WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient ozone growth

  1. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  2. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: A Lithuanian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O3) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O3 concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O3 can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels. - Peak ozone concentrations is one of the key factors affecting Scots pine trees

  3. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  4. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  5. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  6. Impact of ambient and elevated levels of ozone on growth, reproductive development and yield of two cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tow locally grown high yielding varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L. var Malviya dhan 36 and var shivani), were transplanted within the open top chambers (OTCs) at the age of 20 days. five different experimental plots were designed as open plot (OP), non-filtered chamber (NFCs), NFCs with 10 ppb ozone (O3), NFCs with 30 ppb O3 and filtered chamber (FCs) to assess the impact of ambient and elevated levels of O3 on rice. Twelve hourly monitoring of O3 and measurements of meteorological variables were done at experimental site during the growth period of rice plants. Morphological, reproductive, physico logical and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the responses of rice cultivars to ambient and elevated levels of O3. (Author)

  7. Ethylenediurea (EDU) affects the growth of ozone-sensitive and tolerant ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees under ambient O3 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior L.), known to be sensitive or tolerant to ozone, determined by presence or absence of foliar symptoms in previous years, were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion over the 2005 growing season (32.5 ppm h AOT40). Tree and shoot growth were recorded in May and September. Leaf area, ectomycorrhizal infection, and leaf and fine root biomass were determined in September. EDU enhanced shoot length and diameter, and the number and area of leaves, in both O3-sensitive and tolerant trees. However, no EDU effects were recorded at the fine root and tree level. Therefore, a potential for EDU protection against O3-caused growth losses of forest trees should be evaluated during longer-term experiments. PMID:17450289

  8. Long-term exposure to twice-ambient ozone (O3) affects carbon sink strength, allocation and stem growth in adult central European forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, T. E.; Matyssek, R.

    2009-12-01

    Amongst air pollutants, ground-level ozone (O3) is potentially the most detrimental to vegetation. Spreading globally, enhanced O3 levels are predicted to increase, in particular, in rapidly developing countries and, thus, O3 must now be considered in climate change scenarios and post-Kyoto policies. Here, we present an appraisal of a unique 8-year free-air O3 fumigation experiment on adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Noway spruce (Picea abies), ecologically and economically important, late-succession tree species in Central Europe. For the first time, whole-plant canopies of naturally grown, 60 to 70 years old forest trees were exposed to twice-ambient O3 levels for a total of eight years. Throughout the study period, enhanced O3 uptake in the elevated O3 treatment affected net C fixation and distinctly weakened the whole-stem growth in beech. In contrast, adult spruce at the same site did not display decline in stem biomass development. Those findings corroborate species-specific sensitivities to O3 reported from previous chamber studies on juvenile beech and spruce trees. Carbon allocation of adult trees, as a mechanistical basis of growth processes, was investigated through stable isotope tracer experiments using 13C depleted CO2 at the canopy level. To this end, a novel free-air CO2 exposure system, named tubeFACE, was developed, which employed micro-porous PVC tubes hanging through the canopy of adult trees. In a 19-day 13CO2/12CO2 labeling experiment, CO2 with a ?13C of -46.9 ‰ was continuously released into the canopy to increase [CO2] by 100 µmol mol-1, resulting in a reduction in ?13C of about 8 ‰. Subsequently, C allocation to respiratory pools of various tree organs was studied. Similar to the reduced stem growth in beech, elevated O3 significantly reduced allocation of labeled C to stem respiration, whereas in spruce such a reduction was not found. Hence, our study underlines the need to understand O3 risks by species, so that modeling approaches merely based on tree performance in general do not appear to be satisfactory in prognosticating consequences of climate change. The empirical assessment proved enhanced ground-level O3 regimes as constituents of climate change with relevance for carbon-budgeting and, hence, the Kyoto process.

  9. The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. - Highlights: ? Exposure of rice plants to elevated ozone during growth led to altered grain quality. ? Protein and lipid concentration increased whereas starch concentration and thousand kernel weight decreased. ? Rice grain, protein and iron yield tended to decrease in plants exposed to high ozone. ? These effects were responsive to different ozone levels and showed genotypic differences. ? The overall effect of ozone o human nutrition is expected to be negative. - Ozone exposure during growth tends to increase the protein and lipid concentration in rice grains but decreases total grain and nutrient yields. These effects are dependent on ozone level and genotype.

  10. Effects of a three-year exposure to ambient ozone on biomass allocation in poplar using ethylenediurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions. -- Highlights: •A fast-growing ozone-sensitive poplar clone was treated with the ozone protectant ethylenediurea (EDU) for three years. •Ambient ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches. •Effects on stem length and diameter were not significant. •EDU protected from ozone visible foliar injury and reduction of biomass accumulation. -- Ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches, but did not affect stem length and diameter

  11. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  12. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe

  13. Association between ambient ozone and health outcomes in Prague.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    H?nová, I.; Malý, Marek; ?ezá?ová, J.; Braniš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 86, ?. 1 (2013), s. 89-97. ISSN 0340-0131 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08077; GA AV ?R(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ambient ozone * cardiovascular diseases * hospital admissions * mortality * respiratory diseases Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2013

  14. Modelling ambient ozone in an urban area using an objective model and geostatistical algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Valiente, Pablo; López, Fernando; Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio

    2012-12-01

    Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air pollutants of most concern. Ozone levels continue to exceed both target values and the long-term objectives established in EU legislation to protect human health and prevent damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Researchers or decision-makers frequently need information about atmospheric pollution patterns in urbanized areas. The preparation of this type of information is a complex task, due to the influence of several factors and their variability over time. In this work, some results of urban ozone distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest (140,000 inhabitants) and most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are shown. Twelve sampling campaigns, one per month, were carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer. Later, to evaluate the overall ozone level at each sampling location during the time interval considered, the measured ozone data were analysed using a new methodology based on the formulation of the Rasch model. As a result, a measure of overall ozone level which consolidates the monthly ground-level ozone measurements was obtained, getting moreover information about the influence on the overall ozone level of each monthly ozone measure. Finally, overall ozone level at locations where no measurements were available was estimated with geostatistical techniques and hazard assessment maps based on the spatial distribution of ozone were also generated.

  15. Performance of the Proposed New Federal Reference Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air, described in EPA regulations at 40 CFR Part 50, Appendix D, is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O

  16. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...updates to the modeling guidance are needed to address modeling of the HEDD phenomenon...ambient ozone data and modeled ozone...recent monitored values by the modeled...and above, the modeling and other elements...exclude monitoring data influenced by...classified as Severe or Extreme, the...

  17. The Role of Ambient Ozone in Epidemiologic Studies of Heat-Related Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Colleen E.; SNOWDEN, Jonathan M.; Kontgis, Caitlin; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A large and growing literature investigating the role of extreme heat on mortality has conceptualized the role of ambient ozone in various ways, sometimes treating it as a confounder, sometimes as an effect modifier, and sometimes as a co-exposure. Thus, there is a lack of consensus about the roles that temperature and ozone together play in causing mortality.

  18. Assessing the effects of ambient ozone in China on snap bean genotypes by using ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyang; Calatayud, Vicent; Jiang, Lijun; Manning, William J; Hayes, Felicity; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2015-10-01

    Four genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selected to study the effects of ambient ozone concentration at a cropland area around Beijing by using 450 ppm of ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant. During the growing season, the 8h (9:00-17:00) average ozone concentration was very high, approximately 71.3 ppb, and AOT40 was 29.0 ppm.h. All genotypes showed foliar injury, but ozone-sensitive genotypes exhibited much more injury than ozone-tolerant ones. Compared with control, EDU significantly alleviated foliar injury, increased photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll a fluorescence, Vcmax and Jmax, and seed and pod weights in ozone-sensitive genotypes but not in ozone-tolerant genotypes. EDU did not significantly affect antioxidant contents in any of the genotypes. Therefore, EDU effectively protected sensitive genotypes from ambient ozone damage, while protection on ozone-tolerant genotypes was limited. EDU can be regarded as a useful tool in risk assessment of ambient ozone on food security. PMID:26074161

  19. A Statistical Modeling Framework for Projecting Future Ambient Ozone and its Health Impact due to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Howard H.; Hao, Hua; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of ambient ozone are well established. Given the high sensitivity of ambient ozone concentrations to meteorological conditions, the impacts of future climate change on ozone concentrations and its associated health effects are of concern. We describe a statistical modeling framework for projecting future ozone levels and its health impacts under a changing climate. This is motivated by the continual effort to evaluate projection uncertainties to inform public health...

  20. Highly sensitive and selective bioluminescence based ozone probes and their applications to detect ambient ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younseok; Kim, Beom Seok; Shin, Injae

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective and sensitive bioluminescence based probes, which respond to ozone but not to other ROS, have been developed. These probes were used to determine ozone concentrations in environmental samples. PMID:26567538

  1. Colorimetric determination of ambient ozone using indigo blue droplet

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Erika P.; Cardoso Arnaldo A.

    2006-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on a liquid droplet is described for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. A 30 µL drop of indigo blue solution is suspended in a flowing-air sampling stream. The ozone collected reacts with the indigo solution resulting in its decolorization. The colorimetric sensor is composed of two optical fibers and the source of monochromatic light was a red LED (625 nm). The calibration curve was constructed with ozone standard concentrations ranging from 37 - 123 pp...

  2. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

  3. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  4. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO3) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO3). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO3 caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  5. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth, delta(13)C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Kristopher; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Fuhrer, Jürg; Skelly, John M; Kräuchi, Norbert; Schaub, Marcus

    2007-07-01

    We assessed the effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, delta(13)C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and visible injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) and non-filtered air (NF) in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Ambient ozone exposures in the region were sufficient to cause visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species. Ozone had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular CO(2) concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and delta(13)C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Compared with CF seedlings, mean ring width in the AA and NF P. nigra seedlings was reduced by 52 and 46%, respectively, in 2002, whereas in V. lantana and F. excelsior, ring width showed no significant reductions in either year. Although delta(13)C was usually more negative in CF seedlings than in AA and NF seedlings, with the exception of F. excelsior in 2001, ozone effects on delta(13)C were significant only for V. lantana and P. nigra in 2001. Among species, P. nigra exhibited the greatest response to ozone for the measured parameters as well as the most severe foliar injury and was the only species to show a significant reduction in ring width in response to ozone exposure, despite significant negative ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and the development of visible foliar injury in V. lantana and F. excelsior. Thus, significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased delta(13)C in all species, indicating that the timing of ozone exposure and severity of leaf-level responses may be important in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. PMID:17403646

  6. Colorimetric determination of ambient ozone using indigo blue droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Erika P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive method based on a liquid droplet is described for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. A 30 µL drop of indigo blue solution is suspended in a flowing-air sampling stream. The ozone collected reacts with the indigo solution resulting in its decolorization. The colorimetric sensor is composed of two optical fibers and the source of monochromatic light was a red LED (625 nm. The calibration curve was constructed with ozone standard concentrations ranging from 37 - 123 ppbv. The detection limit achieved was 7.3 ppbv. The method considered here showed itself to be easy to apply with a fast response and a total analysis time of only 5 minutes.

  7. Colorimetric determination of ambient ozone using indigo blue droplet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika P., Felix; Arnaldo A., Cardoso.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e sensível, baseado em uma gota líquida, é descrito para medida do ozônio atmosférico. Uma gota de 30 µL de solução de índigo azul é suspensa em uma corrente de ar para amostragem. O ozônio coletado reage com a solução de índigo azul, provocando seu descoramento. O sensor colorimét [...] rico é composto por duas fibras ópticas; a fonte de luz monocromática usada foi um LED vermelho (625 nm). A curva analítica foi construída com concentrações padrão de ozônio, na faixa de 37 a 123 ppbv. O limite de detecção alcançado foi 7,3 ppbv. O método considerado mostrou-se de fácil aplicação e resposta rápida, com um tempo total de análise de apenas 5 minutos. Abstract in english A simple and sensitive method based on a liquid droplet is described for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. A 30 µL drop of indigo blue solution is suspended in a flowing-air sampling stream. The ozone collected reacts with the indigo solution resulting in its decolorization. The colorimetric sen [...] sor is composed of two optical fibers and the source of monochromatic light was a red LED (625 nm). The calibration curve was constructed with ozone standard concentrations ranging from 37 - 123 ppbv. The detection limit achieved was 7.3 ppbv. The method considered here showed itself to be easy to apply with a fast response and a total analysis time of only 5 minutes.

  8. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth,{delta}{sup 13}C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Krauchi, N.; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Species specific plant responses to tropospheric ozone pollution depend on a range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as environmental factors. The effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, {delta}{sup 13} C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland were assessed during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and non-filtered air in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots. The objective was to determine if a relationship exists between measurable ozone-induced effects at the leaf level and subsequent changes in annual tree-ring growth and {delta} {sup 13} C signatures. The visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species was attributed to the ambient ozone exposures in the region. Ozone had pronounced negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and {delta}{sup 13} C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased {delta}{sup 13} C in all species, suggesting that the timing of ozone exposure and extent of leaf-level responses may be relevant in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Relationship between summertime ambient ozone levels and emergency department visits for asthma in central New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, C.P.; Cody, R.P.; Lioy, P.J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The 5-year retrospective study of the association between temperature and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma with mean ambient ozone levels between 10:00 and 15:00 was conducted in central New Jersey during the summer months. An association was identified in each of the years (1986-1990). Between 8 and 34% of the total variance in ED visits for asthma was explained by the two environmental variables in the step-wise multiple regression analysis. ED visits occurred 28% more frequently when the mean ozone levels were >0.06 ppm than when they were < 0.06 ppm. This result was statistically significant in a covariance analysis. An evaluation of the effects of ozone on asthmatics reported in the literature was completed to determine if, as proposed by Bates, the results from different types of studies were coherent among the health metrics. A consistency in the magnitude of reported effects and the time lag between exposure and response for four different health indices (symptom reports, decrements in expiratory flow, ED visits, and hospital admissions) was identified and indicates a coherence between ozone and respiratory response to ozone exposure. This supports a proposition that ozone adversely affects asthmatics at levels below the current U.S. standard. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. 77 FR 34221 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...FRL 9682-2] RIN 2060-AR56 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several Counties...This rule completes the initial air quality designations for the 2008...

  11. Interference of ozone with measurements of particle bound benzo[a]pyrene in ambient air; Ozon-Querempfindlichkeit bei der Immissionsmessung von schwebstaubakkumuliertem Benzo[a]pyren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutznacher, H. [UMEG Zentrum fuer Umweltmessungen, Umwelterhebungen und Geraetesicherheit, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Huber, K. [Fachhochschule Offenburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    When the load of particle bound polycyclic (PAH) in ambient air is to be assessed, usually benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is measured as an indicator substance. Since the European Commission is about to establish a limit value for BaP (most likely for the yearly average) a CEN working group was installed to develop a European Standard for the determination of BaP in ambient air. It is known from literature that during sampling of ambient air, BaP degradation may occur, if reactive gases like ozone or nitrogen dioxide are present. A sampling device for the determination of various particle bound air pollutants was developed. With this sampling device it is possible to sample PAH while removing e. g. ozone by using a so called ozone scrubber. Thus it is possible for the first time to study degradation effects or reactions of BaP or other PAH with ozone. After laboratory experiments proved the effectiveness of the ozone scrubber, experiments in ambient air were carried out. The goal of this study was to get quantitative data on the extent of BaP degradation during measurements in ambient air. An experimental set-up was chosen, which allowed to feed in various ozone concentrations at the suction inlet of the sampling cartridge. The results of the study proved that there is a significant degradation of BaP through ozone during the sampling. This interference can be avoided by using the ozone scrubber in the new sampling device. (orig.)

  12. Long-term ambient ozone concentration and the incidence of asthma in nonsmoking adults: The Ahsmog study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, W.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.; Abbey, D.E.; Nishino, N. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). School of Public Health; Lebowitz, M.D. [Univ. of Arizona Coll. of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States).

    1999-02-01

    The authors conducted a prospective study of a cohort of 3091 nonsmokers, ages 27 to 87 years, to evaluate the association between long-term ambient ozone exposure and development of adult-onset asthma. Over a 15-year period, 3.2% of males and 4.3% of females reported new doctor diagnoses of asthma. For males, they observed a significant relationship between report of doctor diagnosis of asthma and 20-year mean 8-h average ambient ozone concentration. The authors observed no such relationship for females. Other variables significantly related to development of asthma were a history of ever-smoking for males, and for females, number of years worked with a smoker, age, and a history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis. Addition of other pollutants to the models did not diminish the relationship between ozone and asthma for males. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient ozone is associated with development of asthma in adult males.

  13. INTERRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURE AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA FOR COMPARISON OF OZONE EXPOSURE INDICES AND ESTIMATING AGRICULTURAL LOSSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report evaluates ambient air quality indicators for ozone (O3) and estimates the exposure levels associated with agricultural losses. In support of the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) review and evaluation of a secondary National Ambient Air Qua...

  14. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzsch, Hans; Dieler, Jochen; Matyssek, Rainer; Wipfler, Philip

    2010-04-01

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO(3)) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO(3)). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO(3) caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m(3) ha(-1) yr(-1) in European beech. PMID:19713019

  15. Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance, chemiluminescence, and DOAS instruments for ambient ozone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E J; Fehsenfeld, F C; Jobson, B T; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Stutz, J; McClenny, W A

    2006-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of ozone measurements made by monitors that determine ozone concentrations in ambient air by UV absorption. These monitors are typically used to measure ozone for the purpose of establishing local compliance to air-quality standards. The study was predicated by the concern that commercially available UV absorbance O3 monitors may be subject to interference from volatile organic carbon (VOC) species that absorb light at 254 nm. To test for these and other effects, we compared simultaneous O3 measurements made by a commercial UV O3 monitor with an O3-NO chemiluminescence instrument, which is not subject to interference by VOC compounds. The comparisons were carried out in the summers of 1999 and 2000 at urban/industrial sites in Nashville and Houston, and in 2004 aboard a ship in the Gulf of Maine. In the two urban areas, we also compared the 03 measurements from these two methods with O3 measurements made by a long-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS). Our tests indicate that, with well-maintained monitors, there are no significant interferences even in areas with significant ambient concentrations of potentially interfering VOCs. PMID:17007137

  16. A preliminary study on the effects of ozone exposure on growth of the tomato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sudhakar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the consequence of application of ozone for a diminutive period repeatedly on tomato seedlings to enhance their biomass. To study the kinetics of these stress-induced growths in more detail we used short pulses (2 min of ozone (O3 exposure at high concentrations as elicitor. The seedlings treated with different concentration of ozone (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 ppm are referred to as T1, T2, T3 and T4 seedlings respectively. The seedlings treated with ambient air are referred to as control seedlings. Among the treatments, T2 seedlings have a positive effect of an increased leaf area, enlarged shoot size and root length on biomass production than T1, T3, and T4 seedlings relative to control seedlings. Although T3 seedlings show enlarged shoot length; the root length and leaf area was reduced than T2 seedlings. The T4 seedlings show greatly reduced root length, stunted shoot and shrunken leaf size than T1, T2 and T3 seedlings. Hence, only the T2 concentration of ozone affords 33% enhanced dry weight and strict biomass allocation to leaves, shoot and root. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanism of these preliminary conclusions.

  17. Ameliorating effect of UV-B radiation on the response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to ambient ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of both ozone and UV-B radiation are typical for high-altitude sites. Few studies have investigated their possible interaction on plants. This study reports interactive effects of O3 and UV-B radiation in four-year-old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. The trees were cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated climatic conditions recorded on Mt Wank, an Alpine mountain in Bavaria, and were exposed for one growing season to simulated ambient or twice-ambient ozone regimes at either near ambient or near zero UV-B radiation levels. Chlorotic mottling and yellowing of current year needles became obvious under twice-ambient O3 in both species at the onset of a high ozone episode in July. Development of chlorotic mottling in relation to accumulated ozone concentrations over a threshold of 40 nL L–1 was more pronounced with near zero rather than ambient UV-B radiation levels. In Norway spruce, photosynthetic parameters at ambient CO2 concentration, measured at the end of the experiment, were reduced in trees cultivated under twice-ambient O3, irrespective of the UV-B treatment. Effects on photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency were restricted to trees exposed to near zero levels of UV-B radiation, and twice-ambient O3. The data indicate that UV-B radiation, applied together with O3, ameliorates the detrimental effects of O3. The data also demonstrate that foliar symptoms develop more rapidly in Scots pine than in Norway spruce at higher accumulated ozone concentrations. (author)

  18. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November and April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  19. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deb Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  20. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)); DeJong, T.M. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O[sub 3]) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O[sub 3] partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 [mu]Pa Pa[sup [minus]1] O[sub 3] in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO[sub 2] assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O[sub 3] and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O[sub 3] exposure.

  1. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O3) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 ?Pa Pa-1 O3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O3 exposure

  2. 77 FR 8197 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... )] that contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations...History of Nonattainment Area Classification Systems for the Ozone NAAQS...III. What are the proposed classification thresholds for nonattainment...ozone NAAQS? A. Proposed Classification Thresholds B....

  3. Ambient ozone phytotoxic potential over the Czech forests as assessed by AOT40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunova I

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambient ozone (O3 represents one of the most prominent air pollution pro­blems in Europe. We present an analysis on O3 with respect to its phytotoxic potential over Czech forests between 1994 and 2008. The phytotoxic potential is estimated based on the exposure index AOT40 for forests calculated from real-time monitoring data at 24 rural sites. Our results indicate high phytotoxic potential for most of the Czech Republic (CR with considerable inter-annual and spatial variability. The highest AOT40 values were 38-39 ppm·h. The cri­tical level for forest protection (5 ppm·h was usually exceeded early in the growing season, generally in May. In years with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, the critical level was exceeded by 5-7 folds as compared to years with non-conducive conditions; nevertheless, all sites consi­stently exceeded the critical level since 1994. In the extremely hot and dry year 2003, the critical level for forests was exceeded over 31 % of the Czech forested area. More research is needed to translate these exceedances into forest injury in the CR.

  4. Non-Linear Concentration-Response Relationships between Ambient Ozone and Daily Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambient ozone (O3) concentration has been reported to be significantly associated with mortality. However, linearity of the relationships and the presence of a threshold has been controversial. Objectives The aim of the present study was to examine the concentration-response relationship and threshold of the association between ambient O3 concentration and non-accidental mortality in 13 Japanese and Korean cities from 2000 to 2009. Methods We selected Japanese and Korean cities which have population of over 1 million. We constructed Poisson regression models adjusting daily mean temperature, daily mean PM10, humidity, time trend, season, year, day of the week, holidays and yearly population. The association between O3 concentration and mortality was examined using linear, spline and linear-threshold models. The thresholds were estimated for each city, by constructing linear-threshold models. We also examined the city-combined association using a generalized additive mixed model. Results The mean O3 concentration did not differ greatly between Korea and Japan, which were 26.2 ppb and 24.2 ppb, respectively. Seven out of 13 cities showed better fits for the spline model compared with the linear model, supporting a non-linear relationships between O3 concentration and mortality. All of the 7 cities showed J or U shaped associations suggesting the existence of thresholds. The range of city-specific thresholds was from 11 to 34 ppb. The city-combined analysis also showed a non-linear association with a threshold around 30-40 ppb. Conclusion We have observed non-linear concentration-response relationship with thresholds between daily mean ambient O3 concentration and daily number of non-accidental death in Japanese and Korean cities. PMID:26076447

  5. The short-term effect of ambient ozone on mortality is modified by temperature in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Tian Tian; Zhang, Yong Hui; Xu, Yan Jun; Lao, Xiang Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Luo, Yuan; Zhu, Qi; Xu, Xiao Jun; Xie, Hui Yan; Liu, Zhao Rong; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-09-01

    Effects of ozone on mortality have been widely assessed in developed countries but rarely in developing countries, and the effects of season and temperature on these associations remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the modifying effects of temperature on the association of ozone with mortality, and to examine the lag effect structure in Guangzhou, China. Daily non-accidental mortality, air pollution and meteorological data from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2008 in Guangzhou were collected. Generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag models (DLM) were used to estimate the excess risk (ER) of ozone on daily mortality and capture the lag effect structure. Results revealed that, in cold season, an increment in the ozone concentration of 10 ?g m-3 was associated with a 0.87% (95% CI: -0.06 to 2.29%) and 3.34% (95%CI: 1.36-5.35%) increase of mortality for lag0 and lag0-6, respectively. However, no significant effects were observed in the warm season. Daily average temperature and ozone concentration had interactive negative effects on non-accidental mortality in the cold season and at daily average temperatures in the 0-25th percentile, and mortality displacement was also found in these conditions. Therefore, the short-term effect of ambient ozone on mortality is modified by temperature in Guangzhou, China.

  6. [Pollution characteristics and ozone formation potential of ambient VOCs in winter and spring in Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Zhang, Han; Xing, Zhen-yu; Deng, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Air samples were collected at urban and rural sites in Xiamen from January to April 2014. The concentrations of 48 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) species were measured by the method of cryogenic pre-concentrator and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ozone formation potential (OFP) of VOCs was also calculated with the method of maximum incremental reactivity (MIR). The results showed that the average mixing ratios of VOCs in winter were 11.13 x 10(-9) and 7.17 x 10(-9) at urban and rural sites, respectively, and those in spring were 24.88 x 10(-9) and 11.27 x 10(-9) at urban and rural sites, respectively. At both sites, alkanes contributed the most to VOCs, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The ratios of B/T showed that vehicle and solvent evaporation were the main sources of VOCs at urban site. While at rural site, transport of anthropogenic sources was another important source of VOCs besides local biomass emissions. Ten main components including propene, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane, n-hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m/p-xylene accounted for 61.57% and 45.83% of total VOCs at urban and rural sites in winter, respectively, and 62.83% and 53.74% at urban and rural sites in spring, respectively. Aromatics contributed the most to total OFP, followed by alkenes. Alkanes contributed the least to OFP with the highest concentration. C3, C4 alkenes and aromatics were found to be the more reactive species with relatively high contributions to ozone formation in Xiamen. Comparing the average MIR of VOCs at the two sites, it was found that the reactivity of VOCs at rural site was higher than that at urban site. PMID:25898641

  7. Effective interface passivation of a Ge/HfO2 gate stack using ozone pre-gate treatment and ozone ambient annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and electrical properties of a Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack are investigated. A thin interfacial GeO2 layer (?1 nm) is formed between Ge and HfO2 by dual ozone treatments, which passivates the Ge/high-k interface. Capacitors on p-type Ge substrates show very promising capacitance-voltage (C—V) characteristics by using in situ pre-gate ozone passivation and ozone ambient annealing after high-k deposition, indicating efficient passivation of the Ge/HfO2 interface. It is shown that the mid-gap interface state density atthe Ge/GeO2 interface is 6.4 × 1011 cm?2 · eV?1. In addition, the gate leakage current density of the Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack passivated by the dual ozone treatments is reduced by about three orders of magnitude compared to that of a Ge/HfO2/Al gate stack without interface passivation. (semiconductor technology)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  9. Growth Season Photochemical Pollution over the UK Based on 1990-2006 Ozone Data

    OpenAIRE

    Matasovi?, Brunislav; Klasinc, Leo; Cvitaš, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Ozone data from 13 rural and 11 urban sites for the growth season (April through September) during 1990-2006 have been analysed on the basis of recently introduced photochemical pollution indica-tors. The indicators predict that urban sites are prone to photochemical pollution, although compared to some rural sites, the urban sites have lower average ozone concentrations and showed lower values of time for which hourly average ozone concentration is above a threshold value. Interestingly, the...

  10. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  11. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P?5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  12. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and yield of bean with ethylenediurea (EDU): Three years of plant monitoring at four sites in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; C.J. Van Dijk

    2002-01-01

    EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. Lit) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands during the growing seasonsof 1994 through 1996 to investigate the responses to ambient ozone. Ozone-induced foliar injury was observed each year anddifferences in injury between sites depended on year. On average,injury amounted to 27% in 1994, to 8% in 1995 and to 1% in 1996. Injury increased with increasing ozone exposure (AOT40) and the es...

  13. A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

  14. Annual and seasonal trends of ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the South-Eastern French Mediterranean region, high ozone concentrations were measured since many years and specific symptoms like chlorotic mottles were detected on Arolla pines. We presented results for the 2000-2008 period concerning the trend analysis for ambient ozone concentrations and related forest damages, with the Mann and seasonal Kendall tests. Ozone precursor's emissions from Europe have been reduced over the last 20 years. Decreases in annual averages, median, 25th and 98th percentiles and maxima values were found. The seasonal trend analysis for the high-lying stations showed a decreasing trend for the warm season, when main ozone production is the photochemistry, and an increase for the cold period, caused by a reduced ozone titration. Statistics on Arolla Pine reveal strong correlations between mottling intensity and the high ozone concentrations. Finally, decreases for the ozone concentrations, and associated statistics, AOT40 values and for the mottling intensity on conifers needles were observed. - Trends of ambient ozone concentration, associated statistics and specific ozone-induced symptoms on conifers needles were studied in Mercantour National Park (South-eastern France) over the 2000-2008 period.

