics over a conventionally dioxygen-grown oxide. In this review article, we summarize the key findings about this alternative oxidation process. We discuss the different methods of O3 generation, and the advantages of the ozone-grown Si/SiO2 interface. An understanding of the growth characteristics is of utmost importance for obtaining control over this alternative oxidation process. (topical review)

156

Growth of copper sulfide dendrites and nanowires from elemental sulfur on TEM Cu grids under ambient conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Copper sulfide dendrites and subsequent uniform nanowires up to tens of micrometers long can be grown on carbon-coated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Cu grids from elemental sulfur at room temperature under ambient conditions without any solvent and surfactants. TEM and high-resolution TEM studies demonstrated the morphology evolution of Cu2S from dendrites into ultra-long nanowires with increasing ageing time. The sulfur species influenced significantly the growth rate of Cu2S dendrites and nanowires, but the final morphology remained the same. The native oxide on the surface of Cu grids played a critical role in the formation of Cu2S dendrites and nanowires. The crystal structures and phase purity of Cu2S samples were confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A solid-liquid-solid growth model may be considered a potential mechanism in Cu2S morphology evolution on the basis of the experimental results. Most importantly, the present study provides a simple and environmentally friendly route for the growth of one-dimensional (1D) Cu2S on Cu substrate.

157

The role of Si interstitials in the migration and growth of Ge nanocrystallites under thermal annealing in an oxidizing ambient  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a unique growth and migration behavior of Ge nanocrystallites mediated by the presence of Si interstitials under thermal annealing at 900°C within an H2O ambient. The Ge nanocrystallites were previously generated by the selective oxidation of SiGe nanopillars and appeared to be very sensitive to the presence of Si interstitials that come either from adjacent Si3N4 layers or from within the oxidized nanopillars. A cooperative mechanism is proposed, wherein the Si interstitials aid in both the migration and coarsening of these Ge nanocrystallites through Ostwald ripening, while the Ge nanocrystallites, in turn, appear to enhance the generation of Si interstitials through catalytic decomposition of the Si-bearing layers.

Chen, Kuan-Hung; Wang, Ching-Chi; George, Tom; Li, Pei-Wen

2014-07-01

158

Antarctic Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides near real time and historical data related to the extent of the ozone depletion in Antarctica. These graphs and plots can be used by students to determine differences in different seasons and allow substantial practice in reading graphs. The Ozone Hole Area graph provides a look at the extent of the Ozone hole in sq.km. over the past two years by month. The near real time data at this site includes ozone soundings from Neumayer Station; ozone soundings from South Pole Station; TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) (Satellite Picture); mean stratospheric temperatures; and ozone related links from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) 2003. Historical data includes ozone soundings from Neumayer Station; ozone soundings of Georg Forster Station; timeseries of ozone partial pressure since 1985; and TOVS archive.

159

Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

A. Laaksonen

2004-11-01

160

Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

T. Petäjä

2005-01-01

161

MOVPE growth of improved nonequilibium MCT device structures for near-ambient-temperature heterodyne detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium mercury telluride (Hg1-xCdxTe or MCT) non- equilibrium detector structures which allow room temperature operation have been grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These devices suppress the auger generation by reducing the intrinsic electron and hole concentrations in the active region of the device. The MCT characteristics in this region should then be determined by the extrinsic doping concentration. In order to minimize the remaining generation processes within this so called (pi) -region, it is best formed from low acceptor doped (low X1015 cm-3) MCT, with as low a trap density as possible. The p+(pi) n+ device structure which is required to achieve the non-equilibrium phenomena requires stringent control on acceptor and donor doping, as well as composition. Acceptor doping studies with trisdimethylamino arsine (DMAAs) have been performed using GaAs and CdZnTe substrates. Minority carrier lifetime results have been obtained which are near rotatively limited and comparable to As-doped, Hg-rich liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown layers on CdZnTe substrates. Ambient temperature, auger-suppressed devices have levels of 1/f noise which currently limit their use in imaging applications. However, they are of great interest in other applications such as approximately equals 10 micrometer negative luminescence emitter devices and heterodyne detection of 10.6 micrometer infrared (IR) radiation from carbon-dioxide lasers. Reduction in the series resistances has been achieved by utilizing a device design with a n+ MCT common which should improve the frequency response of these devices. Another design modification, predicted to reduce the leakage current, has been the introduction of low doped, wide band gap regions either side of the (pi) -region. In practice these structures have produced over an order of magnitude improvement in the leakage current characteristics.

Maxey, C. D.; Jones, C. L.; Metcalfe, N. E.; Catchpole, R. A.; Gordon, Neil J.; White, A. M.; Elliot, C. T.

1997-10-01

162

Intraspecific variations in growth, yield and photosynthesis of sorghum varieties to ambient UV (280-400 nm) radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of ambient solar UV on the various growth, physiological and yield parameters of four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) varieties-Indore-12, Indore-26, CSV-23 and Indore-27 by excluding either UV-B (sorghum varieties. Chlorophyll b was significantly enhanced and chlorophyll a increased to a lesser extent, UV-B absorbing substances and chlorophyll a/b ratio were significantly decreased by the exclusion of solar UV. The enhancement in the vegetative growth and yield by UV exclusion might be linked to the remarkable increase in rate of photosynthesis in sorghum varieties. The magnitude of the response was high in I-26 and I-27 as compared to CSV-23 and I-12 after exclusion of solar UV. All the varieties of sorghum had a negative cumulative stress response index (CSRI), the sensitivity of the sorghum varieties was in the following sequence I-12>CSV-23>I-26>I-27. Thus I-27 was the most sensitive and I-12 the least sensitive variety to present level of solar UV radiation. The differences in UV sensitivity identified among sorghum varieties might be useful in breeding programs for increased tolerance to UV-B radiation. PMID:23017902

Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

2012-11-01

163

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ago (or in our earliest reports). However, rising temperatures create conditions favorable to forming ozone. Communities will ... help to reduce ozone pollution in the warmer temperatures expected from the changing climate. Los Angeles remained ...

164

Ozone Pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

... Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in the ... Communities will need more help to reduce ozone pollution in the warmer temperatures expected from the changing ...

165

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in the ... Communities will need more help to reduce ozone pollution in the warmer temperatures expected from the changing ...

166

Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ? Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ? Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ? Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ? The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

167

In situ laser ablation plasma diagnostics in the film growth regime: Effects of ambient background gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The propagation of the laser-induced plasma formed by KrF irradiation of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 has been characterized in background pressures of oxygen and argon typically used for thin film growth. The ion current transmitted through the background gases was recorded along the normal to the irradiated pellet as a function of distance in order to measure the decreasing velocity and magnitude of the expanding plasma current due to collisional slowing and attenuation of the laser plume. The integrated ion charge delivered to a substrate at low pressures can be described by elastic scattering giving a general integral cross sections of ?e[O2] = 3.2 x 10-16 cm2 and ?e[Ar] = 2.7 x 10-16 cm2. At higher pressures, inelastic scattering leads to increased recombination and reactive conversion of ions indicated by increased fluorescence of all the species, which becomes dominated by fluorescence of YO and BaO. Spatially resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the luminous boundary to the plasma follows a weak shock front which coincides with the ion flux propagation. The ion transmission is found to drop exponentially with distance and background pressure, in agreement with a simple scattering model which yields general scattering cross sections for ion-argon ?i-Ar = 2.1 x 10-16 cm2 and ion-oxygen ?i-O2 = 2.3 x 10-16 cm2 interactions in background pressures up to 300 mTorr. The general features of the plume deceleration are described in terms of a drag force model. 9 refs., 5 figs

168

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2014-01-15

169

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac)2], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnOx–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnOx films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac)2 as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnOx thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO2 or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications

170

Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality  

OpenAIRE

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of ambient ozone levels and temperatures which, in turn, may impact public health. Much research has focused on the effect of short-term ozone exposures on mortality and morbidity while controlling for temperature as a confounder, but less is known about the joint effects of ozone and temperature. The extent of the health effects of changing ozone levels and temperatures will depend on whether these effects are additive or...

Wilson, Ander; Rappold, Ana G.; Neas, Lucas M.; Reich, Brian J.

2014-01-01

171

Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiology of maize at ambient and low temperature regimes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM colonization. Low temperature remarkably decreased plant height and total dry weight but increased root dry weight and root-shoot ratio. The AM plants had higher proline content compared with the non-AM plants. The maize plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and G. intraradices had higher malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents under low temperature condition. The activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase of AM inoculated maize were higher than those of non-AM ones. Low temperature noticeably decreased the activities of CAT. The results suggest that low temperature adversely affects maize physiology and AM symbiosis can improve maize seedlings tolerance to low temperature stress.

Chen, Xiaoying; Song, Fengbin

2014-01-01

172

Slow fatigue crack growth in aluminium and magnesium cast alloys in ambient air and in a vacuum; Langsames Ermuedungsrisswachstum in Aluminium- und Magnesiumgusslegierungen in Raumluft und in Vakuum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of ambient air on near threshold fatigue crack growth in the magnesium cast alloys AZ91 hp, AM60 hp and AS21 hp and in the aluminium cast alloy AlSi9Cu3 has been investigated. Fatigue crack growth properties at a cycling frequency of 20 kHz in ambient air and in a vacuum are significantly different. In a vacuum, the threshold stress intensity amplitude of the aluminium alloy is 30% higher than in ambient air, and the threshold values of the magnesium alloys in a vacuum are up to 85% higher than in ambient air. Moisture of ambient air is responsible for accelerated crack growth at growth rates below 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/cycle (AlSi9Cu3) and 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/cycle (magnesium alloys), respectively. In ambient air a minimum crack growth rate of 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/cycle was observed, whereas far lower minimum growth rates were found in a vacuum. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit dem Einfluss des Umgebungsmediums Raumluft auf das sehr langsame Ermuedungsrisswachstum in den druckgegossenen Magnesiumlegierungen AZ91 hp, AM60 hp und AS21 hp und in der druckgegossenen Aluminiumlegierung AlSi9Cu3. Die bei einer Beanspruchungsfrequenz von 20 kHz gemessenen Rissausbreitungskurven in Raumluft und Vakuum unterscheiden sich im Schwellwertbereich deutlich. Der Schwellwert der Aluminiumlegierung liegt in Vakuum 30% hoeher als in Raumluft, und die Schwellwerte der Magnesiumlegierungen liegen bis zu 85% hoeher. Die in der Raumluft enthaltene Luftfeuchtigkeit ist massgeblich fuer die Beschleunigung des Risswachstums, wobei ein Einfluss bei AlSi9Cu3 bis zu Risswachstumsgeschwindigkeiten von 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/Lastspiel und bei den Magnesiumlegierungen bis zu 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/Lastspiel gefunden wird. In Raumluft wachsen Ermuedungsrisse mit einer Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit von mindestens 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/Lastspiel, waehrend in Vakuum auch wesentlich niedrigere Wachstumsraten gefunden wurden. (orig.)

Fuchs, U.; Mayer, H.; Tschegg, S.; Zettl, B. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik; Lipowsky, Hj.; Stich, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Papakyriacou, M. [ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria)

2002-01-01

173

Adjustments of net photosynthesis in Solanum tuberosum in response to reciprocal changes in ambient and elevated growth CO{sub 2} partial pressures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single leaf photosynthetic rates and various leaf components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were studied 1-3 days after reciprocally transferring plants between the ambient and elevated growth CO{sub 2} treatments. Plants were raised from individual tuber sections in controlled environment chambers at either ambient (36 Pa) or elevated (72 Pa) CO{sub 2}. One half of the plants in each growth CO{sub 2} treatment were transferred to the opposite CO{sub 2} treatment 34 days after sowing (DAS). Net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) rates and various leaf components were then measured 34, 35 and 37 DAS at both 36 and 72 Pa CO{sub 2}. Three-day means of single leaf P{sub n} rates, leaf starch, glucose, initial and total Rubisco activity, Rubisco protein, chlorophyll (a+b), chlorophyll (a/b), {alpha}-amino N, and nitrate levers differed significantly in the continuous ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} treatments. Acclimation of single leaf P{sub n} rates was partially to completely reversed 3 days after elevated CO{sub 2}-grown plants were shifted to ambient CO{sub 2} whereas there was little evidence of photosynthetic acclimation 3 days after ambient CO{sub 2}-grown plants were shifted to elevated CO{sub 2}. In a four-way comparison of the 36, 72, 36 to 72 (shifted up) and 72 to 36 (shifted down) Pa CO{sub 2} treatments 37 DAS, leaf starch soluble carbohydrates, Rubisco protein and nitrate were the only photosynthetic factors that differed significantly. Simple and multiple regression analyses suggested that negative changes of P{sub n} in response to growth CO{sub 2} treatment were most closely correlated with increased leaf starch levels. (au)

Sicher, R.C.; Bunce, J.A. [USDA Agricultural Res. Service, Climate Stress Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

2001-07-01

174

Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

175

Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1992-03-01

176

Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

The ozone layer forms a thin shield in the upper atmosphere, protecting life onEarth from the suns ultraviolet (UV) rays. In the 1980s, scientists began accumulating evidence that the ozone layer was being depleted. Depletion of the ozone layer results in increased UV radiation reaching the Earths surface, which in turn can lead to a greater chance of overexposure to UV radiation and the related health effects of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune suppression.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Office of Air and Radiation)

2008-04-25

177

Plant Signals Disrupt (regulate?) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Under Enhanced Ozone and CO2 Growing Conditions for Populus tremuloides  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of the genetic determinants of keystone symbiotic relationships is essential to elucidating adaptive mechanisms influencing higher-order processes, including shifts in community composition following environmental perturbations. The Aspen FACE project offers a unique opportunity to address adaptive processes with an imposed three way interaction experiment composed of the atmospheric pollutant ozone (eO3), elevated CO2 (eCO2) fumigations, five Populus tremuloides (aspen) genotypes, and both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal interactions. The 10 year time span of this experiment has allowed for a realistic and mechanistic understanding of above ground responses of the aspen genotypes to eCO2, eO3 and the interaction effects of eCO2 and eO3. Even so, treatment influences to the below ground, including carbon allocation to roots and associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and rhizosphere dynamics are just beginning to be understood. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal responses to eCO2, eO3, and the interaction effects of eCO2+eO3 are conditioned by the degree of response of their aspen hosts. We intend to describe the molecular mechanisms of an important critical interaction between host and fungus using microarray analysis of expression profiles, as well as metabolic profiling of aspen roots and their associated mycorrhizal partner, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices, under eCO2, eO3 and eCO2+eO3. We present evidence that host-derived factors, expressed in response to eCO2+eO3, trigger responses in Glomus leading to the partitioning or metabolic shift in lipid biosynthesis that is associated with reduced extraradical hyphae growth and altered lipid metabolism. We then scale these lower-level responses to give better insight to fungal intraradical and extraradical allocation of biomass and fungal and root lipid and carbohydrate content in association with aspen genotype responses to the imposed treatments. By evaluating microarray data of more than 2300 genes that are regulated (out of 25,000) in aspen mycorrhizal roots, the eCO2 responsive and eO3 tolerant aspen ecotype 271 demonstrated upregulation for antioxidant genes under eCO2+eO3 conditions. We found decreased expression of both neutral and acid invertase genes indicating that the availability of carbohydrate to the fungus is reduced. We also found an increase in plant amino acid transporters under eO3 and eCO2+eO3 that partitions more nitrogen to the plant from mycorrhizal roots and triggers the fungus into an N-starvation and lipid storage mode. This observation is supported by down-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen utilization in Glomus and the enrichment of hyphal 15N content, as well as an increase in the AMF marker storage lipid (neutral fatty acid 16:1w5c)in the root. The up-regulation of pathways involved in the formation of triglycerides that can be taken up by the fungus may be a critical step for changes in Glomus lipid metabolism. Also, in support of the above findings, is the rather high expression of genes involved in iron sequestration by aspen clone 271 when exposed to both eO3 and eCO2+eO3 fumigation. Iron is needed for both fatty acid (FA) desaturases and fatty acid synthase. Under eCO2+eO3, we found down-regulation of FA desaturases in Glomus, suggesting reduced levels of iron could be a potential signal for the fungus to go into storage mode and reduced growth of extraradical hyphae into the soil.

Miller, R. M.; Podila, G. K.

2008-12-01

178

Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes), UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection) and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight) and to determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significa...

Baroniya, Sanjay S.; Sunita Kataria; Pandey, G. P.; Guruprasad, Kadur N.

2011-01-01

179

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Key Findings Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Pollution Short Term Particle Pollution Cleanest Cities People at Risk What Needs ... footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk ...

180

Ozone depletion  

OpenAIRE

The ozone layer is a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30 kilometers) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet B radiation emitted by the sun. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/34904

Yanitska, I. V.

2014-01-01

181

Silicon oxidation by ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the oxidation of silicon has been an ongoing challenge for many decades. Ozone has recently received considerable attention as an alternative oxidant in the low temperature, damage-free oxidation of silicon. The ozone-grown oxide was also found to exhibit improved interface and electrical characteristics over a conventionally dioxygen-grown oxide. In this review article, we summarize the key findings about this alternative oxidation process. We discuss the different methods of O{sub 3} generation, and the advantages of the ozone-grown Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. An understanding of the growth characteristics is of utmost importance for obtaining control over this alternative oxidation process. (topical review)

Fink, Christian K; Jenkins, Stephen J [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Nakamura, Ken; Ichimura, Shingo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)], E-mail: sjj24@cam.ac.uk

2009-05-06

182

Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México  

OpenAIRE

A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As shown by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimen...

Rosa Baeza; Cristina Rossler; Diana Mielnicki; María Clara Zamora; Jorge Chirife

2009-01-01

183

Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea millifolium, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium fremontii, Cruciferae sp., Descurainia pinnata, Descurainia sp., Geranium fremontii, Isatis tinctoria, Ligusticum porteri, Lepidium virginicum, Madia glomerata, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum douglasii, Phacelia heterophylla, Viola italica. Plants were exposed to 30 pphm, 15 pphm, ambient air reaching 5-7 pphm for 2 hours per day, and filtered air. The study was repeated for 3 seasons. Ambient air caused a significant reduction of total plant weight only of Lepidium virginicum. Six species produced fruit and seeds. At 15 pphm, seed production by Madia glomerata and Polygonum douglasii was significantly reduced. At 30 pphm, seed production was also reduced in Polygonum aviculare and Lepidium virginicum. The two most significant conclusions to emerge from the study were first that several species were more sensitive to ozone than might have been suspected. Second, this sensitivity varied sufficiently that major shifts in community composition would be probable following only a year or two of exposure. More tolerant species have no doubt already become dominant over more sensitive species in natural plant communities exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. It must be stressed that the species studied did not necessarily represent the most ozone sensitive members of the community, or the most tolerant.

Harward, M.R.; Treshow, M.