  15. Ambient volatile organic compounds and their effect on ozone production in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, X P; Chen, N; Guo, H; Zhang, W H; Wang, N; Wang, Y; Liu, M

    2016-01-15

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously measured from February 2013 to October 2014 at an urban site in Wuhan. The characteristics and sources of VOCs and their effect on ozone (O3) formation were studied for the first time. The total VOC levels in Wuhan were relatively low, and of all VOCs, ethane (5.2±0.2 ppbv) was the species with the highest levels. Six sources, i.e., vehicular exhausts, coal burning, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage, the petrochemical industry, solvent usage in dry cleaning/degreasing, and solvent usage in coating/paints were identified, and their contributions to the total VOCs were 27.8±0.9%, 21.8±0.8%, 19.8±0.9%, 14.4±0.9%, 8.5±0.5%, and 7.7±0.4%, respectively. Model simulation of a photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (PBM-MCM) indicated that the contribution to O3 formation of the above sources was 23.4±1.3%, 22.2±1.2%, 23.1±1.7%, 11.8±0.9%, 5.2±0.4%, and 14.2±1.1%, respectively. LPG and solvent usage in coating/paints were the sources that showed higher contributions to O3 formation, compared to their contributions to VOCs. The relative incremental reactivity (RIR) analysis revealed that the O3 formation in Wuhan was generally VOC-limited, and ethene and toluene were the primary species contributing to O3 production, accounting for 34.3% and 31.5% of the total RIR-weighted concentration, respectively. In addition, the contribution of CO to the O3 formation was remarkable. The C4 alkanes and alkenes from the LPG usage also significantly contributed to the O3 formation. The results can assist local governments in formulating and implementing control strategies for photochemical pollution. PMID:26410695

  16. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON THE GROWTH PROCESSES OF MAIZE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge substantiated by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, there are various ways, one of which is the ozonation of seeds before sowing. This method inhibits harmful microflora, which could be formed on the seed during the period of storage, and excites the chemical processes within the seed that can accelerate the process of growth. But despite the positive effect of ozone-air mixture of seeds and a variety of conducting research there is still no reliable data on the technological parameters of ozone effects on seed crops (e.g., corn. In this regard, we have conducted experimental studies to determine the effective parameters of the ozonation of corn seeds, such as the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exposure time and binning after treatment. The influence of these parameters was assessed by changes in growth performance of seed, such as germination, germination and growth of strength. Just at the end of the pilot study we carried out a statistical analysis of the data, which allowed us to estimate the degree of influence of each independent parameter (ozone concentration, exposure time, binning after treatment for each dependent parameter (germination energy, germination, growth force. The data obtained is presented in the article

  17. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  18. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ?-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. PMID:22986091

  19. Responses of Fraxinus excelsior L. seedlings to ambient ozone exposure in urban and mountain areas based on physiological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvanova, Petya; Tzvetkova, Nikolina; Bratanova-Doncheva, Svetla; Chipev, Nesho; Fikova, Radka; Donev, Evgeni

    2013-07-01

    Effects of ozone on the sensitive tree species Fraxinus excelsior L. exposed to ambient air were investigated. The dynamics of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in three-year-old ash seedlings were studied during a four-month period (June-September). Seedlings were exposed to ambient ozone in an urban (the Central City Park of Sofia - Borisova Gradina) and a mountain (Plana Mountain) area in Bulgaria. The sites were located near climate monitoring stations, providing data on ozone concentrations and meteorological parameters. Ozone exposure at the mountain site (AOT40) was more than two times higher compared to the urban site. Significantly higher values of sun radiation, transpiration, stomatal conductance and enzyme activity at the mountain site were also observed. At the urban site higher values of temperature and air humidity were registered. Effects of the measured variables on ash seedlings were complex and interdependent. No direct effect of ozone concentration in ambient air on the leaf physiology and biochemistry could be proved. However, intensified SOD and CAT activity in the presence of elevated ozone suggested antioxidant reaction in response to ozone uptake. PMID:23760537

  20. Ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Serafinavici?te, Brigita; Stakenas, Vidas; Bycenkiene, Steigvile

    2009-12-01

    Continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in Lithuania have been performed since 1982. Long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. Several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of Lithuanian forests. A strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold of 40 ppb index and the defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior trees in Lithuanian forests during 1991-2008. A strong correlation was found between ozone exposure and the proportion of healthy F. excelsior, Betula sp., and Alnus incana, trees indicating that in Lithuania the deciduous species are more sensitive to ozone than conifers and that healthier trees may be better indicators of the changing environment. The results of the studies suggest that the observed levels of ozone are sufficiently high to have negative effects on the vegetation in Lithuania. PMID:20175442

  1. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis was tested that O3-induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O3 regime (elevated O3), as released through a free-air canopy O3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O3. As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O3-induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ? We model O3-induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ? Elevated O3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ? Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ? O3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  2. COMBINED OZONE AND ACTIVE OXYGEN TREATMENT OF TOMATOES AND BANANAS DELAYS RIPENING AND REDUCES QUALITY DETERIORATION AND MICROBIAL GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green bananas and mature tomatoes were subjected to a combination of ozone and active oxygen or ambient air (control) treatment at 10 'C for up to 25 days. Visual observation revealed that bananas stored in the active oxygen and ozone chamber remained greener than those stored in the control chambe...

  3. Determination of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and ammonia in ambient air using the passive sampling method associated with ion chromatographic and potentiometric analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa A. Salem; Soliman, Ahmed A.; El-Haty, Ismail A.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and ammonia (NH3) were determined in the ambient air of Al-Ain city over a year using the passive sampling method associated with ion chromatographic and potentiometric detections. IVL samplers were used for collecting nitrogen and sulfur dioxides whereas Ogawa samplers were used for collecting ozone and ammonia. Five sites representing the industrial, traffic, commercial, residential, and background regions of the ci...

  4. Effects of ozone on growth, lipid metabolism, and sporulation of fungi. [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; Alternaria oleraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M.; Harner, F.M.; Price, H.E.; Kormelink, J.R.

    1969-09-01

    Fumigations with ozone at concentrations of 10 pphm or more for 4 hr repeated daily for 4 days suppressed radial growth and spore production of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the most sensitive species studied. Neither radial nor mass growth of Alternaria oleraceae, a more tolerant species, was inhibited by 60 pphm ozone, although spore production was significantly accelerated. Since ozone did not affect spore viability, the inoculum potential was greatly enhanced. Histological effects of ozone included loss of pigmentation in C. lindemuthianum and abundant formation of light-refractive globules in the hyphae. Chemical analyses of mycelial mats showed an average 28% decrease in neutral lipid content of ozone-fumigated cultures. No differences were detectable in fatty acid composition of fumigated cultures. While some lipids may have leaked into the substrate, it was suspected that ozone penetrated into vital sites within the cell-oxidizing sulfhydryl groups, thereby suppressing lipid synthesis. The actual degree of suppression in fumigated hyphae may have been greater than indicated, since much of the mycelia analyzed grew within the substrate and was not directly subjected to ozone. 14 references.

  5. Southwestern Tropical Atlantic coral growth response to atmospheric circulation changes induced by ozone depletion in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, H.; Wainer, I.; Sifeddine, A.; Corrège, T.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Lamounier, S.; Godiva, D.; Shen, C.-C.; Le Cornec, F.; Turcq, B.; Lazareth, C. E.; Hu, C.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    Climate changes induced by stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica have been recognized as an important consequence of the recently observed Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Here we present evidences that the Brazilian coast (Southwestern Atlantic) may have been impacted from both winds and sea surface temperature changes derived from this process. Skeleton analysis of massive coral species living in shallow waters off Brazil are very sensitive to air-sea interactions, and seem to record this impact. Growth rates of Brazilian corals show a trend reversal that fits the ozone depletion evolution, confirming that ozone impacts are far reaching and potentially affect coastal ecosystems in tropical environments.

  6. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates at Purchase Knob, a high elevation site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased with increased foliar stipple. Sensitive plants had lower photosynthetic rates for all leaves, except the very youngest and oldest when compared to tolerant plants. Stomatal conductance decreased with increasing leaf age, but no ozone-sensitivity differences were found. Lower leaves had less starch than upper ones, while leaves on sensitive plants had less than those on tolerant plants. These results show that ambient levels of ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can adversely affect gas exchange, water use efficiency and leaf starch content in sensitive coneflower plants. Persistence of sensitive genotypes in the Park may be due to physiological recovery in low ozone years. - Highlights: ? Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared. ? Net photosynthesis decreased with increased foliar stipple and leaf age. ? Sensitive plants with visible stipple had lower photosynthetic rates when compared to tolerant plants. ? Stomatal conductance did not differ between sensitivity types. ? Sensitive plants had lower leaf starch content than tolerant plants. - Ambient ozone may cause declines in gas exchange and starch in ozone-sensitive genotypes of cutleaf coneflower.

  7. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  8. Impact of ozone on the growth of birch (Betula pendula) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant correlation was found between reductions of growth and daylight AOT40 for Betula pendula saplings. - Saplings of one half-sib family of birch, Betula pendula, were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (OTCs) during two growing seasons 1997-1998. The ozone treatments were non-filtered air (NF, accumulated daylight AOT40 over the two growing seasons of 3.0 ?l l-1 h), non-filtered air with extra ozone (NF+, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 27.3 ?l l-1 h) and non-filtered air with additional extra ozone (NF++, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 120 ?l l-1 h). The birch saplings, including the roots, were harvested after the first and second growing seasons. After the first growing season, the NF++ treatment reduced the total wood biomass by 22%, relative to the NF treatment. There was no further reduction of the total wood biomass in the NF++ treatment after the second growing season. The root biomass was reduced by 30% after the first growing season. The shoot/root ratio, as well as the proportional biomass of leaves, were increased by ozone during both years. The ozone impact on the relative growth rate was estimated to -2% per 10 ?l l-1 h daylight AOT40 per growing season

  9. Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs

  10. INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN HUMAN LUNG EXPOSED TO AMBIENT LEVELS OF OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ozone (O3) has been shown to induce inflammation in the lungs of animals, very little is known about its inflammatory effects on humans. In the study, eleven healthy non-smoking males, ages 18-35 were exposed once to 0.4 ppm O3 and once to filtered air for two hours with...

  11. Fine Ambient Particulate and Ozone Co-Exposures in Durham, North Carolina: Influence of Season on Particle Chemistry and Cardiovascular Responses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the presence of one air pollutant modifies the cardiovascular health effects of another while controlled exposure studies in humans have documented synergistic effects of co-exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) on bloo...

  12. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 yr-1) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive

  13. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  14. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the effects of O3 on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O3 at 60 and 100 nl l-1 (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O3. Although there was no significant effect of O3 on stomatal diffusive conductance to H2O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O3. The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O3 was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O3 may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. - The exposure to ambient levels of ozone decreases growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat.

  15. The temporal pattern of mortality responses to ambient ozone in the APHEA project.

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, E; A. Zanobetti; J. Schwartz; Atkinson, R.; Le Tertre, A; Schindler, C; Pérez, L.; Cadum, E; Pekkanen, J; Paldy, A; Touloumi, G.; Katsouyanni, K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: We investigated the temporal pattern of effects of summertime ozone (O3) in total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in 21 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 project, which is fundamental in determining the importance of the effect in terms of life loss. Methods: Data from each city were analyzed separately using distributed lag models with up to 21 lags. City specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city specific cova...

  16. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  17. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS ALTERNATIVE AMBIENT OZONE STANDARDS BASED ON CROP YIELD LOSS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency establishes primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQSs) to protect public health and welfare from known or anticipated adverse effects from criteria air pollutants. he objectives of this p...

  18. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  19. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

  20. Indirect prediction of surface ozone concentration by plant growth responses in East Asia using mini-open top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Miwa, Makoto; Yonekura, Tetsushi; Aihara, Keiji; Umponstira, Chanin; Le, Vo Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Viet, Phanm Hung; Wei, Ma

    2013-03-01

    We developed small and mobile open top chambers (mini-OTC) measuring 0.6 m (W)?×?0.6 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H) with an air duct of 0.6 m (W)?×?0.23 m (D)?×?1.2 m (H). The air duct can be filled with activated charcoal to blow charcoal filtered air (CF) into the chamber, as opposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF). Ozone sensitive radish Raphanus sativus cv. Red Chime and rosette pakchoi Brassica campestris var. rosularis cv. ATU171 were exposed to NF and CF in mini-OTCs at different locations in East Asia. A total of 29 exposure experiments were conducted at nine locations, Shanghai, China, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Lampang, Phitsanulok and Pathumtani, Thailand, and Hiratsuka, Kisai, Abiko and Akagi, Japan. Although no significant relationships between the mean concentrations of ambient O(3) during the experimental period and the growth responses were observed for either species, multiple linear regression analysis suggested a good relationship between the biomass responses in each species and the O(3) concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The cumulative daily mean O(3) (ppb/day) could be indirectly predicted by NF/CF based on the dry weight ratio of biomass, mean air temperature, and relative air humidity. PMID:22752963

  1. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  2. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O3 under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant-1) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O3. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O3. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O3 under natural field conditions.

  3. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection. PMID:20175444

  4. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10-4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  5. Sensitivity of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in mature beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to ambient or experimentally enhanced ozone regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Löw, Markus

    2007-01-01

    During the years 2003 and 2004, the influence of experimentally enhanced ozone concentrations (by means of “free-air" fumigation) on the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of 60-year-old beech trees was examined and compared to control trees of same age growing under unchanged ozone concentrations at the same site. The drought of 2003 enabled to quantify the effects of increased ozone concentrations under limited water supply. Aims of the study were to quantify the influence of cli...

  6. 75 FR 80420 - Reasonable Further Progress Requirements for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...has the potential to influence the regulation. This...maintenance of the 1997 ozone NAAQS and meet the...disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental...protection provided to human health or the environment...RFP, to implement the ozone NAAQS. In this...

  7. Growth, radiation use efficiency, and canopy reflectance of wheat and corn grown under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of increases in future agricultural production in response to increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere are often based on the beneficial physiological effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth, especially in Ca plants. However, these estimates fail to consider the negative impact of ozone (O3) air pollution on crop production. Increases in tropospheric concentrations of both gases, CO2 and O3, have been observed over the past century, and both are predicted to continue to increase at even higher rates in the near future to levels when they may have a significant impact on agricultural production. Field studies with wheat (Friticum aestivum L.) in 1991 and 1992, and corn (Zea mays L.) in 1991 were conducted using open-top chambers to mimic atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (~ 500 ?L-1 CO2) and Oa (- 40 nL L-1 O3 above ambient air [O3] during 7 h day- 1, 5 days week-1) that are predicted to occur at the Earth's surface during the first half of the 21st century. Wheat and corn (C3 vs. C4) produced clearly different responses to CO2 enrichment, but similar responses to O3 exposure. In wheat, O3 exposure led to reduced grain yield, biomass, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, phytomass production per unit of energy received); in both years; but reduction in accumulated absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (AAPAR) was observed only in 1991. Conversely, CO2 enrichment produced greater grain yield, dry biomass, and RUE. With CO2 enrichment, the Oa-induced stress to wheat plants was apparently ameliorated since responses were equivalent to the control group (low O3 and ambient CO2) for all variables. In contrast, corn demonstrated no benefit to CO2 enrichment for measured variables, and corn grain yield was the only parameter negatively influenced by O3 exposure that is attributed to O3-induced damage during the flowering process. Additionally, no treatment differences were observed for leaf area index (LAI) as determined nondestructively using the LICOR LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. Also, treatment differences for normalized difference vegetation index (ND) were only observed for wheat plants from the high-Oa and ambient CO2 treatment, at some growing stages. Otherwise, ND data were not helpful for identifying damage due to O3 fumigation or benefits due to CO2 enrichment. Significant interactive effects of CO2 vs. O3 were observed only for wheat grain yield in 1991 (p < 0.10), indicated that the detrimental effect of Oa air pollution was more than overcome under the CO2-enriched environment. (author)

  8. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ? 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  9. Ozone-induced expression of stress-related genes in arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Y.K.; Davis, K.R. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Ozone is a major gaseous pollutant that is known to have detrimental effects on plant growth and metabolism. We have investigated the effects of ozone on Arabidopsis thaliana growth and the pattern of expression of several stress-related genes. A. thalina plants treated with either 150 or 300 parts per billion (ppb) ozone daily for 6 h exhibited reduced growth and leaf curling. Fresh and dry weights of ozone-treated plants were reduced 30 to 48% compared to ambient air controls. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that mRNA levels for glutathione S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a neutral peroxidase, and a cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dimutase (SOD) were higher in plants treated with 300 ppb ozone than in ambient air-treated controls. The mRNA levels of lipoxygenase and a catalase were not affected by ozone treatment. Of the transcripts examined, GST mRNA levels increased the most, showing a 26-fold induction 3 h after ozone treatment. The neutral peroxidase and SOD mRNA levels rose more slowly, with both reaching maximum levels corresponding to 5-fold and 3-fold induction, respectively, approximately 12 h after ozone treatment. These studies indicate that ozone-induced expression of stress-related genes in A. thaliana provides an excellent model system for investigating the molecular and genetic basis of ozone-induced responses in plants. 54 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O3) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppbv of O3 (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of ?13C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in ?15N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, ?15N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O3 concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

  11. 77 FR 28423 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...available on the World Wide Web. A copy of this notice...the 1997 ozone NAAQS. Based on the area classifications...by operation of law'' based on the ``design value...these designated areas are based on coordinates of latitude...from EPA Region 9's GIS database and are...

  12. The Impact of Egg Ozonation on Hatching Success, Larval Growth, and Survival of Atlantic Cod, Atlantic Salmon, and Rainbow Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jessica; Casanova, Pérez Juan; Hamoutene, Dounia; Lush, Lynn; Walsh, Andy; Couturier, Cyr

    2015-03-01

    The direct exposure of fish eggs to ozonated water has generated interest as a means of ensuring pathogen-free eggs without the use of harsh chemicals. However, there are numerous knowledge gaps, including safe contact times, exposure levels, and potential long-term effects on aquaculture species in both freshwater and seawater. The effect of different ozone (O3) doses (0.5-1.0, 1.5-2.0, and 2.5-3.0 mg of O3/L for 90 s) on recently fertilized eggs of Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua and eyed eggs of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was evaluated in comparison with the effects of two commercial disinfectants: Perosan (0.004 mg/L) and Ovadine (100 mg/L). The impact of ozone application was evaluated based on hatching success, larval nucleic acid concentration, larval growth, and survival. Overall, results indicated that ozonation of Atlantic Cod eggs at a dose less than 3.0 mg/L for 90 s produced no negative effect on the larvae up to 30 d posthatch. Furthermore, ozonation of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout eggs generated no negative effect on the larvae, based on monitoring until 85% yolk sac re-absorption (16 d posthatch). PMID:26306334

  13. Final report, ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Sanchez, Carmen; Morillo Gomez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Effects of substrate and ambient gas on epitaxial growth indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor Str. 109, L22 P.O. Box. MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Seiler, W. [PIMM, UMR CNRS 8006 Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Hebert, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); Matei, E. [National Institute of Materials Physics (NIMP), Atomistilor Str. 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Perrière, J., E-mail: jacques.perriere@insp.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-07-01

    Indium oxide thin films were grown by pulsed electron beam deposition method at 500 °C on c-cut sapphire and (0 0 1) oriented LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrates in oxygen or argon gas. The effects of ambient gas and substrate symmetry on the growth of indium oxide thin films were studied. Stoichiometric In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are formed in oxygen, while oxygen deficient In{sub 2}O{sub 2.5} films are grown in argon, with In metallic nanoclusters embedded in a In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix (nanocomposite films). In both cases, epitaxial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having the bixbyite phase were grown with various orientation relationships, depending upon the substrate symmetry and gas ambient (oxygen or argon). Domain matching epitaxy was used to describe the precise in-plane epitaxial film–substrate relationships. The differences in film texture were correlated to the differences in growth conditions, while the differences in the film properties were correlated to the film oxygen composition.

  15. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

  16. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  17. Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, Kaisa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kaisa.koivisto@helsinki.fi; Kanerva, Teri [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Nikula, Suvi [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ojanperae, Katinka [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O{sub 3} (40-50 ppb) and CO{sub 2}-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O{sub 3}. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not amend the detrimental effects of O{sub 3} on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} alone had only minor effects. An O{sub 3}-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O{sub 3} responses and CO{sub 2} amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment.

  18. Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O3. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO2 did not amend the detrimental effects of O3 on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO2 alone had only minor effects. An O3-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O3 responses and CO2 amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment

  19. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. - Early-season O3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  20. The Effects of Ambient Ions on the Growth of Gold Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by laser (Nd:YAG, ? = 1064 nm) ablation of a gold target immersed in various aqueous electrolyte solutions (7 mM of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and NaI) as well as in deionized water. The surface plasmon absorption and EDX of AuNPs so produced as well as their TEM images were analyzed to investigate the effects of ambient ions on the growth and aggregation of NPs. The size of AuNPs was reduced by laser ablation in the presence of chloride and bromide ions while it increased drastically when AuNPs were formed in iodide solution. Interestingly, triangular nanoplates were synthesized only in iodide solution. Surface chemistry on AuNPs in various electrolyte solutions was explored to elucidate the role of ions on the size and stability of AuNPs

  1. The Effects of Ambient Ions on the Growth of Gold Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyejin; Kim, Kuk Ki; Song, Jae Kyu; Park, Seung Min [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by laser (Nd:YAG, ? = 1064 nm) ablation of a gold target immersed in various aqueous electrolyte solutions (7 mM of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and NaI) as well as in deionized water. The surface plasmon absorption and EDX of AuNPs so produced as well as their TEM images were analyzed to investigate the effects of ambient ions on the growth and aggregation of NPs. The size of AuNPs was reduced by laser ablation in the presence of chloride and bromide ions while it increased drastically when AuNPs were formed in iodide solution. Interestingly, triangular nanoplates were synthesized only in iodide solution. Surface chemistry on AuNPs in various electrolyte solutions was explored to elucidate the role of ions on the size and stability of AuNPs.

  2. Radiation utilization efficiency and the growth of soybeans exposed to ozone: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ozone (O3) on field-planted soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Davis’) were examined using a simple crop-growth model that resolves the rate of increase in crop dry weight into the total amount of radiation intercepted by a crop canopy and the efficiency of conversion of this energy into dry matter (?, termed utilization efficiency). The objectives were : (1) to examine the effects of O3 on light interception and ?, and compare these results with a similar study by Unsworth et al. to determine whether the effects of O3 are consistent from year to year, and (2) to determine whether ? is more sensitive to O3 during reproductive than vegetative growth and whether allocation of aboveground biomass to seed is affected by O3. Five O3 concentrations (seasonal means of 30, 52, 57, 76 and 99 ppb) were maintained in open-top chambers over the growing season. All treatments were irrigated. Leaf, stem and pod weights and leaf area were measured weekly throughout the season. Total incident solar radiation and total radiation transmission through the canopy were measured with tube solarimeters and electronic integrating devices. Increased O3 concentrations were accompanied by depressed leaf area expansion and earlier leaf senescence, but did not affect total light interception over the entire season. Utilization efficiency (?) was reduced in high O3 treatments and was the most important factor in the reduction of yield; ? for the whole season declined from 0.89 g MJ?1 in the 30-ppb treatment to a low of 0.68 g MJ?1 in the 99-ppb treatment. Efficiencies were higher during reproductive than vegetative growth, but were not more sensitive to O3. Seed yield decreased from 450 g m?2 in the 30-ppb treatment to 320 g m?2 in the 99-ppb treatment. Fractional allocation of aboveground dry weight to seed was not affected by O3. Reduced ? values with increasing O3 concentrations were consistent with an earlier study by Unsworth et al. however, ? values for the vegetative phase of growth in this study were lower at all O3 concentrations. Lower ? values were attributed to canopy light saturation because of higher incident radiation and water stress caused by a shallow rooting zone during a hot, dry growing season. (author)

  3. MECHANISM OF IMPACT OF OZONE AND AIR MIX ON SEEDS OF CORN AND TECHNIQUE OF CARRYING OUT THE PILOT STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC OZONIZATION ON GROWTH PROCESSES OF SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normov D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge posed by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, we use various methods such as: engineering, agro-technical, agronomic, chemical, physico-chemical and so on. We conducted a theoretical study, which showed that the use of physical and chemical methods of treating seed before sowing has a positive effect on the growth processes of seeds. One of such methods is an ozone treatment, which has established itself as a quality growth stimulator of agricultural plants. But despite numerous studies there is no clear description of the mechanism of ozone effects on seeds. In this article, based on our theoretical study, we have presented a material that allows revealing the positive effects of ozone exposure to the seed. To confirm these theoretical results, we have decided to conduct a pilot study. In connection with what, in this article we have included the materials containing information on laboratory equipment and methods of the experiment. We have also presented measuring equipment and methods of iodine-metric method for determining the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exact conformance with calibration gas analyzer which will allow to obtain reliable data on the dose effects of ozone on the grain

  4. Use of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Italy: Verification of the effects of ambient ozone on crop plants and trees and investigation of EDU's mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four experiments where EDU was used to protect plants from ozone (O3) in Italy are reviewed. Doses of 150 and 450 ppm EDU at 2-3 week intervals were successfully applied to alleviate O3-caused visible injury and growth reductions in crop and forest species respectively. EDU was mainly applied as soil drench to crops and by stem injection or infusion into trees. Visible injury was delayed and reduced but not completely. In investigations on mode of action, EDU was quickly (8 days), as it cannot move via phloem. EDU did not enter cells, suggesting it does not directly affect cell metabolism. EDU delayed senescence, did not affect photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen content, and stimulated antioxidant responses to O3 exposure. Preliminary results suggest developing an effective soil application method for forest trees is warranted. - EDU was successful as a tool in determining ozone effects on vegetation in Italy, but while progress was made, its mode of action remains unresolved.

  5. Ozone Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and have been...

  6. Study of ozone gas formed in the industrial radiation process with cobalt-60 and its impact on the environment; Estudo sobre o gas ozonio formado no processo de irradiacao industrial com cobalto-60 e seu impacto no meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzueli, Daniel Henrique

    2013-07-01

    The radiation processing is present in various products such as foods, medical disposable, electrical cables, gems, among others. This process aims to improve the properties, sterilize or sanitize irradiated products. In industrial irradiators facilities, electromagnetic radiation (gamma and X-rays) or electrons before they interact with the products in processing, there are a layer of air. To interact with this air layer, it causes radiolytic effects on the molecules present in the ambient atmosphere, and the main interaction are with the oxygen molecules that have their bonds broken, separating them into two highly reactive atoms that recombine with the other molecule of oxygen to form ozone gas. In this work it was studied the formation, decay and dispersion of ozone in industrial gamma irradiators facilities that use cobalt-60 as a source of radiation. The monitoring of ozone concentration was performed by optical absorption method in a commercial monitor. (author)

  7. Analysis of the effects of combustion emissions and Santa Ana winds on ambient ozone during the October 2007 southern California wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Cayan, Dan; Riggan, Philip; Schilling, Susan; Dawson, Philip; Tyree, Mary; Wolden, Lynn; Tissell, Robert; Preisler, Haiganoush

    2010-02-01

    Combustion emissions and strong Santa Ana winds had pronounced effects on patterns and levels of ambient ozone (O 3) in southern California during the extensive wildland fires of October 2007. These changes are described in detail for a rural receptor site, the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, located among large fires in San Diego and Orange counties. In addition, O 3 changes are also described for several other air quality monitoring sites in the general area of the fires. During the first phase of the fires, strong, dry and hot northeasterly Santa Ana winds brought into the area clean continental air masses, which resulted in minimal diurnal O 3 fluctuations and a 72-h average concentration of 36.8 ppb. During the second phase of the fires, without Santa Ana winds present and air filled with smoke, daytime O 3 concentrations steadily increased and reached 95.2 ppb while the lowest nighttime levels returned to ˜0 ppb. During that period the 8-h daytime average O 3 concentration reached 78.3 ppb, which exceeded the federal standard of 75 ppb. After six days of fires, O 3 diurnal concentrations returned to pre-fire patterns and levels.

  8. Diferentes ambientes e Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica) / Different ambient and Osmocote® for growth of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruits seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vander, Mendonça; Nildo Antônio Arruda de, Abreu; Henrique Antunes de, Souza; Glauco Antônio, Teixeira; Oscar Mariano, Hafle; José Darlan, Ramos.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes e doses de Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L). Um experimento foi instalado no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, empregando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em es [...] quema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos se constituíram dos diferentes ambientes de formação de mudas (casa de vegetação, telado e a céu aberto) e de quatro doses de Osmocote®: 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 de substrato. Avaliaram-se a altura da muda (cm), comprimento da raiz (cm), número de folhas/planta, matéria seca da parte aérea (g), matéria seca da raiz (g) e a matéria seca total (g). Os resultados demonstraram que o Osmocote® (15-10-10) pode ser recomendado para a formação de mudas de tamarindo, em doses de até 6,0 kg.m-3. O ambiente a céu aberto foi o que proporcionou melhor qualidade às mudas. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ambient and Osmocote® (15-10-10) doses on the production of tamarind fruits seedlings. An experiment was carried out in a nursery at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Brazil, arranged in a randomized complete block outline and a 3x4 factorial scheme, with four [...] replications and five plants per plot. The treatments were constituted by greenhouse, nursery and exposed sky, using different dosages of Osmocote® (15-10-10) were 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 of substrate. Seedling growth, height, number of leaves, aerial part, root and total dry matter were evaluated. The results showed that of Osmocote® (15-10-10) can be recommended for the formation of tamarind seedlings, at doses of until 6 kg m-3. Sky exposing was the one which provided better quality to the seedlings.

  9. Diferentes ambientes e Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica Different ambient and Osmocote® for growth of tamarind (Tamarindus indica fruits seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes e doses de Osmocote® na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L. Um experimento foi instalado no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, empregando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos se constituíram dos diferentes ambientes de formação de mudas (casa de vegetação, telado e a céu aberto e de quatro doses de Osmocote®: 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 de substrato. Avaliaram-se a altura da muda (cm, comprimento da raiz (cm, número de folhas/planta, matéria seca da parte aérea (g, matéria seca da raiz (g e a matéria seca total (g. Os resultados demonstraram que o Osmocote® (15-10-10 pode ser recomendado para a formação de mudas de tamarindo, em doses de até 6,0 kg.m-3. O ambiente a céu aberto foi o que proporcionou melhor qualidade às mudas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ambient and Osmocote® (15-10-10 doses on the production of tamarind fruits seedlings. An experiment was carried out in a nursery at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Brazil, arranged in a randomized complete block outline and a 3x4 factorial scheme, with four replications and five plants per plot. The treatments were constituted by greenhouse, nursery and exposed sky, using different dosages of Osmocote® (15-10-10 were 0; 3; 6 e 9 kg m-3 of substrate. Seedling growth, height, number of leaves, aerial part, root and total dry matter were evaluated. The results showed that of Osmocote® (15-10-10 can be recommended for the formation of tamarind seedlings, at doses of until 6 kg m-3. Sky exposing was the one which provided better quality to the seedlings.

  10. Evaluation and calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Gillespie, J.; Schuder, M. D.; Duberstein, W.; Beverland, I. J.; Heal, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-power, and relatively low-cost, gas sensors have potential to improve understanding of intra-urban air pollution variation by enabling data capture over wider networks than is possible with 'traditional' reference analysers. We evaluated an Aeroqual Ltd. Series 500 semiconducting metal oxide O3 and an electrochemical NO2 sensor against UK national network reference analysers for more than 2 months at an urban background site in central Edinburgh. Hourly-average Aeroqual O3 sensor observations were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91) and of similar magnitude to observations from the UV-absorption reference O3 analyser. The Aeroqual NO2 sensor observations correlated poorly with the reference chemiluminescence NO2 analyser (R2 = 0.02), but the deviations between Aeroqual and reference analyser values ([NO2]Aeroq - [NO2]ref) were highly significantly correlated with concurrent Aeroqual O3 sensor observations [O3]Aeroq. This permitted effective linear calibration of the [NO2]Aeroq data, evaluated using 'hold out' subsets of the data (R2 ? 0.85). These field observations under temperate environmental conditions suggest that the Aeroqual Series 500 NO2 and O3 monitors have good potential to be useful ambient air monitoring instruments in urban environments provided that the O3 and NO2 gas sensors are calibrated against reference analysers and deployed in parallel.

  11. Effect of ambient temperature in neonate aspic vipers: growth, locomotor performance and defensive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïdam, Aurélie; Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature during incubation and gestation has been tested in various reptiles; the postnatal period has been rarely investigated however. Three groups of newborn aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) were placed under contrasted thermal regimes during 7 months: (1) a cool 23°C constant regime, (2) a warm 28°C constant regime, and (3) an optimal regime with free-access to a wide range of temperatures. Later, all the snakes were placed under hibernation conditions (6°C) during 3 months. Finally all the snakes were placed in the optimal thermal regime during 2 additional months. The total duration of the experiment was of 12 months. Body mass and feeding rates were recorded weekly, body size was measured monthly. We also assessed locomotor performance and recorded several behavioral traits (e.g., defensive and predatory behaviors). As expected, snakes raised under cool temperatures exhibited low feeding rate, growth rate, body condition, and they exhibited poor locomotor performance; they also displayed marked defensive behaviors (e.g., high number of defensive bites) whilst hesitating during longer periods to bite a prey. Such behavioral effects were detected at the end of the experiment (i.e., 5 months after exposure to contrasted thermal treatments [3 months of hibernation plus 2 months of optimal regime]), revealing long term effects. Surprisingly, growth rate and locomotor performance were not different between the two other groups, warm constant 28°C versus optimal regimes (albeit several behavioral traits differed), suggesting that the access to a wide range of ambient temperatures was not a crucial factor. PMID:23580460

  12. Growth and antioxidant status of broilers fed supplemental lysine and pyridoxine under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakpour Irani, Farzaneh; Daneshyar, Mohsen; Najafi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Three levels of lysine (90, 100 and 110% of Ross requirement) and of pyridoxine (3, 6 and 9 mg kg(-1)) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment to investigate the growth and blood antioxidant ability of broilers under high ambient temperature. None of the dietary supplements affected the weight gain during the starter and grower periods. Although no significant differences were detected between the treatments during the entire period, high lysine level fed birds had a lower weight gain. At any levels of pyridoxine, high lysine fed birds were lighter than others. Neither the lysine nor pyridoxine changed the feed intake or feed conversion ratio during the starter, grower and entire period. However there was no significant difference between the treatments for blood malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, medium lysine fed birds had lower blood MDA than other ones. No significant effects on blood triglyceride, total protein and blood superoxide dismutase activity were indicated with addition of any lysine or pyridoxine level. Medium lysine fed birds had decreased blood glutathione peroxidase activity compared to the birds of other treatments. It was concluded that providing the proposed dietary lysine requirement of Ross strain during heat stress ensuring the best body weight gain and body antioxidant ability. Higher lysine level causes the retarded weight gain due to higher excretion of arginine from the body and consequently higher lipid peroxidation. PMID:26261713

  13. In situ growth of high temperature superconductor thin films with evaporation techniques using an ozone jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on high quality YBa2Cu3O7 thin films grown in situ on various substrates (SrTiO3, Al2O3, Si) using MBE techniques and an ozone jet. The yttrium and copper are evaporated from electron gun sources and the barium is evaporated from a Knudsen cell. All sources are controlled by a single mass spectrometer feedback system to obtain the correct fluxes at high partial ozone pressures. During deposition the partial ozone pressure at the substrate position is estimated to be 10-3-10-2 mbar. The substrate holder temperature is 700 degrees C. The real substrate temperature is estimated to be lower than 650 degrees C. The films are analyzed with R(T), X-ray diffraction and RBS measurements. SEM photographs are taken of the surface

  14. Growth of Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plexes, Regional Ozone Pollution, and World Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameides, W. L.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Yienger, J.; Levy, H., II

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O_3) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO_x emissions are not abated.

  15. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O3 prediction results, we explored the PFT area-loss artifact that occurs due to geographical disparity between the PFT and leaf area index distributions, and can cause increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, the PFT-loss artifact must be a source of limitation in the MEGAN biogenic emission modeling and the CTM O3 simulation results. Time changes of CMAQ O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios suggest that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 10 ppb. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of representative PFT distributions becomes more critical for O3 air quality modeling (or forecasting in support of air quality decision-making and human health studies.

  16. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BTs) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NTs), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HBs) to the total BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BTs and terpene from NTs were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. A geographically weighted regression analysis with locally compensated ridge (LCR-GWR) with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs) suggests that addition of BT, SB, and NT areas can contribute to O3 increase, whereas addition of an HB area contributes to O3 decrease in the domain. Assessment results of the simulated spatial and temporal changes of O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios reveal that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 13 ppb. The simulated maximum 1 h O3 inter-deviations between different PFT scenarios have an asymmetric diurnal distribution pattern (low in the early morning, rising during the day, peaking at 05:00 p.m., and decreasing during the night) in the study domain. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of different PFT distribution data requires much caution when modeling (or forecasting) O3 air quality in complicated urban atmospheric conditions in terms of whether uncertainties in O3 prediction results are expected to be mild or severe.

  17. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chameides, W.L.; Kasibhatla, P.S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Yienger, J.; Levy, H. II (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Three regions of the northern mid-latitudes, the continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, presently dominate global industrial and agricultural productivity. Although these regions cover only 23 percent of the Earth's continents, they account for most of the world's commercial energy consumption, fertilizer use, food-crop production, and food exports. They also account for more than half of the world's atmospheric nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions and, as a result, are prone to ground-level ozone (O[sub 3]) pollution during the summer months. On the basis of a global simulation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, it is estimated that about 10 to 35 percent of the world's grain production may occur in parts of these regions where ozone pollution may reduce crop yields. Exposure to yield-reducing ozone pollution may triple by 2025 if rising anthropogenic NO[sub x] emissions are not abated.

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone effects on above- and belowground growth and decomposition in a no-till soybean-wheat system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations often have counteracting influences on many C3 crops depending on the concentration of the gases and sensitivity of the crop although root growth and residue decomposition responses are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment w...

  19. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J; Bermejo, V; Muntifering, R; González-Fernández, I; Gimeno, B S; Elvira, S; Alonso, R

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O(3)) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O(3) and three N levels. Increased O(3) exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O(3)-induced senescence but did not modify the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O(3) limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. PMID:21111519

  20. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, W A

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different grow...

  1. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. PMID:24041852

  2. Effect of Ozone and Simulated Acid Rain on Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Peroxidase Activity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Ezzel-Arab Abdel Nasser

    2002-01-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L. CV. Giza 400) were exposed to ozone (100 ppb) and simulated acid rain (SAR) at pH 3, separately and combined over 2-weaks period while grown in climate controlled growth chambers. Ozone fumigation (O3) exposure was for 5 h day -1, whereas acid rain exposure was for 2 h per week. The results showed that exposure to high O3 concentration (100 ppb) decreased the number and weight of root nodules, suppressed nitrogenase activity and strongly induce...

  3. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  4. Combination of U.V.-B and ozone reduces pollen tube growth more than either stress alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of in vitro Nicotiana tabacum L. “Bel-W3” pollen tube growth was reduced 62 and 44%, respectively, when pollen tubes were exposed to 120 ppb ozone (O3) for 3 hr or 300 ?W/cm2 ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation for 30 min. Petunia hybrida Vilm. “White Cascade” pollen tube growth was reduced 34 and 59%, respectively, upon exposure to O3 or u.v.-B at the above doses. The combination of u.v.-B at 300 ?W/cm2 for 30 min, followed by O3 at 120 ppb for 3 hr, reduced pollen tube growth by 79% for “Bel-W3” and 75% for “White Cascade”. The effect appeared to be additive, implying that different target areas may be affected by the two stressors. In the Northeast, plants are exposed to both u.v.-B and O3 during the normal growing season. This may result in an unexpectedly higher stress on the reproductive system than had been previously suspected based on these two stressors acting individually. (author)

  5. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O3 and three N levels. Increased O3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O3-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: ? Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. ? The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. ? Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O3-induced increase in senescence biomass. ? Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  6. Relative effects of elevated background ozone concentrations and peak episodes on senescence and above-ground growth in four populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum from North Wales, UK, were exposed to the following combinations of mean background and peak concentrations of ozone for 12 weeks in solardomes: LL (14.3 ppb, 18.9 ppb, respectively), LH (14.8 ppb, 52.3 ppb), HL (28.9 ppb, 35.7 ppb) and HH (30.5 ppb, 72.1 ppb). Elevated ozone rapidly induced premature senescence, with effect increasing in the order: LL 12 values (accumulated between 8am and 8pm) were very different at 10.6 ppm h and 4.1 ppm h, respectively. Overall, linear correlations between whole plant senescence were stronger for AOT0 than for AOT40. Intraspecific variation in the senescence response to the different profiles was observed after 11 weeks of exposure. Effects on growth and tillering were less pronounced than effects on senescence. - Elevated background ozone concentrations induce premature senescence to a greater extent than peak episodes

  7. Growth of catalyst-free high-quality ZnO nanowires by thermal evaporation under air ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yanbin; Guo, Yanqing; Zhang, ZhenHua

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires have been successfully fabricated on Si substrate by simple thermal evaporation of Zn powder under air ambient without any catalyst. Morphology and structure analyses indicated that ZnO nanowires had high purity and perfect crystallinity. The diameter of ZnO nanowires was 40 to 100 nm, and the length was about several tens of micrometers. The prepared ZnO nanowires exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The growth of the ZnO nanostructure was explained by the vapor-so...

  8. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiology of maize at ambient and low temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai; Tian, Chunjie; Liu, Shengqun; Xu, Hongwen; Zhu, Xiancan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control...

  9. 78 FR 32135 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...Plans; Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Reasonable Further...for the Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards...area. The Atlanta, Georgia 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (hereafter...

  10. Effect of ambient gas pressure on pulsed laser ablation plume dynamics and ZnTe film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleau, C.M.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Allard, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Strauss, M.A.; Cao, S.; Pedraza, A.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Puretzky, A.A. [Inst. of Spectroscopy, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Epitaxial thin films of nitrogen-doped p-ZnTe were grown on single-crystal, semi-insulating Ga-As substrates via pulsed laser ablation of a stoichiometric ZnTe target. Both low pressure nitrogen ambients and high vacuum were used. Results of in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and time-resolved ion probe measurements have been compared with ex situ Hall effect and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. A strong correlation was observed between the nature of the film`s surface during growth (2-D vs. 3-D, assessed via RHEED) and the ambient gas pressures employed during deposition. The extended defect content (assessed via cross-sectional TEM) in the region >150 mn from the film/substrate interface was found to increase with the ambient gas pressure during deposition, which could not be explained by lattice mismatch alone. At sufficiently high pressures, misoriented, columnar grains developed which were not only consistent with the RHEED observations but also were correlated with a marked decrease in Hall mobility and a slight decrease in hole concentration. Ion probe measurements, which monitored the attenuation and slowing of the ion current arriving at the substrate surface, indicated that for increasing nitrogen pressure the fast (vacuum) velocity distribution splits into a distinct fast and two collisionally-slowed components or modes. Gas controlled variations in these components mirrored trends in electrical properties and microstructural measurements.

  11. Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated ozone (O3) and limiting soil nitrogen (N) availability both negatively affect crop performance. However, little is known about how the combination of elevated O3 and limiting N affect crop growth and metabolism. In this study, we grew tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) in ambient and elevated O...

  12. Effect of different molecular weight organic components on the increase of microbial growth potential of secondary effluent by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yu, Tong; Su, Chang; Jiang, Haochi; Liu, Shuming

    2014-11-01

    Ozonation has been widely applied in advanced wastewater treatment. In this study, the effect of ozonation on assimilable organic carbon (AOC) levels in secondary effluents was investigated, and AOC variation of different molecular weight (MW) organic components was analyzed. Although the removal efficiencies were 47%-76% and 94%-100% for UV254 and color at ozone dosage of 10mg/L, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in secondary effluents was hardly removed by ozonation. The AOC levels increased by 70%-780% at an ozone dosage range of 1-10mg/L. AOC increased significantly in the instantaneous ozone demand phase, and the increase in AOC was correlated to the decrease in UV254 during ozonation. The results of MW distribution showed that, ozonation led to the transformation of larger molecules into smaller ones, but the increase in low MW (100kDa and 10-100kDa) fractions itself during ozonation was the main reason for the increase of AOC levels. Furthermore, the oxidation of organic matters with high MWs (>100kDa and 10-100kDa) resulted in more AOC production than those with low MWs (1-10kDa and ozonation. PMID:25458672

  13. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J., E-mail: j.sanz@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, V., E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muntifering, R., E-mail: muntirb@auburn.ed [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gonzalez-Fernandez, I., E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, B.S., E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, S., E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, R., E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O{sub 3} and three N levels. Increased O{sub 3} exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O{sub 3}-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O{sub 3}-induced increase in senescence biomass. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  14. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  15. Short-term UV-B radiation and ozone exposure effects on aromatic secondary metabolite accumulation and shoot growth of flavonoid-deficient Arabidopsis mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of UV-absorptive substances in the epidermal cells of leaves is thought to protect mesophyll tissues from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation. We examined the influence of short-term UV-B exposures on UV-absorptive (330 nm) sinapates and flavonols, and on shoot growth of the Arabidopsis wild type ecotype Landsberg erecta and two mutants. 114 deficient in chalcone synthase, and 115, deficient in chalcone/flavonone isomerase. Sequential ozone exposures were used to determine the effects of oxidative stress The levels of sinapates and flavonols on a leaf fresh weight basis increased substantially in the wild type and sinapates increased in the 114 mutant in vegetative vegetative/reproductive transitional and reproductive stage plants in response to short-term (48h) UV-B radiation. When UV-B was discontinued the levels generally decreased lo pre-exposure levels after 48 h in vegetative/reproductive but not in reproductive plants. Exposure to ozone before or alter UV-B treatment did not consistently affect the levels of these UV-absorptive compounds. Dry matter accumulation was less affected by UV-B at the vegetative and reproductive stages than at the vegetative/reproductive stage. At the vegetative/reproductive stage, shoot growth of all 3 genotypes was retarded by UV-B. Growth was not retarded by short-term ozone exposure alone but when exposure to ozone followed UV-B exposure, growth was reduced in all genotypes. Leaf cupping appeared on 115 plants exposed to UV-B

  16. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O3); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O3). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  17. Five years of growth of soybean at elevated CO2 and ozone, an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoyFACE is the first FACE experiment to focus on a seed legume and on corn and the first to explore the interactions of both e[CO2] and e[O3] on the growth and development of an arable crop. The intent of the SoyFACE experiment is to orchestrate a coordinated and comprehensive investigation of the i...

  18. Growth of YBa2(Cu, Co)4O8 single crystals under ambient pressure and their superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the growth of superconducting YBa2(Cu, Co)4O8 single crystals using KOH flux under ambient pressure and their superconducting properties. The average size of the YBa2(Cu, Co)4O8 single crystals is 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.2 mm3. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the parent material is found to be 81 K, indicating a stoichiometric oxide superconductor. The Tc and the c-axis length of YBa2(Cu, Co)4O8 single crystals decrease systematically with increasing the Co-doping content. A comparison of the magnetic irreversibility with the flux-creep theory from the viewpoint of homogeneity/inhomogeneity is made. (author)

  19. Quantitative constraints on the 17O-excess (?17O) signature of surface ozone: Ambient measurements from 50°N to 50°S using the nitrite-coated filter technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicars, William C.; Savarino, Joël

    2014-06-01

    The unique and distinctive 17O-excess (?17O) of ozone (O3) provides a conservative tracer for oxidative processes in both modern and paleo-atmospheres and has acted as the primary driver of theoretical and experimental research into non-mass-dependent fractionation (NMDF) for over three decades. However, due to the inherent complexity of extracting O3 from ambient air, the existing observational dataset for tropospheric O3 isotopic composition remains quite small. Recent analytical developments have provided a robust and reliable means for determining ?17O(O3)trans., the transferrable ?17O signature of ozone in the troposphere (Vicars et al., 2012). We have employed this new methodology in a systematic investigation of the spatial and seasonal features of ?17O(O3)trans. in two separate field campaigns: a weekly sampling effort at our laboratory in Grenoble, France (45°N) throughout 2012 (n = 47) and a four-week campaign onboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern along a latitudinal transect from 50°S to 50°N in the Atlantic Ocean (n = 30). The bulk 17O-excess of ozone, denoted ?17O(O3)bulk, exhibited mean (±1?) values of 26.2 ± 1.3‰ (?17O(O3)trans. = 39.3 ± 2.0‰) and 25.9 ± 1.1‰ (?17O(O3)trans. = 38.8 ± 1.6‰) for the Grenoble and R/V Polarstern collections, respectively. This range of values is in excellent quantitative agreement with the two previous studies of ozone triple-isotope composition, which have yielded mean (±1?) ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.4 ± 9.0‰ (n = 89). However, the magnitude of variability detected in the present study is much smaller than that formerly reported. In fact, the standard deviation of ?17O(O3)bulk in each new dataset is lower than the uncertainty previously estimated for the filter technique (±1.7‰), indicating a low level of natural spatial and temporal variation in the 17O-excess of surface ozone. For instance, no clear temporal pattern in ?17O(O3) is evident in the annual record from Grenoble despite dramatic seasonal variations in ozone and atmospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) concentrations. However, a small but statistically significant difference is distinguishable in the R/V Polarstern record when comparing samples collected in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, which possessed average ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.2 ± 1.0‰ and 26.5 ± 0.7‰, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of the tropospheric ozone budget and the use of oxygen isotope ratios of secondary atmospheric species to derive information regarding oxidation pathways from modern and paleo-atmospheres.

  20. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petäjä

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  1. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  2. Control of ambient pH on growth and stable isotopes in phytoplanktonic calcifying algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Michaël.

    2015-08-01

    The present work examines the relationship between pH-induced changes in growth and stable isotopic composition of coccolith calcite in two coccolithophore species with a geological perspective. These species (Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus pelagicus) with differing physiologies and vital effects possess a growth optimum corresponding to average pH of surface seawater in the geological period during their first known occurrence. The "ancestral" C. pelagicus has much wider pH tolerance in terms of growth rates than the more recently evolved G. oceanica. Diminished growth rates are explained by the challenge of proton translocation into the extracellular environment at low pH and enhanced aqueous CO2 limitation at high pH. Reducing the cell dynamics in this way leads to a lower degree of oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in G. oceanica. In contrast, the slower growing species C. pelagicus, which typically precipitates near-equilibrium calcite, does not show any modulation of oxygen isotope signals with changing pH. Overall, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are best explained by the degree of utilization of the internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the dynamics of isotopic reequilibration inside the cell. Thus, the "carbonate ion effect" may not apply to coccolithophores. This difference with foraminifera can be traced to different modes of DIC incorporation into these two distinct biomineralizing organisms. From a geological perspective, these findings have implications for refining the use of oxygen isotopes to infer more reliable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from fossil carbonates and contribute to a better understanding of how climate-relevant parameters are recorded in the sedimentary archive.

  3. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  4. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  5. Crescimento de Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) em ambiente natural / Growth of Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) in natural environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Trevisan; Sandro, Santos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 em ambiente natural. Para isso foram realizadas coletas mensais de abril de 2006 a maio de 2007 no arroio Passo Taquara, no município de São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os organi [...] smos foram coletados utilizando armadilhas plásticas e puçá. Os espécimes foram sexados e tiveram mensurado o comprimento do cefalotórax (CC), em seguida foram devolvidos ao córrego. O crescimento foi avaliado utilizando o modelo de von Bertalanffy. As curvas de crescimento do cefalotórax, estimadas para machos e fêmeas, são descritas pelas seguintes equações Ct = 28,00 [1 - e-0,0047(t+10,63)] e Ct = 25,16 [1 - e-0,0051(t+17,65)], respectivamente. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores que as fêmeas. A longevidade foi estimada em três anos para os machos e dois anos e meio para as fêmeas. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth of Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 in natural environment. Samplings were monthly performed, from April/2006 to May/2007, in a tributary of Ibicuí-Mirim River, which belongs to the Uruguay River basin, at São Pedro do Sul municipality, sta [...] te of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Traps and dip nets were used to collect the animals. The specimens were sexed and had their cephalothoracic length (CL) measured, using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision. The growth was evaluated using the von Bertalanffy model. The growth curves in length (mm), for the data obtained through the modal progression, are described by the equations: Ct = 28.00 [1 - e-0.0047(t+10.63)] for males and Ct = 25.16 [1 - e-0.0051(t+17.65)] for females. The maximum estimated age for males was three years and for females was two years and six months.

  6. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. PMID:25765971

  7. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  8. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac)2], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnOx–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnOx films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac)2 as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnOx thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO2 or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications

  9. Hafnium silicate formation by ultra-violet/ozone oxidation of hafnium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the room temperature growth of hafnium silicate by ultra-violet/ozone oxidation of hafnium silicide. Hafnium silicide was deposited by magnetron sputtering on hydrogen terminated (1 0 0) Si. The film was then exposed to UV radiation while in an O2 ambient. Hafnium silicate films are obtained with no detectable SiOx interfacial layer as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

  10. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiology of maize at ambient and low temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Song, Fengbin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM colonization. Low temperature remarkably decreased plant height and total dry weight but increased root dry weight and root-shoot ratio. The AM plants had higher proline content compared with the non-AM plants. The maize plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and G. intraradices had higher malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents under low temperature condition. The activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase of AM inoculated maize were higher than those of non-AM ones. Low temperature noticeably decreased the activities of CAT. The results suggest that low temperature adversely affects maize physiology and AM symbiosis can improve maize seedlings tolerance to low temperature stress.

  11. R9 8-Hour Ozone Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of Nonattainment Areas for 2008 NAAQS 8 Hour Ozone. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality...

  12. R9 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Esri polygon shapefile of 1-hour ozone designated areas in US EPA Region 9. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality...

  13. Ozone decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev , Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennadi E.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a...

  14. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how elevated carbon dioxide concentration and elevated ozone concentration altered leaf area index development in a clos...

  15. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Contran, Nicla [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, Milan (Italy); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States); Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa (Italy); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA, Corso Casale 476, I-10128 Turin (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O{sub 3} effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action.

  16. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O(3) effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. PMID:18331769

  17. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  18. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ? Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ? Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ? Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ? The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  19. Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay S. Baroniya; Sunita Kataria; Pandey, G. P.; Kadur N. Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes), UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection) and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight) and to determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significa...

  20. Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ander; Rappold, Ana G.; Neas, Lucas M.; Reich, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of ambient ozone levels and temperatures which, in turn, may impact public health. Much research has focused on the effect of short-term ozone exposures on mortality and morbidity while controlling for temperature as a confounder, but less is known about the joint effects of ozone and temperature. The extent of the health effects of changing ozone levels and temperatures will depend on whether these effects are additive or...

  1. Ozone measurement systems: associated instrumentation and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bellido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects produced by ozone have lead to a vast regulation to define and establish the quality goals of ambient air, based on common methods and criteria. The surveillance nets of atmospheric pollution are worldwide extended systems and the applied technology for the ozone measurement is nowadays quite standardized. The aim of this paper is to give a general view of the most common systems used in the ozone measurement in ambient air from a practical point of view. The used instrumentation and the usual calibration methods will be described.

  2. Ozone, antioxidant spray and meloidogyne hapla effects on tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisessar, S.; Palmer, K. T.

    The relationship between ozone and the northern root-knot nematode on tobacco was investigated. Seedlings of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Virginia 115 were inoculated and not inoculated with root-knot ( Meloidogyne hapla (Chitwood) prior to transplanting to a field plot. One-half the plants were sprayed at weekly intervals with an antioxidant, EDU at the rate of 1 kg ha -1 to protect against oxidant injury. O 3 concentrations in excess of 80 ppb were recorded 14 times during the summer of 1982. Ambient ozone inhibited growth and yield of tobacco inoculated and not inoculated with M. hapla. Tobacco inoculated with nematode alone developed significantly more ozone injury than other treatments indicating that tobacco infected with M. hapla is more susceptible to ambient O 3. Significantly 20% more galls developed on plants with nematode inoculation compared to plants with nematode inoculation + EDU indicating that EDU indirectly reduced gall development in tobacco. Plants protected with EDU also showed an increase in dry weight of shoot, root and biomass.

  3. Inflammatory and Repair Pathways Induced in Human Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells with Ozone Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hofer; Tenney, Rachel; Chen, Chun; Stiner, Rachel; Balmes, John R.; Paquet, Agnès C.; Arjomandi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway inflammation and epithelial injury. Methods To examine the responses of airway cells to ozone-induced oxidative injury, 19 subjects (7 with asthma) were exposed to clean air (0ppb), medium (100ppb), and high (200ppb) ambient levels of ozone for 4h on three separate occasions in a climate-controlled chamber followed by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 24h later. BAL cell mRNA expression was examined using Affymetrix GeneChip Microarray. The role of a differentially expressed gene (DEG) in epithelial injury was evaluated in an in vitro model of injury [16HBE14o- cell line scratch assay]. Results Ozone exposure caused a dose-dependent up-regulation of several biologic pathways involved in inflammation and repair including chemokine and cytokine secretion, activity, and receptor binding; metalloproteinase and endopeptidase activity; adhesion, locomotion, and migration; and cell growth and tumorigenesis regulation. Asthmatic subjects had 1.7- to 3.8-fold higher expression of many DEGs suggestive of increased proinflammatory and matrix degradation and remodeling signals. The most highly up-regulated gene was osteopontin, the protein level of which in BAL fluid increased in a dose-dependent manner after ozone exposure. Asthmatic subjects had a disproportionate increase in non-polymerized osteopontin with increasing exposure to ozone. Treatment with polymeric, but not monomeric, osteopontin enhanced the migration of epithelial cells and wound closure in an ?9?1 integrin-dependent manner. Conclusions Expression profiling of BAL cells after ozone exposure reveals potential regulatory genes and pathways activated by oxidative stress. One DEG, osteopontin, promotes epithelial wound healing in an in vitro model of injury. PMID:26035830

  4. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  5. Ozone NAAQS Review: Policy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is one of the six major air pollutants for which EPA has issued air quality criteria and established national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) based on those criteria. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air...