1971-01-01

184

Ozone decomposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

Batakliev Todor

2014-06-01

185

Ozone modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NOx concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NOx coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NOx ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

186

Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes), UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection) and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight) and to [...] determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significant inverse association between the enhancement in vegetative growth and number of pods among the cultivars tested, indicating differences in the carbon partitioning amongst the cultivars by the way of exclusion of solar UV-B. NRC-7, Pusa-24 and JS-335 showed maximum promotion in vegetative growth and less enhancement in crop yield after solar UV-B exclusion. Kalitur, JS71-05, Hardee, PK-472 and PK-1029 showed improved performance both in terms of number of pods/plant and seed weight after solar UV-B exclusion. An enhancement in the crop yield by exclusion of solar UV-B indicated poor response of the cultivar to the ambient solar UV-B; these cultivars would be more suitable at latitudes, which received less UV-B. According to UV-SI, sensitivity of eight Indian soybean cultivars to ambient level of UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation had the following descending order; PK-472 > JS-335 > Hardee > Kalitur > JS71-05 > Pusa-24 > NRC-7 > PK-1029. These findings suggest the way to select the best-suited cultivar for particular latitude.

Sanjay S., Baroniya; Sunita, Kataria; G.P., Pandey; Kadur N., Guruprasad.

187

Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes, UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight and to determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significant inverse association between the enhancement in vegetative growth and number of pods among the cultivars tested, indicating differences in the carbon partitioning amongst the cultivars by the way of exclusion of solar UV-B. NRC-7, Pusa-24 and JS-335 showed maximum promotion in vegetative growth and less enhancement in crop yield after solar UV-B exclusion. Kalitur, JS71-05, Hardee, PK-472 and PK-1029 showed improved performance both in terms of number of pods/plant and seed weight after solar UV-B exclusion. An enhancement in the crop yield by exclusion of solar UV-B indicated poor response of the cultivar to the ambient solar UV-B; these cultivars would be more suitable at latitudes, which received less UV-B. According to UV-SI, sensitivity of eight Indian soybean cultivars to ambient level of UV-B (280-320 nm radiation had the following descending order; PK-472 > JS-335 > Hardee > Kalitur > JS71-05 > Pusa-24 > NRC-7 > PK-1029. These findings suggest the way to select the best-suited cultivar for particular latitude.

Sanjay S. Baroniya

2011-01-01

188

Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au) 34 refs.

Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M. [Climate Stress Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (United States)

1998-05-01

189

Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoiimportant than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

190

Ozone fumigation results in accelerated growth and persistent changes in the antioxidant system of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. alba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth response and antioxidant capacity of Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba plants treated with 70ppb of ozone was examined. Four week old cabbage seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the growing field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined directly after fumigation and over the course of field cultivation. Plants subjected to O3 treatment had an increased diameter of rosettes and number of leaves after 3 and 7 weeks in agriculture, respectively. In addition, the vast majority of fumigated plants reached marketable quality faster than control plants, indicating a positive role of episodes of increased O3 concentrations during vegetation on growth and yielding. Our analysis revealed that by fumigating juvenile white cabbage plants with moderate doses of O3 the activity of catalases (CAT) and peroxidases was elevated. The activity of the examined enzymes was not affected directly after fumigation, but it increased after several weeks in the experimental field. Increased CAT activity was accompanied by changes in 2 out of the 3 CAT genes CAT1 and CAT2, where CAT2 seemed to be responsible for the induced CAT activity. The biosynthesis of low-molecular stress protectants - tocopherols and the glucosinolate (GLS) sinigrin was transiently affected by ozone. ?-Tocopherol (?-toc) content significantly increased directly after fumigation, but after 3 weeks of vegetation in the field its concentration reached values similar to control. The biosynthesis of ?-tocopherol (?-toc) and sinigrin seemed to be upregulated in fumigated plants. However, the response was delayed; no differences were registered directly after treatment, but 3 weeks after transplanting the concentration of sinigrin and ?-toc was elevated. PMID:23773692

Rozp?dek, Piotr; ?lesak, Ireneusz; Cebula, Stanis?aw; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Micha?; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew

2013-09-15

191

Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

1996-11-01

192

Characterization of ozone episodes in urban air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was directed toward analysis and quantitation of some of the factors that precede the development of ozone episodes in an urban setting. Measurements of pollution and meteorological data were collected in Chicago during August and early September for 54 consecutive days in 1976 and 39 consecutive days in 1977. During these periods, regular measurements were made of the ozone-forming potential of ambient air. Rise in ozone levels was related to passage of a weather front. A method was developed and tested for measuring the ozone-forming potential of ambient air. A rough association was observed between this measurement and O3(max) 3 and 4 days later for the same frontal system

193

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Air” – Half of U.S. Live with Unhealthy Air Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk Protect Yourself Methodology City Rankings ...

194

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cardiovascular harm and lower birth weight. The actual number who breathe unhealthy levels of ozone is likely much larger, since this number does not include people who live in adjacent ...

195

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... live in the 296 counties that received an F for ozone levels. These people live where the ... 1150 Chicago, IL 60601 T: 1-800-LUNGUSA | F: 202-452-1805 Connect with Us Follow us ...

196

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Air” – Half of U.S. Live with Unhealthy Air Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year ... Personal Stories Clean Air Timeline Take Action Press Materials Press Releases News Stories Web Banners Contact Information ...

197

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in adjacent counties in metropolitan areas where no monitors exist. Ozone worsened in the most polluted metropolitan ... all counties in any metro area will have monitors. FACT: Minorities and lower income groups are often ...

198

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ozone levels. These people live where the monitored air quality places them at risk for premature death, aggravated ... 2011. Fortunately, even these places have much better air quality compared to ten years ago (or in our ...

199

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ozone levels. These people live where the monitored air quality places them at risk for premature death, ... 2011. Fortunately, even these places have much better air quality compared to ten years ago (or in ...

200

Analysis and monitoring of ozone in cooling water systems: A state of the art paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a State of the Art paper. This paper includes an overview of the current techniques for liquid and gas phase ozone monitoring. The paper also includes specific techniques for Ozone monitoring, a list of ozone monitor manufacturers, and a bibliography. This paper presents and overview of the current techniques for liquid and gas phase ozone monitoring. If the ozone concentration in cooling water is too high, ozone induced corrosion or off-gassing of ozone can occur. If the dissolved ozone concentration is too low, biological growth can develop. The paper includes an appendix which contains the following summaries: Calibration method for residual ozone by the oxidation of nitrite; Colorimetric method for the determination of residual ozone in water (Indigo-trisulfonate method and ACVK method); Colorimetric method for the determination of traces of ozone in water; Electrochemical method for continuous measurement of residual ozone in water; and Photometric measurement of low ozone concentration in the gas phase.

McGrane, W.K. [TriOx, Dublin, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

201

Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

2011-01-31

202

Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions.

Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Boelen, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Blokker, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2005-10-15

203

Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

204

Interactive effects of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and physiology of black cherry, green ash, and yellow-poplar seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potted seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) (BC), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (GA), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) (YP) were exposed to one of the four treatments: (1) charcoal-filtered air (CF) at ambient CO(2) (control); (2) twice ambient O(3) (2 x O(3)); (3) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus CF air (2 x CO(2)); or (4) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus twice ambient O(3) (2 x CO(2) + 2 x O(3)). The treatments were duplicated in eight continuously stirred tank reactors for 10 weeks. Gas exchange was measured during the last 3 weeks of treatment and all seedlings were destructively harvested after 10 weeks. Significant interactive effects of O(3) and CO(2) on the gas exchange of all three species were limited. The effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3), singly and combined, on light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were inconsistent across species. In all three species, elevated O(3) had no effect on g(s). Elevated CO(2) significantly increased A(max) in GA and YP foliage, and decreased g(s) in YP foliage. Maximum carbon exchange rates and quantum efficiencies derived from light-response curves increased, while compensation irradiance and dark respiration decreased in all three species when exposed to 2 x CO(2). Elevated O(3) affected few of these parameters but any change that was observed was opposite to that from exposure to 2 x CO(2)-air. Interactive effects of CO(2) and O(3) on light-response parameters were limited. Carboxylation efficiencies, derived from CO(2)-response curves (A/C(i) curves) decreased only in YP foliage exposed to 2 x CO(2)-air. In general, growth was significantly stimulated by 2 x CO(2) in all three species; though there were few significant growth responses following exposure to 2 x O(3) or the combination of 2 x CO(2) plus 2 x O(3). Results indicate that responses to interacting stressors such as O(3) and CO(2) are species specific. PMID:15093051

Loats, K V; Rebbeck, J

1999-08-01

205

Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ? Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ? The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ? Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ? Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ? These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

206

Test/QA Plan for Verification of Ozone Indicator Cards  

Science.gov (United States)

This verification test will address ozone indicator cards (OICs) that provide short-term semi-quantitative measures of ozone concentration in ambient air. Testing will be conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Environmental Tec...

207

Effects of growth conditions on InAs quantum dot formation by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using tertiarybutylarsine in pure N2 ambient  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using tertiarybutylarsine as arsenic source in pure nitrogen ambient have been investigated in detail. Effects of the growth conditions, e.g., substrate temperature and inlet precursor flux, on the QD formations have been studied. A temperature window for growing high density (1.3×1010 cm-2) of QDs with the trimethylindium (TMIn) flow flux of 30 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is observed from 440 to 460 °C. High density, >=1.3×1010 cm-2, of the QDs have been grown at higher temperature, 500 °C, with the higher TMIn flux of 75 SCCM, but the formed QDs are not very uniform. To improve the QD uniformity and density further, a two-step growth method has been proposed and investigated. Using the two-step growth method, the dot density achieves 30% higher than that of the QDs grown by using the normal Stranski-Krastanow growth method. The size of the QDs formed by the two-step growth is larger and more uniform.

Yin, Zongyou; Tang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Jinghua; Deny, Sentosa

2006-06-01

208

Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities / Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne (pasteurizado) deixado por várias horas à temperatura ambiente. Para isso, perfis de temperatura de algumas cidades do México foram combinados com resultados de literatura sobre a cinética [...] de crescimento de S. aureus. Como demonstrado por previsões teóricas, se o alimento é deixado à temperatura ambiente, a utilização da média diária da temperatura pode não dar previsões exatas. Abstract in english A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As show [...] n by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.

Rosa, Baeza; Cristina, Rossler; Diana, Mielnicki; María Clara, Zamora; Jorge, Chirife.

2009-03-01

209

Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness, dehierarchization, ubiquity and the production of unfocused sensations in contrast to the conventional notion of the aesthetic experience as a focused contemplation of a stationary object.

Schmidt, Ulrik

210

Increased Growth Factors Play a Role in Wound Healing Promoted by Noninvasive Oxygen-Ozone Therapy in Diabetic Patients with Foot Ulcers  

OpenAIRE

Management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is a great challenge for clinicians. Although the oxygen-ozone treatment improves the diabetic outcome, there are few clinical trials to verify the efficacy and illuminate the underlying mechanisms of oxygen-ozone treatment on DFUs. In the present study, a total of 50 type 2 diabetic patients complicated with DFUs, Wagner stage 2~4, were randomized into control group treated by standard therapy only and ozone group treated by standard therapy plus oxy...

Jing Zhang,; Meiping Guan; Cuihua Xie; Xiangrong Luo; Qian Zhang; Yaoming Xue

2014-01-01

211

Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h and contact time (min were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

F. A Lage Filho

2011-09-01

212

Effects of ozone on species composition in an upland grassland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern hemispheric background concentrations of ozone are increasing, but few studies have assessed the ecological significance of these changes for grasslands of high conservation value under field conditions. We carried out a 3-year field experiment in which ozone was released at a controlled rate over three experimental transects to produce concentration gradients over the field site, an upland mesotrophic grassland located in the UK. We measured individual species biomass in an annual hay cut in plots receiving ambient ozone, and ambient ozone elevated by mean concentrations of approximately 4 ppb and 10 ppb in the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. There was a significant negative effect of ozone exposure on herb biomass, but not total grass or legume biomass, in 2008 and 2009. Within the herb fraction, ozone exposure significantly decreased the biomass of Ranunculus species and that of the hemi-parasitic species Rhinanthus minor. Multivariate analysis of species composition, taking into account spatial variation in soil conditions and ozone exposure, showed no significant ozone effect on the grass component. In contrast, by 2009, ozone had become the dominant factor influencing species composition within the combined herb and legume component. Our results suggest that elevated ozone concentrations may be a significant barrier to achieving increased species diversity in managed grasslands. PMID:22048840

Wedlich, Kerstin V; Rintoul, Naomi; Peacock, Simon; Cape, J Neil; Coyle, Mhairi; Toet, Sylvia; Barnes, Jeremy; Ashmore, Mike

2012-04-01

213

Ozone depletion zone and ozone smog. Ozone chemistry fundamentals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book elucidates the fundamentals of the ozone theory. The knowledge verified through measurements is compiled, and the gaps in the knowledge of ozone are defined. While the knowledge of ozone appears to be well-established the gaps in the knowledge are responsible for uncertainties. Measurement methods for determination of the atmospheric concentration of ozone are described. Details are given about the basic processes of atmospheric ozone formation and ozone depletion and about the role of CFC. The factors which determine ozone concentrations in the southern hemisphere are described first because South Pole ozone formation processes, in spite of their complexity, are not as complex as North Pole ozone formation processes. The differences between these processes in the two polar regions are described. (orig.)

214

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower income groups are often disproportionately affected by air pollution which put them at higher risk for illnesses. ... View State Map Compare Your Air Compare Your Air Select Your State Health Risks Ozone Pollution Particle Pollution Children’s Health Disparities & Near Highways Protect ...

215

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... More than 4 in 10 people in the United States (44.8%) live in areas with unhealthful levels ... Compare Your Air Compare Your Air Select Your State Health Risks Ozone ... Banners Contact Information American Lung Association 55 W. Wacker Drive, ...

216

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the most polluted metropolitan areas—some substantially—in 2010-2012 compared to 2009-2011. Of the 25 ... Weather played a factor. The warmer summers in 2010 and 2012 contributed to higher ozone readings and ...

217

Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

1980-01-01

218

Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo, óleos de oliva e girassol ozonizados foram comparados química e microbilogicamente. Estes óleos foram introduzidos em um reator com gás ozônio borbulhante, em banho-maria a temperatura ambiente, até solidificação. O teor de peróxido, de iodo e o grau de acidez foram determinados juntam [...] ente com a atividade antimicrobiana. Os efeitos da ozonização na composição dos ácidos graxos desses óleos foram analisados usando-se a técnica de Cromatografia Gás-Líquido. Um aumento nos valores de peroxidação e de acidez foi observado em ambos os óleos, mas foram maiores no óleo de girassol ozonizado. O teor de iodo obtido no azeite de oliva ozonizado foi zero, enquanto no óleo de girassol ozonizado foi de 8,8 g de iodo per 100 g. A atividade antimicrobiana foi similar para os dois óleos ozonizados, com exceção da Concentração Mínima Bactericida de Pseudomona Aruginosa. A composição dos ácidos graxos nos dois óleos ozonizados mostrou um decréscimo gradual de ácidos graxos insaturados (C18:1, C18:2), com o aumento gradual da ozonização. Abstract in english In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity [...] were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2) with gradual increase in ozone doses.

Maritza F., Díaz; Rebeca, Hernández; Goitybell, Martínez; Genny, Vidal; Magali, Gómez; Harold, Fernández; Rafael, Garcés.

2006-04-01

219

EFFECT OF 'IN VIVO' OZONE EXPOSURE TO DORSET SHEEP, AN ANIMAL MODEL WITH LOW LEVELS OF ERYTHROCYTE GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable interest has recently been directed to the possible extrapulmonary effects caused by exposure to ambient ozone. Studies have now demonstrated that ozone exposure may result in chromosomal aberrations in circulating lymphocytes of Chinese hamsters, altered drug metabo...

220

Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator

221

Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

2009-03-15

222

Ozone tolerance of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Larix decidua has been classified as a tree species ''highly sensitive'' to ozone. However, in Austria its main distribution is at altitudes where the recommended limits for ozone concentrations for sensitive plants are strongly exceeded for long periods. Long-term fumigation of twigs of a mature larch tree with ambient or double ambient air ozone concentrations did not cause any visible damage or negative influence on the gas exchange. However very high exposure of 1200 ppb ozone led to acute damage in long shoot needles with high gas exchange rates in the sun, but led only to small damages on shaded long shoots. Needles on short shoots neither developed visible damages nor were their capabilities for photosynthesis and stomatal regulation reduced, nor did they exhibit signs of premature senescence. According to the results of this investigation, European larch should be classified as ''intermediate'' or even as ''less sensitive'' to ozone. (orig.)

223

Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings proech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

224

Growth kinetics and long-term stability of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous solution under ambient conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ubiquity of naturally occurring nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is now widely accepted, but a better understanding of the conditions that promote their formation and persistence is needed. Using cadmium sulfide (CdS) as a model metal sulfide species, thiolate-capped CdS nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory to evaluate how aquatic conditions influence metal sulfide nanoparticle growth and stability. This work examines CdS nanoparticle growth directly in aqueous solution at room temperature by utilizing the size-dependent spectroscopic properties of semiconductors detectable by UV/vis. CdS nanoparticle growth was governed by oriented attachment, a non-classical mechanism of crystallization in which small precursor nanoparticles coalesce to form larger nanoparticle products. Nanoparticle growth was slowed with increasing capping agent and decreasing ionic strength. In addition to examining the short-term (hours) growth of the nanoparticles, a long-term study was conducted in which cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were monitored over 3 weeks in solutions of various ionic strengths. The long-term study revealed an apparent shift from small nanoparticles to nanoparticles twice their original size, suggesting nanoparticle growth may continue through oriented attachment over longer time scales. High-ionic strength solutions resulted in salt-induced aggregation and eventual settling of nanoparticles within days, whereas low-ionic strength solutions were whereas low-ionic strength solutions were stable against settling over the course of the experiment. Sulfide recovery from cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles as acid volatile sulfide was nearly quantitative after 2 weeks in fully oxygenated water, demonstrating significantly slowed oxidation of sulfide when complexed to Cd(II) within CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also shown to be resistant to oxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. This study illustrates that aggregation, rather than chemical oxidation, is likely more important to the lifetime of many metal sulfide nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

225

Ozone in the atmosphere : ozone depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

What processes cause a depletion of the ozone layer? This informational page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores natural and human-made destruction of the ozone layer. Here students read about the instability of ozone atoms and the naturally changing quantities of ozone in the air. Volcanoes, the oceans, and other natural processes provide chemicals that break down ozone. Chemical equations of the breakdowns are provided. A discussion of the use of chlorofluorocarbons reveals a link to the destruction of the ozone layer. Students view an animation that shows how chlorofluorocarbons break down ozone into oxygen molecules. A summation of the ozone depletion problem discusses the loss of ozone around the South Pole and possible effects on Australia. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

226

Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early spring leaf out is important to the success of deciduous trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and elevated ozone concentration ([O3]) altered leaf area index development in a closed Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones have been grown since 1997 in conditions simulating the [CO2] and [O3] predicted for ?2050. The responses of two clones were compared during the first month of spring leaf out when CO2 fumigation had begun, but O3 fumigation had not. Trees in elevated [CO2] plots showed a stimulation of leaf area index (36%), while trees in elevated [O3] plots had lower leaf area index (-20%). While individual leaf area was not significantly affected by elevated [CO2], the photosynthetic operating efficiency of aspen leaves was significantly improved (51%). There were no significant differences in the way that the two aspen clones responded to elevated [CO2]; however, the two clones responded differently to long-term growth at elevated [O3]. The O3-sensitive clone, 42E, had reduced individual leaf area when grown at elevated [O3] (-32%), while the tolerant clone, 216, had larger mature leaf area at el, 216, had larger mature leaf area at elevated [O3] (46%). These results indicate a clear difference between the two clones in their long-term response to elevated [O3], which could affect competition between the clones, and result in altered genotypic composition in future atmospheric conditions. - Spring leaf flush is stimulated by elevated [CO2] and suppressed by elevated [O3] in aspen (Populus tremuloides).

227

EFFECTS OF INCREASING DOSES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND AMBIENT OZONE ON TOMATOES: PLANT GROWTH, LEAF INJURY, ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION, FRUIT YIELDS, AND QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Jet star, an indeterminant tomato cultivar, was exposed to 0.011, 0.059, 0.118, 0.235, and 0.468 ppm SO2 in open-top field chambers supplied with nonfiltered(NF) air and to 0.005, 0.113, and 0.466 ppm SO2 in chambers with charcoal-filtered(CF) air. Treatments were given 5 hr/day,...

228

Process of Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

... extremely stable, and they do not dissolve in rain. After a period of several years, ODS molecules ... keep up. Therefore, ozone levels fall. Since ozone filters out harmful UVB radiation, less ozone means higher ...

229

Effect of ozonated water treatment on microbial control and on browning of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of ozonated water treatment on microbial control and quality of cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Fresh-cut lettuce was washed in ozonated water (3, 5, and 10 ppm) for 5 min at ambient temperature. The native bacterial population on the lettuce declined in response to a rise in ozone concentration. However, there was no further bacterial reduction (1.4 log CFU/g) above 5 ppm ozone. Although ozonated water treatment increased the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity of the lettuce stored at 10 degrees C compared with the water wash treatment after 1 day of storage, the concentration of ozone did not affect PAL activity. The a* value of the residue of the lettuce methanol extracts, which reflects the extent of browning, increased dramatically in lettuce treated with 10 ppm ozonated water compared with other treatments. Treatment with 3 or 5 ppm ozonated water resulted in more rapid changes in the a* value than after the water treatment. The combined treatment of hot water (50 degrees C, 2.5 min) followed by ozonated water (5 ppm, 2.5 min) had the same bactericidal effect as treatment with ozonated water (5 ppm, 5 min) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 200 ppm, 5 min), giving a reduction in bacteria numbers of 1.2 to 1.4 log CFU/g. The ascorbic acid content of the lettuce was not affected by these treatments. The combined treatment of hot water followed by ozonated water greatly inhibited PAL activity for up to 3 days of storage at 10 degrees C. Treatment with this combination greatly suppressed increases in the a* value, thus retarding the progress of browning compared with other treatments throughout the 6-day storage. NaOCl treatment also inhibited browning for up to 3 days of storage. Bacterial populations on the lettuce treated with sanitizers were initially reduced but then showed rapid growth compared with that of the water wash treatment, which did not reduce bacterial counts initially. PMID:16416913

Koseki, Shigenobu; Isobe, Seiichiro

2006-01-01

230

EFFECT OF OZONE ON DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE TOXICITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are present in ambient urban air PM. Coexisting with DEP (and PM) is ozone (O(3)), which has the potential to react with some components of DEP. Some r...

231

Ozone Pollution  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Association of Clean Air Agencies U. S. Environmental Protection Agency sites: Clean School Bus USA Information for Citizens and Communities National Ambient Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: ...

232

Ozone Pollution  

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Full Text Available ... AirNow National Association of Clean Air Agencies U. S. Environmental Protection Agency sites: Clean School Bus USA Information ... Communities National Ambient Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do News from ...

233

LP-MOVPE growth of InAs quantum dots using tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) in pure N 2 ambient  

Science.gov (United States)

The InAs quantum dots on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate were first grown by LP-MOVPE using tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) in nitrogen ambient. Samples were characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at 77 K. The average diameter of the dots increases with the group III source trimethylindium (TMIn) inlet flow. The shape of dots also changes with the TMIn inlet flow. The shape of dots changes from oval to circle, respectively, when the TMIn inlet flow was changed from 60 to 80 sccm. When TMI was set at 100 sccm, the shape of InAs quantum dots is tetrahedron with two {1 4 14} facets and one {1 1 14} facet and their edges were parallel to [1 4 0] and [1 1 0] directions, respectively. The dot density is (1.5-2.5)×10 10 cm -2. The PL emission from the quantum dots is centered at 1071 nm wavelength and has a full width at half maximum PL spectrum of 55 meV.

Huang, G. S.; Tang, X. H.; Zhang, B. L.; Zhang, Y. C.; Tjin, S. C.

2004-08-01

234

Relationships among injury, growth, and yield responses of soybean cultivars exposed to ozone at different light intensities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Forrest, Davis, Ransom, and Bragg) differing in foliar sensitivity and shoot weight response to O/sub 3/ during vegetation growth were exposed to O/sub 3/ from the seedling stage to maturity to determine if the yield response correlated with the vegetative response. Neither the foliar injury nor the vegetative shoot weight response of cultivars to O/sub 3/ allowed reasonable prediction of the cultivar yield response to O/sub 3/. This inadequacy may relate to differences in cultivar tolerance. Bragg, with moderate amounts of O/sub 3/-induced injury and with diseased growth, yielded as well as the controls. Davis, with moderate amounts of O/sub 3/-induced injury and decreased growth, yielded 34% less than the controls. The four cultivars were grown in open-top field chambers with different degrees of shading to determine whether light intensity would alter their response to O/sub 3/. Light intensity in nonshaded open-top field chambers was 9% less than that in an open field; chambers with shade cloth covering the sides or tops decreased light intensity by 15 and 19%, respectively. The shade treatments did not change overall yield response to O/sub 3/ or the relative cultivar yield response to O/sub 3/. 16 references, 6 tables.

Heagle, A.S.; Letchworth, M.B.

1982-01-01

235

Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

1976-01-01

236

Ozone influence on native vegetation in the Jizerske hory Mts. of the Czech Republic: results based on ozone exposure and ozone-induced visible symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone levels in the Jizerske hory Mts. measured at 13 sites by diffusive samplers during the 2006 and 2007 vegetation seasons are presented. A significant ozone gradient (5.4 ppb in 2006 and 4.0 ppb in 2007) per 100 m difference in altitude between 370 and 1,100 m a.s.l. was recorded. High-resolution maps of phytotoxic potential were developed. The AOT40 threshold (5 ppm h) was exceeded over the entire area with the highest levels exceeding this threshold by 12 times in the upper portions of the mountains. Ozone visible injury was evaluated at four of the monitoring sites on seven native plant and tree species. Four species showed ozone-like symptoms, two of which (Rubus idaeus and Fagus sylvatica) were confirmed as ozone-induced. Our results indicate that ambient ozone is likely to have a much lower impact on the Jizerske hory Mts. vegetation than expected, considering the measured ambient ozone exposures and favourable environmental conditions for ozone uptake. PMID:21374050

H?nová, Iva; Matoušková, Leona; Srn?nský, Radek; Koželková, Klára

2011-12-01

237

75 FR 47746 - Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8-hour Ozone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Worth (DFW) moderate 8-hour ozone nonattainment area did not attain the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air...Air Act (CAA or Act) and Code of Federal Regulations (CFR...operation of law as a serious 8- hour ozone nonattainment area...

2010-08-09

238

75 FR 79302 - Determination of Nonattainment and Reclassification of the Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8-Hour Ozone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Dallas/Fort Worth 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Texas...Fort Worth (DFW) moderate 8-hour ozone nonattainment area failed to attain the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality...Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) and Code of Federal Regulations...

2010-12-20

239

Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters / Crescimento de Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambientes marinho e estuarino em águas brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento da ostra-do-mangue Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambiente marinho e estuarino. As ostras foram cultivadas por 11 meses em sistema de espinhel, em dois locais de estudo - São Francisco do Sul e Florianópolis -, em Santa Catarina. A concentração de [...] clorofila-?, a temperatura e a salinidade da água foram registradas semanalmente. As ostras foram medidas mensalmente (tamanho da concha e ganho de peso) para avaliar o crescimento. No final do período de cultivo, os pesos médios de carne úmida, carne seca e concha foram determinados, bem como a distribuição das ostras por classes de tamanho. Seis modelos não lineares (logístico, exponencial, Gompertz, Brody, Richards e Von Bertalanffy) foram ajustados aos dados de crescimento das ostras. As médias finais de tamanho da concha foram maiores em São Francisco do Sul do que em Florianópolis. Além disso, as ostras cultivadas em São Francisco do Sul apresentaram distribuição mais uniforme nas classes de tamanho do que aquelas cultivadas em Florianópolis. Os maiores valores médios de peso de carne úmida e peso de concha foram observados em São Francisco do Sul, enquanto o peso da carne seca não diferiu entre os locais. O ambiente estuarino é mais promissor para o cultivo de ostras. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southe [...] rn Brazil. Water chlorophyll-? concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain) to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy) were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

Gustavo Ruschel, Lopes; Carlos Henrique Araujo de Miranda, Gomes; Cláudio Rudolfo, Tureck; Claudio Manuel Rodrigues de, Melo.

2013-08-01

240

Ozone entrainment flux using ozone DIAL and Compact Wind Aerosol Lidar (CWAL) in Huntsville AL  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have proved that the impact of high ozone amounts in the residual layer can account for up to 80% of the surface ozone maxima during the following day. This high ozone in the residual layer mixes into to the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) through the entrainment processes as the growth of PBL occurs in the morning. Conversely, anthropogenic pollutants emitted from the surface mix into the Free Troposphere (FT) and are transported to other places. Therefore, entrainment flux is one of the important connections between the local-scale/urban-scale and the regional scale. In this study, we will present a study of ozone entrainment fluxes using continuous observation by co-located ozone DIAL and Compact Wind Aerosol Lidar (CWAL) at the campus of University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). As a part of Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET), UAH ozone DIAL can provide continuous ozone observation at the range of 125 m AGL to 12 km, with 10-min temporal resolution and 150 - 550 m vertical resolution [Kuang et al., 2013]. We also perform an ozone budget study using Dutch Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulation (DALES), reasonable approximations of dry deposition, in conjunction with ozone entrainment flux observations. We work towards building a comprehensive understanding of the quantitative impacts of ozone entrainment processes on surface ozone amounts in a medium-sized urban area like Huntsville AL. Shi Kuang, Michael J. Newchurch, John Burris, and Xiong Liu, "Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements," Appl. Opt. 52, 3557-3566 (2013)

Huang, G.; Newchurch, M.; kuang, S.; Wang, L.; Cantrell, W.

2013-12-01

241

Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography [obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)] are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs

242

Evaluation of the sporicidal activity of ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of sterilizing surfaces with ozone-saturated water by the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Initially, it was determined that there was no apparent difference in ozone resistance between spores of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium sporogenes when they are suspended in water. Both species were inactivated by a 10-min exposure at ambient temperature. Resistance was increased when the spores were dried on AOAC carriers. Viable organisms were recovered after an exposure of 40 min at ambient temperature. An increase in the reactor water temperature to 60/sup 0/C did not improve the effectiveness of the ozone in sterilizing AOAC carriers. Dried spores of C. sporogenes were more resistant than B. subtilis spores because of a greater accumulation of organic matter on the carriers. No significant sporicidal activity was demonstrated after 40 min for spores of either species when they were inoculated on silk suture loops. The data suggest that organic loading and poor ozone penetrability are key factors in effecting the ability of ozone to sterilize surfaces rapidly.

Rickloff, J.R.

1987-04-01

243

Secondary maxima in ozone profiles  

OpenAIRE

Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGE II ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is related to...

Lemoine, R.

2004-01-01

244

EGG INCUBATION IN THE NOBLE CRAYFISH (ASTACUS ASTACUS L.: THE EFFECT OF CONTROLLED LABORATORY AND OUTDOOR AMBIENT CONDITION ON HATCHING SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF JUVENILES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incubation of eggs on pleopods of 13 female noble crayfish was controlled by means of water temperature after CUKERZIS et al. (1978. Out-door incubation of eggs on pleopods of 15 females was monitored at ambient temperature in an earthen storage pond. With controlled incubation of eggs, the duration of incubation period was shortened and earlier hatching resulted in so-called advanced juveniles. They hatched 88 days earlier than those normally hatched during out-door egg incubation. These 88 days prolonged the rearing period of advanced juvenile crayfish in the 1st growing season. When the advanced juvenile crayfish were isolated, there resulted a significantly lower number of stage 2 juveniles per female kept under controlled conditions (47 ± 25.0 individuals of stage 2 juveniles per female compared to those females placed under out-door conditions (90.1 ± 46.9 individuals of stage 2 juveniles per female. Two females lost all eggs during controlled egg incubation, while no females lost all eggs during out-door egg incubation. After hatching, both groups (advanced and normally hatched juveniles were provided with identical rearing conditions. Growth and survival rate were checked regularly. The advanced juvenile crayfish always reached significantly higher size in the given period than those normally hatched because they were 88 days older. At the end of rearing period (beginning of October, the advanced juveniles reached 26.0 ± 3.06 mm mean body length and 0.585 ± 0.197 g mean weight. In contrast, normally hatched juveniles reached 21.3 ± 2.25 mm mean body length and 0.305 ± 0.101 g mean weight. Comparing the growth of juveniles at a given age, the advance juveniles showed slower growth rate than those hatched normally. The advanced juveniles at 90 days of age (20.2 ± 1.83 mm mean body length, 0.207 ± 0.058 g mean weight had significantly slower growth than those hatched normally (21.3 ± 2.25 mm mean body length, 0.305 ± 0.101 g mean weight. Apart from slower growth, the advanced juveniles also had a lower survival rate in the rearing period. In 90 days of age, the advanced juveniles showed 21% less survival rate than the normally hatched juveniles.

POLICAR T.

2004-01-01

245

Dinâmica do crescimento, distribuição de matéria seca e produção de pimentão em ambiente protegido / Growth dynamic, dry matter distribution and sweet pepper yield in unheated greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Caracterizou-se o crescimento, a partição de matéria seca e a produção de pimentão, híbrido Elisa, em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados com seis repetições e 16 tratamentos, de março a dezembro, durante 224 dias a partir do transplante (DAT). As mudas foram trans [...] plantadas em 27/04, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,6 m. Cada tratamento correspondeu a uma época de amostragem, realizada a cada 14 DAT. Em cada amostragem, foram avaliadas as características relacionadas ao crescimento da planta e a produção de frutos maduros. A massa seca na parte aérea atingiu o máximo de 368 g planta-1, aos 224 DAT. As produções de matéria seca do fruto, caule e folhas aumentaram ao longo do tempo atingindo os valores máximos de 189, 79 e 109 g planta-1 aos 224 DAT, respectivamente. Da mesma forma aconteceu com a área foliar por planta, altura da planta e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, cujos valores máximos foram 9056 cm², 91 cm e 4,11 g m-2 dia-1, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o crescimento da planta foi contínuo ao longo do ciclo sendo que os frutos acumularam a maior quantidade de matéria seca. A produção total de frutos maduros foi 51.960 kg ha-1 ou 232 kg ha-1 dia-1 de permanência da cultura no ambiente protegido. Os frutos comerciais corresponderam a 92,8% da produção total. Abstract in english The nutrient uptake, the partitioning of dry matter and sweet pepper fruit yield were characterized under unheated greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out from March to December, and the randomized block design was used with 6 replicates and 16 treatments. Seedlings of Elisa cv. were t [...] ransplanted to the field in 1 x 0.6 m spacing on April, 27th. Each treatment corresponded to a sampling time accomplished every 14 days from transplanting. At 224 days after transplanting (DAT) to the plastic house, the pepper plants presented 91 cm of height with a leaf area of 9056 cm² plant-1 and 189, 79 and 109 g plant-1 of fruit dry matter, stem and leaves, respectively, also presenting an absolute growth rate with maximum value of 4.11 g m-2 day-1. Plant growth was continuous along the plant cycle and fruits accumulated the highest amount of dry matter. Total ripened fruit yield was 51,960 kg ha-1 or 232 kg ha-1 day-1 of crop permanence in the greenhouse. Marketable fruits were represented by 92.8% of the total yield.

Paulo Cezar R., Fontes; Emerson N., Dias; Derly José Henriques da, Silva.

2005-03-01

246

Dinâmica do crescimento, distribuição de matéria seca e produção de pimentão em ambiente protegido Growth dynamic, dry matter distribution and sweet pepper yield in unheated greenhouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caracterizou-se o crescimento, a partição de matéria seca e a produção de pimentão, híbrido Elisa, em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados com seis repetições e 16 tratamentos, de março a dezembro, durante 224 dias a partir do transplante (DAT. As mudas foram transplantadas em 27/04, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,6 m. Cada tratamento correspondeu a uma época de amostragem, realizada a cada 14 DAT. Em cada amostragem, foram avaliadas as características relacionadas ao crescimento da planta e a produção de frutos maduros. A massa seca na parte aérea atingiu o máximo de 368 g planta-1, aos 224 DAT. As produções de matéria seca do fruto, caule e folhas aumentaram ao longo do tempo atingindo os valores máximos de 189, 79 e 109 g planta-1 aos 224 DAT, respectivamente. Da mesma forma aconteceu com a área foliar por planta, altura da planta e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, cujos valores máximos foram 9056 cm², 91 cm e 4,11 g m-2 dia-1, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o crescimento da planta foi contínuo ao longo do ciclo sendo que os frutos acumularam a maior quantidade de matéria seca. A produção total de frutos maduros foi 51.960 kg ha-1 ou 232 kg ha-1 dia-1 de permanência da cultura no ambiente protegido. Os frutos comerciais corresponderam a 92,8% da produção total.The nutrient uptake, the partitioning of dry matter and sweet pepper fruit yield were characterized under unheated greenhouse conditions. The experiment was carried out from March to December, and the randomized block design was used with 6 replicates and 16 treatments. Seedlings of Elisa cv. were transplanted to the field in 1 x 0.6 m spacing on April, 27th. Each treatment corresponded to a sampling time accomplished every 14 days from transplanting. At 224 days after transplanting (DAT to the plastic house, the pepper plants presented 91 cm of height with a leaf area of 9056 cm² plant-1 and 189, 79 and 109 g plant-1 of fruit dry matter, stem and leaves, respectively, also presenting an absolute growth rate with maximum value of 4.11 g m-2 day-1. Plant growth was continuous along the plant cycle and fruits accumulated the highest amount of dry matter. Total ripened fruit yield was 51,960 kg ha-1 or 232 kg ha-1 day-1 of crop permanence in the greenhouse. Marketable fruits were represented by 92.8% of the total yield.

Paulo Cezar R. Fontes

2005-03-01

247

Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensores en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población .Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also raising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

Jesús Méndez Martínez

2009-10-01

248

Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensore [...] s en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población . Abstract in english Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also r [...] aising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

Jesús, Méndez Martínez; Arelis, Alberto Palenzuela; Ernesto, Morales Santana.

2009-10-01

249

Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus. PMID:25260655

Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

2014-09-01

250

Ambient intelligence  

CERN Document Server

Addresses ambient intelligence used to support human contacts and accompany an individual''s path through the complicated modern world, from applications that are imminent, since they use essentially existing technologies, to ambitious ideas whose realization is still far away, due to major unsolved technical challenges.