  6. Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Baeza; Cristina Rossler; Diana Mielnicki; María Clara Zamora; Jorge Chirife

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As shown by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimento de ...

  7. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  8. Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sanjay S., Baroniya; Sunita, Kataria; G.P., Pandey; Kadur N., Guruprasad.

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes), UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection) and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight) and to [...] determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significant inverse association between the enhancement in vegetative growth and number of pods among the cultivars tested, indicating differences in the carbon partitioning amongst the cultivars by the way of exclusion of solar UV-B. NRC-7, Pusa-24 and JS-335 showed maximum promotion in vegetative growth and less enhancement in crop yield after solar UV-B exclusion. Kalitur, JS71-05, Hardee, PK-472 and PK-1029 showed improved performance both in terms of number of pods/plant and seed weight after solar UV-B exclusion. An enhancement in the crop yield by exclusion of solar UV-B indicated poor response of the cultivar to the ambient solar UV-B; these cultivars would be more suitable at latitudes, which received less UV-B. According to UV-SI, sensitivity of eight Indian soybean cultivars to ambient level of UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation had the following descending order; PK-472 > JS-335 > Hardee > Kalitur > JS71-05 > Pusa-24 > NRC-7 > PK-1029. These findings suggest the way to select the best-suited cultivar for particular latitude.

  9. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  10. Three days after a single exposure to ozone, the mechanism of airway hyperreactivity is dependent on substance P and nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Verhein, Kirsten C.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Moulton, Bart C.; Jacoby, Isabella W.; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone causes persistent airway hyperreactivity in humans and animals. One day after ozone exposure, airway hyperreactivity is mediated by release of eosinophil major basic protein that inhibits neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors, resulting in increased acetylcholine release and increased smooth muscle contraction in guinea pigs. Three days after ozone, IL-1?, not eosinophils, mediates ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, but the mechanism at this time point is largely unknown. IL-1? increases ...

  11. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

  12. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte LindstrØm

    2012-01-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  13. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NOx, which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  14. Ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Yanitska, I.V.

    2014-01-01

    The ozone layer is a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30 kilometers) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet B radiation emitted by the sun. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/34904

  15. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Vergne, Phillippe; Sifakis, Nicolas; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; Kambezidis, Harry; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Düsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships. This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly be measured.

  16. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 3. Most of the evidence comes from studies of ambient particles concentrations. However, in Europe and elsewhere, the air pollution profile has gradually changed toward a more pronounced photochemical component. Ozone is one of the most toxic components of the photochemical air pollution mixture. Indeed, the biological basis for these observations has not been elucidated. In the present review, the role of ozone as chemical molecule will be firstly considered. Secondly, pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the atmospheric ozone level and cardiovascular pathology will be examined. Thirdly, the literature relating hospitalization frequency, morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular causes and ozone concentration will be studied. The correlation between ozone level and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction will be eventually discussed.

  17. Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harward, M.R.; Treshow, M.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea millifolium, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium fremontii, Cruciferae sp., Descurainia pinnata, Descurainia sp., Geranium fremontii, Isatis tinctoria, Ligusticum porteri, Lepidium virginicum, Madia glomerata, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum douglasii, Phacelia heterophylla, Viola italica. Plants were exposed to 30 pphm, 15 pphm, ambient air reaching 5-7 pphm for 2 hours per day, and filtered air. The study was repeated for 3 seasons. Ambient air caused a significant reduction of total plant weight only of Lepidium virginicum. Six species produced fruit and seeds. At 15 pphm, seed production by Madia glomerata and Polygonum douglasii was significantly reduced. At 30 pphm, seed production was also reduced in Polygonum aviculare and Lepidium virginicum. The two most significant conclusions to emerge from the study were first that several species were more sensitive to ozone than might have been suspected. Second, this sensitivity varied sufficiently that major shifts in community composition would be probable following only a year or two of exposure. More tolerant species have no doubt already become dominant over more sensitive species in natural plant communities exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. It must be stressed that the species studied did not necessarily represent the most ozone sensitive members of the community, or the most tolerant.

  18. Ozone decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  19. Crescimento de Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) em ambiente natural Growth of Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) in natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    André Trevisan; Sandro Santos

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 em ambiente natural. Para isso foram realizadas coletas mensais de abril de 2006 a maio de 2007 no arroio Passo Taquara, no município de São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando armadilhas plásticas e puçá. Os espécimes foram sexados e tiveram mensurado o comprimento do cefalotórax (CC), em seguida foram devolvidos ao córrego. O crescimento ...

  20. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  1. Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Baeza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As shown by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne (pasteurizado deixado por várias horas à temperatura ambiente. Para isso, perfis de temperatura de algumas cidades do México foram combinados com resultados de literatura sobre a cinética de crescimento de S. aureus. Como demonstrado por previsões teóricas, se o alimento é deixado à temperatura ambiente, a utilização da média diária da temperatura pode não dar previsões exatas.

  2. Enhancement of allergic lung sensitization in mice by ozone inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.; Gershwin, L.J.

    1988-07-01

    Inhaled ozone was found to exert an enhancing effect for allergic lung sensitization when mice contracted an aerosolized allergen. The animals were exposed to ozone concentrations of 0.24, 0.16, 0.13, and 0.10 ppm. After 4 days of continuous ozone exposure, the mice had allergen contact from an aerosolized solution of ovalbumin. The animals were then maintained in ambient air for several days before the cycle of ozone and aerosolized allergen was repeated over four allergen contact cycles. Mice were rested in ambient air for a week after the last allergen contact, and they were then tested for allergic sensitization by the intravenous injection of 2 mg of ovalbumin to induce anaphylactic shock in allergic individuals. The control groups of mice were maintained in ambient air throughout the experiment, but they experienced identical allergen contact with the ozone-exposed mice. The phenomenon of allergic enhancement from ozone inhalation was detected at 0.24, 0.16, and 0.13 ppm of ozone. The enhancing effect disappeared at 0.10 ppm of ozone. The study indicated a potential for increasing the number of allergically sensitized individuals when various allergens are inhaled during periods of high ozone exposure with the consequent adverse changes on respiratory membranes. The significance to human health of the allergic enhancement phenomenon by ozone needs investigation.

  3. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O3), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years

  4. Characterization of ozone episodes in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was directed toward analysis and quantitation of some of the factors that precede the development of ozone episodes in an urban setting. Measurements of pollution and meteorological data were collected in Chicago during August and early September for 54 consecutive days in 1976 and 39 consecutive days in 1977. During these periods, regular measurements were made of the ozone-forming potential of ambient air. Rise in ozone levels was related to passage of a weather front. A method was developed and tested for measuring the ozone-forming potential of ambient air. A rough association was observed between this measurement and O3(max) 3 and 4 days later for the same frontal system

  5. Desarrollo de Pinus pseudostrobus bajo distintos ambientes de crecimiento en jardín común / Development of Pinus pseudostrobus under different environments of growth in common garden

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Hugo, Cambrón-Sandoval; Humberto, Suzán-Azpiri; Cuauhtémoc, Sáenz-Romero; Naúm M., Sánchez-Vargas.

    Full Text Available A partir de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP), se plantea la interpretación y clasificación de tres ambientes de competencia sobre el desarrollo de individuos de P. pseudostrobus integrando resultados previamente publicados dentro del mismo ensayo; las variables evaluadas fueron: el creci [...] miento (altura y diámetro a la base del tallo), producción de clorofila (cantidad de pigmentos de clorofila a y b), supervivencia, producción y distribución de biomasa total, raíz, rama, hoja y tallo, y arquitectura de crecimiento (largo de rama y altura de inserción de la primera rama) en familias de medios hermanos de P. pseudostrobus evaluados en un ensayo de jardín común a 10 meses de edad bajo tres ambientes de competencia. (I) baja densidad inter-familiar (0.24 × 0.12 m), (II) alta densidad inter-familiar (0.12 × 0.06 m) y (III) alta densidad intra-familiar (0.12 × 0.06 m). Se estimó que los tres componentes con mayor peso (CP) explican el 82.9% de la variación total. El componente principal de mayor varianza se interpreta como crecimiento (CP1), agrupando a las familias por ambiente de competencia; al aumentar la densidad de plantación, posteriormente, las familias se agrupan por la capacidad de supervivencia y por la plasticidad fisiológica (CP2). Finalmente, la diferencia entre los ambientes la hace la plasticidad fenotípica de las familias como respuesta al ambiente de competencia (cambios en la arquitectura) (CP3). Los resultados evidenciaron un elevado nivel de plasticidad fenotípica de P. pseudostrobus y se hace hincapié en la importancia de la selección de ambientes y de genotipos acordes para aumentar la adaptación y productividad en los programas de mejora. Abstract in english From a principal component analysis (PCA), is is proposed the interpretation and classification of three main environments competition on the development of individuals of P. pseudostrobus integrating previous results within the same trial. The variables were: growth (height and base diameter), chlo [...] rophyll production (chlorophyll pigments total, a, b and the ratio a/b), survival, production and distribution of dry weight biomass (total biomass of root, branch, leaf and stem) and growth architecture (length of branch insertion height and the lowest branch on the stem). All variables were measured in half-sibling families of P. pseudostrobus in a common garden test for 10 months-old seedlings in three competitive environments: (I) inter-family of low density (0.24 × 0.12 m), (II) inter-family of high density (0.12 × 0.06 m) and (III) intra-family with high density (0.12 × 0.06 m). The first three components (PC) explained 82.9% of the total variation. The growth was the major component (PC1), grouping families for competitive environments as PC2 with families grouped by survivability and physiological plasticity, and finally, architectural structural changes as PC3. The results showed a high level of phenotypic plasticity of P. pseudostrobus, and emphasize the importance of the selection of environments and genotypes consistent to enhance adaptation and productivity improvement programs.

  6. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  7. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O 3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m -2 s -1 (POD 6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m -2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  8. Fast response cavity enhanced ozone monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, A. L.; Rosen, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Ozone is an important atmospheric gas due to its role in air quality and radiative forcing. A new method for sensitive, rapid monitoring of ambient ozone has been developed using a compact platform and relatively inexpensive components. Based on Incoherent Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (IBB-CEAS), the device utilizes an optical cavity of just 14.5 cm and moderately high reflectivity mirrors (R = 99.3%). Performance of the instrument has been vali...

  9. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ? Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ? The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ? Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ? Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ? These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  10. Ozone fact sheet: the ozone layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The fact sheets deal with such topics as: protection of the ozone layer; what the ozone layer is; what is happening to Canada's ozone layer; ozone-destroying chemicals; ozone depletion over Canada; the polar regions and ozone loss; the impacts of Arctic ozone thinning; research; the impacts of ozone loss; actions to protect the ozone layer; reducing ozone-destroying chemicals; progress in reducing ozone-destroying chemicals; what you can do. Canada has played a key role in protecting the ozone layer, and our nation was instrumental in the development of the Montreal protocol, which is the international agreement to reduce ozone-destroying chemicals. As well, Canada is a world leader in the scientific research which guides international effort to protect the fragile skies. The production of industrial chemicals once a major threat to the earth's ozone layer has been greatly reduced, and levels of some of those chemicals are beginning to decline in the lower atmosphere. The ozone layer is expected to eventually recover, if efforts are maintained by all nations to reduce ozone-destroying chemicals. It will probably be more than a decade before major signs of a recovery are seen, and at least the year 2050 before any substantial recovery occurs. The ozone layer is still thinning, especially at the earth's poles. Mid-latitude areas such as southern Canada and the U.S. are still experiencing ozone thinning.

  11. Ozone concentrations, flux and potential effect on yield during wheat growth in the Northwest-Shandong Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhilin; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Fenghua; Meixner, Franz X

    2015-08-01

    Ozone (O3) concentration and flux (Fo) were measured using the eddy covariance technique over a wheat field in the Northwest-Shandong Plain of China. The O3-induced wheat yield loss was estimated by utilizing O3 exposure-response models. The results showed that: (1) During the growing season (7 March to 7 June, 2012), the minimum (16.1ppbV) and maximum (53.3ppbV) mean O3 concentrations occurred at approximately 6:30 and 16:00, respectively. The mean and maximum of all measured O3 concentrations were 31.3 and 128.4ppbV, respectively. The variation of O3 concentration was mainly affected by solar radiation and temperature. (2) The mean diurnal variation of deposition velocity (Vd) can be divided into four phases, and the maximum occurred at noon (12:00). Averaged Vd during daytime (6:00-18:00) and nighttime (18:00-6:00) were 0.42 and 0.14cm/sec, respectively. The maximum of measured Vd was about 1.5cm/sec. The magnitude of Vd was influenced by the wheat growing stage, and its variation was significantly correlated with both global radiation and friction velocity. (3) The maximum mean Fo appeared at 14:00, and the maximum measured Fo was -33.5nmol/(m(2)·sec). Averaged Fo during daytime and nighttime were -6.9 and -1.5nmol/(m(2)·sec), respectively. (4) Using O3 exposure-response functions obtained from the USA, Europe, and China, the O3-induced wheat yield reduction in the district was estimated as 12.9% on average (5.5%-23.3%). Large uncertainties were related to the statistical methods and environmental conditions involved in deriving the exposure-response functions. PMID:26257340

  12. R9 1997 NAAQS 8-Hour Ozone Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Esri shapefile of designated areas for 8 Hour Ozone, for the primary and secondary 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas...

  13. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discus...

  14. OZONE EXPOSURE INITIATES A SEQUENTIAL SIGNALING CASCADE IN AIRWAYS INVOLVING INTERLEUKIN-1BETA RELEASE, NERVE GROWTH FACTOR SECRETION, AND SUBSTANCE P UPREGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joshua S.; Wu, Zhongxin; Hunter, Dawn D.; Dey, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and nerve growth factor (NGF) increase synthesis of substance P (SP) in airway neurons both after ozone (O3) exposure and by direct application. It was postulated that NGF mediates O3-induced IL-1? effects on SP. The current study specifically focused on the influence of O3 on IL-1?, NGF, and SP levels in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and whether these mediators may be linked in an inflammatory-neuronal cascade in vivo. The findings showed that in vivo O3 exposure induced an increase of all three proteins in mouse BALF and that O3-induced elevations in both NGF and SP are mediated by the inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. Further, inhibition of NGF reduced O3 induced increases of SP in both the lung BALF and lung tissue, demonstrating NGF serves as a mediator of IL-1? effects on SP. These data indicate that IL-1? is an early mediator of O3-induced rise in NGF and subsequent SP release in mice in vivo. PMID:25734767

  15. Ozone and vascular tissue differentiation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rier, J.P. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The possible effects of ozone on the process of vascular tissue differentiation in plants and the protein changes associated with it are investigated. Test materials were wounded plant internodes and callus tissues grown, exposed, and studied under laboratory conditions. Ozone was more effective in reducing xylem regeneration in those internodes grown in Indoleacetic acid than in Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Preliminary findings of the protein and enzyme patterns in callus tissues exposed to ozone suggest that it has an influence on them. It is concluded that plant internodes and callus tissues can be used to study the effects of ozone on certain processes related to plant growth and development.

  16. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness, dehierarchization, ubiquity and the production of unfocused sensations in contrast to the conventional notion of the aesthetic experience as a focused contemplation of a stationary object.

  17. Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Arzola, C; González-Vizcarra, V; Manríquez-Núñez, O M; Montaño-Gómez, M F; Navarrete-Reyes, J D; Raymundo, C; Zinn, R A

    2015-09-01

    In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI) (linear effect, p0.10) on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (292±5 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08), increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09), and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07) and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09). It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. PMID:26194225

  18. Ozone matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting out with a critical look at the political aspects of sustainability programmes in the United Kingdom - with a particular emphasis on the 'spin' put on the topic by politicians - this editorial article discusses the problem of summer ozone pollution in urban and countryside areas. The measures - such as catalytic converters on cars - already being taken in part to reduce the emission of pollutants from which the ozone is formed are reviewed. The influence of climatic effects are also discussed. The author calls for increased efforts in reducing levels of air pollution and discusses those that are considered the most important

  19. Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A Lage Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h and contact time (min were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

  20. Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. A, Lage Filho; L. R. F, Carvalho; M. L. A, Lopes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and [...] ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h) and contact time (min) were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

  1. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  2. Genes of innate immunity and the biological response to inhaled ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuowei; Tighe, Robert M.; FENG, FEIFEI; Ledford, Julie G.; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Ambient ozone has a significant impact on human health. We have made considerable progress in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the biological response to ozone. It is increasingly clear that genes of innate immunity play a central role in both infectious and non-infectious lung disease. The biological response to ambient ozone provides a clinically relevant environmental exposure that allows us to better understand the role of innate immunity in non-infectious airways di...

  3. Ozone depletion zone and ozone smog. Ozone chemistry fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book elucidates the fundamentals of the ozone theory. The knowledge verified through measurements is compiled, and the gaps in the knowledge of ozone are defined. While the knowledge of ozone appears to be well-established the gaps in the knowledge are responsible for uncertainties. Measurement methods for determination of the atmospheric concentration of ozone are described. Details are given about the basic processes of atmospheric ozone formation and ozone depletion and about the role of CFC. The factors which determine ozone concentrations in the southern hemisphere are described first because South Pole ozone formation processes, in spite of their complexity, are not as complex as North Pole ozone formation processes. The differences between these processes in the two polar regions are described. (orig.)

  4. Growth of (Y1-x Ca x )Ba2Cu4O8 in ambient pressure and its tri-axial magnetic alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, S.; Yamaki, M.; Shimoyama, J.; Kishio, K.; Doi, T.

    2015-10-01

    We report the growth of single crystals in ambient pressure and tri-axial orientation under modulated rotation magnetic fields (MRFs) for (Y1-x Ca x )Ba2Cu4O8 [(Y1-x Ca x )124] with x ? 0.1. Rectangular (Y1-x Ca x )124 crystals approximately 50 ?m in size have been successfully grown for x ? 0.1 in a growth temperature region from 650 °C to 750 °C. Their critical temperatures increased with x and exhibited approximately 91 K for x = 0.1. By applying an MRF of 10 T, pulverised powders of (Y1-x Ca x )124 were tri-axially aligned in epoxy resin at room temperature in a whole x region below x = 0.1. The magnitude relationship of the magnetic susceptibilities (?) along crystallographic directions for (Y1-x Ca x )124 was ? c > ? a > ? b at room temperature and was unchanged with a change in x. From changes in the degrees of the c-axis and the in-plane orientation (??) for the (Y1-x Ca x )124 powder samples aligned under three different MRF conditions, it was found that MRFs above at least 1 T were required to achieve almost complete tri-axial alignment with ?? physics and the production of cuprate superconducting materials.

  5. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters / Crescimento de Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambientes marinho e estuarino em águas brasileiras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Ruschel, Lopes; Carlos Henrique Araujo de Miranda, Gomes; Cláudio Rudolfo, Tureck; Claudio Manuel Rodrigues de, Melo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento da ostra-do-mangue Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambiente marinho e estuarino. As ostras foram cultivadas por 11 meses em sistema de espinhel, em dois locais de estudo - São Francisco do Sul e Florianópolis -, em Santa Catarina. A concentração de [...] clorofila-?, a temperatura e a salinidade da água foram registradas semanalmente. As ostras foram medidas mensalmente (tamanho da concha e ganho de peso) para avaliar o crescimento. No final do período de cultivo, os pesos médios de carne úmida, carne seca e concha foram determinados, bem como a distribuição das ostras por classes de tamanho. Seis modelos não lineares (logístico, exponencial, Gompertz, Brody, Richards e Von Bertalanffy) foram ajustados aos dados de crescimento das ostras. As médias finais de tamanho da concha foram maiores em São Francisco do Sul do que em Florianópolis. Além disso, as ostras cultivadas em São Francisco do Sul apresentaram distribuição mais uniforme nas classes de tamanho do que aquelas cultivadas em Florianópolis. Os maiores valores médios de peso de carne úmida e peso de concha foram observados em São Francisco do Sul, enquanto o peso da carne seca não diferiu entre os locais. O ambiente estuarino é mais promissor para o cultivo de ostras. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southe [...] rn Brazil. Water chlorophyll-? concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain) to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy) were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

  6. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Despite often decadeslong control efforts, in many regions of the world ambient concentrations of ground-level ozone threaten human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, in many places the effects of continuing land use and climate change are expected to counteract ongoing efforts to reduce ozone concentrations. Combined with the rising cost of more stringent conventional technological ozone controls, this creates a need to explore novel approaches to reducing tropospheric ozone pollution. Refor...

  7. Is There Adaptation in the Ozone Mortality Relationship: A Multi-City Case-Crossover Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz Joel; Zanobetti Antonella

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Ozone has been associated with daily mortality, mainly in the summer period. Despite the ample literature on adaptation of inflammatory and pulmonary responses to ozone, and the link, in cohort studies, between lung function and mortality risk there has been little done to date to examine the question of adaptation in the acute mortality risk associated with ambient ozone. Methods We applied a case-crossover design in 48 US cities to examine the ozone effect by season, by ...

  8. The Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For…

  9. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  10. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maritza F., Díaz; Rebeca, Hernández; Goitybell, Martínez; Genny, Vidal; Magali, Gómez; Harold, Fernández; Rafael, Garcés.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, óleos de oliva e girassol ozonizados foram comparados química e microbilogicamente. Estes óleos foram introduzidos em um reator com gás ozônio borbulhante, em banho-maria a temperatura ambiente, até solidificação. O teor de peróxido, de iodo e o grau de acidez foram determinados juntam [...] ente com a atividade antimicrobiana. Os efeitos da ozonização na composição dos ácidos graxos desses óleos foram analisados usando-se a técnica de Cromatografia Gás-Líquido. Um aumento nos valores de peroxidação e de acidez foi observado em ambos os óleos, mas foram maiores no óleo de girassol ozonizado. O teor de iodo obtido no azeite de oliva ozonizado foi zero, enquanto no óleo de girassol ozonizado foi de 8,8 g de iodo per 100 g. A atividade antimicrobiana foi similar para os dois óleos ozonizados, com exceção da Concentração Mínima Bactericida de Pseudomona Aruginosa. A composição dos ácidos graxos nos dois óleos ozonizados mostrou um decréscimo gradual de ácidos graxos insaturados (C18:1, C18:2), com o aumento gradual da ozonização. Abstract in english In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity [...] were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2) with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  11. Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography [obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)] are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs

  12. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effects of tropospheric O3 on rice cultivated in Bangladesh, four Bangladeshi cultivars (BR11, BR14, BR28 and BR29) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O3 at 60 and 100 nl l-1 (10:00-17:00) from 1 July to 28 November 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the four cultivars were significantly reduced by the exposure to O3. The exposure to O3 significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate of the 12th and flag leaves of the four cultivars. The sensitivity to O3 of growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates was not significantly different among the four cultivars. The present study suggests that the sensitivity to O3 of yield of the four Bangladeshi rice cultivars is greater than that of American rice cultivars and is similar to that of Japanese rice cultivars and that O3 may detrimentally affect rice production in Bangladesh. - Bangladeshi cultivars of rice are sensitive to O3 below 100 ppb.

  13. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator

  14. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  15. Ozone NAAQS Review: Risk/Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is one of the six major air pollutants for which EPA has issued air quality criteria and established national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) based on those criteria. The Clear Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air ...

  16. Ozone tolerance of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larix decidua has been classified as a tree species ''highly sensitive'' to ozone. However, in Austria its main distribution is at altitudes where the recommended limits for ozone concentrations for sensitive plants are strongly exceeded for long periods. Long-term fumigation of twigs of a mature larch tree with ambient or double ambient air ozone concentrations did not cause any visible damage or negative influence on the gas exchange. However very high exposure of 1200 ppb ozone led to acute damage in long shoot needles with high gas exchange rates in the sun, but led only to small damages on shaded long shoots. Needles on short shoots neither developed visible damages nor were their capabilities for photosynthesis and stomatal regulation reduced, nor did they exhibit signs of premature senescence. According to the results of this investigation, European larch should be classified as ''intermediate'' or even as ''less sensitive'' to ozone. (orig.)

  17. Global impact of the Antarctic ozone hole - Chemical propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented for the chemical mixing of stratospheric air, that combines photochemistry, molecular diffusion, and strain (i.e., the stretching of air parcels due to wind shear). The model is applied to the case in which chemically perturbed air parcels from the Antarctic stratosphere are transported to mid-latidudes and strained into thin ribbon-like filaments until they are diffusively mixed with the ambient stratosphere. Results show that, following the breakup of the polar vortex, Antarctic air with substantially depleted ozone will not contribute any additional ozone loss at mid-latitudes as it is mixed with ambient air, supporting the results of simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole by Prather et al. (1990). Nevertheless, air processed by polar stratospheric clouds but transported to mid-latitudes before substantive ozone depletion, can lead to additional loss after mixing with ambient air.

  18. EFFECT OF OZONE ON DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLE TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations have been associated with mortality and morbidity. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are present in ambient urban air PM. Coexisting with DEP (and PM) is ozone (O(3)), which has the potential to react with some components of DEP. Some r...

  19. Hyaluronan Mediates Ozone-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Li, Zhuowei; Potts, Erin N.; Kimata, Koji; Zhuo, Lisheng; Morgan, Daniel L.; Savani, Rashmin C.; Noble, Paul W.; Foster, W. Michael; Schwartz, David A.; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone is a common urban environmental air pollutant and significantly contributes to hospitalizations for respiratory illness. The mechanisms, which regulate ozone-induced bronchoconstriction, remain poorly understood. Hyaluronan was recently shown to play a central role in the response to noninfectious lung injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyaluronan contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) after exposure to ambient ozone. Using an established model of ozone-induced airways disease, we characterized the role of hyaluronan in airway hyperresponsiveness. The role of hyaluronan in response to ozone was determined by using therapeutic blockade, genetically modified animals, and direct challenge to hyaluronan. Ozone-exposed mice demonstrate enhanced AHR associated with elevated hyaluronan levels in the lavage fluid. Mice deficient in either CD44 (the major receptor for hyaluronan) or inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (molecule that facilitates hyaluronan binding) show similar elevations in hyaluronan but are protected from ozone-induced AHR. Mice pretreated with hyaluronan-binding peptide are protected from the development of ozone-induced AHR. Overexpression of hyaluronan enhances the airway response to ozone. Intratracheal instillation of endotoxin-free low molecular weight hyaluronan induces AHR dependent on CD44, whereas instillation of high molecular weight hyaluronan protects against ozone-induced AHR. In conclusion, we demonstrate that hyaluronan mediates ozone-induced AHR, which is dependent on the fragment size and both CD44 and inter-?-trypsin inhibitor. These data support the conclusion that pulmonary matrix can contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:19164299

  20. Stratospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    M Gil

    2006-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone acquired a huge importance two decades ago because of the discovery of strong anomalies above the Antarctica due to gases of anthropogenic origin. From that date, stratosphere has become one of the research lines receiving more funding. A result, an important progress in the development of observational techniques, the understanding of the dynamics of the polar regions and, above all, in understanding of the chemical interactions among the species that influence the chemic...

  1. EFFECT OF AN OZONE INJURY RETARDANT CHEMICAL ON ISOZYME PROFILES FROM ALFALFA CALLUS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant ozone injury retardant (EDU or ethylenediurea) at 1.0 ppm inhibited growth of callus of alfalfa cultivars Williamsburg (ozone-sensitive) and MSB-CW5An2(ozone-insensitive) germplasm of Medicago sative. The presence of EDU(0.1 ppm) in growth medium increased the number of pro...

  2. Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Paulino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adaptabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta.There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditions. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

  3. ?-MnO2 nanowires transformed from precursor ?-MnO2 by refluxing under ambient pressure: The key role of pH and growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-MnO2 nanowires were obtained by reflux treatment of precursor ?-MnO2 in acidic medium under ambient pressure. The great effects of pH on the transformation of ?-MnO2 to ?-MnO2 and the concentration of coexistent cations (K+, Mn2+) was investigated in systematically designed experiments by using powder X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The specific surface area of the products could be simply controlled by adjusting the initial pH value of the suspension. The micro-morphologies during the transition process from the precursors to final products were characterized by SEM and TEM. A dissolution-recrystallization mechanism was proposed to describe the growth process of the one-dimensional nanowire. MnOx units or MnO6 octahedra was formed firstly from the dissolution of outmost surfaces of ?-MnO2, followed by a rearrangement/crystallization to form one-dimensional ?-MnO2 nanowire. In addition, the time-dependent process of dissolution would take place gradually from the external to internal of the precursor.