Weber, W; Aarts, E

2005-01-01

251

The effect of ozone associated with summertime photochemical smog on the frequency of asthma visits to hospital emergency departments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A retrospective study using ambient ozone, temperature, and other environmental variables and their effect on the frequency of hospital visits for asthma was conducted in New Jersey, an area that often exceeds the allowable national standard for ozone. Data on emergency department visits for asthma, bronchitis, and finger wounds (a nonrespiratory control) were analyzed for the period May through August for 1988 and 1989. Asthma visits were correlated with temperature while the correlation between asthma visits and ozone concentration was nonsignificant. However, when temperature was controlled for in a multiple regression analysis, a highly significant relationship between asthma visits and ozone concentration was identified. Between 13 and 15% of the variability of the asthma visits and ozone concentration was identified. Between 13 and 15% of the variability of the asthma visits was explained in the regression model by temperature and ambient ozone levels. This association, when compared to similar studies in Canada, shows the contribution of ozone to asthma admissions to be stronger in areas with higher ozone concentrations. Thus, among regions with periodic accumulations of ozone in the ambient atmosphere, an exposure-response relationship may be discernible. This supports the need to attain air quality standards for ozone to protect individuals in the general population from the adverse health effects caused by ambient ozone exposure. 21 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Cody, R.P. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Weisel, C.P.; Lioy, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States) Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Birnbaum, G. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

1992-08-01

252

Growth and physiological characteristics of soybean in open-top chambers in response to ozone and increased atmospheric CO sub 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-top chamber studies were conducted at USDA-BARC to determine interactive effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} air pollution on physiological and growth responses in soybeans. The plants were grown full-season in chambers supplied with charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered (NF) air or NF + 40 nl l-1 0{sub 3} having CO{sub 2} concentrations of ambient, + 50 or + 150-mu-l l-1 CO{sub 2}. The resultant seasonal 7 h O{sub 3} concentrations for the three air quality regimes were 23.0 nl l-1, 40.3 nl l-1 and 66.4 nl l-1 03, respectively. Photosynthesis rates (PS) and stomata conductance (SC) values were measured on fully expanded leaves on 11 dates throughout the growing season and vegetative samples were collected for carbohydrate analyses and for plant biomass determinations. Seed weights, grain yields and quality measurements were made following harvest at physiological maturity. Significant changes in plant biomass, leaf area, specific leaf weight, pods and seeds per plant, and grain yields were observed among treatments. Maximum increases in plant growth and productivity were observed in response to CO{sub 2} increases in the absence of O{sub 3} air pollution. Changes observed in plant biomass, pods and seeds per plant and grain yields were consistent with the results for the PS and leaf carbohydrate data which suggest that the + 150-mu-l l-1 CO {sub 2} treatment had a protective role against adverse effects of O{sub 3} exposure. Grain oil contents were increased and protein contents significantly reduced in response to CO{sub 2}; however, both quality features were unaffected by the O{sub 3} treatments.

Mulchi, C.L.; Slaughter, L.; Saleem, M.; Lee, E.H.; Pausch, R.; Rowland, R. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

1992-01-01

253

Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adaptabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta.There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditions. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

Janaina Paulino

2011-01-01

254

Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido / Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.). Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adap [...] tabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta. Abstract in english There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditio [...] ns. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

Janaina, Paulino; Marcos V., Folegatti; Danilton L., Flumignan; Cornélio A., Zolin; Cícero R. A., Barboza Júnior; Sônia M. de S., Piedade.

2011-01-01

255

Influence of ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on the plant growth and physiological properties in two contrasting populations of Hippophae rhamnoides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two contrasting sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) populations from low and high altitude regions were employed to investigate the effects of prevailing and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant growth and physiological properties under a UV-B-enhanced/exclusion system. The experimental design included three UV-B regimes, including excluded (-UVB), near-ambient (NA) and enhanced UV-B (+UVB) radiation. Compared with the control (-UVB), NA caused the formation of smaller but thicker plant leaves in both sea buckthorn populations, paralleled with significant increments of carotenoids and UV-absorbing compounds as well as improved water economy. NA also induced more biomass partition from shoot to root, but CO(2) assimilation rate (A), photosynthetic area and biomass accumulation were unaffected. The low-altitude population seemed sensitive to +UVB, as indicated by the decreases in total biomass, A and ascorbic acid content (Asa, an antioxidant) compared with NA. However, little +UVB effect occurred on the high-altitude population, and we suggest that the higher tolerance of this population could be associated with its specific morphological and physiological characteristics, such as small but thick leaves and high-level of Asa content, as well as its greater physiological modification in response to NA, e.g., increases in protective compounds (carotenoids and UV-absorbing compounds) and improvement in water economy, in comparison to the low-altitude population, which form an effective adaptation strategy to enhanced UV-B stress. PMID:18506394

Yang, Yongqing; Yao, Yinan; He, Hai

2008-07-01

256

Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction.

Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

1981-12-01

257

Air Quality Guide for Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : National Summary Air Quality Guide for Ozone You may have seen the Air Quality ... experience ozone’s harmful effects. What is an Air Quality Action Day for Ozone? Your State or local ...

258

Emergência e crescimento inicial de Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo em ambientes contrastantes de luz / Emergency and initial growth of Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo in contrasting light environments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, popularmente conhecida como ipê-roxo ou ipê-roxo-desete-folhas, é uma Bignoniaceae nativa da Mata Atlântica, de importância econômica, medicinal e ornamental, além de ser indicada para reflorestamentos. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas sobre essa espécie a [...] inda são escassas. Assim, visando dispor de informações que auxiliem na sua propagação e conservação, este trabalho avaliou a emergência e crescimento inicial dessa espécie em regimes contrastantes de luz. Foram realizados dois experimentos independentes. O primeiro em condições controladas, com os tratamentos 70% de sombreamento e a pleno sol; e o segundo em ambiente natural, com os tratamentos clareira e sub-bosque. Entre os parâmetros utilizados para avaliar a emergência sob influência das intensidades luminosas, apenas a porcentagem de emergência diferiu estatisticamente no ambiente natural, sendo superior na clareira. Em condições controladas, houve significância para a velocidade de emergência, sendo maior nas plantas submetidas ao a pleno sol. A espécie apresentou reduzido crescimento inicial no sub-bosque, sendo todos os parâmetros estatisticamente inferiores em relação às plantas da clareira, com exceção da razão de área foliar e área foliar específica. Em condições controladas, os resultados que diferiram significativamente foram todos superiores nas plantas a pleno sol. O estudo evidenciou que a espécie apresenta capacidade de formar plântulas em diferentes regimes de luz, inclusive sob forte sombreamento natural, porém essa condição reduz significativamente seu crescimento inicial, sendo este favorecido por maiores intensidades luminosas. Abstract in english Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, known as "ipê-roxo" or" ipê-roxo-de sete-folhas", is a native species of Atlantic Forest, with an economic, medicinal and ornamental role, suitable for reforestation. However, ecophysiological information about it is scarce. In order to provide information about [...] propagation and conservation for this specie, the present study evaluated emergence and early growth of this species in different light exposure. We lead two independent trials. In the first we considered controlled conditions, with two treatments: 70% shade and full sun. The second was developed in a natural environment, with two treatments: gap and understory environments. From the total parameters used to evaluate the emergence of the species under influence of light intensities, only the emergence percentage was statistically different from the natural environment, with high values observed at gap treatment. Significant differences were observed in controlled environment, considering the emergence speed. This variable was higher in plants grown under full sun. Slower initial growth was observed for plants regenerated in the understory, compared to the plants growing in gaps, except for following characteristics: leaf area ration and specific leaf area. In controlled conditions, the results with higher significant differences were observed for plants under full sun. The study shows that the species has the capacity to germinate in different light conditions, even under strong natural shading. However, this condition reduces significantly its initial growth, which is favored by higher light intensities.

Viviane Peixoto, Borges; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho, Costa; Rogério Ferreira, Ribas.

2014-06-01

259

Hidrogeología ambiental  

OpenAIRE

La finalidad de este libro es introducir a aquellos que trabajan en agua subterránea, en una temática relativamente moderna pero que en los últimos 15 a 20 años, ha concentrado la mayor demanda laboral de geólogos en los países desarrollados del Hemisferio Norte. En el tomo I se analiza la relación del agua subterránea con el ambiente, tratando especialmente, el origen, las características, y los procesos de contaminación. Se describe la relación agua superficial-subterránea y su ...

Auge, Miguel

2004-01-01

260

Ozone and the Atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site, hosted by NASA, discusses the chemical composition and evolution of Earth's atmosphere, focusing on the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere. The destructive properties of tropospheric ozone are also presented. Diagrams and animation sequences are used to visually depict the delicate structure of the ozone molecule and the chemical reactions involved in its formation and destruction. Ozone destroying pollutants were first identified in 1973. Since that time there has been a considerable amount of controversy surrounding the subject of ozone depletion. More than 20 years of ozone-related scientific studies, international meetings, and global industrial agreements are summarized in the last section of this site.

Distributed Active Archive Center

261

The Antarctic ozone hole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

262

Antarctic ozone depletion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

263

Stratospheric ozone depletion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of stratospheric ozone and the reduction of the ozone layer vary according to seasons and latitudes. At present total and vertical ozone is monitored over all Austria. The mean monthly ozone levels between 1994 and 2000 are presented. Data on stratospheric ozone and UV-B radiation are published daily on the home page http: www.lebesministerium.at. The use of ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is provided. Besides, the national measures taken to reduce their use. Figs. 2, Tables 2. (nevyjel)

264

78 FR 41846 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York State Ozone Implementation Plan Revision  

Science.gov (United States)

...Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT...action is to approve control strategies, required...national ambient air quality standards for ozone...Portland Cement Plants and Glass Plants...Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT...12, ``Hot mix asphalt production...

2013-07-12

265

Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O{sub 3}; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O{sub 3}; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O{sub 3}) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E

2003-07-01

266

Ground-Level Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground level or "bad" ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between ... who have lung diseases such as asthma. Ground level ozone can also have harmful effects on sensitive ...

267

Ozone and Your Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Ozone and Your Health Share Compartir  Breathing in ... can be harmful to your health. How can ozone affect my health? If you have asthma, bronchitis, ...

268

Ozone and Your Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... to stay active and know when to make changes. When ozone levels are unhealthy, protect your health by: Reducing the time you are active outdoors. • Scheduling the activity for the morning or evening when • ozone levels ...

269

ALTERNATIVE AIR QUALITY INDICATORS FOR A SECONDARY FEDERAL STANDARD FOR OZONE  

Science.gov (United States)

The present secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, established in 1979, was based on limited information from a few field studies on vegetation and may not be protective of crop damage due to ozone, alone or in combination with other pollutants. onside...

270

Evidências de interação genótipo x ambiente sobre características de crescimento em bovinos de corte Evidences of genotype x environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle  

OpenAIRE

Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre os pesos à desmama (PD) e aos 12 meses de idade (P12), o ganho de peso diário da desmama aos 12 meses de idade (GDA) e o desempenho com base em um índice (CPG) de componentes principais envolvendo essas três características, em um rebanho da raça Canchim. O ambiente foi considerado a época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres) do animal. Para avaliar a interação genótipo x ambiente, foram utiliz...

Maurício Mello de Alencar; Arthur dos Santos Mascioli; Alfredo Ribeiro Freitas

2005-01-01

271

Influence of Global Atmospheric Change on the Feeding Behavior and Growth Performance of a Mammalian Herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster  

OpenAIRE

Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air), ...

Habeck, Christopher W.; Lindroth, Richard L.

2013-01-01

272

Manifestation of solar activity processes in the Earth ozone layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical analysis of total ozone and its vertical distribution was carried out on the base of data obtained by rocket soundings with the aim to reveal influence of solar activity. THe coherence between monthly mean total ozone data series for six latitudinal zones in the Northern Hemisphere and solar spots has weak but steady maxima for 9 and 13-15 years periods of oscillations. The value of coherence does not exceed 0.15 and growth to the higher latitudes. The analysis of ozone profiles for middle latitudes reveals the decrease in ozone concentration between 30-50 km for winter and increase for autumn. 20 refs.; 3 figs

273

Earth's ozone layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

274

Additive effects of enhanced ambient ultraviolet B radiation and increased temperature on immune function, growth and physiological condition of juvenile (parr) Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar  

OpenAIRE

Climate change models predict increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation levels due to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. In order to study the impact of these two environmental stressors acting simultaneously on the physiology of fish, Atlantic salmon parr were exposed, for 8 weeks in outdoor tanks, to different combinations of UVB radiation (depleted and enhanced) and temperature (standard rearing temperature of 14 °C or 19 °C). The immune function (plasma IgM, lysozyme activi...

Jokinen, Ilmari E.; Salo, Harri M.; Markkula, Eveliina; Rikalainen, Kaisa; Arts, Michael T.; Browman, Howard I.

2010-01-01

275

Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

276

Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO2), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO2 (ECO2) and decreased under combination of ECO2 with elevated O3 (ECO2 + EO3), ambient O3 (ACO2 + AO3) and elevated O3 (EO3). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO2 and ECO2 + EO3 and reduced under EO3 and ACO2 + AO3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO2 is not enough to counteract O3 impact, but elevated CO2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O3 level. -- Highlights: ? Elevated CO2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ? Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ? Elevated CO2 reduced negative effects of elevated O3 by reducing oxidative stress. ? Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO2 + O3 compared to ambient CO2 + O3. -- Predicted levels of CO2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO2 against ambient ozone

277

The Ozone Hole Tour  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ozone Hole Tour is a concise survey of the ozone depletion problem presented in four sequential parts and utilizing maps, videos, and computer simulations to convey measurement and observation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Part I covers the history in detection of the ozone hole, the nature and formation of ozone, the general nature of the ozone hole, and current governmental measures intended to reduce ozone depletion. Part II details recent ozone loss over Antarctica with emphasis on satellite measurements. Part III explores the chemistry and meteorological phenomena associated with ozone loss. Lastly, Part IV presents chemical modeling efforts at the University of Cambridge. In addition to the various visualization media, certain terminology throughout the four sections is linked to an online glossary. Finally, a reference list [found under More Info on the main page] contains links to sites related to ozone measurement, general ozone information, environmental groups and campaigns, relevant institutions, and the Scientific Visualization Studio at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

278

Stratospheric Ozone, the Protector  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides an overview of the ozone layer, the layer of life-protecting ozone found at the top of the stratosphere that is critical to life on earth as we know it because it protects living organisms from ultraviolet (uv) radiation. This radiation is present in natural outdoor light and can be blocked or filtered by various substances like ozone. The site provides a brief history of the discovery of the ozone hole and presents scientific evidence that ozone is destroyed in the stratosphere. Diagrams illustrate how some human-released chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are speeding up the breakdown of ozone in the atmosphere and maps and graphs show the developing ozone hole. This site serves as a reference for and has links to three student activities.

279

Measurement of Ground Level Ozone at Different Locations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Ground level ozone is the most important index substance of photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is now observed in many urban and industrial centers around the world and it has become a common phenomenon in many large cities. Ozone is a most harmful pollutant for humans, in addition it plays an important role in damaging vegetation and materials. Therefore it becomes important to measure the ground level ozone at different locations especially in the center of cities. Approach: The ground level ozone concentration at different locations in Baghdad city was identified. Five different sites have been chosen to identify the ground level ozone concentration. Two sites were chosen as areas contained point source (power plant station in addition to high traffic load and the other three sites were chosen as areas containing heavy traffic only (line source. The measurement focuses on spring and fall because these periods display favorable meteorology to ozone formation. Results: During the research period the maximum values (peaks for ground level ozone concentration were observed in the fall: at Al-Zaâ??afarania area 101ppb as an average, at Al-Dora 87 ppb as an average (which represent the point sources and at line source areas 48 ppb as an average. In spring, the peaks of ozone concentration observed to be at the same height, about 50 ppb for all sites. Conclusion: The results show that the effect of power plant stations in forming ozone is larger than traffic load. The comparison between the ground level ozone concentrations that measured during the research period in spring and fall and the Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS shows that: (1 No exceeded levels were observed in spring for all sites. (2 In the fall, the AAQS for ozone was exceeded in Al-Zaâ??afarania area at 12: PM, 1: PM, 2: PM and 3: PM and in Al-Dora at 2: PM.

Yasmen A. Mustafa

2012-01-01

280

Aura Ozone Monitoring Garden Lithograph  

Science.gov (United States)

This lithograph describes where ozone is found, how it is formed, and the effects of ozone on biological processes. How and why NASA studies ozone is covered along with how individuals can monitor ground level (tropospheric) ozone by starting their own ozone-monitoring garden.

2006-06-23

281

In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h.

Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

2002-01-01

282

Ozone chemistry in aqueous solution : ozone decomposition and stabilisation  

OpenAIRE

Ozone is used in many applications in the industry as an oxidising agent for example for bleaching and sterilisation. The decomposition of ozone in aqueous solutions is complex, and is affected by many properties such as, pH, temperature and substances present in the water. Additives can either accelerate the decomposition rate of ozone or have a stabilising effect of the ozone decay. By controlling the decomposition of ozone it is possible to increase the oxidative capacity of ozone. In this...

Eriksson, Margareta

2005-01-01

283

INJURY RESPONSE OF 'PHASEOLUS VULGARIS' TO OZONE FLUX DENSITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper by Amiro et al. (1984) provides significant insight concerning the effect of ozone on plants. Their data clearly distinguish between the terms air pollutant exposure (ambient concentration averaged over time) and air pollutant flux density (amount of pollutant absorbed ...

284

YIELD RESPONSE OF HEAD LETTUCE ('LACTUCA SATIVA' L.) TO OZONE  

Science.gov (United States)

Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Empire') was grown in the field and exposed in open-top chambers to proportional increments of ozone (O3) from full charcoal filtration (CF) to twice ambient O3 concentrations(NF x 2.0). Severe foliar injury developed on young plants exposed to...

285

Nonspecific bronchial responsiveness assessed in vitro following acute inhalation exposure to ozone and ozone/sulfuric acid mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution may play some role in the recent increase in severity and prevalence of asthma, but the specific chemical components with the ambient pollutant mix that may be responsible have not been delineated. Since ambient exposures involve mixtures, it is essential to examine airway responses to realistic pollutant mixtures. This study examined the ability of single (3-h) inhalation exposures to ozone and to mixtures of ozone plus sulfuric acid to induce nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy rabbits. Airway responsiveness was assessed using an in vitro assay involving administration of increasing doses of acetylcholine to bronchial rings obtained from animals exposed to 0.1-0.6 ppm ozone or to mixtures of ozone and 50-125 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid aerosol; results were compared to those reported previously for sulfuric acid alone. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to ozone was noted following exposure at all concentrations, but the combination of pollutants results in antagonism. The results support the potential for ozone to induce airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy animals and suggest that interaction with sulfuric acid may reduce the effectiveness of both pollutants. PMID:7729372

el-Fawal, H A; McGovern, T; Schlesinger, R B

1995-01-01

286

The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

287

Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive) and 'R123' (O3-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O3) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R10) growth phases. Results at V4 indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R10, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V4 phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O33. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O3

288

COTTON YIELD RESPONSES TO OZONE AS MEDIATED BY SOIL MOISTURE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. 'SJ-2'), grown in open-top chambers in the Central Valley of California, was exposed to 6 ozone (O3) treatments ranging from charcoal-filtered (CF) to ambient plus 0.10 ppm O3 (1981) or twice ambient O3 concentrations (1982) for the entire growin...

289

Ozone carcinogenesis in vitro and its co-carcinogenesis with radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone (O/sub 3/), a reactive species of oxygen, is an important natural constituent of the atmosphere. Background levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere may range up to 0.1 ppm and are modified by geographic elevation, solar radiation and climatic conditions. Since some ozone effects are radiomimetic, its actions may be enhanced in the presence of ionizing radiation from background and/or manmade sources. While stratospheric ozone spares the earth from excess solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, high levels of ozone in the environment are toxic and present a health hazard to man. Excess environmental exposure to ozone can result from a variety of sources. Ozone is a key component in oxidant smog and in the vicinity of high electric voltage equipment when in operation. Ozone is widely used as a disinfectant for air and water, in bleaches, waxes, textiles, oils. and inorganic synthesis. Enhanced levels of ozone are found in planes flying at high altitudes. Because of the toxic nature of ozone and its potential hazard to man, its levels in the environment are subject to government regulation. The current standard is set at an hourly average of 235 ?g/m/sup 3/ (0.12 ppm) not to be exceeded more than once per year. Urban areas with high levels of photochemical smog (e.g. Southern California) may experience high ambient ozone levels which can reach 0.5 ppm

290

Ozone Trends Across the United States over a Period of Decreasing NOx and VOC Emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we evaluate ambient ozone trends at urban, suburban, and rural monitoring sites across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions (1998-2013). We find that decreasing ozone trends generally occur in the summer, in less urbanized areas, and at the upper end of the ozone distribution. Conversely, increasing ozone trends generally occur in the winter, in more urbanized areas, and at the lower end of the ozone distribution. The 95(th) percentile ozone concentrations decreased at urban, suburban, and rural monitors by 1-2 ppb/yr in the summer and 0.5-1 ppb/yr in the winter. In the summer, there are both increasing and decreasing trends in fifth percentile ozone concentrations of less than 0.5 ppb/yr at urban and suburban monitors, while fifth percentile ozone concentrations at rural monitors decreased by up to 1 ppb/yr. In the winter, fifth percentile ozone concentrations generally increased by 0.1-1 ppb/yr. These results demonstrate the large scale success of U.S. control strategies targeted at decreasing peak ozone concentrations. In addition, they indicate that as anthropogenic NOx emissions have decreased, the ozone distribution has been compressed, leading to less spatial and temporal variability. PMID:25517137

Simon, Heather; Reff, Adam; Wells, Benjamin; Xing, Jia; Frank, Neil

2015-01-01

291

Effect of temperature coupling on ozone depletion prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of chlorine perturbations on both the temperature and the ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been studied using a simplified radiative-photochemical model. The model solves the hydrostatic equation for total density in a self-consistent manner as the temperature is changed. Radiative coupling is found to have a significant effect on both the thermal structure and the ozone distribution, particularly in the 35-50-km region. By increasing the ClX mixing ratio by 5.0 ppbv, the temperature in this region is decreased by 5 to 10 K with a slight increase below 30 km. The local ozone depletion around 40 km due to added ClX is smaller compared with the estimate made by keeping the temperature fixed to the ambient condition. However, the integrated effect of radiative coupling is to increase the calculated column ozone depletion by 15% to 25% in this model.

Chandra, S.; Butler, D. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

1978-01-01

292

Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade  

OpenAIRE

A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de c...

Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

2011-01-01

293

Ozone exposure of field-grown winter wheat affects soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 2-year open-top chamber experiment with field-grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Astron) was conducted to examine the effects of ozone on plant growth and selected groups of soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere. From May through June in each year, plants were exposed to two levels of O3: non-filtered (NF) ambient air or NF+ 40 ppb O3 (NF+). During O3 exposure, soil sampling was performed at two dates according to different plant growth stages. O3 exposure reduced above- and below-ground plant biomass in the first year, but had little effect in the second year. The individual density of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites decreased significantly in the rhizosphere of plants exposed to NF+ in both years. Differences were highest around anthesis, i.e. when plants are physiologically most active. The results suggest that elevated O3 concentrations may influence the dynamic of decomposition processes and the turnover of nutrients. - Ozone reduced the individual densities of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites in the rhizosphere of winter wheat indirectly via the plant-soil-system.

294

Stratosphere and ozone layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human activities disturb natural balance of earth atmosphere, in short time in comparison with time of great climatic evolutions of the past. Rapid destruction of ozone layer, modifications of chemical balances in Arctic by similar processes to which observed in Antarctic, first experimental views of ozone decreasing in stratosphere and increasing in troposphere, are indications of human perturbation in ozone layer balance which protect us from solar radiation. 17 figs., 6 tabs., 27 refs

295

Ozone depletion interactive lab  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the process by which CFCs destroy ozone? This informational piece, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, explores the destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons. Here students view a four-step animation that shows how ultraviolet light breaks chlorine free from a CFC molecule. The chlorine then destroys an ozone molecule. Additional steps show how the process can be continuous. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

296

Simplified prediction of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product exposed to changing environmental temperatures in warm climates Predición simplificada del crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus en productos cárnicos cocidos expuestos a temperaturas ambientes cambiantes en climas cálidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, a simplified method is used to estimate the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product left for several hours at environmental temperatures (diurnal time in warm climates of different cities in Argentina. Hourly temperature data for a warm January (the hottest month of the year day, and literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth inoculated in a pasteurized meat product were used for calculations. As shown by results, if a cooked meat product is left exposed to environmental temperature at diurnal time, predictions made when using a constant temperature value (i.e. average daily may not be accurate. Growth estimations in contaminated food left under ambient conditions during diurnal time, should consider the changing environmental temperature for correct results.En este trabajo se utiliza un método simplificado para predecir el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus en un producto cárnico pasteurizado dejado por varias horas a temperatura ambiente diurna en zonas de clima cálido. En la predicción, se utilizaron datos de la temperatura horaria para un día caluroso típico de enero (mes más caliente del año en varias ciudades de la Argentina y datos de la literatura sobre tiempos de generación y tiempo lag de la bacteria inoculada en un producto cárnico pasteurizado. Los resultados indicaron que cuando el producto se deja a temperatura ambiente diurna durante varias horas, no se debe utilizar para la predicción un valor de temperatura promedio (ej.: temperatura media diaria, sino que hay que tener en cuenta la evolución de este parámetro a lo largo del período considerado.

R. Baeza

2007-12-01

297

Simplified prediction of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product exposed to changing environmental temperatures in warm climates / Predición simplificada del crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus en productos cárnicos cocidos expuestos a temperaturas ambientes cambiantes en climas cálidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se utiliza un método simplificado para predecir el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus en un producto cárnico pasteurizado dejado por varias horas a temperatura ambiente diurna en zonas de clima cálido. En la predicción, se utilizaron datos de la temperatura horaria para un día calu [...] roso típico de enero (mes más caliente del año) en varias ciudades de la Argentina y datos de la literatura sobre tiempos de generación y tiempo lag de la bacteria inoculada en un producto cárnico pasteurizado. Los resultados indicaron que cuando el producto se deja a temperatura ambiente diurna durante varias horas, no se debe utilizar para la predicción un valor de temperatura promedio (ej.: temperatura media diaria), sino que hay que tener en cuenta la evolución de este parámetro a lo largo del período considerado. Abstract in english In this work, a simplified method is used to estimate the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product left for several hours at environmental temperatures (diurnal time) in warm climates of different cities in Argentina. Hourly temperature data for a warm January (the hottest month [...] of the year) day, and literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth inoculated in a pasteurized meat product were used for calculations. As shown by results, if a cooked meat product is left exposed to environmental temperature at diurnal time, predictions made when using a constant temperature value (i.e. average daily) may not be accurate. Growth estimations in contaminated food left under ambient conditions during diurnal time, should consider the changing environmental temperature for correct results.

R., Baeza; C. E., Rössler; D. M., Mielnicki; M. C., Zamora; J., Chirife.

2007-12-01

298

The origin of ozone  

OpenAIRE

Highest atmospheric ozone production rates can be found at around 30 km in the tropical stratosphere, leading to ozone mixing ratios of about 10 ppmv. Those stratospheric air masses are then transported to extra-tropical latitudes via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. This is considered the main mechanism to generate mid- and high latitude ozone. By applying the climate-chemistry models E39/C and MAECHAM4/CHEM, this view is investigated in more detail. The origin of ozone in the troposphere and ...

Grewe, V.

2006-01-01

299

Desempenho e orientação do crescimento do pepino japonês em ambiente protegido / Performance and growth conduction of Japanese cucumber in protected environment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a produção de pepino japonês Tsuyataro, com diferentes métodos de orientação do crescimento das hastes, a partir do controle de brotações laterais das hastes e do número de hastes por planta, realizados através da poda. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no período de outubro a dezembro de 2010, [...] em ambiente protegido em Tangará da Serra-MT, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2x3. O primeiro fator foi constituído de desbrota, ou seja, realização ou não da retirada dos ramos laterais das hastes e o segundo fator foi constituído pelo controle do número de hastes por planta: uma, duas e três hastes/planta, em cinco repetições. Foram avaliadas as características número de frutos total e comercial; taxa de frutos comerciais, comprimento, diâmetro, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto, produtividade total e comercial de frutos por planta; e massa média dos frutos do pepino. A condução da haste principal sem a retirada dos ramos laterais foi o tratamento que apresentou superioridade com relação ao número de frutos total e comercial por planta (19,4 e 16,0), e também maior produtividade total e comercial de frutos (4.235,8 e 3.438,3 g/planta). Já a poda das brotações laterais promoveu aumento no comprimento, diâmetro e na massa média dos frutos do pepino de 24,5 para 25,1 cm; 3,4 para 3,5 cm e 212,1 para 228,3 g/fruto, respectivamente. Abstract in english The production of the Japanese cucumber Tsuyataro was evaluated using methods of stems growth conduction, controlling the lateral buds and number of stems per plant, through pruning. The research was carried out from October to December 2010, in a protected environment in Tangará da Serra, Mato Gros [...] so state, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design, with five replications, in a factorial scheme (2x3). The first factor was the pruning, i.e., removal or not of lateral stems and the second factor was constituted of the control of number of stems: one, two and three stems per plant, with five replications. We evaluated the following characteristics: total and marketable number of fruits, commercial fruits rate, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit length/diameter ratio, total and marketable yield of fruit per plant and fruit average weight. The treatment with conduction of the main stem without removal of lateral buds had better performance on total and marketable number of fruits per plant (19.4 and 16.0) and higher total and marketable yield of fruits (4,235.8 and 3,438.3 g per plant). The pruning of lateral buds provided increase in length, diameter and average mass of cucumber fruits of 24.5 to 25.1 cm; 3.4 to 3.5 cm and 212.1 to 228.3 g per fruit, respectively.

Adalberto, Santi; Walcylene LMP, Scaramuzza; Danilo MJ, Soares; José Fernando, Scaramuzza; Rivanildo, Dallacort; Willian, Krause; Rafael Cesar, Tieppo.

2013-12-01

300

Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and [...] ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h) and contact time (min) were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

F. A, Lage Filho; L. R. F, Carvalho; M. L. A, Lopes.

2011-09-01

301

Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional datay exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

302

Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition from ozone mode to nitrogen oxides mode occurs as the discharge power increases. One prominent example of plasma biotechnology is the use of plasma-derived reactive species as a novel disinfectant. Ambient-air plasma is an attractive means of disinfection because it is non-thermal, expends a small amount of power, and requires only air and electricity to operate. Both solid surfaces and liquid volumes can be effectively and efficiently decontaminated by the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that plasma generates. Dry surfaces are decontaminated most effectively by the plasma operating in NOx mode and less effectively in ozone mode, with the weakest antibacterial effects in the transition region, and neutral reactive species are more influential in surface disinfection than charged particles. Aqueous bacterial inactivation correlates well with ozone concentration, suggesting that ozone is the dominant species for bacterial inactivation under the condition of a low-power discharge. Alternatively, air plasma operating in the higher-power, nitrogen oxides-rich mode can create a persistently antibacterial solution. Finally, when near-UV (UVA) treatment follows plasma treatment of bacterial suspension, the antimicrobial effect exceeds the effect predicted from the two treatments alone, and addition of nitrite to aqueous solution, followed by photolysis of nitrite by UVA photons, is hypothesized as the primary mechanism of synergy. The results presented in this dissertation underscore the dynamic nature of air plasma chemistry and the importance of careful chemical characterization of plasma devices intended for biological applications. The complexity of atmospheric pressure plasma devices, and their sensitivity to subtle differences in design and operation, can lead to different results with different mechanisms.

Pavlovich, Matthew John

303

PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

304

Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (< 34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures. PMID:12713930

Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

2003-01-01

305

Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri  

Science.gov (United States)

Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

2014-09-01

306

EGG INCUBATION IN THE NOBLE CRAYFISH (ASTACUS ASTACUS L.): THE EFFECT OF CONTROLLED LABORATORY AND OUTDOOR AMBIENT CONDITION ON HATCHING SUCCESS, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF JUVENILES  

OpenAIRE

The incubation of eggs on pleopods of 13 female noble crayfish was controlled by means of water temperature after CUKERZIS et al. (1978). Out-door incubation of eggs on pleopods of 15 females was monitored at ambient temperature in an earthen storage pond. With controlled incubation of eggs, the duration of incubation period was shortened and earlier hatching resulted in so-called advanced juveniles. They hatched 88 days earlier than those normally hatched during out-door egg incubation. Thes...

Policar, T.; Simon, V.; Koza?k, P.

2004-01-01

307

Crescimento e produção do tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido Tomato plant growth and fruit yield under field and protected conditions  

OpenAIRE

Foram realizados dois experimentos, na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, objetivando caracterizar o crescimento e a produção de frutos pelo tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido. O primeiro, com a cultivar Santa Clara, cultivada a campo no sistema de cerca cruzada e sete cachos. O segundo, em estufa plástica, com o híbrido EF-50, conduzidas verticalmente e mantendo-se oito cachos. Ambos os experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetiç?...

Jamil Abdalla Fayad; Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes; Antônio Américo Cardoso; Fernando Luiz Finger; Francisco Affonso Ferreira

2001-01-01

308

Interação genótipo × ambiente e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos de características ponderais de bovinos Tabapuã Genotype by environment interaction and genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Tabapuã cattle  

OpenAIRE

Dados de pesos aos 205 (P205) e 365 (P365) dias de idade, de 28.946 animais Tabapuã, provenientes de 152 fazendas dos diversos estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 1995, foram utilizados nesta análise. Foram avaliadas as interações genótipo-ambiente, bem como estimadas herdabilidades direta e materna pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita em modelo estatístico, que incluiu efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, idade da vaca ao parto (covariável) e efeitos ale...

Fridrich, A. B.; Silva, M. A.; Fridrich, D.; Corre?a, G. S. S.; Silva, L. O. C.; Sakaguti, E. S.; Ferreira, I. C.; Valente, B. D.

2005-01-01

309

Observing trends in total ozone and extreme ozone events  

Science.gov (United States)

The ozone layer in the stratosphere has been recovering since the 1989 Montreal Protocol reduced the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Fitzka et al. observed trends in total ozone levels and the vertical distribution of ozone at Hoher Sonnblick, a mountain in Austria, from 1994 to 2011.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-05-01

310

Crops' responses to ozone in Mediterranean environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mediterranean environment, and most of the Italian peninsula, presents some peculiarities in terms of crop response to O3 since most physiological mechanisms activated upon O3 exposure, such as stomatal closure, often overlap and interact with those that underlie plant adaptation to drought and hyperosmotic stress, which are typical of these environments. OTC and EDU experiments have demonstrated that O3 causes strong yield losses when crops are grown without water limitations. However, exposure to water or saline stress significantly reduced O3 effects on crop yield. In this review, we present the methodological approaches that have been used to study plant-ozone interactions in Italy as well as biochemical, physiological and agronomic responses for representative cropping systems of the Mediterranean climate. - Is the 22% yield loss due to ambient ozone in non-limiting water conditions a realistic estimate for moderately stressed crops, typical of most Mediterranean regions?

311

Surface Ozone in Kiev  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of total ozone over Kiev and its concentration changes with height in the troposphere has been made on the base of ground-based observations with the infrared Fourier-spectrometer in the Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (MAO NASU) as part of ESA-NIVR-KNMI project no 2907 "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and atmospheric profiles "(2005-2008) [1,2,4]. Ground-level ozone in Kiev for an episode of its high concentrations in August 2000 was also simulated with the model of urban air pollution UAM-V [5,6]. In 2008 the satellite data Aura-OMI on profiles of ozone in the atmosphere OMO3PR became available (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Aura/data-holdings/OMI/ omo3pr_v003.shtml). They include ozone content in the lower layer of the atmosphere, beginning from 2005, which can be used to evaluate the ground-level ozone in all cities of Ukraine. The comparison of the data of ozone air pollution in Kiev (ozone - the pollutant of the first class of danger) and medical statistics data of of respiratory system (RS) diseases of the city population was carried out with the package "Statistica". A regression analysis, prognostic regression modelling, and retrospective prognosis of the epidemiological situation with respect to RS pathologies in Kiev in 2000-2006 were performed.

Shavrina, A. V.; Mikulskaya, I. A.; Kiforenko, S. I.; Blum, O. B.; Sheminova, V. A.; Veles, A. A.

312

Yield and nutritive quality of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) exposed to ground-level ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground-level ozone decreased the nutritive quality of select warm-season forages for ruminant herbivores. - Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata cv. Interstate 76) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium cv. Aldous) were raised from seed in a glasshouse, transplanted into 5.7-l pots and placed into open-top chambers (OTC) on 6 June 1999. Following a 7-day adjustment period, each of six OTCs (duplicate OTCs per treatment) was ventilated with either air that had been carbon-filtered (CF) to remove ambient ozone (O3); non-filtered (NF), representative of ambient air; or enriched to twice-ambient O3 concentration (2X). Primary-growth forage was harvested on days 7, 32, 46, 59 and 72 following the start of fumigation, and regrowth forage from the first primary-growth harvest was harvested on days 36, 54 and 72 following the start of fumigation. Dry matter (DM) yield of either forage species did not differ among treatments except in the final regrowth period when yield of sericea lespedeza was greater for the NF than 2X O3 treatment. In vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and concentrations of crude protein (CP), soluble phenolics (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) in primary-growth sericea lespedeza did not differ between treatments, but NF primary-growth forage had higher concentration of protein-precipitating tannins (PPT) than did 2X primary-growth forage. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in NF and 2X than in CF primary-growth sericea lespedeza. Similarly, concentrations of NDF and ADL were higher, and IVDMD was lower for NF and 2X than for CF regrowth sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of ADF and ADL were lower, whereas IVDMD, in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) and concentrations of CP and SP were greater, in CF than in NF and 2X primary-growth little bluestem. Percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD and concentrations of CP and SP in NF primary-growth little bluestem were greater than those in forage exposed to 2X O3 treatment. No significant differences were observed among treatments in percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD, or concentrations of cell wall constituents or SP in little bluestem regrowth. Nutritive quality of little bluestem was decreased by 3 levels can drive alterations in forage quality of select warm-season forages sufficient to have nutritional and economic implications for their utilization by ruminant herbivores

313

Aspects of UV-absorption spectroscopy on ozone in effluents of plasma jets operated in air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold plasmas operating under atmospheric conditions have been in the focus of scientific attention not only due to their use in plasma medicine. Many of these plasma sources most notably produce ozone. This work presents a detailed ozone analysis on an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet operated in ambient air using ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. A special focus is placed on the question whether other species are involved, or is the absorption signal due to ozone. For this, the wavelength dependence of the optical depth was measured and compared with the theoretical optical depth including the cross section of ozone. The results show that in the case of a MHz frequency driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet the absorption signal in the UV range is solely due to ozone. Furthermore, this finding is verified by spectroscopic measurements in the IR spectral range. Additional space-resolved ozone density measurements are performed in the effluent of this jet with small oxygen admixtures by means of UV absorption spectroscopy. A funnel-shaped spatial ozone profile is found for all investigated oxygen admixtures. The highest ozone density develops on the effluent axis and in close vicinity to the jet nozzle. The maximal detected value is 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 for an oxygen admixture of 1%. In order to compare the results with non-space-resolved ozone detection methods the ozone net production rate is calculated.culated.