  4. Ozone liquefaction technology; Ekika ozon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    Application of ozone to a next-generation semiconductor production field is expected because of its strong oxidizing power and less residual content after reaction. However, since the concentration of ozone obtained by ozonizer is only 1-10%, production of high-concentration and high-purity ozone is indispensable to use it for semiconductor production processes. The production equipment of high-purity liquid ozone was thus fabricated in combination with Electrotechnical Laboratory, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. This equipment stores pure liquid ozone through separation and liquefaction of ozone under low-temperature environment, and supplies high-purity ozone gas (-100%) precisely and safely by temperature control. This large- capacity equipment is expected for formation of high-Tc superconducting oxide films, silicon oxide films and insulation films for semiconductors, and for ashing of resist. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops; Impacts de l'ozone sur les arbres et les recoltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M. [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO{sub x}, which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  6. Emergência e crescimento inicial de Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo em ambientes contrastantes de luz / Emergency and initial growth of Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo in contrasting light environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Peixoto, Borges; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho, Costa; Rogério Ferreira, Ribas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, popularmente conhecida como ipê-roxo ou ipê-roxo-desete-folhas, é uma Bignoniaceae nativa da Mata Atlântica, de importância econômica, medicinal e ornamental, além de ser indicada para reflorestamentos. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas sobre essa espécie a [...] inda são escassas. Assim, visando dispor de informações que auxiliem na sua propagação e conservação, este trabalho avaliou a emergência e crescimento inicial dessa espécie em regimes contrastantes de luz. Foram realizados dois experimentos independentes. O primeiro em condições controladas, com os tratamentos 70% de sombreamento e a pleno sol; e o segundo em ambiente natural, com os tratamentos clareira e sub-bosque. Entre os parâmetros utilizados para avaliar a emergência sob influência das intensidades luminosas, apenas a porcentagem de emergência diferiu estatisticamente no ambiente natural, sendo superior na clareira. Em condições controladas, houve significância para a velocidade de emergência, sendo maior nas plantas submetidas ao a pleno sol. A espécie apresentou reduzido crescimento inicial no sub-bosque, sendo todos os parâmetros estatisticamente inferiores em relação às plantas da clareira, com exceção da razão de área foliar e área foliar específica. Em condições controladas, os resultados que diferiram significativamente foram todos superiores nas plantas a pleno sol. O estudo evidenciou que a espécie apresenta capacidade de formar plântulas em diferentes regimes de luz, inclusive sob forte sombreamento natural, porém essa condição reduz significativamente seu crescimento inicial, sendo este favorecido por maiores intensidades luminosas. Abstract in english Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, known as "ipê-roxo" or" ipê-roxo-de sete-folhas", is a native species of Atlantic Forest, with an economic, medicinal and ornamental role, suitable for reforestation. However, ecophysiological information about it is scarce. In order to provide information about [...] propagation and conservation for this specie, the present study evaluated emergence and early growth of this species in different light exposure. We lead two independent trials. In the first we considered controlled conditions, with two treatments: 70% shade and full sun. The second was developed in a natural environment, with two treatments: gap and understory environments. From the total parameters used to evaluate the emergence of the species under influence of light intensities, only the emergence percentage was statistically different from the natural environment, with high values observed at gap treatment. Significant differences were observed in controlled environment, considering the emergence speed. This variable was higher in plants grown under full sun. Slower initial growth was observed for plants regenerated in the understory, compared to the plants growing in gaps, except for following characteristics: leaf area ration and specific leaf area. In controlled conditions, the results with higher significant differences were observed for plants under full sun. The study shows that the species has the capacity to germinate in different light conditions, even under strong natural shading. However, this condition reduces significantly its initial growth, which is favored by higher light intensities.

  7. Crescimento e produção do tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido Tomato plant growth and fruit yield under field and protected conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Abdalla Fayad

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, objetivando caracterizar o crescimento e a produção de frutos pelo tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido. O primeiro, com a cultivar Santa Clara, cultivada a campo no sistema de cerca cruzada e sete cachos. O segundo, em estufa plástica, com o híbrido EF-50, conduzidas verticalmente e mantendo-se oito cachos. Ambos os experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro constituído por oito e o segundo, por nove tratamentos. Em ambos os experimentos, os frutos acumularam mais matéria seca que os demais órgãos da planta. No primeiro experimento, os valores máximos de matéria seca total e de frutos, altura de planta, taxa de crescimento absoluto (G, taxa crescimento relativo (R, taxa assimilatória líquida (E e índice de área foliar (L foram 406,0 g planta-1; 207,0 g planta-1; 146,0 cm; 8.552,0 mg planta-1 dia-1; 87,0 mg g-1 dia-1; 38,0 mg dm-2 dia-1 e 4,1, respectivamente. Em ambiente protegido, os valores máximos daquelas características enumeradas anteriormente foram 398,0 g planta-1; 269,0 g planta-1; 85,0 cm; 5.710,0 mg planta-1 dia-1; 54,0 mg g-1 dia-1; 464,0 mg dm-2 dia-1 e 4,5, respectivamente. A produção total de frutos, no primeiro experimento, foi 94,8 t ha-1; destes, 93% foram classificados como comerciais, equivalente a 738,0 kg ha-1 dia-1. No segundo experimento, a produção total de frutos foi 115,4 t ha-1; destes, 94% foram classificados como comerciais, equivalente a 807,0 kg ha-1 dia-1.Two experiments were conducted at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil to evaluate tomato plant growth and fruit yield under field and protected conditions. In the first experiment, tomato cv. Santa Clara was grown in the field and supported with stakes and each with seven clusters. In the second one tomato hybrid EF-50 was grown in plastic greenhouse and plants were vertically trellised and pruned at eight clusters stage. Both experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks, with four replicates. In the first and second experiment eight and nine treatments were evaluated, respectively. In both experiments, the fruits accumulated more dry matter than the other organs of the plant. In the first experiment, the highest values of plant and fruit dry matters, plant height, absolute growth rate (G, relative growth rate (R, net assimilation rate (E, and leaf area index (L were 406.0 g plant-1; 207.0 g plant-1; 146.0 cm; 8,552.0 mg plant-1 day-1; 87.0 mg g-1 day-1; 38.0 mg dm-2 day-1 and 4.1, respectively. In the second experiment, the highest values for the above characteristics were 398.0 g plant-1; 269.0 g plant-1; 85.0 cm; 5,710.0 mg plant-1 day-1; 54.0 mg g-1 day-1; 464.0 mg dm-2 day-1 and 4.9, respectively. In the first experiment, total fruit yield reached 96.8 t ha-1; 93% of them were classified as marketable, corresponding to 738.0 kg ha-1 day-1 yield. In the second experiment, total yield was 115.4 t ha-1 with 94% of them graded as marketable, corresponding to 807.0 kg ha-1 day-1 yield.

  8. Crescimento e produção do tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido / Tomato plant growth and fruit yield under field and protected conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jamil Abdalla, Fayad; Paulo Cezar Rezende, Fontes; Antônio Américo, Cardoso; Fernando Luiz, Finger; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, objetivando caracterizar o crescimento e a produção de frutos pelo tomateiro cultivado sob condições de campo e de ambiente protegido. O primeiro, com a cultivar Santa Clara, cultivada a campo no sistema de cerca cruzada e sete c [...] achos. O segundo, em estufa plástica, com o híbrido EF-50, conduzidas verticalmente e mantendo-se oito cachos. Ambos os experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro constituído por oito e o segundo, por nove tratamentos. Em ambos os experimentos, os frutos acumularam mais matéria seca que os demais órgãos da planta. No primeiro experimento, os valores máximos de matéria seca total e de frutos, altura de planta, taxa de crescimento absoluto (G), taxa crescimento relativo (R), taxa assimilatória líquida (E) e índice de área foliar (L) foram 406,0 g planta-1; 207,0 g planta-1; 146,0 cm; 8.552,0 mg planta-1 dia-1; 87,0 mg g-1 dia-1; 38,0 mg dm-2 dia-1 e 4,1, respectivamente. Em ambiente protegido, os valores máximos daquelas características enumeradas anteriormente foram 398,0 g planta-1; 269,0 g planta-1; 85,0 cm; 5.710,0 mg planta-1 dia-1; 54,0 mg g-1 dia-1; 464,0 mg dm-2 dia-1 e 4,5, respectivamente. A produção total de frutos, no primeiro experimento, foi 94,8 t ha-1; destes, 93% foram classificados como comerciais, equivalente a 738,0 kg ha-1 dia-1. No segundo experimento, a produção total de frutos foi 115,4 t ha-1; destes, 94% foram classificados como comerciais, equivalente a 807,0 kg ha-1 dia-1. Abstract in english Two experiments were conducted at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil) to evaluate tomato plant growth and fruit yield under field and protected conditions. In the first experiment, tomato cv. Santa Clara was grown in the field and supported with stakes and each with seven clusters. In the second [...] one tomato hybrid EF-50 was grown in plastic greenhouse and plants were vertically trellised and pruned at eight clusters stage. Both experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks, with four replicates. In the first and second experiment eight and nine treatments were evaluated, respectively. In both experiments, the fruits accumulated more dry matter than the other organs of the plant. In the first experiment, the highest values of plant and fruit dry matters, plant height, absolute growth rate (G), relative growth rate (R), net assimilation rate (E), and leaf area index (L) were 406.0 g plant-1; 207.0 g plant-1; 146.0 cm; 8,552.0 mg plant-1 day-1; 87.0 mg g-1 day-1; 38.0 mg dm-2 day-1 and 4.1, respectively. In the second experiment, the highest values for the above characteristics were 398.0 g plant-1; 269.0 g plant-1; 85.0 cm; 5,710.0 mg plant-1 day-1; 54.0 mg g-1 day-1; 464.0 mg dm-2 day-1 and 4.9, respectively. In the first experiment, total fruit yield reached 96.8 t ha-1; 93% of them were classified as marketable, corresponding to 738.0 kg ha-1 day-1 yield. In the second experiment, total yield was 115.4 t ha-1 with 94% of them graded as marketable, corresponding to 807.0 kg ha-1 day-1 yield.

  9. Growth analysis of sweet pepper cultivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse / Análise de crescimento de pimentão cultivado em fibra de coco em ambiente protegido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamilton César de O, Charlo; Sueyde F de, Oliveira; Renata, Castoldi; Pablo F, Vargas; Leila T, Braz; José Carlos, Barbosa.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre o crescimento das culturas permite o planejamento de métodos de cultivo racional, que contribuirá para alcançar um maior potencial de espécies vegetais, além de fornecer informações para a construção de modelos matemáticos descritivos de crescimento. Diante disto, o objetivo des [...] te estudo foi determinar a curva de crescimento do pimentão amarelo (híbrido Eppo) cultivado em fibra de coco em ambiente protegido com fertirrigação. O experimento compreendeu inicialmente 160 plantas, divididas em quatro blocos, sendo colhidas duas por bloco a cada 21 dias após o transplante, finalizando-se aos 189 dias após o transplante. O cultivo de pimentão foi feito em vasos plásticos de 13 L contendo fibra de coco, distribuídos em fila dupla, com espaçamento de 0,5 x 0,8 m entre fileiras simples e 1,1 m entre fileiras duplas. Em cada colheita foram avaliados o crescimento das plantas e a produção e qualidade de frutos maduros. A massa seca da parte aérea aumentou com o tempo, seguindo um modelo exponencial de primeira ordem, atingindo um máximo de 451,5 g/planta aos 189 dias após o transplante (DAT). A produção de massa seca de folhas, caule, raiz e frutos também aumentou ao longo do tempo, seguindo o mesmo modelo, atingindo valores máximos de 68.7, 65.8, 11.5 e 302.9 g/planta, respectivamente, aos 189 DAT. O mesmo ocorreu com a área foliar por planta, altura da planta e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, cujos valores máximos foram de 6.183,5 cm², 136.9 cm e 4.4 g/planta/dia, respectivamente. O crescimento das plantas foi contínuo ao longo do ciclo, sendo que a maior quantidade de massa seca foi acumulada nos frutos, cuja produção comercial chegou a 97.3 t ha-1, sendo totalmente classificados como Extra. Abstract in english Knowledge about the growth of crops allows the planning of rational cultivation methods which contribute to achieve greater potential of plant species, besides supplying information for the construction of descriptive mathematical models of growth. The growth curve of sweet pepper (Eppo hybrid), cul [...] tivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse with fertirrigation, was determined. The experiment consisted initially of 160 plants divided into four blocks. Two plants were analyzed per block every 21 days after transplanting, ending at 189 days after transplant. The cultivation was carried out in plastics pots of 13 L containing coconut fiber, which were arranged in double rows, spaced 0.5 x 0.8 m between simple rows and 1.1 m between double rows. In each harvest the plant growth, production and quality of mature fruits were evaluated. The dry mass of the shoot increased with time, following the experimental model exponential of first order, reaching a maximum of 451.5 g/plant, 189 days after transplanting (DAT). The production of dry mass of leaves, stem, root and fruit also increased over time reaching maximum values of 68.7, 65.8, 11.5 and 302.9 g/plant, respectively, at 189 DAT. The same occurred with the leaf area per plant, plant height and the absolute rate of growth, whose maximum values were 6.183,5 cm², 136.9 cm and 4.4 g/plant/day, respectively. The growth of the plant was continuous throughout the cycle, and the highest amount of dry mass was accumulated in fruits, reaching a marketable production of 97.3 t ha-1. All fruits were classified as Extra.

  10. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, R

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGE II ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is related to...

  11. Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Méndez Martínez; Arelis, Alberto Palenzuela; Ernesto, Morales Santana.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensore [...] s en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población . Abstract in english Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also r [...] aising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

  12. Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Méndez Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensores en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población .Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also raising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

  13. Ozone Hole Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) show the progressive depletion of ozone over Antarctica from 1979 to 1999. This 'ozone hole' has extended to cover an area as large as 10.5 million square miles in September 1998. The previous record of 10.0 million square miles was set in 1996. The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year between late August and early October. Regions with higher levels of ozone are shown in red. NASA and NOAA instruments have been measuring Antarctic ozone levels since the early 1970s. Large regions of depleted ozone began to develop over Antarctica in the early 1980s. Ozone holes of substantial size and depth are likely to continue to form during the next few years, scientists hope to see a reduction in ozone loss as levels of ozone-destroying CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are gradually reduced. Credit: Images by Greg Shirah, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  14. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O3-specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O3, injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O3-specific symptoms, but only in species for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ? 50 W m?2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure deficit and global radiation. In the model with all factors, Species was most important, and when Species was omitted, stomatal conductance was the most important determinant for leaf injury to occur, whereas mean relative growth rate was less important. With no plant-related factors included, air vapour pressure deficit and AOT40 were of highest importance. Only in eight species was a positive relationship found between these two factors during the five days before the onset of injury, indicating increasing protection from ozone with increasing air vapour pressure deficit in some but not all species. These data show that across a range of grassland species, leaf injury caused by elevated levels of ozone is most likely to occur in species with high stomatal conductance and that protection from ozone during dry periods is species-specific and depends on a reduction in stomatal conductance due to a decrease in soil moisture potential. Protection under increased vapour pressure deficit can occur in some but not all species, depending on the relationship between stomatal conductance and air vapour pressure deficit. (author)

  15. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Godzik; Nataliya Pavluchenko; Nataliya Didyk; Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  16. Ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, W; Aarts, E

    2005-01-01

    Addresses ambient intelligence used to support human contacts and accompany an individual''s path through the complicated modern world, from applications that are imminent, since they use essentially existing technologies, to ambitious ideas whose realization is still far away, due to major unsolved technical challenges.

  17. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T B; Trainer, M; Holloway, J S; Parrish, D D; Huey, L G; Sueper, D T; Frost, G J; Donnelly, S G; Schauffler, S; Atlas, E L; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Hubler, G; Meagher, J F; Fehsenfeld, F C

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural U.S. coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NO(x) (NO plus NO(2)) concentration, which is determined by plant NO(x) emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modulate ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NO(x) and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NO(x) emission rates and geographic locations in current and future U.S. ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NO(x) reductions from these sources. PMID:11326097

  18. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.S.; Parrish, D.D.; Huey, L.G.; Sueper, D.T.; Frost, G.J.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Kuster, W.C.; Goldan, P.D.; Huebler, G.; Meagher, J.F.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (USA). Aeronomy Lab.

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural US coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO{sub 2}) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modular ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future US ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  19. The effect of ozone associated with summertime photochemical smog on the frequency of asthma visits to hospital emergency departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, R.P. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Weisel, C.P.; Lioy, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States) Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)); Birnbaum, G. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A retrospective study using ambient ozone, temperature, and other environmental variables and their effect on the frequency of hospital visits for asthma was conducted in New Jersey, an area that often exceeds the allowable national standard for ozone. Data on emergency department visits for asthma, bronchitis, and finger wounds (a nonrespiratory control) were analyzed for the period May through August for 1988 and 1989. Asthma visits were correlated with temperature while the correlation between asthma visits and ozone concentration was nonsignificant. However, when temperature was controlled for in a multiple regression analysis, a highly significant relationship between asthma visits and ozone concentration was identified. Between 13 and 15% of the variability of the asthma visits and ozone concentration was identified. Between 13 and 15% of the variability of the asthma visits was explained in the regression model by temperature and ambient ozone levels. This association, when compared to similar studies in Canada, shows the contribution of ozone to asthma admissions to be stronger in areas with higher ozone concentrations. Thus, among regions with periodic accumulations of ozone in the ambient atmosphere, an exposure-response relationship may be discernible. This supports the need to attain air quality standards for ozone to protect individuals in the general population from the adverse health effects caused by ambient ozone exposure. 21 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  20. Influence of Global Atmospheric Change on the Feeding Behavior and Growth Performance of a Mammalian Herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Habeck, Christopher W.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air), ...

  1. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  2. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on total column zone growth at Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°), India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Jana; D K Saha; D Sarkar

    2013-02-01

    A critical analysis has been made on the contribution of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH2Cl, CH3Br, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs, halons, WMO (World Meteorological Organization) minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour to the variation of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at the station in Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°E), India from 1992 to 2003. With the implementation of Montreal Protocol, though the concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4 and CH3CCl3 had decreased, the concentrations of CFC-12, HCFCs, halons, WMO minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour had increased, as a result of which TCO had risen from 1992 to 2003 at the above station. The nature of yearly variations of concentrations of the above ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases as well as ozone has been presented. Possible explanations for build-up of TCO have also been offered.

  3. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  4. Antarctic ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2015-09-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two Asian sites have increased by 1 to 3% per year since 2000, an increase thought to contribute to positive trends in the ozone levels observed at North America’s West Coast. However, model estimates of the Asian contribution to North American ozone levels are not well-constrained by observations. Here we interpret Aura satellite measurements of tropospheric concentrations of ozone and its precursor NO2, along with its largest natural source, stratospheric ozone, using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model. We show that tropospheric ozone concentrations over China have increased by about 7% between 2005 and 2010 in response to two factors: a rise in Chinese emissions by about 21% and increased downward transport of stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, we find that transport from China of ozone and its precursors has offset about 43% of the 0.42 DU reduction in free-tropospheric ozone over the western United States that was expected between 2005 and 2010 as a result of emissions reductions associated with federal, state and local air quality policies. We conclude that global efforts may be required to address regional air quality and climate change.

  6. Ozone promotes regeneration by regulating the inflammatory response in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kenan; Li, Yanhao; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yiyue; Ma, Ning; Zeng, Qingle; Pang, Huajin; Wang, Chunyan; Xiao, Lijun; He, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Ozone is thought to advance wound healing by inhibiting inflammation, but the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been determined. Although the zebrafish is often used in regeneration experiments, there has been no report of zebrafish treated with ozonated water. We successfully established a zebrafish model of ozonated water treatment and demonstrate that ozonated water stimulates the regeneration of the zebrafish caudal fin, its mechanism, and time dependence. The growth rate of the caudal fin and the number of neutrophils migrating to the caudal fin wound after resection were higher in the experimental (ozonated) group than in the control group, preliminarily confirming that ozone-promoted regeneration is related to the stimulation of an early inflammatory response by ozone. Ozone modulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in two ways by regulating interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression. Therefore, ozone promotes tissue regeneration by regulating the inflammatory pathways. This effect of ozone in an experimental zebrafish model is demonstrated for the first time, confirming its promotion of wound healing and the mechanism of its effect in tissue regeneration. These results will open up new directions for ozone and regeneration research. PMID:26033494

  7. Carbon and nitrogen allocation of juvenile and adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees under contrasting ozone exposure and competition: a 13C/12C and 15N/14N labeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    Chronically elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are known to affect tree growth and competitiveness. Using the stable isotopes 13C and 15N as tracer, carbon and nitrogen allocation was studied in juvenile and adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees that were exposed to twice-ambient O3 concentrations. Juvenile trees were, additionally, grown in mono- and mixed cultures to excamine intra- and interspecific competition effects. Investigations on saplings were ca...

  8. Estrés oxidativo en un modelo de ratón quemado tratado con Aloe b, ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico / Oxidative stress in a model of burnt mouse treated with Aloe b, ozone and epidermal growth factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresita, Montero González; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; José Carlos, García Piñeiro; Niurka A., Llopiz Janer; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero; Jorge, Berlanga Acosta.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad por quemadura estimula la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y el daño múltiple de órganos, su expresión morfológica. Con el propósito de identificar el comportamiento del estrés oxidativo mediante el malondialdehído, la superóxido dismutasa y la catalasa y su modificación con el empleo [...] del tratamiento sistémico con Aloe b, ozono o factor de crecimiento epidérmico, se elaboró un modelo de quemadura seca de un área de 11 %, en ratones hembras, balb/c de 20 ± 2 g (n= 24). Se aplicó eutanasia en diferentes tiempos, se estudiaron los órganos con evaluación cualitativa en grados de intensidad y las variables bioquímicas se obtuvieron del riñón y del hígado. La prueba G se empleó para conocer la dependencia entre las variables y la prueba t se usó al comparar porcentajes. El análisis de varianza bifactorial y la prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan se empleó en las variables del estrés oxidativo estudiadas. Se siguieron las normas éticas en el trabajo con los animales. Existió dependencia entre los diferentes grupos y la vitalidad (G= 268,83***) superior en los grupos tratados. Los grupos no tratados tuvieron mayor intensidad del daño múltiple de órganos y peor respuesta del estrés oxidativo. Los grupos con mejor evolución fueron el tratado con ozono y el tratado con factor de crecimiento epidérmico. El tratamiento inmediatamente después de la quemadura con ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico resultó favorable para la evolución y supervivencia de los animales. Abstract in english Burn disease stimulates systemic inflammatory response and its morphologic expression that is multiple organ failure. With the objective of identifying the behaviour of oxidative stress through malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and its change by using the systemic treatment based on [...] Aloe b, ozone or epidermal growth factor, a dry burn model of a 11 % area in balb/c female mice of 20 ± 2 g (n= 24) was designed. Eutanasia was applied at different moments, organs were studied with qualitative evaluation of intensity degrees, and biochemical variables were analyzed from the kidney and the liver of mice. Test G served to find out dependence among variables and Test t was used to compare percentages. Bifactoral variance analysis and Duncan´s multiple range test were used in the studied oxidative stress variables. Ethical standards on work with animals were complied with. Dependence was observed among the various groups and survival rate (G= 268,83***) was higher in the treated groups. Untreated groups showed more intensive multiple organ damage and worse oxidative stress response. The groups treated with ozone and epidermal growth factor showed better recovery. The treatment with ozone and epidermal growth factor immediately after burning favored recovery and survival of balb/c mice.

  9. Estrés oxidativo en un modelo de ratón quemado tratado con Aloe b, ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico Oxidative stress in a model of burnt mouse treated with Aloe b, ozone and epidermal growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Montero González

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad por quemadura estimula la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y el daño múltiple de órganos, su expresión morfológica. Con el propósito de identificar el comportamiento del estrés oxidativo mediante el malondialdehído, la superóxido dismutasa y la catalasa y su modificación con el empleo del tratamiento sistémico con Aloe b, ozono o factor de crecimiento epidérmico, se elaboró un modelo de quemadura seca de un área de 11 %, en ratones hembras, balb/c de 20 ± 2 g (n= 24. Se aplicó eutanasia en diferentes tiempos, se estudiaron los órganos con evaluación cualitativa en grados de intensidad y las variables bioquímicas se obtuvieron del riñón y del hígado. La prueba G se empleó para conocer la dependencia entre las variables y la prueba t se usó al comparar porcentajes. El análisis de varianza bifactorial y la prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan se empleó en las variables del estrés oxidativo estudiadas. Se siguieron las normas éticas en el trabajo con los animales. Existió dependencia entre los diferentes grupos y la vitalidad (G= 268,83*** superior en los grupos tratados. Los grupos no tratados tuvieron mayor intensidad del daño múltiple de órganos y peor respuesta del estrés oxidativo. Los grupos con mejor evolución fueron el tratado con ozono y el tratado con factor de crecimiento epidérmico. El tratamiento inmediatamente después de la quemadura con ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico resultó favorable para la evolución y supervivencia de los animales.Burn disease stimulates systemic inflammatory response and its morphologic expression that is multiple organ failure. With the objective of identifying the behaviour of oxidative stress through malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and its change by using the systemic treatment based on Aloe b, ozone or epidermal growth factor, a dry burn model of a 11 % area in balb/c female mice of 20 ± 2 g (n= 24 was designed. Eutanasia was applied at different moments, organs were studied with qualitative evaluation of intensity degrees, and biochemical variables were analyzed from the kidney and the liver of mice. Test G served to find out dependence among variables and Test t was used to compare percentages. Bifactoral variance analysis and Duncan´s multiple range test were used in the studied oxidative stress variables. Ethical standards on work with animals were complied with. Dependence was observed among the various groups and survival rate (G= 268,83*** was higher in the treated groups. Untreated groups showed more intensive multiple organ damage and worse oxidative stress response. The groups treated with ozone and epidermal growth factor showed better recovery. The treatment with ozone and epidermal growth factor immediately after burning favored recovery and survival of balb/c mice.

  10. Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO2), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO2 (ECO2) and decreased under combination of ECO2 with elevated O3 (ECO2 + EO3), ambient O3 (ACO2 + AO3) and elevated O3 (EO3). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO2 and ECO2 + EO3 and reduced under EO3 and ACO2 + AO3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO2 is not enough to counteract O3 impact, but elevated CO2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O3 level. -- Highlights: ? Elevated CO2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ? Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ? Elevated CO2 reduced negative effects of elevated O3 by reducing oxidative stress. ? Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO2 + O3 compared to ambient CO2 + O3. -- Predicted levels of CO2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO2 against ambient ozone

  11. Ozone as air pollutant; Ozon als Luftschadstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, N. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Ozone is a natural component in the air. However, its concentration is increased due to anthropogenic activities. Being a strong oxidant of low water solubility, ozone can penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract where it acts as an irritant. Increased concentrations of ozone result in impaired lung function values, in an increase in asthma attacks, and presumably in hospital admissions due to respiratory effects, too. Associations with increased daily mortality as well as with carcinogenicity and premature ageing of the lungs are under discussion. Groups at special risk are all persons exercising or working outdoors with increased ventilation; old persons don't seem to be a risk group. Ozone concentrations often exceed health-related guideline values. Legally binding limit values are problematic in the case of secondary pollutants like ozone. (orig.) [German] Ozon ist ein natuerlicher Bestandteil der Luft, dessen Konzentration durch anthropogene Aktivitaeten deutlich erhoeht ist. Als starkes Oxidationsmittel reizt es die Atemwege, in die es wegen seiner geringen Wasserloeslichkeit tief eindringen kann. Erhoehte Ozon-Konzentrationen fuehren zu einer Verschlechterung der Lungenfunktionswerte und zu einer Zunahme von Asthmaanfaellen und vermutlich auch von Krankenhausaufnahmen wegen Atemwegserkrankungen. Ob auch die taegliche Mortalitaet bei hohen Ozonbelastungen ansteigt, ist umstritten, ebenso wie eine moegliche krebserzeugende Wirkung und ein 'vorzeitiges Altern' der Lunge. Als Risikogruppen koennen alle Personen gelten, die ueber laengere Zeitraeume koerperlich anstrengende Taetigkeiten im Freien ausueben, Senioren gehoeren nicht dazu. Gesundheitsbezogene Richtlinie fuer Ozon werden haeufig ueberschritten. Rechtsverbindliche Grenzwerte sind fuer sekundaere Schadstoffe wie Ozon problematisch. (orig.)

  12. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  13. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    • Effect of in-package ozonation on quality of raw broiler breast meat during storage

      Science.gov (United States)

      In-package ozonation is an antimicrobial packaging system that uses atmospheric cold plasma technology to generate ozone and other gases inside a sealed package to inhibit microbial growth on packaged food. Previous unpublished research has shown that in-package ozonation effectively kills and inhib...

    • AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AND SELECTED BIRTH DEFECTS, SEVEN COUNTY STUDY, TEXAS, 1997-2000

      Science.gov (United States)

      Background: A number of epidemiologic investigations have shown adverse effects of ambient air pollution on reproductive outcomes. A recent case-control study found associations betweensecond gestational month carbon monoxide and ozone exposure and elevated risks of selec...

    • Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O3 (COE), (2) O3 with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O3, as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O3. Respiration (Rd) generally was not affected by treatments; however, Rd in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O3 may be causing higher Rd

    • Beneficial effects of CO2 enrichment to field-grown soybeans under ozone stress

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Damage from gaseous air pollution [e.g. ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)] on crops in the US has been estimated to exceed several billion dollars annually. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have increased from about 290 ppm in the late 1800's to current levels of 350 ppm. The combined effects of increased CO2 and O3 stress have not been studied under field conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and O3 stress on the growth and physiology of 'Clark' soybean, testing the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will ameliorate the effects of O3 stress. Experiments with soybeans in open-top field chambers showed that increasing CO2levels to 400 parts per million (ppm) negated current ambient ozone harmful effects on soybean yields. When ambient O3 levels were doubled, it was necessary to increase the atmospheric CO2 concentration to 500 ppm to negate O3 damage. Rising CO2 counteracts O3 pollution. Reduced stomatal conductance and decreased photosynthesis appear to reverse the CO2 stimulation

    • Ambient intelligence

      CERN Document Server

      Basten, Twan; de Groot, Harmke

      2007-01-01

      ""This book is truly an eye-opener as it is the first book that relates the dream scenarios of Ambient Intelligence quantitatively to the technical challenges and requirements of the huge distributed and interoperable embedded systems needed to implement AmI systems in the real world. This book is strongly recommended to a wide spectrum of engineers interested to embark in this rapidly emerging and fascinating technology."" (From the foreword by Hugo De Man, Professor K.U. Leuven and Senior Research Fellow IMEC)

    • Yield loss assessments for cultivars of broccoli, lettuce, and onion exposed to ozone.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Temple, P J; Jones, T E; Lennox, R W

      1990-01-01

      The effects of the photochemical oxidant air pollutant ozone (O(3)) on growth and yield of three garden crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and onion (Allium cepa L.) were studied in an open-top chamber experiment conducted in the field in southern California. Four cultivars each of leaf lettuce, broccoli, and globe onion were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered (NF) air, or NF plus 1.5 times ambient O(3) concentration from 4 weeks after germination in January or February until harvest. Exposures lasted 31 days for lettuce, 55 to 78 days for broccoli, and 105 days for onion. Results showed that despite severe O(3) injury to outer leaves, lettuce yields were not affected by O(3). Broccoli also was resistant to O(3) and no growth reduction was observed at ambient O(3) concentrations. Onions were more susceptible to O(3), but only one cv. 'Rio Bravo' had significant yield losses (ca. 5%) at ambient O(3) levels. These results suggest that, in general, concentrations of O(3) in the winter and spring may be below the threshold for adverse effects on yields of broccoli, lettuce and onion. PMID:15092228

    • Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  1. Manifestation of solar activity processes in the Earth ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis of total ozone and its vertical distribution was carried out on the base of data obtained by rocket soundings with the aim to reveal influence of solar activity. THe coherence between monthly mean total ozone data series for six latitudinal zones in the Northern Hemisphere and solar spots has weak but steady maxima for 9 and 13-15 years periods of oscillations. The value of coherence does not exceed 0.15 and growth to the higher latitudes. The analysis of ozone profiles for middle latitudes reveals the decrease in ozone concentration between 30-50 km for winter and increase for autumn. 20 refs.; 3 figs

  2. UV/ozone cleaning of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, J. R.

    1986-05-01

    The UV/ozone methods, which is reviewed in this report, is an effective method of removing a variety of contaminants from surfaces. It is a simple-to-use dry process which is inexpensive to set up and operate. It can rapidly produce clean surfaces, in air or in a vacuum system, at ambient temperatures. Placing properly precleaned surface within a few millimeters of an ozone-producing UV source can produce clean surfaces in less than one minute. The technique can produce clean surfaces in less than one minute. The technique can produce near-atomically clean surfaces, as evidenced by Auger electron spectrosocpy (AES), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and ion scattering spectroscopy/secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ISS/SIMS) studies. Topics discussed include the variables of the process, the types for surfaces which have been cleaned successfully, the contaminants that can be removed, the construction of a UV ozone cleaning facility, the mechanism of the process, UV/ozone cleaning in vacuum systems, rate-enhancement techniques, safety consideration, effects of UV/ozone other than cleaning, and applications.

  3. Intercontinental trans-boundary contributions to ozone-induced crop yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Hollaway; Arnold, S. R.; A. J. Challinor; Emberson, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced surface ozone concentrations are known to be harmful to vegetation, reducing crop growth and yields. Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased steadily since pre-industrial times, driven by in-situ production from anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), CO and volatile organic compounds. Transport of ozone and its precursors between continents has been shown to contribute to surface ozone air quality exceedences in many regions of the Northern ...

  4. Use of ozone to reduce molds in a cheese ripening room

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Rita; Abrunhosa, Luís; Kozakiewicz, Z.; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Cheese ripening rooms have an unusual environment, an environment that encourages mold growth. Ozone has been applied in various ways in the food industry. One useful advantage of ozone is that it inactivates molds. In this study, a cheese ripening room was ozonated, and the effectiveness of this treatment was evaluated both in air and on surfaces through sampling on a weekly basis over a 3-month period. The results obtained indicate that ozone treatment reduced the viable airborne mold load ...

  5. Effect of ozone treatment on different cariogenic microorganisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Dietz, Wolfram; Lingström, Peter; Steiniger, Frank; Norén, Jörgen G

    2008-01-01

    Ozone treatment has been presented and discussed in the literature, as one of the "new" ways to treat dental caries. The aim of this paper was to study the in vitro effect of ozone on some common oral microorganisms related to dental caries using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ozone was tested on three different strains of mutans streptococci and one Lactobacillus strain. After exposure of bacteria to ozone treatment for 0 to 60 sec, cultivation on different chair side strips and agar plates took place. Preparation and performance of scanning electron analyses in a field emission scanning electron microscope at 10 kV was then carried out. It was found that gaseous ozone treatment for 20 seconds or more was effective to kill the different microorganisms in vitro. Treatment of 20, 40 and 60 seconds of ozone prevented the bacteria to grow on the different media. Treatment times shorter than 20 seconds resulted in varying results with a limited effect on bacterial growth for treatments of 5-10 sec, respectively. The difference between ozone-treated and untreated specimens was macroscopically readily discernable. None of the strains treated with ozone for 60 seconds showed any bacterial growth. Only samples with untreated bacteria could be found in the SEM analyses in form of large and high colonies. This study presents a clear result of the bactericide effect of ozon (in vitro) on four different strains of bacteria associated with dental caries. PMID:18973084

  6. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  8. Effects of elevated ground-level ozone on nitrogen acquisition of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Rosemarie Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Chronically elevated ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations are known to affect tree growth and may alter nutrient supply. Using the stable isotope 15N as tracer, the nitrogen(N)-uptake and allocation was studied in ca. 60 yr old beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) that were exposed to twice-ambient O3 concentrations over 7 years. A slight reduction in N acquisition was evident in both species along with a slight increase in N demand (particularly in spruce). The reduction in N u...

  9. Crescimento do pinhão-manso irrigado com águas salinas em ambiente protegido / Growth of Jatropha irrigated with saline water in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aparecida R., Nery; Luis N., Rodrigues; Maria B. R., Silva; Pedro D., Fernandes; Lúcia H. G., Chaves; José, Dantas Neto; Hans R., Gheyi.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as potencialidades de uso do pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L.) como fonte energética e a carência de resultados de pesquisa relativos ao seu cultivo, realizou-se este trabalho com o fim primordial de se estudar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o crescimento das planta [...] s, em ambiente protegido. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida entre abril e outubro de 2007, no Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais (CTRN) da UFCG-PB. As plantas foram cultivadas em lisímetros de drenagem (200 L), contendo 230 kg de material de solo devidamente adubado, não-salino, não-sódico, classificado como Argissolo Acinzentado eutrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação - CEa (0,6; 1,2; 1,8; 2,4 e 3,0 dS m-1, a 25 ºC), no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída pela média de duas plantas cultivadas em lisímetros separados. Avaliaram-se altura de planta, diâmetro caulinar, número de folhas e área foliar aos 37, 58, 79, 100, 121, 142 e 163 dias após a semeadura; ao final do período de estudos, o pinhão-manso irrigado com água de CEa de 3,0 dS m-1 teve a altura de planta, o diâmetro caulinar, o número de folhas e a área foliar reduzidos em 9,07, 17,63, 23,41 e 42,58%, respectivamente. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the growth of Jatropha curcas L. in greenhouse. The research was carried out during April and October of 2007, in a greenhouse of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Natural Resources and Technology [...] Center (CTRN) of Federal University of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. The plants were grown in drainage lysimeters (200 L) with 230 kg of non-saline, non-sodic soil adequately fertilized, classified as Gray Argisol eutrophic. The treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - CEw (0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m-1, at 25 ºC). The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 4 replications, each replication represented by the average of 2 plants cultivated in separate lysimeters. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area were evaluated at 37, 58, 79, 100, 121, 142 and 163 days after sowing (DAS). At 163 DAS, Jatropha irrigated with ECw equal to 3.0 dS m-1 had plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area reduced by 9.07, 17.63, 23.41 and 42.58%, respectively.

  10. Crescimento do pinhão-manso irrigado com águas salinas em ambiente protegido Growth of Jatropha irrigated with saline water in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida R. Nery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as potencialidades de uso do pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L. como fonte energética e a carência de resultados de pesquisa relativos ao seu cultivo, realizou-se este trabalho com o fim primordial de se estudar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o crescimento das plantas, em ambiente protegido. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida entre abril e outubro de 2007, no Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais (CTRN da UFCG-PB. As plantas foram cultivadas em lisímetros de drenagem (200 L, contendo 230 kg de material de solo devidamente adubado, não-salino, não-sódico, classificado como Argissolo Acinzentado eutrófico. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação - CEa (0,6; 1,2; 1,8; 2,4 e 3,0 dS m-1, a 25 ºC, no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída pela média de duas plantas cultivadas em lisímetros separados. Avaliaram-se altura de planta, diâmetro caulinar, número de folhas e área foliar aos 37, 58, 79, 100, 121, 142 e 163 dias após a semeadura; ao final do período de estudos, o pinhão-manso irrigado com água de CEa de 3,0 dS m-1 teve a altura de planta, o diâmetro caulinar, o número de folhas e a área foliar reduzidos em 9,07, 17,63, 23,41 e 42,58%, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the growth of Jatropha curcas L. in greenhouse. The research was carried out during April and October of 2007, in a greenhouse of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Natural Resources and Technology Center (CTRN of Federal University of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. The plants were grown in drainage lysimeters (200 L with 230 kg of non-saline, non-sodic soil adequately fertilized, classified as Gray Argisol eutrophic. The treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - CEw (0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m-1, at 25 ºC. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 4 replications, each replication represented by the average of 2 plants cultivated in separate lysimeters. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area were evaluated at 37, 58, 79, 100, 121, 142 and 163 days after sowing (DAS. At 163 DAS, Jatropha irrigated with ECw equal to 3.0 dS m-1 had plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area reduced by 9.07, 17.63, 23.41 and 42.58%, respectively.

  11. Industrial emissions cause extreme urban ozone diurnal variability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Renyi; Lei, Wenfang; Tie, Xuexi; Hess, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Simulations with a regional chemical transport model show that anthropogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) lead to a dramatic diurnal variation of surface ozone (O3) in Houston, Texas. During the daytime, photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds catalyzed by NOx results in episodes of elevated ambient O3 levels significantly exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The O3 production rate in Houston is significantly higher...

  12. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based on ozone concentration with others based on ozone flux models.

  13. Measurement of Ground Level Ozone at Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmen A. Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ground level ozone is the most important index substance of photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is now observed in many urban and industrial centers around the world and it has become a common phenomenon in many large cities. Ozone is a most harmful pollutant for humans, in addition it plays an important role in damaging vegetation and materials. Therefore it becomes important to measure the ground level ozone at different locations especially in the center of cities. Approach: The ground level ozone concentration at different locations in Baghdad city was identified. Five different sites have been chosen to identify the ground level ozone concentration. Two sites were chosen as areas contained point source (power plant station in addition to high traffic load and the other three sites were chosen as areas containing heavy traffic only (line source. The measurement focuses on spring and fall because these periods display favorable meteorology to ozone formation. Results: During the research period the maximum values (peaks for ground level ozone concentration were observed in the fall: at Al-Zaâ??afarania area 101ppb as an average, at Al-Dora 87 ppb as an average (which represent the point sources and at line source areas 48 ppb as an average. In spring, the peaks of ozone concentration observed to be at the same height, about 50 ppb for all sites. Conclusion: The results show that the effect of power plant stations in forming ozone is larger than traffic load. The comparison between the ground level ozone concentrations that measured during the research period in spring and fall and the Ambient Air Quality Standards (AAQS shows that: (1 No exceeded levels were observed in spring for all sites. (2 In the fall, the AAQS for ozone was exceeded in Al-Zaâ??afarania area at 12: PM, 1: PM, 2: PM and 3: PM and in Al-Dora at 2: PM.

  14. Ethylenediurea (EDU): A research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O3) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O3 and in the presence of O3 before initiating multiple applications to prevent O3 injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O3 symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O3 under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O3 injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O3 in causing injury in plants. - EDU is a verified and effective tool for the assessment of the effects of ozone on plants.

  15. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2013-04-01

    Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP) and Shanghai (YRD). Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. High ozone concentrations (>80 ppbv) of long duration (>6h) were frequently encountered in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while the occurrence of high ozone concentrations lasted for a shorter period (usually control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  16. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results obtained from this photolysis study demonstrate that the local ground level ozone formation is not only influenced by the strong solar radiation and changing aerosol makeup, but also by other heterogeneous factors and reactions. In addition, this research provided good evidence that the ground level ozone precursor regime in El Paso during the ozone episode of June 2006 was mostly VOC-limited. Much of this estimation was derived from measurements of local ambient VOC/NOx ratios. This finding shows that at least during June 2006, the non-linear surface ozone production increased during weekends compared to workdays in a habitually VOC-limited regime. The seasonal variations of columnar ozone as measured by a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband instrument installed at the UTEP campus are analyzed for the first time for this region and results are presented. This investigation has addressed the problem of ground-level ozone formation in the Paso del Norte region. Urban ozone is a complex problem with many aspects that are not fully understood. In this investigation, a range of techniques has been used to address the study of local surface ozone episodes with the purpose of acquiring new insights and knowledge that will help understand and remediate the diverse atmospheric pollution events that affect this bi-national region recurrently. Innovative techniques were developed and used, ranging from the use of local ambient atmospheric pollution data to the utilization of complex modeling techniques to achieve the best possible computer results. Finally, the influence of ground level ozone concentrations in admissions to hospitals for this region due to respiratory diseases is analyzed. The comprehensive results obtained in this work will help to better understand ozone formation in the Paso del Norte Region for future policy regulation implementations.

  17. Sites of ozone sensitivity in diverse maize inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an air pollutant that costs ~$14-26 billion in global crop losses and is projected to worsen in the future. Potential sites of O3 sensitivity in maize were tested by growing 200 inbred lines, including the nested association mapping population founder lines, under ambient...

  18. YIELD RESPONSE OF HEAD LETTUCE ('LACTUCA SATIVA' L.) TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Empire') was grown in the field and exposed in open-top chambers to proportional increments of ozone (O3) from full charcoal filtration (CF) to twice ambient O3 concentrations(NF x 2.0). Severe foliar injury developed on young plants exposed to...

  19. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  20. Ozone chemistry in aqueous solution : ozone decomposition and stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Ozone is used in many applications in the industry as an oxidising agent for example for bleaching and sterilisation. The decomposition of ozone in aqueous solutions is complex, and is affected by many properties such as, pH, temperature and substances present in the water. Additives can either accelerate the decomposition rate of ozone or have a stabilising effect of the ozone decay. By controlling the decomposition of ozone it is possible to increase the oxidative capacity of ozone. In this...

  1. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h.

  2. barrido ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Neri Basurto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El casco es una estructura relativamente sencilla, constituida por queratina, proteína bastante sulfatada, que provee al casco de dureza y cierta elasticidad para soportar el peso y distribuir la intensidad del impacto en el casco. Para este fi n, se necesita que el casco tenga una calidad adecuada, que requiere de buena nutrición basada en proteínas, vitaminas y minerales. Los minerales constituyen 4% del peso corporal y se conforman en macrominerales (calcio, fósforo, sodio, cloro, potasio, magnesio y azufre y microminerales (selenio, yodo, cobre y zinc. El zinc participa en la formación del casco al inducir la producción de queratina. Su defi ciencia en la dieta causa problemas al tejido córneo, como cascos delgados, friables y fi suras en la pared. Para que el Zn++ sea absorbido adecuadamente, es necesario que sea ingerido en forma quelada como metionina de zinc. La dieta de siete caballos fue complementada con 5.4 g/día/caballo de metionina de zinc por un periodo de seis meses. Se obtuvieron muestras a nivel de la muralla y se realizaron cortes transversales; antes y después del tratamiento, se analizó su morfología y contenido de minerales (Mg++, Cl-, S, Ca++, Na++, K+, P, Si, Fe++, Cu++, Zn++ en el microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental equipado con dispersor de rayos X. Se observó que la morfología presentaba mejor constitución y compactación de los cuernos tubulares e intratubulares en el estrato medio, así como aumento sustancial de zinc (32.9% y de azufre (68.4%, lo cual sugiere incremento de queratina y mejor estructuración del casco

  3. Ozone carcinogenesis in vitro and its co-carcinogenesis with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O/sub 3/), a reactive species of oxygen, is an important natural constituent of the atmosphere. Background levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere may range up to 0.1 ppm and are modified by geographic elevation, solar radiation and climatic conditions. Since some ozone effects are radiomimetic, its actions may be enhanced in the presence of ionizing radiation from background and/or manmade sources. While stratospheric ozone spares the earth from excess solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, high levels of ozone in the environment are toxic and present a health hazard to man. Excess environmental exposure to ozone can result from a variety of sources. Ozone is a key component in oxidant smog and in the vicinity of high electric voltage equipment when in operation. Ozone is widely used as a disinfectant for air and water, in bleaches, waxes, textiles, oils. and inorganic synthesis. Enhanced levels of ozone are found in planes flying at high altitudes. Because of the toxic nature of ozone and its potential hazard to man, its levels in the environment are subject to government regulation. The current standard is set at an hourly average of 235 ?g/m/sup 3/ (0.12 ppm) not to be exceeded more than once per year. Urban areas with high levels of photochemical smog (e.g. Southern California) may experience high ambient ozone levels which can reach 0.5 ppm

  4. Artificial ozone holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolya, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to...

  5. Stratosphere and ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human activities disturb natural balance of earth atmosphere, in short time in comparison with time of great climatic evolutions of the past. Rapid destruction of ozone layer, modifications of chemical balances in Arctic by similar processes to which observed in Antarctic, first experimental views of ozone decreasing in stratosphere and increasing in troposphere, are indications of human perturbation in ozone layer balance which protect us from solar radiation. 17 figs., 6 tabs., 27 refs

  6. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O3 monitoring and foliar O3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  7. The origin of ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Grewe, V.

    2006-01-01

    Highest atmospheric ozone production rates can be found at around 30 km in the tropical stratosphere, leading to ozone mixing ratios of about 10 ppmv. Those stratospheric air masses are then transported to extra-tropical latitudes via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. This is considered the main mechanism to generate mid- and high latitude ozone. By applying the climate-chemistry models E39/C and MAECHAM4/CHEM, this view is investigated in more detail. The origin of ozone in the troposphere and ...

  8. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  9. Short-term effects of multiple ozone metrics on daily mortality in a megacity of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Yan, Meilin; Ma, Wenjun; Ban, Jie; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Zhaorong

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have widely demonstrated association between ambient ozone and mortality, though controversy remains, and most of them only use a certain metric to assess ozone levels. However, in China, few studies have investigated the acute effects of ambient ozone, and rare studies have compared health effects of multiple daily metrics of ozone. The present analysis aimed to explore variability of estimated health effects by using multiple temporal ozone metrics. Six metrics of ozone, 1-h maximum, maximum 8-h average, 24-h average, daytime average, nighttime average, and commute average, were used in a time-series study to investigate acute mortality associated with ambient ozone pollution in Guangzhou, China, using 3 years of daily data (2006-2008). We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze the mortality, ozone, and covariate data. We also examined the association by season. Daily 1- and 8-h maximum, 24-h average, and daytime average concentrations yielded statistically significant associations with mortality. An interquartile range (IQR) of O3 metric increase of each ozone metric (lag 2) corresponds to 2.92 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 5.66), 3.60 % (95 % CI, 0.92 to 8.49), 3.03 % (95 % CI, 0.57 to 15.8), and 3.31 % (95 % CI, 0.69 to 10.4) increase in daily non-accidental mortality, respectively. Nighttime and commute metrics were weakly associated with increased mortality rate. The associations between ozone and mortality appeared to be more evident during cool season than in the warm season. Results were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants, weather, and time trend. In conclusion, these results indicated that ozone, as a widespread pollutant, adversely affects mortality in Guangzhou. PMID:25572272

  10. Overt and Latent Cardiac Effects of Ozone Inhalation in Rats: Evidence for Autonomic Modulation and Increased Myocardial Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Ozone (03) is a well-documented respiratory oxidant, but increasing epidemiologic evidence points to extra-pulmonary effects including positive associations between ambient 03 concentrations and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Objectives: With preliminary reports ...

  11. Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

    2014-09-01

    Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

  12. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O3 on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O3, 100 ppb O3, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O3, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O3 exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O3, and that not only O3, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O3 may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  13. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  14. Einfluss von Ozon, CO2 und Trockenstress auf das Wachstum und die Pollenproduktion der Beifuß-Ambrosie (Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Kelish, Amr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will affect the growth of plants and may also influence the production of pollen. The important factors influencing climate change are increased CO2 concentrations, drought and air pollution. Common ragweed pollen is known to be strongly allergenic, thereby affecting human health. In this study, common ragweed plants were grown over an entire vegetation period under conditions of twice the ambient level of CO2 (700 ppm and ozone (80 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of soil drought combined with different CO2 levels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy showed no change in surface morphology and size of CO2- and drought-treated pollen. Regarding morphological parameters, elevated CO2 resulted in an increased length of the stem and the main inflorescence and higher pollen yields, whereas drought reduced the stem and inflorescence lengths and resulted in a lower pollen yield, a result that was mitigated by elevated CO2. Twice the ambient level of ozone tends to result in a reduced pollen yield. However, this was not statistically significant. These findings support the idea that the conditions of climate change will influence the development of common ragweed pollen, thereby affecting public health.

  15. The effect of reciprocal treatments with ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation on photosynthesis and growth of perennial grass Elymus athericus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on plant growth of the simultaneously changing factors of the global climate, rising tropospheric O3 concentrations and increasing UV-B radiation fluxes, has been tested in a combined glasshouse and growth chamber experiment. The saltmarsh grass species Elymus athericus was sequentially fumigated for two weeks with O3 and for another two weeks irradiated with UV-B (vv). Exposure to elevated UV-B did not negatively affect photosynthesis or plant growth. Fumigation with O3 had a depressing effect on net photosynthesis, the number and biomass of flowers, the number of leaves and the number of shoots. O3-induced damage only was observed in plants which had been fumigated during the last two weeks of the experiment. Since interactive responses were not observed, results suggest different primary target sites for O3 and UV-B within the plant

  16. The Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (1987) and the findings of the British Antarctic Survey (1985). Proposes two theories for the appearance of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica which appears each spring; air pollution and natural atmospheric shifts. Illustrates the mechanics of both. Supports worldwide chlorofluorocarbon…

  17. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  18. Ozone isotopes retrievals

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, C.; Dudhia, A; Payne, V; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D.

    2005-01-01

    The isotopic ratios of stratospheric ozone can be used as valuable tracers for many processes in the atmosphere. Here we compare stratospheric enrichments of heavy ozone obtained from two limb sounders: MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding), on board Envisat, SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer), on board the Odin satellite.

  19. Saving Our Ozone Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Beatrice

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the introduction and continued use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as related to stratospheric ozone depletion. Presents the characteristics of CFCs conducive to the chemical reaction with ozone, the history of CFC use and detection of related environmental problems, health hazards, and alternatives to CFC use. (MCO)

  20. Crops' responses to ozone in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean environment, and most of the Italian peninsula, presents some peculiarities in terms of crop response to O3 since most physiological mechanisms activated upon O3 exposure, such as stomatal closure, often overlap and interact with those that underlie plant adaptation to drought and hyperosmotic stress, which are typical of these environments. OTC and EDU experiments have demonstrated that O3 causes strong yield losses when crops are grown without water limitations. However, exposure to water or saline stress significantly reduced O3 effects on crop yield. In this review, we present the methodological approaches that have been used to study plant-ozone interactions in Italy as well as biochemical, physiological and agronomic responses for representative cropping systems of the Mediterranean climate. - Is the 22% yield loss due to ambient ozone in non-limiting water conditions a realistic estimate for moderately stressed crops, typical of most Mediterranean regions?

  1. Antarctic ozone hole compared with arctic ozone behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data, characterizing the formation of an ozone hole in the Antarctic Continent are discussed. The ozone hole is a reduction of the total content of ozone in the atmosphere from 300 Dobson units (D.u.) during the International geophysical year (1957-1958) to 120 D.u. in September-October, 1987. In 1988 the content of ozone in the region of the ozone hole grew notably: up to 210 D.u. Any phenomenon, similar to the ozone hole, was not observed in the Arctic Region. The main factors, facilitating the formation of an ozone hole, include low temperatures, polar stratospheric clouds and solar radiation

  2. Atmospheric emissions and economic growth. Environmental Kuznets Curve and Kyoto protocol; Emisiones atmosfericas y crecimiento economico en Espana. La Curve de Kuznets ambiental y el protocolo de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Jusmet, J.; Padilla Rosa, E.

    2004-07-01

    From the beginning of the 90s the analysis of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressures has been influenced by the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis or inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental pressure and per capita income. Following this hypothesis, once achieved certain income level, more economic growth is followed by environmental quality improvement. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the theories that support this hypothesis as well as the empirical evidence on this subject. Further on we analyse the relationship between per capita income and the main environmental pollutants for the case does not support the hypothesis. The empirical evidence shows that economic growth, by itself, does not entail a pollution reduction. (Author) 35 refs.

  3. Visible foliar injury and infrared imaging show that daylength affects short-term recovery after ozone stress in Trifolium subterraneum

    OpenAIRE

    Vollsnes, Ane V.; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Otterholt, Eli; Kvaal, Knut; Oxaal, Unni; Futsaether, Cecilia M.

    2009-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been investigated. Young Trifolium subterraneum plants kept in environmentally controlled growth rooms under long day (10?h bright light, 14?h di...

  4. The Hole in the Ozone Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Jeanne S.; Jacob, Anthony T.

    This document contains information on the hole in the ozone layer. Topics discussed include properties of ozone, ozone in the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion on life, regulation of substances that deplete the ozone layer, alternatives to CFCs and Halons, and the future of the ozone layer.…

  5. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is th...

  6. Application of Ozone in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennady

    2009-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????, ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????, ?? ???? ???? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????.This review deals with the application of ozone in medicine, its effect...

  7. Ozone laminae and teleconnection patterns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Laštovi?ka, Jan; Krzyšcin, J. W.

    Athens : International Ozone Commission, 2004 - (Zerefos, C.), s. 421-422 ISBN 960-630-103-6. [Quadrennial Ozone Symposium /20./. Kos (GR), 01.06.2004-08.06.2004] Grant ostatní: CANDIDOZ(XE) EVK2-2001-00024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ozone profile * ozone laminae Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  9. Aspects of UV-absorption spectroscopy on ozone in effluents of plasma jets operated in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold plasmas operating under atmospheric conditions have been in the focus of scientific attention not only due to their use in plasma medicine. Many of these plasma sources most notably produce ozone. This work presents a detailed ozone analysis on an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet operated in ambient air using ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. A special focus is placed on the question whether other species are involved, or is the absorption signal due to ozone. For this, the wavelength dependence of the optical depth was measured and compared with the theoretical optical depth including the cross section of ozone. The results show that in the case of a MHz frequency driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet the absorption signal in the UV range is solely due to ozone. Furthermore, this finding is verified by spectroscopic measurements in the IR spectral range. Additional space-resolved ozone density measurements are performed in the effluent of this jet with small oxygen admixtures by means of UV absorption spectroscopy. A funnel-shaped spatial ozone profile is found for all investigated oxygen admixtures. The highest ozone density develops on the effluent axis and in close vicinity to the jet nozzle. The maximal detected value is 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 for an oxygen admixture of 1%. In order to compare the results with non-space-resolved ozone detection methods the ozone net production rate is calculated.