314

Light environment alters ozone uptake per net photosynthetic rate in black cherry trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foliar ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were compared within a deciduous forest and adjacent openings in north-central Pennsylvania during one growing season. Study trees included open-grown seedlings and saplings, forest understory seedlings and saplings, and sunlit and shaded portions of mature canopy tree crowns. Instantaneous ozone uptake rates were highest in high-light environments primarily because of higher stomatal conductances. Low ozone uptake rates of seedlings and saplings in the forest understory could be attributed partially to lower average ambient ozone concentrations compared to the canopy and open environments. Among the tree size and light combinations tested, ozone uptake rates were highest in open-grown seedlings and lowest in forest-grown seedlings. Despite lower ozone uptake rates of foliage in shaded environments, ozone uptake per net photosynthesis of foliage in shaded environments was significantly higher than that of foliage in sunlit environments because of weaker coupling between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in shaded environments. The potential for greater ozone injury in shaded environments as a result of greater ozone uptake per net photosynthesis is consistent with previous reports of greater ozone injury in shaded foliage than in sunlit foliage. PMID:14871717

Fredericksen, T S; Kolb, T E; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Joyce, B J; Savage, J E

1996-05-01

315

Estimation of individual ozone exposures using microenvironment measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimates of an individual's ozone exposure were generated for a panel of 51 asthmatic study subjects using ambient ozone concentrations, the relationships observed between the ambient concentrations and the concentrations found in each of two broad classes of environments and knowledge of the individual's movement through these locations. These estimates are compared to actual ozone concentrations observed during personal monitoring of 30 of the individuals. Earlier comparisons disclosed that the estimated hourly means were in much better agreement with the observed hourly means than were the ambient hourly values. The hourly maxima observed in the personal monitoring for each of three environments are compared to the exposure estimates. The ability of the exposure model to estimate average hourly exposures for individuals has been previously tested. In the present work, the ability of the exposure model to estimate peak exposures within an hour is evaluated, using measurements of ozone concentration obtained at 5-minute intervals during the personal monitoring program as a standard. One-hour exposure estimates based on fixed-site measurements are evaluated as well. Sources of error within the data set are identified but appear to not seriously affect the results. The exposure model produces one-hour estimates which are 7-12 ppb below the observed personal exposures.

Contant, C.F.; Gehan, B.M.; Stock, T.H.; Holguin, A.H.; Buffler, P.A.

1986-01-01

316

Visible foliar injury and infrared imaging show that daylength affects short-term recovery after ozone stress in Trifolium subterraneum  

OpenAIRE

Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been investigated. Young Trifolium subterraneum plants kept in environmentally controlled growth rooms under long day (10?h bright light, 14?...

Vollsnes, Ane V.; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Otterholt, Eli; Kvaal, Knut; Oxaal, Unni; Futsaether, Cecilia M.

2009-01-01

317

Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles  

OpenAIRE

One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financ...

Bulent Uysal

2014-01-01

318

Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 ?g/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 ?g of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

Fontes Belchor

2012-12-01

319

Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP) and Shanghai (YRD). Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. High ozone concentrations (>80 ppbv) of long duration (>6h) were frequently encountered in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while the occurrence of high ozone concentrations lasted for a shorter period (usually Tianjin. Model simulations based on measurements also reveal similar dependence of ozone production rates upon NMHC reactivity. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chunsheng

2013-04-01

320

OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS  

OpenAIRE

The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone abs...

LJILJANA TAKI?; VLADA VELJKOVI?; SRDJAN PEJANOVI?

2008-01-01

321

Development of rugged ozone instrumentation and its application to Antarctic tropospheric ozone depletion events  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs) are naturally occurring phenomena which episodically deplete tropospheric ozone in the polar regions each spring. These events are thought to be caused by catalytic halogen chemistry; however, the exact mechanism and site of these reactions are uncertain. Measurements taken during the 2004-2007 Antarctic spring seasons examined both the activation and transport of halogens and the depletion of ozone. Frost flowers were previously thought to be a site for the activation of bromine; however, the elevated pH of frost flowers sampled in McMurdo Sound indicate that bromine activation is unlikely to occur. Yet the composition of frost flowers makes them a likely source of particulate bromine. Analysis of the chemical composition of surface snow from the Ross Island areas shows substantial and variable halogen content that suggests aerosol deposition of halogens, as well as gas-phase emission of bromine. Snow also provides an acidic environment that is much more conducive to the activation of bromine than frost flowers. Furthermore, measurements of ozone fluxes over the Ross Ice Shelf indicate that ozone is destroyed on or near the snow pack. It is expected that this depletion is related to the emission of reactive bromine from the snow pack. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions, bulk composition, and ozone mixing ratios were made in the spring of 2007. These measurements show a clear correlation between depleted ozone and enhanced fine particulates (diameter ozone-depleted air and aerosols having a common source in areas closer to the ice edge. It is also possible that the oxidation of biogenic sulfates may be responsible for the activation of bromine and the nucleation and growth of fine sulfate aerosols. The lack of instrumentation suited for use in the Antarctic has been one of the limiting factors in this research. A newly developed ultraviolet ozone analyzer based on solid-state optoelectronics with applications to Antarctic ozone monitoring is described. This novel instrument should allow future field studies at remote locations much closer to the suspected site of halogen activation and ozone depletion than previous measurements.

Kalnajs, Lars Eriks

322

Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

2010-05-15

323

Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O3 on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O3, 100 ppb O3, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O3, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O3 exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O3, and that not only O3, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O3 may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

324

Artificial ozone holes  

CERN Document Server

This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

Dolya, S N

2014-01-01

325

Graphing Stratospheric Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. This lesson uses NASA images of Antarctic ozone (from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, or TOMS) to motivate a how-to graphing lesson followed by more sophisticated examples of graphing using images from the Neumayer Antarctic Station. Links are provided for investigating current knowledge of the ozone layer, and the impact of human activity on this vital part of the Earth system.

Fetter, Neil

326

Heterogeneous ozonation of suspended malathion and chlorpyrifos particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heterogeneous ozonation of suspended malathion and chlorpyrifos particles are studied in real-time with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The pesticide particles with the diameter of hundreds of nanometers are generated by the homogeneous nucleation method using azelaic acid as nucleus. The reactions are carried out in an aerosol reaction chamber under ambient pressure (1 atm) and room temperature (298 K), respectively. The time-of-flight mass spectra of the solid-state ozonation products of malathion and chlorpyrifos are obtained. The assignments of the mass spectra reveal that the major ozonation products of malathion particles are s-(1,2-diethoxycarbonyl)ethyl-O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate (malaoxon), 2-mercapto-succinic acid diethylester, 1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl-dimethoxyphosphinyldisulfide and bis(1,2-bis-ethoxycarbonyl-ethyl)disulfide. The experimental results reveal that water vapor can enhance the formation of malaoxon, 2-mercapto-succinic acid diethylester and bis(1,2-bis-ethoxycarbonyl-ethyl)disulfide. In the case of chlorpyrifos, the sole ozonation product observed is 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-diethylphosphate (chlorpyrifos oxon). The pathways of heterogeneous ozonation of malathion and chlorpyrifos particles are proposed. The atmospheric lifetimes of malathion and chlorpyrifos particles towards ozone reaction are estimated based on the time-dependent mass spectrometric signals obtained. PMID:20176393

Meng, Junwang; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Xinyu; Shu, Jinian

2010-04-01

327

The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution. PMID:22916444

Olaguer, Eduardo P

2012-08-01

328

The Effect of Air Pollution on Ozone Layer Thickness in Troposphere over the State of Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Troposphere ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to Ultra Violet (UV radiation. United States environmental protection agency and European community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal protocol in 1987. Problem statement: This research deled with data analysis of ozone layer thickness obtained from Abu-Dhabi station and detailed measurement of air pollution levels in Kuwait. Approach: The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been correlated with the measured pollution levels in the State of Kuwait. The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade had been evaluated. Other factor that strongly affects the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere is local pollution levels of primary pollutants such as total hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides. Results: The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels presented in detail reflecting negative relation of both non-methane hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations in ambient air. Conclusion: Ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been measured for five years (1999-2004 reflecting minimum thickness in the month of December and maximum in the month of June. The ozone thickness related to the ground level concentration of non-methane hydrocarbon and can be used as an indicator of the health of ozone layer thickness in the stratosphere.

H. O. Al Jeran

2009-01-01

329

Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

Torsethaugen, Gro

1998-09-01

330

Consequences of ozone depletion for terrestrial plant productivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many plants are greatly affected by increases in UV-B radiation but there is tremendous variability in their sensitivity. Plants have evolved natural adaptations such as anatomical, morphological and biochemical features which protect them from UV-B radiation. The extent of these natural adaptations may be related to the geographic origin of the species. For example, species originating from areas receiving high ambient levels of UV-B radiation were found to be highly resistant to UV-B radiation. In sensitive species, photosynthetic activity may be reduced by direct effects on photosynthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways or by indirect effects on photosynthetic pigments or stomatal function. The fluence response of these changes has yet to be clearly demonstrated in most cases. These biochemical and physiological responses may result in reduced growth (plant height, dry weight, leaf area, etc.) photosynthetic activity and flowering. Approximately half of the species tested appear sensitive and sensitivity also differs greatly among cultivars of the same species. Increases in UV-B radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion could alter productivity in some species, as shown in field studies with soybean and loblolly pine. However, in order to assess the magnitude of such changes, we must further understand the mechanisms of UV-B protection in tolerant species and damage in sensitive species as well as the potential indirect effects such as changes in competindirect effects such as changes in competitive interactions or ecosystem processes

331

Ifluence of outer electrode material on ozone production in coaxial negative corona discharge fed by oxygen  

Science.gov (United States)

The "electric odour", observed by Van Marum when oxygen was passing trough electric spark in 1785, has been later (1839), identified by Ch. F. Schonbeim as a new chemical compound named ozone (Stolarski 1999). Almost from those times ozone is widely used chemical compound. The effect of outer electrode material on the ozone production in negative corona discharge have been studied. Two electrodes with the same dimensions were used in the experiment. One was made of stainless steel other one of brass. First the outer electrode was mechanically cleaned to remove the layer of oxides. The reactor have been filled by pure oxygen and closed. Then the measurement (1 hour measurement of discharge current at the constant voltage and time dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor) was repeated 5 times without cleaning the surface to see the ageing effects. Especially the influence of electrode oxidation on ozone concentration was studied. The experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The ozone concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy method directly in the discharge reactor. As one can expect the brass surface was oxidizing faster. After five measurements the electrode surface was covered by layer of greenish oxides. On the other hand the steel electrode surface had no visible oxides layer. The oxidation of the outer electrode had little systematic effect on the ozone concentration but in case of brass electrode the results were scattered in the range from 8000 ppm to 15000 ppm of ozone. It seems that the more oxides are created on the surface the less ozone is produced or the faster the ozone decomposition processes are (see Fig. 1). On the other hand in case of stainless steel electrode the ozone concentrations were comparable in all 5 measurements. Overall ozone concentration was higher in steel electrode. Figure 1: Time dependence of ozone concentration.

Orszagh, J.; Skalny, J. D.; Mason, N. J.

2008-07-01

332

Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O3) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O3, i.e. O3 levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O3 and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. - Northern birches are responsive to ambient ozone levels.

333

Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs tree stomatal response to carbon dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With rising concentrations of both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3), it is important to better understand the interacting effects of these two trace gases on plant physiology affecting land-atmosphere gas exchange. We investigated the effect of growth under elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination, on the primary short-term stomatal response to CO2 concentration in paper birch at the Aspen FACE experiment. Leaves from trees grown in elevated CO2 and/or O3 exhibited weaker short-term responses of stomatal conductance to both an increase and a decrease in CO2 concentration from current ambient level. The impairement of the stomatal CO2 response by O3 most likely developed progressively over the growing season as assessed by sap flux measurements. Our results suggest that expectations of plant water-savings and reduced stomatal air pollution uptake under rising atmospheric CO2 may not hold for northern hardwood forests under concurrently rising tropospheric O3. - Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs stomatal CO2 responsiveness of birch in the Aspen FACE experiment.

334

Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

Bergweiler, C.

2008-12-01

335

Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

2014-11-01

336

Ozonation of Emergent Contaminants  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH SUMMARY:In this work, the ozonation of emergent contaminants represented by pharmaceuticals (Sulfamethoxazole and Bezafibrate) and surfactants (Quaternary Ammonium Compounds) was studied. Results in terms of target compound degradation and mineralization along with the biodegradability and toxicity assessment of formed intermediates are presented. Moreover, a previous study about the suitability of the combination ozonation-Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR), using the model comp...

Falca?o Dantas, Renato

2007-01-01

337

Fields of ozone applications  

OpenAIRE

The powerful oxidative action of ozone provides basis for development of novel or improved technologies which are widely used in ecology and industry. Special attention is paid to purification of waste gases, water, and soils. The disinfection and cleaning of drinking and process water are considered in detail. Applications of ozone in chemical, pharmaceutical and perfume industries, cosmetics, cellulose, paper and sugar industries, flotation, microelectronics, and man...

Rakovsky, Slavcho; Anachkov, Metody; Zaikov, Gennady

2009-01-01

338

Stratospheric ozone depletion  

OpenAIRE

Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50?km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the...

Rowland, F. Sherwood

2006-01-01

339

Examining acute health outcomes due to ozone exposure and their subsequent relationship to chronic disease outcomes.  

OpenAIRE

Current evidence indicates that individuals exposed to short term elevations in ambient ozone may experience both upper and lower respiratory effects. Some respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes are mild and reversible in nature, while others involve more severe outcomes, including hospital admissions and emergency room visits. However, many questions remain about the effects of acute ozone exposure and the implications of this exposure for chronic disease outcomes. For example, the ide...

Ostro, B. D.

1993-01-01

340

Plant ozone injury symptoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

1973-01-01

341

The ozone backlash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

342

Ozone depletion calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

343

Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone is the most important regional-scale air pollutant causing risks for vegetation and human health in many parts of the world. Ozone impacts on yield and quality of crops and pastures depend on precursor emissions, atmospheric transport and leaf uptake and on the plant’s biochemical defence capacity, all of which are influenced by changing climatic conditions, increasing atmospheric CO2 and altered emission patterns. In this article, recent findings about ozone effects under current conditions and trends in regional ozone levels and in climatic factors affecting the plant’s sensitivity to ozone are reviewed in order to assess implications of these developments for future regional ozone risks. Based on pessimistic IPCC emission scenarios for many cropland regions elevated mean ozone levels in surface air are projected for 2050 and beyond as a result of both increasing emissions and positive effects of climate change on ozone formation and higher cumulative ozone exposure during an extended growing season resulting from increasing length and frequency of ozone episodes. At the same time, crop sensitivity may decline in areas where warming is accompanied by drying, such as southern and central Europe, in contrast to areas at higher latitudes where rapid warming is projected to occur in the absence of declining air and soil moisture. In regions with rapid industrialisation and population growth and with little regulatory action, ozone risks are projected to increase most dramatically, thus causing negative impacts major staple crops such as rice and wheat and, consequently, on food security. Crop improvement may be a way to increase crop cross-tolerance to co-occurring stresses from heat, drought and ozone. However, the review reveals that besides uncertainties in climate projections, parameters in models for ozone risk assessment are also uncertain and model improvements are necessary to better define specific targets for crop improvements, to identify regions most at risk from ozone in a future climate and to set robust effect-based ozone standards.

Fuhrer, Jürg

2009-02-01

344

Atmospheric emissions and economic growth. Environmental Kuznets Curve and Kyoto protocol; Emisiones atmosfericas y crecimiento economico en Espana. La Curve de Kuznets ambiental y el protocolo de Kyoto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the beginning of the 90s the analysis of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressures has been influenced by the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis or inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental pressure and per capita income. Following this hypothesis, once achieved certain income level, more economic growth is followed by environmental quality improvement. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the theories that support this hypothesis as well as the empirical evidence on this subject. Further on we analyse the relationship between per capita income and the main environmental pollutants for the case does not support the hypothesis. The empirical evidence shows that economic growth, by itself, does not entail a pollution reduction. (Author) 35 refs.

Roca Jusmet, J.; Padilla Rosa, E.

2004-07-01

345

Episodic ozone air quality in Jakarta in relation to meteorological conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface O 3 air quality in Jakarta, Indonesia, was analyzed using hourly monitoring data during January 2002-March 2004 from the five automatic monitoring stations with the aim to provide the first insight into the ozone formation and accumulation leading to the high ozone levels over the city. The city location near the equator with the intensive emission sources is of especial interest in this regard. The surface O 3 levels in Jakarta were high which frequently exceeded the hourly national ambient air quality standard (120 ppb), i.e. over 450 hourly measurements in 2002 and 2003 or 0.7% over 66,000 hourly ozone measurements at the five stations during 2002-2003. The monthly average of O 3 was maximum in October and minimum in February. Selected days of episodic high O 3 in April, May, and October, and low ozone days in February were comparatively analyzed in relation to local and synoptic meteorological conditions. The high ozone days were characterized by more intense solar radiation, higher temperature, and lighter surface wind which are favorable for photochemical production of O 3. Low pressure gradients on synoptic charts of the high ozone days linked to the low wind and more stagnant air that are favorable for ozone build-up over the city. Further studies, including photochemical modeling, are required to understand better the conditions leading to high ozone in the city in order to formulate the ozone management strategies.

Permadi, Didin Agustian; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

346

Enviropedia: Introduction to Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource describes the depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere, which filters out incoming radiation in the cell-damaging ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum. Other topics include a detailed description of the chemical interaction between chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and ozone and a list of other ozone depleting chemicals. Information is also available on the ozone layer, ozone holes above Antarctica and the Arctic, the polar vortex, methods of measuring and monitoring ozone depletion and efforts to reverse the problem, including the Montreal Protocol.

347

Photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. III. Effect of ozone on physiological activities in rice plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were made to determine the effect of photochemical oxidants on physiological activities of rice plants. Rice plants were fumigated with ozone at concentrations of 0.12-0.20 ppm for 2-3 hr to investigate acute injury and at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm for daily exposure from 3.0 leaf stage to assess the effect of ozone on growth. It was observed that malondialdehyde produced by disruption of the components of the membrane increased in the leaves exposed to ozone. Ozone reduced the RuBP-carboxylase activity in both young and old leaves 12-24 hr after fumigation. In the young leaves the activity of this enzyme recovered to some extent after 48 hr, but it did not show any recovery in the old leaves. On the other hand, ozone remarkably increased the peroxidase activity and slightly increased acid phosphatase in all leaves. Abnormally high ethylene evolution and oxygen uptake were detected in leaves soon after ozone fumigation. In general, high molecular protein and chlorophyll contents in the detached leaves decreased with incubation in dark, particularly in the old ones. These phenomena were more accelerated by ozone fumigation. Kinetin and benzimidazole showed significant effects on chlorophyll retention in ozone-exposed leaves. Reduction of plant growth and photosynthetic rate was recognized even in low concentration of ozone in daily exposure at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm. From these results it was postulated that ozone may cause the senescence of leaves in rice plants.

Nakamura, H.; Saka, H.

1978-01-01

348

Evidências de interação genótipo x ambiente sobre características de crescimento em bovinos de corte Evidences of genotype x environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre os pesos à desmama (PD e aos 12 meses de idade (P12, o ganho de peso diário da desmama aos 12 meses de idade (GDA e o desempenho com base em um índice (CPG de componentes principais envolvendo essas três características, em um rebanho da raça Canchim. O ambiente foi considerado a época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres do animal. Para avaliar a interação genótipo x ambiente, foram utilizadas duas metodologias: 1 - estimativas de parâmetros genéticos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas (REML, com análise bicaráter (mesma característica nas duas épocas, com o modelo estatístico incluindo os efeitos fixos de sexo, ano e mês de nascimento do animal e idade da vaca ao parto como covariável (linear e quadrático e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e do resíduo; e 2 - semelhante à metodologia 1, porém, no modelo estatístico, incluiu-se ou não o efeito aleatório não correlacionado de touro-época de nascimento, testando a diferença entre os dois modelos pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança. Pela Metodologia 1, as correlações genéticas obtidas para a mesma característica nas duas épocas de nascimento foram iguais a 0,87; 0,97; 0,91 e 0,88, para PD, P12, GDA e CPG, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram semelhantes para as duas épocas de nascimento, para todas as características estudadas. Pela metodologia 2, o efeito de touro-época de nascimento foi significativo para todas as características estudadas. Estes resultados evidenciam a existência de interação genótipo x época de nascimento para as características estudadas, sugerindo que as avaliações genéticas e a seleção dos animais desse rebanho devem considerar essa interação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction for body weight at weaning (WW and 12 months of age (W12, average daily gain from weaning to 12 months of age (ADG, and performance based on a principal components index (PC involving these three traits, in a Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu herd. The environment was the season (semester of birth, and two methods were used to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction: Method 1 - genetic parameters estimated by the derivative free maximum likelihood method (REML, using two-trait analyses (the same trait in the two seasons, and a model that included the effects of year and month of birth, sex and age of cow as a covariate (linear and quadratic effects, and the random effect of animal; and Method 2 - same methodology as Method 1, but with two statistical models, with or without the uncorrelated random effect of sire - season of birth, testing the difference between the two models using the likelyhood ratio test. By Method 1, the genetic correlations for the same trait in the two environments (seasons were equal to 0.87, 0.97, 0.91 and 0.88 for WW, W12, ADG and PC, respectively. The heritability estimates were very similar for both environments, for all traits studied. By Method 2, the sire-season of birth effect was significant for all traits studied. These results show evidence of genotype x season of birth interaction for the traits studied, suggesting that, in this herd, genetic evaluation and selection should take this interaction into account.

Maurício Mello de Alencar

2005-04-01

349

Investigating Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Depletion Through a Flowing Chemical Reaction Method of Halogen Free Radical Measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic tropospheric halogen chemistry has been investigated through the measurement of halogen free radicals, ozone, and gaseous elemental mercury in the lower Arctic troposphere during spring 2008 in a unique sea ice surface environment onboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. Low-level ozone depletion events were observed beginning in early March, with more extensive events occurring later in the month. Bromine monoxide measurements were conducted using a new, flowing chemical reaction method in addition to established DOAS techniques, and was observed with good agreement at concentrations approaching 40 ppt during periods of significant ozone and mercury depletion. Air mass history was observed for the periods leading to depletion, suggesting a dependence on sea ice contact and ambient temperatures below -22 °C as necessary elements for the onset of halogen-induced tropospheric ozone depletion. Here we discuss our data further with the aim of better understanding how ozone depletion events are triggered.

Tackett, P. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Steffen, A.

2008-12-01

350

Potential confounding of particulate mater on the short-term association between ozone and mortality in multi-site time series studies  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: A critical question regarding the association between short-term exposure to ozone and mortality is the extent to which this relationship is confounded by ambient exposure to particles....

351

Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications  

OpenAIRE

Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations. Rate constant...

Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

2007-01-01

352

Ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument  

OpenAIRE

Ozone profiles from the surface to about 60 km are retrieved from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ultraviolet radiances using the optimal estimation technique. OMI provides daily ozone profiles for the entire sunlit portion of the earth at a horizontal resolution of 13 km×48 km for the nadir position. The retrieved profiles have sufficient accuracy in the troposphere to see ozone perturbations caused by convection, biomass burning and anthropogenic pollution, and to track their sp...

Liu, X.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.

2009-01-01

353

Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts - A case-crossover analysis at individual level  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tra...

Schwartz Joel; Melly Steve; Ren Cizao

2010-01-01

354

CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR  

Science.gov (United States)

This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

355

Children's Models of the Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The views of 40 primary students on ozone and its depletion were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The data analysis resulted in the formation of a limited number of models concerning the distribution and role of ozone in the atmosphere, the depletion process, and the consequences of ozone depletion. Identifies five target…

Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis

1996-01-01

356

Impact of ozone on the water relations of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)  

OpenAIRE

During the field seasons 1993 and 1994, five-year-old field-grown ash trees as well as potted two-year-old saplings and one-year-old seedlings of ash (Fraxinu. g exccl. 5ior L. ) were exposed to ozone episodes in open-top chambers. The plants received either charcoal-filtered air (CF) or charcoal-filtered air to which 150 ppb of ozone were added (CF+03). Plants in unchambered plots, receiving ambient air (Ambient), were included into the investigation for comparison. Half of the two-year-old ...

Reiner, Susann

1996-01-01

357

Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) / The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) in natural habitat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W) in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The anima [...] ls were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W). The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of the crab were registered. And after that, the animals were returned to the stream. In the statistical analysis von Bertalanffy's model was used. The growth curves in length (mm) of males and females are described, respectively, by the following equations: L1 = 17.39 [1 - e -0041(t + 3913)] and L1 = 19.12 [1 - e -0.0033 (t + 50.38)]. The equations that describe the growth in weight (g) of males and females, respectively, are: Wt = 2.48 [1 - e -0.0041(t + 3913)]3.04 and Wt - 3.38 [1 - e - 0033(t + 50.38)]3.05 Among 36,5% males had larger left chelae and 52% of females had chelae of the same size.

Alessandra Angélica de Pádua, Bueno; Georgina, Bond-Buckup; Ludwig, Buckup.

2000-03-01

358

EFFECT OF IN VIVO OZONE EXPOSURE TO DORSET SHEEP, AN ANIMAL MODEL WITH LOW LEVELS OF ERYTHROCYTE GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Female Dorset sheep were exposed in vivo to ambient ozone levels of 0.12 ppm, 0.25 ppm, 0.50 ppm, 0.70 ppm for 2.75 hours and the effects of this exposure upon erythrocytes were studied. Ozone exposure induced biochemical evidence of oxidant stress as indicated by decreases in re...

359

Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality in India - A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air pollution is a serious problem all over the world which causes terrific loss to human health and other living being. Sulphur Dioxide(SO2,Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2,Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10, Ozone(O3, Lead (Pb, Carbon Monoxide(CO, Benzene(C6H6 and Nickel(Ni are some of the parameters which have significant impact on environmental pollution. Purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the monitoring of ambient air pollution in India and compare the same with Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards-2009 (Indian NAAQS-2009.

Devendra Dohare*

2014-12-01

360

Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses  

OpenAIRE

Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone...

Knudsen, B. M.; Andersen, S. B.; Christiansen, B.; Larsen, N.; Rex, M.; Harris, N. R. P.; Naujokat, B.

2004-01-01

361

Interação genótipo × ambiente e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos de características ponderais de bovinos Tabapuã / Genotype by environment interaction and genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Tabapuã cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dados de pesos aos 205 (P205) e 365 (P365) dias de idade, de 28.946 animais Tabapuã, provenientes de 152 fazendas dos diversos estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 1995, foram utilizados nesta análise. Foram avaliadas as interações genótipo-ambiente, bem como estimadas herdabilidades d [...] ireta e materna pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita em modelo estatístico, que incluiu efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, idade da vaca ao parto (covariável) e efeitos aleatórios genéticos direto e materno. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e materna para P205 nas regiões Sul (R1), Sudeste (R2), Centro-Oeste (R3) e Nordeste (R4) foram: 0,02 e 0,31 (R1), 0,17 e 0,19 (R2), 0,20 e 0,09 (R3) e 0,06 e 0,16 (R4). Para P365, foram 0,05 e 0,03 (R1), 0,20 e 0,03 (R2), 0,51 e 0,62 (R3) e 0,15 e 0,05 (R4). As correlações genéticas encontradas para as características P205 e P365, ambas consideradas características distintas nas regiões R1, R2, R3 e R4, foram: 1,00 e 0,99, 0,84 e 0,99, -0,86 e -0,73, 0,98 e 0,93, 0,51 e 0,45, 1,00 e 0,12 para R1/R2, R1/R3, R1/R4, R2/R3, R2/R4 e R3/R4, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam que, na desmama (P205), o efeito da interação genótipo x ambiente foi observado somente nas combinações que envolveram a região Nordeste (R4) e as regiões Sul (R1) e Sudeste (R2). Para pesos pós-desmama (P365), o efeito dessa interação foi evidenciado em todas as combinações que incluíram a região Nordeste. Abstract in english Body weight records at 205 (205BW) and 365 (365BW) days of age of 28,946 Tabapuã animals born during the 1976-1995 period from 152 Tabapuã herds of several states of Brazil, were used to evaluate genotype by environment interactions and to estimate genetic and maternal heritability by restricted max [...] imum likelihood methodology. The statistical model included the fixed effects of contemporary group and age of cow (covariate), and the random additive genetic and maternal effects. Maternal and genetic heritability estimates for BW205 considered as different traits in each of the South (R1), Southeast (R2), Central West (R3), Northeast (R4) regions were .02 and .31, .17 and .19, .20 and .09 and .06 and .16, respectively, and for BW365 they were .05 and .03 (R1), .20 and .03 (R2), .51 and .62 (R3) and .15 and .05 (R4). The genetic correlation for 205BW and 365BW both considered as different traits in each of the South (R1), Southeast (R2), Central West (R3), Northeast (R4) regions were, respectively, 1.00 and .99, .84 and .99, -.86 and -.73, .98 and .93, .51 and .45, 1.00 and .12 for BW205 and BW365 in R1/R2, R1/R3, R1/R4, R2/R3, R2/R4 e R3/R4, respectively, indicating a significant genotype by environment interaction for 205BW only for the combination between Northeast and the South and Southeast regions. For the 365BW there was a significant genotype by environment interaction for all combinations involving the Northeast region.

A.B., Fridrich; M.A., Silva; D., Fridrich; G.S.S., Corrêa; L.O.C., Silva; E.S., Sakaguti; I.C., Ferreira; B.D., Valente.

2005-10-01

362

Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin-secreting hemibiotrophic spot blotch fungus increased compared to ambient conditions, implying that climate-induced changes in disease severity could be linked to the trophic lifestyle of the pathogens. Elevated [CO2] decreased powdery mildew infection but had no effect on spot blotch disease compared to ambient condition. However, the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature did not act in an additive manner when combined. This led to a surprising disease development in the combination treatments, where powdery mildew infection increased despite the individual reducing effect of the climatic factors, and spot blotch disease decreased despite the individual promoting effect of temperature and ozone, emphasizing the importance of conducting multifactorial experiments when evaluating the potential effects of climate change.

Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger JØrgensen, Rikke

2014-01-01

363

Ozone removal by HVAC filters  

Science.gov (United States)

Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded with particles during operation in the field can remove ozone from intake or recirculated air. However, knowledge of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial buildings is incomplete. We measured the ozone removal efficiencies of clean (unused) fiberglass, clean synthetic filters, and field-loaded residential and commercial filters in a controlled laboratory setting. For most filters, the ozone removal efficiency declined rapidly but converged to a non-zero (steady-state) value. This steady-state ozone removal efficiency varied from 0% to 9% for clean filters. The mean steady-state ozone removal efficiencies for loaded residential and commercial filters were 10% and 41%, respectively. Repeated exposure of filters to ozone following a 24-h period of no exposure led to a regeneration of ozone removal efficiency. Based on a theoretical scaling analysis of mechanisms that are involved in the ozone removal process, we speculate that the steady-state ozone removal efficiency is limited by reactant diffusion out of particles, and that regeneration is due to internal diffusion of reactive species to sites available to ozone for reaction. Finally, by applying our results to a screening model for typical residential and commercial buildings, HVAC filters were estimated to contribute 22% and 95%, respectively, of total ozone removal in HVAC systems.

Zhao, P.; Siegel, J. A.; Corsi, R. L.

364

Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) en distintos ambientes de fertilidad / Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) in different environnement of fertility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántula [...] s de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes), Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S). Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR), Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN), peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA) y de las raíces (MSR), contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg). Abstract in english Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plan [...] t growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn), Standard (nature soil), Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP) and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg).

Wilmer Herrera, Valencia; Paulo de Tarso Barbosa, Sampaio; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza.

2010-12-01

365

Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke en distintos ambientes de fertilidad Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in different environnement of fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántulas de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes, Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S. Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA y de las raíces (MSR, contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plant growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, Standard (nature soil, Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.

Wilmer Herrera Valencia

2010-12-01

366

Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) in natural habitat  

OpenAIRE

The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W) in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The animals were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W). The sex, length, width of the carapac...

Alessandra Angélica de Pádua Bueno; Georgina Bond-Buckup; Ludwig Buckup

2000-01-01

367

Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution  

CERN Document Server

High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

Oey, M S

2004-01-01

368

Low soil temperature reduces the positive effects of high nutrient supply on the growth and biomass of white birch seedlings in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations are increasing at a rate of 1.9 {mu}mol per mol per year as a result of both natural and human-induced emissions. This study investigated the effects of soil temperature and nutrient supply on the growth responses of white birch in relation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Birch seedlings were grown under 2 different CO{sub 2} regimes and 3 different nutrient and soil regimes for a period of 4 months. The study showed that there were significant 3-factor interactive effects on root collar diameter (RCD); stem biomass; and leaf mass ratio. Lower soil temperatures reduced RCD at high nutrient supply ratios. Stem biomass was also reduced at intermediate and high nutrient supply regimes with elevated CO{sub 2} ratios. The effect of soil temperature was negligible in low nutrient supply regimes. It was concluded that growth and biomass was higher with higher nutrient supplies at all soil temperatures. Results of the study suggested that low soil temperatures reduced the positive effect of high nutrient supply on biomass production. 68 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Ambebe, T.F.; Dang, Q.; Marfo, J. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment

2009-10-15

369

Low soil temperature reduces the positive effects of high nutrient supply on the growth and biomass of white birch seedlings in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing at a rate of 1.9 ?mol per mol per year as a result of both natural and human-induced emissions. This study investigated the effects of soil temperature and nutrient supply on the growth responses of white birch in relation to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Birch seedlings were grown under 2 different CO2 regimes and 3 different nutrient and soil regimes for a period of 4 months. The study showed that there were significant 3-factor interactive effects on root collar diameter (RCD); stem biomass; and leaf mass ratio. Lower soil temperatures reduced RCD at high nutrient supply ratios. Stem biomass was also reduced at intermediate and high nutrient supply regimes with elevated CO2 ratios. The effect of soil temperature was negligible in low nutrient supply regimes. It was concluded that growth and biomass was higher with higher nutrient supplies at all soil temperatures. Results of the study suggested that low soil temperatures reduced the positive effect of high nutrient supply on biomass production. 68 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

370

Continuous laser irradiation under ambient conditions: A simple way for the space-selective growth of gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Visible continuous laser direct-write gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith. ? The presence of the additive (Na2CO3) is not necessary to the growth of gold nanoparticles. ? A simple heat treatment leads to precipitation of gold nanoparticles inside the silica matrices with, or without, the additive. ? The local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism. -- Abstract: Thanks to the potential and various applications of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, their syntheses constitute an interesting subject in material research. In this work, we demonstrate the achievement of gold nanocrystals growth through a visible and continuous laser irradiation. The in situ and direct space-selective generation of metallic nanoparticles is localized under the surface within transparent silica monoliths. For that purpose, the porous silica monoliths are prepared using a sol-gel route and post-doped with gold precursors before the irradiation. The presence of Au nanoparticles inside the irradiated areas was evidenced using absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The comparison between the results obtained after a laser irradiation and by a simple heat-treatment reveals that the local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism.

371

Leaf development and growth of selected sugarcane clones in a subtropical environment / Desenvolvimento e crescimento foliar de clones de cana-de-açúcar em ambiente subtropical  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o filocrono e a área foliar em colmos individuais de clones de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum) cultivados em ambiente subtropical. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Santa Maria, RS, durante os anos agrícolas 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Três clones de c [...] ana-de-açúcar foram usados: IAC 822045 (precoce), SP 711406 (médio) e CB 4176 (tardio), em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foi medido o número de folhas expandidas e totais (pontas), além da área das folhas expandidas. O filocrono (ºC dia folha-1), baseado no número de folhas expandidas e totais, foi estimado utilizando 10ºC como temperatura base. Relações alométricas entre a área de folhas individual e o número de folhas expandidas foram ajustadas. O filocrono foi analisado considerando-se um experimento fatorial com quatro fatores: clone, ano agrícola, fase de filocrono e tipo de filocrono. O clone precoce tem maior potencial para cultivo em regiões subtropicais devido ao maior aparecimento de folhas e à maior área foliar. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to compare phyllochron and leaf area on individual stalks of selected sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) clones grown in a subtropical environment. A two-year field experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons [...] . Three sugarcane clones were used: IAC 822045 (early), SP 711406 (median) and CB 4176 (late), in a complete randomized block design, with four replications. Expanded leaf and total leaf (tips) number were determined, and expanded leaf area was measured. The phyllochron (ºC day leaf-1) based on expanded and tip leaf number was estimated, using 10ºC as base temperature. Allometric relationships between individual area and number of expanded leaves were fitted. Phyllochron was analysed as a four-factor experiment: clone, growing season, phyllochron phase, and phyllochron type. The early clone had the greatest potential for growing in a subtropical climate because of higher leaf output and leaf area.

Nereu Augusto, Streck; Joana Graciela, Hanauer; Luana Fernandes, Gabriel; Taise Cristine, Buske; Josana Andréia, Langner.