  10. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Belchor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 ?g/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 ?g of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  11. Assessment of ambient air quality in Eski?ehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, O; Dö?ero?lu, T; Kara, S

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an assessment of air quality of the city Eski?ehir, located 230 km southwest to the capital of Turkey. Only five of the major air pollutants, most studied worldwide and available for the region, were considered for the assessment. Available sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and non-methane volatile organic carbons (NMVOCs) data from local emission inventory studies provided relative source contributions of the selected pollutants to the region. The contributions of these typical pollution parameters, selected for characterizing such an urban atmosphere, were compared with the data established for other cities in the nation and world countries. Additionally, regional ambient SO(2) and PM concentrations, determined by semi-automatic monitoring at two sites, were gathered from the National Ambient Air Monitoring Network (NAAMN). Regional data for ambient NO(2) (as a precursor of ozone as VOCs) and ozone concentrations, through the application of the passive sampling method, were provided by the still ongoing local air quality monitoring studies conducted at six different sites, as representatives of either the traffic-dense-, or coal/natural gas burning residential-, or industrial/rural-localities of the city. Passively sampled ozone data at a single rural site were also verified with the data from a continuous automatic ozone monitoring system located at that site. Effects of variations in seasonal-activities, newly established railway system, and switching to natural gas usage on the temporal changes of air quality were all considered for the assessment. Based on the comparisons with the national [AQCR (Air Quality Control Regulation). Ministry of Environment (MOE), Ankara. Official Newspaper 19269; 1986.] and a number of international [WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Air Quality. Geneva; 2000. Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.who.int/peh/; EU (European Union). Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities L 163: 14-30; 29.6.1999; EU (European Union). Council Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities. L 67: 14-30; 9.3.2002.; USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/] ambient air standards, among all the pollutants studied, only the annual average SO(2) concentration was found to exceed one specific limit value (EU limit for protection of the ecosystem). A part of the data (VOC/NO(x) ratio), for determining the effects of photochemical interactions, indicated that VOC-limited regime was prevailing throughout the city. PMID:18291527

  12. Dynamical modes associated with the Antarctic ozone hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Weare

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Maximum Covariance Analysis (GMCA has been developed and applied to diagnosing the dynamical modes associated with variations in the Antarctic spring ozone hole. GMCA is used to identify the most important patterns of co-variability between interannual ozone mixing ratio variations in the Antarctic region and temperature, zonal, meridional and vertical velocities between 100 and 10 hPa in the same region. The most important two pairs of GMCA time coefficients show large year-to-year variations and trends, which are connected with the growth of the Antarctic Ozone Hole and the increase of ozone depleting substances. The associated spatial patterns of ozone variations may be characterized as being quasi-symmetric and asymmetric about the pole. These patterns of ozone variations are associated with comparable patterns of variations of temperature and winds through most of the vertical domain.

    The year 2000 is shown to be dominated by the asymmetric mode, whereas the adjacent year 2001 is dominated by the quasi-symmetric mode. A case study, focusing on the asymmetric differences between these two years, shows the magnitude of the ozone mixing ratio, temperature and zonal wind differences to be in the range of 2 e-6, 10°C and 10 m/s, respectively. Budget calculations show that transport processes contribute substantially to the ozone and temperature changes in the middle stratosphere over the Antarctic continent. However, both radiative and chemical processes also play important roles in the changes.

  13. Dynamical modes associated with the Antarctic ozone hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Weare

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Maximum Covariance Analysis (GMCA has been developed and applied to diagnosing the dynamical modes associated with variations in the Antarctic spring ozone hole. GMCA is used to identify the most important patterns of co-variability between interannual ozone mixing ratio variations in the Antarctic region and temperature, zonal, meridional and vertical velocities between 100 and 10 hPa in the same region. The most important two pairs of GMCA time coefficients show large year-to-year variations and trends, which are connected with the growth of the Antarctic Ozone Hole and the increase of ozone depleting substances. The associated spatial patterns of ozone variations may be characterized as being quasi-symmetric and asymmetric about the pole. These patterns of ozone variations are associated with comparable patterns of variations of temperature and winds through most of the vertical domain.

    The year 2000 is shown to be dominated by the asymmetric mode, whereas the adjacent year 2001 is dominated by the quasi-symmetric mode. A case study, focusing on the asymmetric differences between these two years, shows the magnitude of the ozone mixing ratio, temperature and zonal wind differences to be in the range of 2 e–6 kg/kg, 10°C and 10 m/s, respectively. Budget calculations show that transport processes contribute substantially to the ozone and temperature changes in the middle stratosphere over the Antarctic continent. However, both radiative and chemical processes also play important roles in the changes.

  14. Dynamical modes associated with the Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, B. C.

    2009-08-01

    Generalized Maximum Covariance Analysis (GMCA) has been developed and applied to diagnosing the dynamical modes associated with variations in the Antarctic spring ozone hole. GMCA is used to identify the most important patterns of co-variability between interannual ozone mixing ratio variations in the Antarctic region and temperature, zonal, meridional and vertical velocities between 100 and 10 hPa in the same region. The most important two pairs of GMCA time coefficients show large year-to-year variations and trends, which are connected with the growth of the Antarctic Ozone Hole and the increase of ozone depleting substances. The associated spatial patterns of ozone variations may be characterized as being quasi-symmetric and asymmetric about the pole. These patterns of ozone variations are associated with comparable patterns of variations of temperature and winds through most of the vertical domain. The year 2000 is shown to be dominated by the asymmetric mode, whereas the adjacent year 2001 is dominated by the quasi-symmetric mode. A case study, focusing on the asymmetric differences between these two years, shows the magnitude of the ozone mixing ratio, temperature and zonal wind differences to be in the range of 2 e-6 kg/kg, 10°C and 10 m/s, respectively. Budget calculations show that transport processes contribute substantially to the ozone and temperature changes in the middle stratosphere over the Antarctic continent. However, both radiative and chemical processes also play important roles in the changes.

  15. On the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million sq km. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million sq km. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million sq km over brief periods. In the spring of 2002, the size of the ozone hole barely reached 20 Million sq km for only a couple of days. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre-1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  16. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005 (winter and 2006 (summer. Statistical analysis showed that there are significant statistical differences between cohorts obtained from natural environment and those obtained in hatchery. The Tukey's test showed differences between CN2003 and CH2003 and also between CN2005 and CH2005, while there were no significant differences between CN2006 and CH2006. These differences indicate that the cohorts of natural environment seeds grew faster than those of hatchery. Inter annual comparison showed significant statistical differences. These results are discussed in terms of the cultivation temperature and the heterozygosity for the growing population.

  17. Evidências de interação genótipo x ambiente sobre características de crescimento em bovinos de corte Evidences of genotype x environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello de Alencar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre os pesos à desmama (PD e aos 12 meses de idade (P12, o ganho de peso diário da desmama aos 12 meses de idade (GDA e o desempenho com base em um índice (CPG de componentes principais envolvendo essas três características, em um rebanho da raça Canchim. O ambiente foi considerado a época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres do animal. Para avaliar a interação genótipo x ambiente, foram utilizadas duas metodologias: 1 - estimativas de parâmetros genéticos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas (REML, com análise bicaráter (mesma característica nas duas épocas, com o modelo estatístico incluindo os efeitos fixos de sexo, ano e mês de nascimento do animal e idade da vaca ao parto como covariável (linear e quadrático e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e do resíduo; e 2 - semelhante à metodologia 1, porém, no modelo estatístico, incluiu-se ou não o efeito aleatório não correlacionado de touro-época de nascimento, testando a diferença entre os dois modelos pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança. Pela Metodologia 1, as correlações genéticas obtidas para a mesma característica nas duas épocas de nascimento foram iguais a 0,87; 0,97; 0,91 e 0,88, para PD, P12, GDA e CPG, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram semelhantes para as duas épocas de nascimento, para todas as características estudadas. Pela metodologia 2, o efeito de touro-época de nascimento foi significativo para todas as características estudadas. Estes resultados evidenciam a existência de interação genótipo x época de nascimento para as características estudadas, sugerindo que as avaliações genéticas e a seleção dos animais desse rebanho devem considerar essa interação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction for body weight at weaning (WW and 12 months of age (W12, average daily gain from weaning to 12 months of age (ADG, and performance based on a principal components index (PC involving these three traits, in a Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu herd. The environment was the season (semester of birth, and two methods were used to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction: Method 1 - genetic parameters estimated by the derivative free maximum likelihood method (REML, using two-trait analyses (the same trait in the two seasons, and a model that included the effects of year and month of birth, sex and age of cow as a covariate (linear and quadratic effects, and the random effect of animal; and Method 2 - same methodology as Method 1, but with two statistical models, with or without the uncorrelated random effect of sire - season of birth, testing the difference between the two models using the likelyhood ratio test. By Method 1, the genetic correlations for the same trait in the two environments (seasons were equal to 0.87, 0.97, 0.91 and 0.88 for WW, W12, ADG and PC, respectively. The heritability estimates were very similar for both environments, for all traits studied. By Method 2, the sire-season of birth effect was significant for all traits studied. These results show evidence of genotype x season of birth interaction for the traits studied, suggesting that, in this herd, genetic evaluation and selection should take this interaction into account.

  18. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    LJILJANA TAKI?; VLADA VELJKOVI?; SRDJAN PEJANOVI?

    2008-01-01

    The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone abs...

  19. Ozone - plant surface reactions an important ozone loss term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Canaval, Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billions dollar per year. Plant injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: How much ozone enters the plant through open stomata and how much ozone is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? Until now surface losses are estimated from measured total ozone deposition fluxes and calculated stomatal conductance values. While stomatal conductance of CO2 and H2O is well understood and extensively used in describing plant atmosphere gas exchange, stomatal conductance of ozone is not well known. Here we use different Nicotiana tabacum varieties and find that surface reactions of ozone with diterpenoids synthesized by glandular trichomes reduce ozone flux through open stomata. Our measurements reveal that fast ozone loss at the plant surface is accompanied with prompt release of oxygenated volatile compounds. In the ozone fumigation experiments of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties the release of specific volatile oxy-VOCs allowed to identify the semi volatile precursor compounds at the plant surface. Ozone fumigation experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), two common species in the Northern Hemisphere, show also a significant ozone loss at the plant surface for Picea abies. Fluid dynamic calculations of ozone transport in the diffusive leaf boundary layer reveal a vertical but no horizontal ozone gradient thus reducing ozone fluxes through the pores in case of efficient ozone scavenging plant surfaces. We explain this efficient ozone protection mechanism by the porous surface architecture of plants in combination with unsaturated semi-volatile compounds deposited at the plant surface. These results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as oxygenated VOC source, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the plant's ozone tolerance

  20. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  1. The ozone; L'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In this booklet, the ministry of the national development and environment presents the emergency actions decided by the authorities, in the case of ozone pollution. These measure concern the road traffic. Recommendations are also proposed for the public. (A.L.B.)

  2. Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs tree stomatal response to carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onandia, Gabriela [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P. O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecology, University of Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Olsson, Anna-Karin; Barth, Sabine [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P. O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); King, John S. [Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, Campus Box 8002, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Uddling, Johan, E-mail: johan.uddling@dpes.gu.se [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P. O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    With rising concentrations of both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}), it is important to better understand the interacting effects of these two trace gases on plant physiology affecting land-atmosphere gas exchange. We investigated the effect of growth under elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, singly and in combination, on the primary short-term stomatal response to CO{sub 2} concentration in paper birch at the Aspen FACE experiment. Leaves from trees grown in elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} exhibited weaker short-term responses of stomatal conductance to both an increase and a decrease in CO{sub 2} concentration from current ambient level. The impairement of the stomatal CO{sub 2} response by O{sub 3} most likely developed progressively over the growing season as assessed by sap flux measurements. Our results suggest that expectations of plant water-savings and reduced stomatal air pollution uptake under rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} may not hold for northern hardwood forests under concurrently rising tropospheric O{sub 3}. - Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs stomatal CO{sub 2} responsiveness of birch in the Aspen FACE experiment.

  3. Artificial ozone holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  4. Estonian total ozone climatology

    OpenAIRE

    Eerme, K.; Veismann, U.; Koppel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a s...

  5. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Effect of ozone on respiratory responses in subjects with asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.Q. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In the process of understanding the respiratory effects of individual air pollutants, it is useful to consider which populations seem to be most susceptible to the exposures. Ozone is the most ubiquitous air pollutant in the United States, and there is great interest in the extent of susceptibility to this air pollutant. This review presents evidence that individuals with asthma are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects from ozone exposure than are nonasthmatic individuals under similar circumstances. In studies comparing patients with asthma to nonasthmatic subjects, research has shown increased pulmonary-function decrements, an increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in ozone responders, increased signs of upper airway inflammation after ozone exposure, and an increased response to inhaled sulfur dioxide or allergen in the subjects with asthma. Subjects with asthma are indeed a population susceptible to the inhaled effects of ozone. These data need to be considered by regulators who are charged with setting air quality standards to protect even the most susceptible members of the population. They also underline the importance of strategies to reduce human exposure to ambient ozone. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  8. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, which in concert with clima...

  9. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000?C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) delivers high quality ZnMgO-ZnO quantum well structures. Other thin film techniques such as PLD or MOCVD are also widely used. The main problem at present is to consistently achieve reliable p-type doping. For this topic, see also Chap. 5. In the past years, there have been numerous publications on p-type doping of ZnO, as well as ZnO p-n junctions and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, a lot of these reports are in one way or the other inconsistent or at least incomplete. It is quite clear from optical data that once a reliable hole injection can be achieved, high brightness ZnO LEDs should be possible. In contrast to that expectation, none of the LEDs reported so far shows efficient light emission, as would be expected from a reasonable quality ZnO-based LED. See also Chap. 13. As a matter of fact, there seems to be no generally accepted and reliable technique for p-type doping available at present. The reason for this is the unfavorable position of the band structure of ZnO relative to the vacuum level, with a very low lying valence band. See also Fig. 5.1. This makes the incorporation of electrically active acceptors difficult. Another difficulty is the huge defect density in ZnO. There are many indications that defects play a major role in transport and doping. In order to solve the doping problem, it is generally accepted that the quality of the ZnO material grown by the various techniques needs to be improved. Therefore, the optimization of ZnO epitaxy is thought to play a key role in the further development of this material system. Besides being used as an active material in optoelectronic devices, ZnO plays a major role as transparent contact material in thin film solar cells. Polycrystalline, heavily n-type doped ZnO is used for this, combining a high electrical conductivity with a good optical transparency. In this case, ZnO thin films are fabricated by large area growth techniques such as sputtering. For this and other applications, see also Chap. 13.

  10. The Effect of Air Pollution on Ozone Layer Thickness in Troposphere over the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Al Jeran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to Ultra Violet (UV radiation. United States environmental protection agency and European community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal protocol in 1987. Problem statement: This research deled with data analysis of ozone layer thickness obtained from Abu-Dhabi station and detailed measurement of air pollution levels in Kuwait. Approach: The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been correlated with the measured pollution levels in the State of Kuwait. The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade had been evaluated. Other factor that strongly affects the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere is local pollution levels of primary pollutants such as total hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides. Results: The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels presented in detail reflecting negative relation of both non-methane hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations in ambient air. Conclusion: Ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been measured for five years (1999-2004 reflecting minimum thickness in the month of December and maximum in the month of June. The ozone thickness related to the ground level concentration of non-methane hydrocarbon and can be used as an indicator of the health of ozone layer thickness in the stratosphere.

  11. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l-1, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l-1, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne

  12. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, K.; Franz, J.-Th.; Masuch, G

    2004-10-01

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l{sup -1}, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l{sup -1}, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne.

  13. Crecimiento de plántulas de estátice (Limonium sinuatum) y viola (Viola cornuta) en ambientes contrastantes / Growth of statice (Limonium sinuatum) and viola (Viola cornuta) seedlings in contrasting environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Javier, Ayala-Garay; José Alfredo, Carrillo-Salazar; Evelia, Hernández-García; Elizabeth, Díaz-Martínez; Manuel, Livera-Muñoz; Gustavo, Almaguer-Vargas.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En producción rústica de ornamentales se requiere conocer el efecto medioambiental en la emergencia y crecimiento de plántulas para optimizar el proceso de producción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el efecto de tres condiciones de producción: un túnel cubierto por polietileno, malla [...] -sombra de 50 % de transmisión de radiación solar y a la intemperie, en el crecimiento de plántulas de estátice y viola, durante el invierno en el Valle de México. Se midieron la temperatura del aire, porcentaje de emergencia (E%), área foliar por planta (AF) y biomasa seca por planta (PS) a los 10,18, 24, 31 y 35 días después de siembra (dds) en estátice, y 21, 28, 35, 43 y 52 dds en viola; se calcularon las tasas absoluta de crecimiento (TAC), relativa de crecimiento (TRC) y de asimilación neta (TAN). En túnel de polietileno y malla-sombra se tuvieron valores de E % más altos: 95 y 93 % para estátice y 97 y 95 % para viola, respectivamente. En ambas especies existieron dos cinéticas sigmoidales de crecimiento en PS: la cinética de crecimiento en el túnel de polietileno fue la mayor (P Abstract in english In order to grow ornamental plants in non-controlled environments, the effect of temperature on seedling emergence and growth must be known in order to optimize plant production. The aim of this research was to compare the growth of statice and viola seedlings, during the winter in the Valley of Mex [...] ico, under three production conditions: a polyethylene-covered tunnel, shade netting that cuts light transmission by 50 %, and in the open. We measured air temperature (0C), emergence percentage (E%), leaf area (LA) per plant and dry weight biomass (DWB) per plant at 10, 18, 24, 31 and 35 days after planting (dap) in statice seedlings, and at 21, 28, 35, 43 and 52 dap in viola seedlings. In addition, the absolute growth rate (AGR), the relative growth rate (RGR) and the net assimilation rate (NAR) were calculated. Compared to the outdoor treatment (control), The polyethylene tunnel and shade netting produced higher E% values: 95 and 93 % for statice and 97 and 95 % for viola, respectively. Two different sigmoid curves of dry matter accumulation were observed in both species. The polythene tunnel produced higher DWB than the other conditions (P

  14. Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke en distintos ambientes de fertilidad Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in different environnement of fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Herrera Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántulas de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes, Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S. Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA y de las raíces (MSR, contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plant growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, Standard (nature soil, Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.

  15. Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) en distintos ambientes de fertilidad / Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) in different environnement of fertility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilmer Herrera, Valencia; Paulo de Tarso Barbosa, Sampaio; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántula [...] s de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes), Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S). Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR), Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN), peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA) y de las raíces (MSR), contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg). Abstract in english Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plan [...] t growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn), Standard (nature soil), Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP) and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg).

  16. High-latitude ozone loss outside the Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data taken during the 1987 Antarctic Airborne Ozone Experiment based in Punta Arenas, Chile, are used to show that from mid-August until the end of the mission in late September there was a high latitude ozone loss outside the Antarctic ozone hole. Therefore, not only is the geographic extent of the ozone loss larger than that generally identified as chemically perturbed, but ozone is lost earlier in the year than previously reported. These results, when compared with long-term temporal trends of column ozone, indicate a possible anthropogenic component for this loss. 30 refs., 4 figs

  17. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas; Ozon: den hemmelige drivhusgassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-07-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected.

  18. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  19. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  20. Catalytic for Ozone Converters

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of New Catalytic Systems, Methods of Formation of Catalytic Elements on this Basis, and Development of a Laboratory Version of the Low-Temperature Catalytic Ozone Converter for Life Support Systems in Civil Aviation

  1. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  2. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2006-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50?km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the c...

  3. DMAH ozone measurement net

    OpenAIRE

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation) and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature). The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its...

  4. Ozone therapy in periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-01-01

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of oz...

  5. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  6. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...Virginia--February 2, 2010 Hyatt Regency Crystal City @ Reagan National Airport, Washington Room (located on the...545-562. Olszyk, D., Bytnerowlez, A., Kats, G., Reagan, C., Hake, S., Kerby, T., Millhouse,...

  7. Teale California Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  8. Have ozone effects on carbon sequestration been overestimated?: a new biomass response function for wheat

    OpenAIRE

    H. Pleijel; Danielsson, H.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz, Germany 11 11 Funded by the German Federal Minister for Education and Research (BMBF) under contract 05HA6UMA .); Simpson, D.; Mills, G.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of tropospheric ozone can significantly impair the growth of crops. The reduced removal of CO2 by plants leads to higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2, enhancing radiative forcing. Ozone effects on economic yield, e.g. the grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), are currently used to model effects on radiative forcing. However, changes in grain yield do not necessarily reflect changes in total biomass. Based on an analysis of 22 ozone exposure experi...

  9. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  10. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  11. Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Jürg

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is the most important regional-scale air pollutant causing risks for vegetation and human health in many parts of the world. Ozone impacts on yield and quality of crops and pastures depend on precursor emissions, atmospheric transport and leaf uptake and on the plant’s biochemical defence capacity, all of which are influenced by changing climatic conditions, increasing atmospheric CO2 and altered emission patterns. In this article, recent findings about ozone effects under current conditions and trends in regional ozone levels and in climatic factors affecting the plant’s sensitivity to ozone are reviewed in order to assess implications of these developments for future regional ozone risks. Based on pessimistic IPCC emission scenarios for many cropland regions elevated mean ozone levels in surface air are projected for 2050 and beyond as a result of both increasing emissions and positive effects of climate change on ozone formation and higher cumulative ozone exposure during an extended growing season resulting from increasing length and frequency of ozone episodes. At the same time, crop sensitivity may decline in areas where warming is accompanied by drying, such as southern and central Europe, in contrast to areas at higher latitudes where rapid warming is projected to occur in the absence of declining air and soil moisture. In regions with rapid industrialisation and population growth and with little regulatory action, ozone risks are projected to increase most dramatically, thus causing negative impacts major staple crops such as rice and wheat and, consequently, on food security. Crop improvement may be a way to increase crop cross-tolerance to co-occurring stresses from heat, drought and ozone. However, the review reveals that besides uncertainties in climate projections, parameters in models for ozone risk assessment are also uncertain and model improvements are necessary to better define specific targets for crop improvements, to identify regions most at risk from ozone in a future climate and to set robust effect-based ozone standards.

  12. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population-based mother-child cohort studies in 12 European countries. Overall, the study population included 74?178 women who had singleton deliveries between Feb 11, 1994, and June 2, 2011, and for whom informatio...

  13. Efeitos da restrição alimentar protéica ou energética sobre o crescimento de frangos de corte criados em diferentes temperaturas ambiente Effect of protein or energy restriction on broilers growth reared at different environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Regina Leone

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da restrição protéica ou energética, entre o 8º e o 14º dia de idade, sobre o crescimento e a composição da carcaça de frangos de corte criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientes. Foram utilizados 900 pintos de um dia, machos, da linhagem Ross, os quais foram alojados em três diferentes câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 25 ou 33°C, do 1º ao 42º dia de idade. Para cada temperatura, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as parcelas corresponderam ao programa alimentar (controle - 2850 kcal EM/kg e 20% de proteína bruta do 1º ao 21º dia de idade e 3040 kcal EM/kg e 17% de PB do 22º ao 42º dia; restrição energética - 2565 kcal EM/kg e 20% de PB e restrição protéica - 2850 kcal EM/kg e 15% de PB entre o 8º e o 14º dia de idade e as subparcelas, à idade das aves. Entre o 1º e o 7º dia de idade e após o período de restrição as aves receberam a mesma dieta do que os animais controles. Foram avaliados o peso vivo e a composição da carcaça das aves. Os resultados mostraram que, de forma independente da temperatura de criação, as restrições alimentares (energética ou protéica não afetaram o peso vivo e a composição da carcaça aos 42 dias de idade, evidenciando que o frango em temperaturas ambientes diversas mantém a capacidade de ganho compensatório.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of protein or energy restriction from 8th to 14th days of age, on growth and carcass composition of broiler chickens raised at different environmental temperatures. It was used 900 day-old, male chickens from Ross strain, reared in three environmentally controlled rooms where ambient temperature were maintained at 18, 25 and 33°C up to 42 days of age. For each temperature, a split-plot design was used with feed program as the main plot (control - 2850 kcal ME/kg and 20% of crude protein from 1 to 21 days and 3040 kcal ME/kg and 17% of crude protein from 22 to 42 days; energy restriction - 2565 kcal ME/kg and 20% of crude protein and protein restriction - 2850 kcal ME/kg and 15% of crude protein from 8th to 14th days of age and age as the sub-plot. From 1 to 7 days of age and after restriction period, the chicks were fed with the control diet. The body weight and carcass composition were analyzed. The results showed that, irrespective of ambient temperature, the qualitative energy or protein restriction did not affect the body weight and carcass composition at 42 days of age, indicating that broilers kept a compensatory gain ability in different ambient temperatures.

  14. Estudo da interação genótipo × ambiente sobre características de crescimento de bovinos de corte utilizando-se inferência bayesiana A study of the genotype × environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur dos Santos Mascioli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a interação genótipo × ambiente em um rebanho da raça Canchim por meio de estimativas de parâmetros genéticos dos pesos à desmama e aos 12 meses de idade, do ganho de peso diário entre essas idades e do desempenho estimado por um índice obtido de componentes principais envolvendo essas três características. O ambiente foi representado por época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos em análises bicaráter (mesma característica nas duas épocas, utilizando-se a metodologia de inferência bayesiana, por meio de amostrador de Gibbs, cujo modelo incluiu os efeitos fixos de sexo, ano e mês de nascimento do animal e idade da vaca ao parto (linear e quadrática e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Houve evidências de interação genótipo × época de nascimento para as características estudadas, sugerindo que as avaliações genéticas e a seleção dos animais devem ser feitas considerando-se a existência dessa interação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotype × environment interaction for weaning and yearling weights, daily weight gain from weaning to 12 months of age and the growth performance in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu beef cattle estimated by a principal components analysis including those three traits. The environment was defined by season of birth (first and second semesters of the year. Genetic parameters were estimated by bayesian method with the Gibbs sampler using bivariate analyses (considering the trait in each of the two seasons as a different one and models that included the fixed effects of year and month of birth, sex and age of cow (linear and quadratic and the random effects of animal and residual. The results suggested that genetic evaluation and selection in Canchim beef cattle for the traits studied should consider the genotype and season of birth interaction.

  15. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  16. Effects of elevated ozone on CO2 uptake and leaf structure in sugar maple under two light environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of ozone and light on leaf structure, carbon dioxide uptake and short-term carbon allocation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings were examined using gas exchange measurements and 14C-macroautoradiographic techniques. Two-year-old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated from budbreak for 5 months with ambient or 3 × ambient ozone in open-top chambers, receiving either 35% (high light) or 15% (low light) of full sunlight. Ozone accelerated leaf senescence, and reduced net photosynthesis, 14CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance, with the effects being most pronounced under low light. The proportion of intercellular space increased in leaves of seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, possibly enhancing the susceptibility of mesophyll cells to ozone by increasing the cumulative dose per mesophyll cell. Indeed, damage to spongy mesophyll cells in the elevated ozone × low light treatment was especially frequent. 14C macroautoradioraphy revealed heterogeneous uptake of 14CO2 in well defined areole regions, suggesting patchy stomatal behaviour in all treatments. However, in seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, the highest 14CO2 uptake occurred along larger veins, while interveinal regions exhibited little or no uptake. Although visible symptoms of ozone injury were not apparent in these seedlings, the cellular damage, reduced photosynthetic rates and reduced whole-leaf chlorophyll levels corroborate the visual scaling of whole-plant senescence, suggesting that the ozone × low light treatment accelerated senescence or senescence-like injury in sugar maple. (author)

  17. Stratospheric ozone and temperature perturbations - An examination of synergistic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the time-dependent effects of combined releases of CO2 and chlorofluoromethanes (CFM) on stratospheric ozone and temperature. The analysis also examines the effects of steady-state variations in CFM, CO2, and solar UV flux levels on surface temperature and latitudinal temperature distribution. Results indicate that ozone depletion, due to combined effects of CO2 and CFM increases, may show a local maximum of about 6% at about the time CO2 doubles (approximately 60 yr from now). After that, the downward trend in ozone due to Cl(x) catalytic destruction is reestablished and continues, reaching approximately 15% depletion. At steady state, compensation due to CO2 increases is approximately 1% for two to four times the ambient CO2 levels.

  18. Ozonation of Canadian Athabasca asphaltene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Zhixiong

    Application of ozonation in the petrochemical industry for heavy hydrocarbon upgrading has not been sufficiently explored. Among heavy hydrocarbons, asphaltenes are the heaviest and the most difficult fractions for analysis and treatment. Therefore, ozonation of asphaltenes presents an interesting application in the petrochemical industry. Commercial application of ozonation in the petrochemical industry has three obstacles: availability of an ozone-resistant and environmentally friendly solvent, the precipitation of ozonation intermediates during reaction, and recovery of the solvent and separation of the ozonation products. Preliminary ozonation of Athabasca oil sands asphaltene in nonparticipating solvents encountered serious precipitation of the ozonation intermediates. The precipitated intermediates could be polymeric ozonides and intermolecular ozonides or polymeric peroxides. Because the inhomogeneous reaction medium caused low ozone efficiency, various participating solvents such as methanol and acetic acid were added to form more soluble hydroperoxides. The mass balance results showed that on average, one asphaltene molecule reacted with 12 ozone molecules through the electrophilic reaction and the subsequent decomposition of ozonation intermediates generated acetone extractable products. GC/MS analysis of these compounds indicated that the free radical reactions could be important for generation of volatile products. The extensively ozonated asphaltene in the presence of participating solvents were refluxed with methanol to generate more volatile products. GC/MS analysis of the methanol-esterified ozonation products indicated that most volatile products were aliphatic carboxylic acid esters generated through cleavage of substituents. Reaction kinetics study showed that asphaltene ozonation was initially a diffusion rate-controlled reaction and later developed to a chemical reaction rate-controlled reaction after depletion of the reactive aromatic sites. Two new solvent systems, a self-sustaining ozonation system and a cyclohexane/acetone/water or a cyclohexane/acetone/methanol system, were studied to overcome the drawback of using halogenated solvents. The self-sustaining ozonation process employed the final ozonation products as the reaction solvent. Compared to the self-sustaining ozonation, the cyclohexane solvent system showed higher ozone efficiency; however, it required dynamic adjustment of the solvent system during ozonation. An extensively ozonated asphaltene's weight would be doubled. Distillation of the products separated about 45% volatile products having biodiesel-style chemical structures. Compared to distillation, more than 90% of the ozonation products were extractable by acetone. The remaining acetone-insoluble part was further classified by dichloromethane and other solvents of different polarities. The separated ozonation products were good fuel additives or materials for other products.