1049-10-01

372

Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion  

OpenAIRE

An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i) daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150DU, below 220DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and more than 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, (ii) the date of disappearance of 150DU ozone values, 220DU ozone values, values 30% below 1979 to 1981 no...

Bodeker, G. E.; Shiona, H.; Eskes, H.

2005-01-01

373

Ozone stress and antioxidant substances in Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone-sensitive (NC-S clone) and resistant plants (NC-R clone) of Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea were exposed to moderate ozone concentrations in ambient air. The aim of this study was the investigation of the relation between ozone-sensitivity and leaf concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity). NC-R clone showed the highest concentrations of antioxidants with 50-70% more ascorbic acid than NC-S. NC-R had about 5 times more ascorbic acid in the young leaves and 9 times more in the old leaves than Centaurea. In a fumigation experiment with acute ozone stress (100 nl L{sup -1}) the antioxidant levels changed profoundly. The ozone-injured leaves of NC-S had 6-8 times more total phenolics than uninjured leaves. Generally older leaves had lower antioxidant concentrations and were more prone to ozone injury than younger leaves. Ascorbic acid concentrations were closer related to the appearance of visible ozone injury than the other antioxidative parameters. - Low leaf ascorbic acid levels are a main cause for visible ozone injuries in Trifolium and Centaurea.

Ferreira Severino, Joyce [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria) and Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: y.ferreira-severino@umweltforschung.at; Stich, Karl [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.soja@arcs.ac.at

2007-04-15

374

Acerca de la biotecnología ambiental  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of environmental biotecnology is to correct environmental imbalances caused by modern industrial activities. Many of these imbalances affect biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere, mainly catalysed by microorganisms. Deviations in the balances of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and iron compounds may cause very complex phenomena such as global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, environmental pollution and acidification of the sea. On the other hand, the poorly understood microbial interactions --either with each other or the environment-- have important consequences in generating highly recalcitrant chemical species which, accumulating in the trophic chains, are highly toxic for living organisms. To cope with these problems it is necessary to improve knowledge of microbial ecology and the functioning of the biogeochemical cycles at the molecular level, although it is also worth designing technologies to eliminate pollutants either in situ or ex situ, to avoid its uncontrolled production as well as to correct the unbalancing processes affecting phases of the biogeochemical cycles, either in the present day or in the future.La Biotecnología ambiental trata de corregir los desequilibrios causados en el medio ambiente por actividades industriales que alteran los ecosistemas naturales mediante contaminación química o biológica y que también afectan a los grandes ciclos biogeoquímicos en la biosfera, mayoritariamente catalizados por seres vivos, entre los que los microrganismos juegan un papel esencial. Las desviaciones en los balances de compuestos carbonados, nitrogenados y azufrados atmosféricos pueden causar fenómenos de gran complejidad como el calentamiento global, la destrucción de la capa de ozono, la contaminación ambiental o la lluvia ácida. Por otra parte, las interacciones de los microorganismos entre sí y con el medio, desconocidas en su mayor parte, tiene importantes repercusiones en la generación y persistencia de especies químicas que, depositadas en las cadenas tróficas, son altamente tóxicas para los organismos vivos. Para atajar estos problemas es necesario avanzar en el conocimiento a nivel molecular de la ecología microbiana y del funcionamiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos, aunque no es menos necesario desarrollar tecnologías para la eliminación de contaminantes industriales in situ y ex situ, evitar su producción y utilización incontroladas así como corregir las actuaciones desequilibrantes, actuales o futuras, de la biogeoquímica planetaria.

Blasco Pla, Rafael

2014-08-01

375

76 FR 78832 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances...  

Science.gov (United States)

...hydrocarbon refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and very low...equipment manufacturer ODP--ozone depletion potential ODS--ozone-depleting...All three substitutes have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and very...

2011-12-20

376

Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

  • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
  • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
  • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
  • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

Afshar Jafari

2009-09-01

377

Enhancement of photochemical smog by n,n'-diethylhydroxylamine in polluted ambient air.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent proposal for controlling photochemical smog by the addition to ambient air of 0.03 to 0.05 part per million of diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) is shown to be invalid. The addition of DEHA in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 part per million to ambient air irradiated with sunlight in a dual outdoor environmental chamber caused marked increases in the rates of formation and concentrations of ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and light-scattering particles. PMID:17750455

Pitts, J N; Smith, J P; Fitz, D R; Grosjean, D

1977-07-15

378

Reaction analysis of initial oxidation of silicon by UV-light-excited ozone and the application to rapid and uniform SiO2 film growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV-light-excited O3 prepared by irradiation of nearly 100% pure O3 with a KrF excimer laser (?=248 nm, irradiated area=30x10 mm2) was utilized for low-temperature Si oxidation. The initial oxidation rate was determined, and the activation energy was shown to be almost zero (0.049 eV). To clarify the optimum oxidation conditions, the dependence of the SiO2 film growth rate on the total photon number and the photon density was investigated. The evolution of O3 density after UV-light irradiation was experimentally measured, and the O(1D) density change is discussed. O(1D) density changes are successfully explained by using a second-order reaction model, indicating that a pulse supply of oxygen atoms is essential in the initial oxidation process. The uniform oxidation of 8 in. Si wafer has been carried out using a wafer-transfer type chamber by irradiating the wafer with KrF excimer laser light expanded linearly to the wafer width by a concave lens

379

Automobiles and Ozone  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the Coordinating Committee for Automotive Repair (CCAR) introduces ozone, its affect on public health, how it's formed, previous attempts at controlling it, and promising solutions. There is also a helpful reference to further resources at the bottom of the page.

380

Radiactividad y medio ambiente  

OpenAIRE

En los medios de comunicación frecuentemente aparecen noticias que hacen referencia a la radiactividad y al medio ambiente y, sin embargo, lo que es la radiactividad y como influye ésta sobre el medio ambiente suele ser poco conocido, incluso por personas de formación científica.

Sa?nchez Leo?n, Jose? Guillermo

1993-01-01

381

Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

L. Ran

2012-08-01

382

Non-Thermal Plasma Ozone Generation  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews ozone properties, ozone applications and the mechanism of ozone production in non-thermal plasma. An analysis is made of the influence of a reduced electric field and discharge space temperature on ozone production. The phenomenon of discharge poisoning is also explained. Finally, a modern ozone production system based on dielectric barrier electrical discharge is described.

Peka?rek, S.

2003-01-01

383

Influence of fertilization on the growth of radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia" cultivated in two different environments / Influencia de la fertilización en el crecimiento de radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia" cultivado en dos ambientes diferentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la fertilización en radicchio tipo "Rosso de Chioggia" (precocidad media) sobre algunos índices de crecimiento. Se realizaron ensayos durante dos campañas en Rovigo (Italia) y una en Mendoza (Argentina), aplicándose dosis crecientes de NPK, identificadas como N0P [...] 0K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K2, en Mendoza y en Rovigo, además, N3P2K2. Durante el cultivo se calcularon índices de crecimiento como: relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf weigh ratio (LWR), crop growth ratio (CGR), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). En Mendoza, el CGR estuvo fuertemente influenciado por NAR desde el trasplante hasta alcanzar 776 grados días (GDD); desde 1052 a 1653 GDD el CGR fue afectado por el LAI el cual aumentó marcadamente debido a las condiciones ambientales favorables. Entre los 1052 y 1653 GDD el incremento del LAI determinó una reducción en la eficiencia fotosintética. En Rovigo, la tendencia de los índices fue disímil en los dos años, encontrándose respuestas diferentes en LAR y en SLA. En el segundo año, el CGR siempre arrojó valores más altos, mientras que NAR no difirió en ninguno de los años. En la segunda mitad del ciclo, CGR estuvo fuertemente asociado a una menor eficiencia fotosintética, debido a la formación de la cabeza. Valores elevados de LAI indicaron una extensión del ciclo, retrasando la formación de la cabeza. Las plantas alcanzaron la madurez comercial con LWR entre 0,35 - 0,40 g g-1. En ambos ambientes, no se observó claramente el efecto de la fertilización sobre los índices; si bien las dosis más altas mostraron mayor actividad de crecimiento en las etapas tempranas. Abstract in english This study evaluated the influence of fertilization on some growth indexes in radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia". The trial was conducted in Rovigo (Italy) for two years and in Mendoza (Argentina) for one year. Increasing doses of macronutrients were considered, identified as N0P0K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K2 and, [...] only in Rovigo, N3P2K2. Some indexes related to growth analysis: relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf weigh ratio (LWR), crop growth ratio (CGR), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) were calculated during the growing cycle. At Mendoza CGR was strongly influenced by NAR from transplant until 776 growth degree days (GDD). After that moment, CGR was affected by LAI that increased markedly due to favourable environmental conditions. From 1052 to 1653 GDD the high increase of LAI determined a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency. At Rovigo the trends in index values showed differences between the two years considered, especially in LAR and SLA. In the second year CGR had always higher values; mainly due to higher LAI values, since NAR did not differ significantly during the years. In the second half of the growing cycle, CGR was instead strongly linked to a contraction of photosynthetic effectiveness, due to head formation. High LAI values showed a growing cycle extension to the detriment of early head formation. It was also observed that when LWR is around 0.35 - 0.40 g g-1, the plant reaches marketable maturation and is ready to be harvested. In both environments, no clear effects of fertilization were observed on the growth indexes. In any case highly fertilized plants showed higher growing activity especially at the beginning of the growing cycle.

Maria Flavia, Filippini; Carlo, Nicoletto; Paolo, Sambo; Juan Bruno, Cavagnaro; Ferdinando, Pimpini.

2011-12-01

384

Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NOx concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NOx in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway aecursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NOx) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality (mostly in October). The truck pathway tends to cause a much wider fluctuation in degradation or improvement of ozone air quality: percentage changes in peak ozone concentrations are approximately -0.01% to 0.04% for the assumed 9% market penetration, and approximately -0.03% to 0.1% for the 20% market penetration. Moreover, the 20% on-site pathway occasionally results in a decrease of about -0.1% of baseline ozone pollution. Compared to the current ambient pollution level, all three hydrogen pathways are unlikely to cause a serious ozone problem for market penetration levels of HFCVs in the 9-20% range. (Author)

385

Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality (mostly in October). The truck pathway tends to cause a much wider fluctuation in degradation or improvement of ozone air quality: percentage changes in peak ozone concentrations are approximately -0.01% to 0.04% for the assumed 9% market penetration, and approximately -0.03% to 0.1% for the 20% market penetration. Moreover, the 20% on-site pathway occasionally results in a decrease of about -0.1% of baseline ozone pollution. Compared to the current ambient pollution level, all three hydrogen pathways are unlikely to cause a serious ozone problem for market penetration levels of HFCVs in the 9-20% range.

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.

386

A network of autonomous surface ozone monitors in Antarctica: technical description and first results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A suite of 10 autonomous ozone monitoring units, each powered using renewable energy, was developed and built to study surface ozone in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (2007–2009. The monitoring systems were deployed in a network around the Weddell Sea sector of coastal Antarctica with a transect up onto the Antarctic Plateau. The aim was to measure for a full year, thus gaining a much-improved broader view of boundary layer ozone seasonality at different locations as well as of factors affecting the budget of surface ozone in Antarctica. Ozone mixing ratios were measured based on UV photometry using a modified version of the commercial 2B Technologies Inc. Model 202 instrument. All but one of the autonomous units measured successfully within its predefined duty cycle throughout the year, with some differences in performance dependent on power availability and ambient temperature. Mean data recovery after removal of outliers was on average 70% (range 44–83% and precision varied between 1.5 and 8 ppbv, thus was sufficiently good to resolve year-round the main ozone features of scientific interest. We conclude that, with adequate power, and noting a minor communication problem, our units would be able to operate successfully at ambient temperatures down to ?60 °C. Systems such as the one described in this paper, or derivatives of it, could therefore be deployed either as local or regional networks elsewhere in the Arctic or Antarctic. Here we present technical information and first results from the experiment.

S. J.-B. Bauguitte

2011-04-01

387

Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone

388

Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

2006-10-15

389

Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the content of high-molecular-weight substances was reduced while a nearly corresponding amount of low-molecular-weight compounds was produced. The produced substances have acidic properties, are uncoloured and do not absorb UV light at 254 nm. Ozonation also led to higher BOD values. The formed low-molecular-weight compounds were consumed by microorganisms. In the original humic water sample the microbial degradation affected only high-molecular-weight compounds. The higher content of biodegradable organic compounds in ozonated drinking water is probably responsible for accelerated growth of bacteria and production of sludge in the distribution systems of a Norwegian waterwork. The obtained colour reduction seems to be temporary, since the colour of ozonated water increases under the influence of microorganisms.

Hongve, Dag; Lund, Vidar; Åkesson, Gunvor; Becher, Georg

390

Uso de subprodutos de carvão vegetal na formação do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' em ambiente protegido / The use of byproducts of vegetal charcoal on growth of 'Rangpur' lime rootstock under screen house  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fino de carvão no substrato e da aplicação de extrato pirolenhoso no substrato e na planta sobre o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck) cultivados em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido n [...] o delineamento em blocos casualisados, com análise em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 3, sendo: 3 proporções de fino de carvão (0, 100 e 200 cm³ dm-3) em mistura com substrato comercial, 2 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0 e 20 cm³ dm-3) misturadas no substrato (240 cm³ por dm³ de substrato) e 3 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0, 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3) pulverizadas na parte aérea, em 4 repetições. Aos 150 e 180 dias após o plantio foram realizadas avaliações do desenvolvimento das plantas. As misturas de fino de carvão e substrato comercial contendo fino de carvão na proporção de 100 cm³ dm-3 não influíram no desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' , porém, na proporção de 200 cm³ dm-3 prejudica o desenvolvimento dos mesmos. O umedecimento pré-plantio do substrato com solução diluída (20 cm³ dm-3) de extrato pirolenhoso ou pulverização da parte aérea das plantas com soluções a 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3 provoca redução do desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' . Abstract in english The effect of finely grounded charcoal and pyroligneous acid (PA) in mixture with a commercial growing media and PA sprayed on leaves on growth of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) seedlings under screen house was studied. Treatments consisted in a combination of 3 levels of charcoal (0, 100 and [...] 200 cm³ dm-3) mixture on the commercial growing media, 2 rates of PA mixtured (0 and 20 cm³ dm-3) to a growing media (240 cm³ per dm³ of growing media), and 3 rates of PA (0, 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3) sprayed on the leaves, with 4 replications. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, and analyzed as a factorial 3 x 2 x 3. Growth of seedlings was evaluated at 150 and 180 days after planting. The presence of charcoal at 100 cm³ dm-3 in the media did not influence on growth of seedlings. However, the mixture with 200 cm³ dm-3 of charcoal reduced production of total dry mass and high of the plants. The addition of PA (solution 20 cm³ dm-3) to the media reduced plant growth, and sprayed (solutions 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3) on the leaves reduced seedlings diameter.

Marcelo, Zanetti; Jairo Osvaldo, Cazetta; Dirceu de, Mattos Júnior; Sérgio Alves de, Carvalho.

2003-12-01

391

Uso de subprodutos de carvão vegetal na formação do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' em ambiente protegido The use of byproducts of vegetal charcoal on growth of 'Rangpur' lime rootstock under screen house  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fino de carvão no substrato e da aplicação de extrato pirolenhoso no substrato e na planta sobre o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck cultivados em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido no delineamento em blocos casualisados, com análise em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 3, sendo: 3 proporções de fino de carvão (0, 100 e 200 cm³ dm-3 em mistura com substrato comercial, 2 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0 e 20 cm³ dm-3 misturadas no substrato (240 cm³ por dm³ de substrato e 3 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0, 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3 pulverizadas na parte aérea, em 4 repetições. Aos 150 e 180 dias após o plantio foram realizadas avaliações do desenvolvimento das plantas. As misturas de fino de carvão e substrato comercial contendo fino de carvão na proporção de 100 cm³ dm-3 não influíram no desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' , porém, na proporção de 200 cm³ dm-3 prejudica o desenvolvimento dos mesmos. O umedecimento pré-plantio do substrato com solução diluída (20 cm³ dm-3 de extrato pirolenhoso ou pulverização da parte aérea das plantas com soluções a 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3 provoca redução do desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' .The effect of finely grounded charcoal and pyroligneous acid (PA in mixture with a commercial growing media and PA sprayed on leaves on growth of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck seedlings under screen house was studied. Treatments consisted in a combination of 3 levels of charcoal (0, 100 and 200 cm³ dm-3 mixture on the commercial growing media, 2 rates of PA mixtured (0 and 20 cm³ dm-3 to a growing media (240 cm³ per dm³ of growing media, and 3 rates of PA (0, 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3 sprayed on the leaves, with 4 replications. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, and analyzed as a factorial 3 x 2 x 3. Growth of seedlings was evaluated at 150 and 180 days after planting. The presence of charcoal at 100 cm³ dm-3 in the media did not influence on growth of seedlings. However, the mixture with 200 cm³ dm-3 of charcoal reduced production of total dry mass and high of the plants. The addition of PA (solution 20 cm³ dm-3 to the media reduced plant growth, and sprayed (solutions 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3 on the leaves reduced seedlings diameter.

Marcelo Zanetti

2003-12-01

392

Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2005-08-15

393

Yield and nutritive quality of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) exposed to ground-level ozone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata cv. Interstate 76) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium cv. Aldous) were raised from seed in a glasshouse, transplanted into 5.7-l pots and placed into open-top chambers (OTC) on 6 June 1999. Following a 7-day adjustment period, each of six OTCs (duplicate OTCs per treatment) was ventilated with either air that had been carbon-filtered (CF) to remove ambient ozone (O3); non-filtered (NF), representative of ambient air; or enriched to twice-ambient O3 concentration (2X). Primary-growth forage was harvested on days 7, 32, 46, 59 and 72 following the start of fumigation, and regrowth forage from the first primary-growth harvest was harvested on days 36, 54 and 72 following the start of fumigation. Dry matter (DM) yield of either forage species did not differ among treatments except in the final regrowth period when yield of sericea lespedeza was greater for the NF than 2X O3 treatment. In vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and concentrations of crude protein (CP), soluble phenolics (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) in primary-growth sericea lespedeza did not differ between treatments, but NF primary-growth forage had higher concentration of protein-precipitating tannins (PPT) than did 2X primary-growth forage. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in NF and 2X than in CF primary-growth sericea lespedeza. Similarly, concentrations of NDF and ADL were higher, and IVDMD was lower for NF and 2X than for CF regrowth sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of ADF and ADL were lower, whereas IVDMD, in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) and concentrations of CP and SP were greater, in CF than in NF and 2X primary-growth little bluestem. Percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD and concentrations of CP and SP in NF primary-growth little bluestem were greater than those in forage exposed to 2X O3 treatment. No significant differences were observed among treatments in percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD, or concentrations of cell wall constituents or SP in little bluestem regrowth. Nutritive quality of little bluestem was decreased by forages. Results indicate that existing and projected O3 levels can drive alterations in forage quality of select warm-season forages sufficient to have nutritional and economic implications for their utilization by ruminant herbivores. PMID:12547521

Powell, M C; Muntifering, R B; Lin, J C; Chappelka, A H

2003-01-01