  19. What Controls the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Newman, Paul A.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Nash, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million square kilometers. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million square kilometers. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million square kilometers over brief periods. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre- 1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  20. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations. Rate constant...

  1. Multidimensional and Multiscale Pattern of Western U.S. Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, R. B.; Frank, N. H.; Karmazyn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The multitude of sources and sinks, along with the high reactivity and metastability of ozone make it difficult to attribute ambient ozone concentrations to specific sources. Source attribution over the Western US is particularly complicated by unpredictable forest fires, hemispheric transport from distributed global sources and stratospheric ozone incursions. While advances over the past decades yielded much improved ambient measurements, better emission estimates, detailed mechanistic and statistical and chemical models and statistical techniques, a full reconciliation and 'closure' of measured ambient ozone concentrations, with precursor emissions has remained elusive. In this report, we are applying systematic pattern analysis as an additional tool set for comparing and reconciling emissions, observations and models. A common set of pattern and a pattern language is used to describe atmospheric parameters that are distributed along time, space and parameter dimensions with multiple scales along each dimension. The temporal patterns are at diurnal, weekly, seasonal and secular scales. The weekly and secular-scale pattern is driven mainly by human influences while the diurnal and seasonal pattern are more influenced by nature. The horizontal spatial variation and pattern include plumes, urban domes and regional 'blobs' as they occur at micro, meso, synoptic and hemispherical scales. The vertical pattern includes well-mixed layer and 'bliny' (pancakes). All atmospheric phenomena are characterized by their respective spatial and temporal pattern. A pattern catalog along with a consistent pattern description language (1) aids the identification of major drivers of variation; (2) facilitates comprehensive comparison and reconciliation of data and models along multiple dimensions and scales; (3) allows estimation of unusual deviation from standard pattern. Such anomalous pattern along with statistical analyses and chemical transport model results for specific ozone events can be used as evidence and documentation of Exceptional Air Quality Events.

  2. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect’ or ‘surround effect’. To make an ambient space is to produce a sensation of being surrounded by highlighting the very spatial properties of a given space. Ambient space is space as a surrounding ubiquity, space as ‘world’. Despite often being used almost synonymously, the concepts of ambient space and atmosphere thus have quite different connotations. As I will argue, this not only includes the difference between place and non-place and between space as dwelling and transitory space. It also concerns, on a more general level, differences between particular and generalized space; between spatial involvement and detachment; between allocentric and idiocentric space; and between space as social and sensory experience.

  3. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  4. Slow Crack Growth Behavior and Life/Reliability Analysis of 96 wt % Alumina at Ambient Temperature With Various Specimen/Loading Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Powers, Lynn M.; Nemeth, Noel N.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive constant stress-rate testing for 96 wt % alumina was conducted in room-temperature distilled water using four different specimen/loading configurations: rectangular beam test specimens under four-point uniaxial flexure, square plate test specimens in ring-on-ring biaxial flexure, square plate test specimens in ball-on-ring biaxial flexure, and dog-boned tensile test specimens in pure tension. The slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n was almost independent of specimen/loading configurations, in either four-point uniaxial flexure, ring-on-ring biaxial flexure, ball-on-ring biaxial flexure, or pure tension, ranging from n = 35 to 47 with an average value of n = 41.1 +/- 4.5. The prediction of fatigue strength/reliability based on the four-point uniaxial flexure data by using the CARES/Life design code as well as a simple PIA model was in good agreement with both the ring-on-ring biaxial and the ball-on-ring biaxial flexure data. A poor prediction using the PIA model was observed for the dog-boned tensile test specimens, presumably due to different flaw population involved in the tensile test specimens.

  5. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger JØrgensen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin-secreting hemibiotrophic spot blotch fungus increased compared to ambient conditions, implying that climate-induced changes in disease severity could be linked to the trophic lifestyle of the pathogens. Elevated [CO2] decreased powdery mildew infection but had no effect on spot blotch disease compared to ambient condition. However, the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature did not act in an additive manner when combined. This led to a surprising disease development in the combination treatments, where powdery mildew infection increased despite the individual reducing effect of the climatic factors, and spot blotch disease decreased despite the individual promoting effect of temperature and ozone, emphasizing the importance of conducting multifactorial experiments when evaluating the potential effects of climate change.

  6. Evaluation of adverse human lung function effects in controlled ozone exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Chandalia, Juhi; Sax, Sonja N

    2014-05-01

    The US EPA is evaluating controlled human ozone exposure studies to determine the adequacy of the current ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. These studies have shown that ozone exposures of 80 ppb and greater are associated with lung function decrements. Here, we critically review studies with exposures below 80 ppb to determine the lowest ozone concentration at which decrements are causally associated with ozone exposure and could be considered adverse using the Adverse Effects/Causation Framework. Regarding causation, the framework includes consideration of whether exposure-related effects are primary or secondary, statistically significant, isolated or independent, or due to study limitations. Regarding adversity, the framework indicates one should consider whether effects are adaptive, compensatory, precursors to an apical effect, severe, transient and/or reversible. We found that, at exposures below 72 ppb ozone, lung function effects are primary effects, but are isolated, independent and not statistically different compared to effects observed during filtered air exposure, indicating a lack of causation. Up to 72 ppb, lung function effects may be precursors to an apical effect, but are not likely adverse because they are transient, reversible, of low severity, do not interfere with normal activity and do not result in permanent respiratory injury or progressive respiratory dysfunction. Overall, these studies do not demonstrate a causal association between ozone concentrations in the range of the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard and adverse effects on lung function. PMID:23836463

  7. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, A.O.; C. J. Senff; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, Jérome; O. R. Cooper; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M.; R. D. Marchbanks; Pierce, R. B.; S. P. Sandberg; A. M. Weickmann; Williams, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport from the Los Angeles Basi...

  8. Modifiers of Short-term Effects of Ozone on Mortality in Eastern Massachusetts: A Case-crossover Analysis at Individual Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz Joel; Melly Steve; Ren Cizao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an ind...

  9. Expected short-term local effect of nuclear bombs on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere produce both oxides of nitrogen and ozone. For bomb yields of 1 Ml or more, much of the bomb-produced radioactivity, ozone, and NO/sub x/ are lifted into the stratosphere. Bomb-produced NO/sub x/ constitutes a prompt one-time source of ozone if NO2 is in excess of NO relative to the ambient NO2/NO ratio, and it constitutes a fast (minutes) one-time destruction of ozone if NO is in excess. At a considerably slower, elevation-dependent rate the bomb-produced NO/sub x/ is expected catalytically to destroy some stratospheric ozone. A 2-Ml nuclear bomb, exploded near 15degreeS on July 4, 1970, stabilized between 15 and 20 km with maximum concentration of radioactivity at 18 km. Christie (1976) deduced the trajectory and size of this nuclear bomb cloud for 10 days and examined the detailed record of total ozone observed at that time by the Nimbus 4 satellite. The present article carries out calculations for several chemical processes expected to occur in this nuclear bomb cloud. There is a wide range of uncertainty as to how much NO/sub x/ and ozone the nuclear bomb injected into the stratosphere. The central expectation value, referred to 18 km, is that bomb-produced ozone would increase local stratospheric ozone by 40% on the first day: upon expansion of the cloud the increase drops to 2% by the eighth day; and it would require 2 months for the bomb-produced NO/sub x/ to destroy the bomb-produced ozone. There would be very little NO/sub x/ catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone from this nuclear bomb during its first 10 days; it did not rise high enough into the stratosphere to cause a fast destruction of ozone. The observations by Christie are in agreement with current models of nuclear bombs and stratospheric photochemistry

  10. Influence of fertilization on the growth of radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia" cultivated in two different environments / Influencia de la fertilización en el crecimiento de radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia" cultivado en dos ambientes diferentes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Flavia, Filippini; Carlo, Nicoletto; Paolo, Sambo; Juan Bruno, Cavagnaro; Ferdinando, Pimpini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la fertilización en radicchio tipo "Rosso de Chioggia" (precocidad media) sobre algunos índices de crecimiento. Se realizaron ensayos durante dos campañas en Rovigo (Italia) y una en Mendoza (Argentina), aplicándose dosis crecientes de NPK, identificadas como N0P [...] 0K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K2, en Mendoza y en Rovigo, además, N3P2K2. Durante el cultivo se calcularon índices de crecimiento como: relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf weigh ratio (LWR), crop growth ratio (CGR), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). En Mendoza, el CGR estuvo fuertemente influenciado por NAR desde el trasplante hasta alcanzar 776 grados días (GDD); desde 1052 a 1653 GDD el CGR fue afectado por el LAI el cual aumentó marcadamente debido a las condiciones ambientales favorables. Entre los 1052 y 1653 GDD el incremento del LAI determinó una reducción en la eficiencia fotosintética. En Rovigo, la tendencia de los índices fue disímil en los dos años, encontrándose respuestas diferentes en LAR y en SLA. En el segundo año, el CGR siempre arrojó valores más altos, mientras que NAR no difirió en ninguno de los años. En la segunda mitad del ciclo, CGR estuvo fuertemente asociado a una menor eficiencia fotosintética, debido a la formación de la cabeza. Valores elevados de LAI indicaron una extensión del ciclo, retrasando la formación de la cabeza. Las plantas alcanzaron la madurez comercial con LWR entre 0,35 - 0,40 g g-1. En ambos ambientes, no se observó claramente el efecto de la fertilización sobre los índices; si bien las dosis más altas mostraron mayor actividad de crecimiento en las etapas tempranas. Abstract in english This study evaluated the influence of fertilization on some growth indexes in radicchio "Rosso di Chioggia". The trial was conducted in Rovigo (Italy) for two years and in Mendoza (Argentina) for one year. Increasing doses of macronutrients were considered, identified as N0P0K0, N1P1K1, N2P2K2 and, [...] only in Rovigo, N3P2K2. Some indexes related to growth analysis: relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf weigh ratio (LWR), crop growth ratio (CGR), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) were calculated during the growing cycle. At Mendoza CGR was strongly influenced by NAR from transplant until 776 growth degree days (GDD). After that moment, CGR was affected by LAI that increased markedly due to favourable environmental conditions. From 1052 to 1653 GDD the high increase of LAI determined a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency. At Rovigo the trends in index values showed differences between the two years considered, especially in LAR and SLA. In the second year CGR had always higher values; mainly due to higher LAI values, since NAR did not differ significantly during the years. In the second half of the growing cycle, CGR was instead strongly linked to a contraction of photosynthetic effectiveness, due to head formation. High LAI values showed a growing cycle extension to the detriment of early head formation. It was also observed that when LWR is around 0.35 - 0.40 g g-1, the plant reaches marketable maturation and is ready to be harvested. In both environments, no clear effects of fertilization were observed on the growth indexes. In any case highly fertilized plants showed higher growing activity especially at the beginning of the growing cycle.

  11. Ozone and diesel exhaust : airway signaling, inflammation and pollutant interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bosson, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that air pollution has detrimental effects on both human health as well as the environment. Exposure to ozone and particulate matter pollution, is associated with an increase in cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity. Asthmatics, elderly and children have been indicated as especially sensitive groups. With a global increase in use of vehicles and industry, ambient air pollution represents a crucial health concern as well as a political, economical and environmental dil...

  12. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, B. M.; Andersen, S B; Christiansen, B; Larsen, N.; Rex, M.; Harris, N R P; Naujokat, B.

    2004-01-01

    Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone...

  13. Ozone removal by HVAC filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Siegel, J. A.; Corsi, R. L.

    Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded with particles during operation in the field can remove ozone from intake or recirculated air. However, knowledge of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial buildings is incomplete. We measured the ozone removal efficiencies of clean (unused) fiberglass, clean synthetic filters, and field-loaded residential and commercial filters in a controlled laboratory setting. For most filters, the ozone removal efficiency declined rapidly but converged to a non-zero (steady-state) value. This steady-state ozone removal efficiency varied from 0% to 9% for clean filters. The mean steady-state ozone removal efficiencies for loaded residential and commercial filters were 10% and 41%, respectively. Repeated exposure of filters to ozone following a 24-h period of no exposure led to a regeneration of ozone removal efficiency. Based on a theoretical scaling analysis of mechanisms that are involved in the ozone removal process, we speculate that the steady-state ozone removal efficiency is limited by reactant diffusion out of particles, and that regeneration is due to internal diffusion of reactive species to sites available to ozone for reaction. Finally, by applying our results to a screening model for typical residential and commercial buildings, HVAC filters were estimated to contribute 22% and 95%, respectively, of total ozone removal in HVAC systems.

  14. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  15. Ozone: Genesis, effects, hazards; Ozon: Entstehung, Wirkung, Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandermann, H.

    2001-07-01

    An international expert explains the structure and function of ozone, the anthropogenic changes in ozone concentrations and the ozone increase in the summer season as well as the main aspects of 'summer smog' and 'ozone depletion'. [German] In diesem Buch erlaeutert ein international anerkannter Experte Aufbau und natuerliche Funktionen des Ozons, er beschreibt sein veraendertes Auftreten in unserer natuerlichen Umwelt sowie das Zustandekommen von Grenzwerten, und er erklaert die wichtigsten Aspekte von ''Sommersmog'' und ''Ozonloch''. (orig.)

  16. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  17. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  18. A passive ozone sampler based on a reaction with nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, P; Wolfson, J M; Bunyaviroch, A; Froehlich, S

    1994-02-01

    Standard ozone monitoring techniques utilize large, heavy, and expensive instruments that are not easily adapted for personal or microenvironmental monitoring. For large-scale monitoring projects that examine spatial variations of a pollutant and human exposure assessments, passive sampling devices can provide the methodology to meet monitoring and statistical goals. Recently, we developed a coated filter for ozone collection that we used in a commercially available passive sampling device. Successful preliminary results merited further validation tests, which are presented in this report. The passive ozone sampler used in field and laboratory experiments consists of a badge clip supporting a barrel-shaped body that contains two coated glass fiber filters. The principle component of the coating is nitrite ion, which in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrate ion on the filter medium (NO2- + O3 produces NO3- + O2). After sample collection, the filters were extracted with ultrapure water and analyzed for nitrate ion by ion chromatography. The results from laboratory and field validation tests indicated excellent agreement between the passive method and standard ozone monitoring techniques. We determined that relative humidity (ranging from 10% to 80%) and temperature (ranging from 0 degrees C to 40 degrees C) at typical ambient ozone levels (40 to 100 parts per billion) do not influence sampler performance. Face velocity and sampler orientation with respect to wind direction were found to affect the sampler's collection rate of ozone. Using a protective cup, which acts as both a wind screen and a rain cover, we were able to obtain a constant collection rate over a wide range of wind speeds. PMID:8185875

  19. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole - 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Warren, Linda S.; Hypes, Warren D.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Kelly, Kenneth K.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on ozone measurements in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Antarctica, obtained by NASA DC-8 aircraft during the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred ppbv were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets of upper atmospheric air, both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. The background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed in the course of the experiment. During the August 28 - September 2 flights, encounters with ozone-rich air were limited, and the background tropospheric ozone appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For the later flights, and as the ozone hole deepened, the ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole, and the average ozone values at the flight altitude were frequently higher than the background values.

  20. Outdoor and indoor ozone level: A potential impact on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuntait? Vaida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Air pollution outside and inside is still one of the most sensitive issues. The aim of this study was to assess the ozone level in ambient air and working premises in terms of its possible influence on human health. Methods. The study was based on the results obtained in Lithuanian conditions. Continuous ozone measurement data from the rural monitoring station in Preila over the period 1995-2011 were analyzed. More than 180,000 hourly values were examined according to the requirements in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The World Health Organization (WHO and European Union indicators the Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb (SOMO 35, the maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration of ozone higher than 100 and 120 ?g/m3 were estimated. Indoor ozone concentrations in copying and welding rooms were evaluated. The ozone concentration was measured with the ozone analyzer O341M. Results. The frequency distribution of ozone hourly concentrations at the Preila station showed that less than 1% of the data were higher than 120 ?g/m3 and 6% of them higher than 100 ?g/m3, that could have the adverse effect on human health, during 1995-2011. The investigations made in working premises showed that near a copying machine the ozone concentration can reach 330 ?g/m3, however in the room, i.e. 0.5 m from the machine, the average ozone concentration during automatic copying was 165 ?g/m³ and during manual copying it was 50 ?g/m³. Measurements in a welding room showed that the ozone concentration was in the range of 380-1,850 ?g/m3 at the distance of 25 cm from the electrode and at the distance of 1 m from the source the ozone concentration decreased 2.5 times. Conclusion. The danger of the ambient ozone level to human health practically was not observed in Lithuanian conditions. However, almost 6% of the data exceed the new WHO guideline of 100 ?g/m3 during the measurement time. Indoor ozone during welding reached a higher level than during copying that can cause human health problems.

  1. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  2. Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Bodeker, G. E.; H. Shiona; Eskes, H.

    2005-01-01

    An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i) daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150DU, below 220DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and more than 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, (ii) the date of disappearance of 150DU ozone values, 220DU ozone values, values 30% below 1979 to 1981 no...

  3. DEVELOPMENTS IN OZONATION OF WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensar O?UZ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, has been used in both industrial and synthetic chemistry. From this point of view, ozone-organic chemistry related papaers have been published by many researcher. Forthermore; its role in air and water pollution problems is more important today. As a result of ozone researches, it is clear that ozone is to be the brightest expection for future in industrial, domestic, and driking water treatment. Ozone, a high grade oxidation matter, has been used for removing the pollutants and toxic materials from waste waters.

  4. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  5. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  6. Ozone stress and antioxidant substances in Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Severino, Joyce [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria) and Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: y.ferreira-severino@umweltforschung.at; Stich, Karl [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.soja@arcs.ac.at

    2007-04-15

    Ozone-sensitive (NC-S clone) and resistant plants (NC-R clone) of Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea were exposed to moderate ozone concentrations in ambient air. The aim of this study was the investigation of the relation between ozone-sensitivity and leaf concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity). NC-R clone showed the highest concentrations of antioxidants with 50-70% more ascorbic acid than NC-S. NC-R had about 5 times more ascorbic acid in the young leaves and 9 times more in the old leaves than Centaurea. In a fumigation experiment with acute ozone stress (100 nl L{sup -1}) the antioxidant levels changed profoundly. The ozone-injured leaves of NC-S had 6-8 times more total phenolics than uninjured leaves. Generally older leaves had lower antioxidant concentrations and were more prone to ozone injury than younger leaves. Ascorbic acid concentrations were closer related to the appearance of visible ozone injury than the other antioxidative parameters. - Low leaf ascorbic acid levels are a main cause for visible ozone injuries in Trifolium and Centaurea.

  7. Short-term effect of ozone on the pulmonary function of children in primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Chen; Lai, Y M; Chan, C C; Hwang, J S; Yang, C. Y.; Wang, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. We sampled 941 children in primary school in three communities in Taiwan (Sanchun, Taihsi, and Linyuan). The nearby stations of the Taiwan air quality monitoring network provided the hourly ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate matter < or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide. Spirometry was perf...

  8. Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 10. Release of factors from ozonated human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valacchi, G; Bocci, V

    1999-01-01

    In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3), promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limb ischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT). PMID:10704074

  9. Acerca de la biotecnología ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Pla, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of environmental biotecnology is to correct environmental imbalances caused by modern industrial activities. Many of these imbalances affect biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere, mainly catalysed by microorganisms. Deviations in the balances of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and iron compounds may cause very complex phenomena such as global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, environmental pollution and acidification of the sea. On the other hand, the poorly understood microbial interactions --either with each other or the environment-- have important consequences in generating highly recalcitrant chemical species which, accumulating in the trophic chains, are highly toxic for living organisms. To cope with these problems it is necessary to improve knowledge of microbial ecology and the functioning of the biogeochemical cycles at the molecular level, although it is also worth designing technologies to eliminate pollutants either in situ or ex situ, to avoid its uncontrolled production as well as to correct the unbalancing processes affecting phases of the biogeochemical cycles, either in the present day or in the future.La Biotecnología ambiental trata de corregir los desequilibrios causados en el medio ambiente por actividades industriales que alteran los ecosistemas naturales mediante contaminación química o biológica y que también afectan a los grandes ciclos biogeoquímicos en la biosfera, mayoritariamente catalizados por seres vivos, entre los que los microrganismos juegan un papel esencial. Las desviaciones en los balances de compuestos carbonados, nitrogenados y azufrados atmosféricos pueden causar fenómenos de gran complejidad como el calentamiento global, la destrucción de la capa de ozono, la contaminación ambiental o la lluvia ácida. Por otra parte, las interacciones de los microorganismos entre sí y con el medio, desconocidas en su mayor parte, tiene importantes repercusiones en la generación y persistencia de especies químicas que, depositadas en las cadenas tróficas, son altamente tóxicas para los organismos vivos. Para atajar estos problemas es necesario avanzar en el conocimiento a nivel molecular de la ecología microbiana y del funcionamiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos, aunque no es menos necesario desarrollar tecnologías para la eliminación de contaminantes industriales in situ y ex situ, evitar su producción y utilización incontroladas así como corregir las actuaciones desequilibrantes, actuales o futuras, de la biogeoquímica planetaria.

  10. Modelling of long-term anthropogenic changes in stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A numerical two-dimensional interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and by ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The mechanisms of the impact of each of the pollutants on stratospheric temperature have been analysed, their relative contributions to the predicted temperature change have been estimated. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere, have been studied in details. The contributions of different pollutions to the predicted ozone changes have been estimated. The results of the calculations show that the basic mechanism by which greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer is stratospheric cooling accompanied by a weakness in the efficiency of the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction due to temperature dependencies of the photochemical gas-phase reactions. Modification of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases is important only for the polar ozone. An essential influence of the greenhouse gases on the ozone by a modification of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol is revealed. The aerosol changes caused by the greenhouse gases modify the distribution of the ozone-active gaseous chlorine, bromine and nitrogen components by means of heterogeneous reactions on the aerosol surface, resulting in a significant decrease in springtime polar ozone depletion of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  11. Exclusion of UV-B radiation from normal solar spectrum on the growth of mung bean and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in UV-B radiation due to depletion of the ozone layer has potentially harmful effects on plant growth and performance. The bulk of these studies conducted in growth chambers, greenhouses or in the field use different types of exposure systems which may be responsible for differences in the sensitivity of a crop to UV-B radiation. A field study using selective filters to remove the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum was conducted with mung bean (a dicotyledonous C3 plant) and maize (a monocotyledonous C4 plant) to determine the sensitivity of these crop plants to ambient UV-B levels without disturbing the microenvironment. Mung bean was found to be sensitive to ambient UV-B levels in terms of leaf area development, plant height attained and net photosynthesis, while maize was found to be unaffected by ambient UV-B levels (22.8 |GmW cm?2 nm?1) found in Delhi, India (28°38?N, 77°13?E). The level of ambient UV-B radiation thus appears to be inhibitory for optimal growth of plants, especially dicotyledonous mung bean. (author)

  12. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  13. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  14. Ozone in stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The menace of supersonic aircraft and bomb aerosol against the ozone layer that shields earth from most of the sun cancer-providing ultraviolet rays is examined. Large research programs are developed in view of answering the question, but the models proposed still yield controversial data

  15. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  16. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  17. Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment Evaluación del Modelo de Crecimiento de Arroz ORYZA2000 bajo Condiciones Limitadas de Nitrógeno en un Ambiente Mediterráneo Regado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Artacho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L. developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate climates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000 was sufficiently accurate to simulate grain yield and crop N uptake at the end of the season. Final crop N uptake was simulated with a root mean squared error (RMSE of 20 kg ha-1 (15% and grain yield with a RMSE of 1666 kg ha-1 (19%. However, the prediction of biomass and N uptake of individual organs throughout the season was poor. A long-term simulation study confirmed a potential yield as high as 12 000 kg ha-1 in the Parral area, as well as the existence of a scope for yield increase. The yield response to N fertilization was predicted even at rates of 300 kg ha-1, although a significant probability of low yields was also observed. This trend supports the need to incorporate dynamic N management in Chilean rice production.ORYZA2000 es un modelo para arroz tropical regado desarrollado por el Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Arroz y Universidad de Wageningen, que ha sido evaluado en un amplio rango de ambientes. Sin embargo, los reportes para cultivares japónica creciendo en ambientes templados son escasos. En este estudio, ORYZA2000 fue calibrado y evaluado usando datos de experimentos realizados en el centro-sur de Chile, que incluyeron una variedad japónica cultivada bajo un ambiente Mediterráneo regado, y varias dosis de N. Posteriormente ORYZA2000 fue aplicado para explorar rendimientos potenciales y respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N bajo probables condiciones climáticas de la principal zona arrocera de Chile. ORYZA2000 fue suficientemente preciso en simular rendimiento de grano y absorción de N del cultivo al final de la estación. La absorción de N del cultivo fue simulada con una raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE de 20 kg ha-1 (15% y el rendimiento de grano con una RMSE de 1666 kg ha-1 (19%. La predicción de biomasa y absorción de N de órganos individuales durante la estación fue pobre. El estudio de simulación a largo plazo confirmó un rendimiento potencial tan alto como 12 000 kg ha-1 en Parral, y la existencia de un margen para incrementar los rendimientos. La respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N fue predicha aún a dosis de 300 kg ha-1, aunque también se observó una probabilidad significativa de bajos rendimientos. Este hecho apoya la necesidad de incorporar un manejo dinámico del N en la producción arrocera chilena.

  18. Non-Thermal Plasma Ozone Generation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pekárek

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews ozone properties, ozone applications and the mechanism of ozone production in non-thermal plasma. An analysis is made of the influence of a reduced electric field and discharge space temperature on ozone production. The phenomenon of discharge poisoning is also explained. Finally, a modern ozone production system based on dielectric barrier electrical discharge is described.

  19. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole: 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropospheric ozone measurements over Antarctica aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft are summarized. As part of the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, the aircraft flew 13 missions covering a latitude of 53 degree-90 degree S, at altitudes to 13 km. Ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred parts per billion by volume (ppbv) were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets or patches of upper atmospheric air. These pockets were observed both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. At times, and as a result of these pockets, the ozone levels at the flight altitude of the aircraft, as averaged beneath the boundaries of the stratospheric ozone hole, were 2-3 times higher than background tropospheric values. The data suggest that the ozone-rich air seldom penetrated below about 9-km altitude. Background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed during the experiment. During the early flights (August 28 through September 2), encounters with ozone-rich air were limited and background tropospheric ozone (at the flight altitude) appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For many of the later flights, and as the hole deepened, the reverse was noted, in that ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole and, as noted earlier, average ozone at the flight altitude was frequently higher than background values

  20. Influência da matéria orgânica e do ambiente no crescimento e acúmulo de solutos em Morinda citrifolia submetida à salinidade / Influence of organic matter and the environment in growth and in solute accumulation in Morinda citrifolia submitted to salinity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Martins Ribeiro de, Souza; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Aiala Vieira, Amorim; Ademir Silva, Menezes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) é uma planta tolerante aos efeitos salinos e alcalinos dos solos e desenvolve-se em regiões de clima seco ou úmido. Apesar da adaptabilidade intercontinental, ainda são poucas as informações sobre sua tolerância aos sais no solo brasileiro. Baseado no exposto, objetivo [...] u-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos da água salina no crescimento inicial do Noni. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento em vasos de polietileno com capacidade para 20 L, em Sobral, Ceará. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, disposto no esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, com 5 repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos ambientes de cultivo (céu aberto e telado), as subparcelas pelos níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,3;1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1) e as subsubparcelas foram representadas pela ausência e presença de matéria orgânica. Aos 110 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT), avaliaram-se: altura, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), da raiz (MSR), total (MST) e área foliar (AF), e aos 90 (DAT) os teores foliares de solutos orgânicos. Todas as variáveis de crescimento estudadas foram afetadas negativamente pela salinidade, sendo que o efeito observado a céu aberto foi mais expressivo do que no ambiente telado. A matéria orgânica não teve efeito atenuante sobre os efeitos deletérios da salinidade em plantas de noni. O acúmulo de prolina mostrou-se um sinalizador de dano causado pelo estresse, visto que os maiores acúmulos ocorreram nas plantas que sofreram maiores reduções no crescimento. Abstract in english Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is a plant tolerant to the effects of saline and alkaline soils and grows in dry or moist climates. Despite the intercontinental adaptability, in Brazil there is little information about its tolerance to soil salinity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate t [...] he effects of saline water on the growth of Noni. For this an experiment was conducted in polyethylene pots with a capacity of 20 L, in Sobral, Ceará. The statistical design was a randomized block design arranged in split plot scheme, with 5 repetitions. The plots consisted of the cultivation environments (open sky and greenhouse), the subplots by salinity levels of irrigation water (ECw: 0.3, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1), and the subsubplots were represented by the absence and presence of organic matter. At 110 days after treatment (DAT), the following variables were evaluated: height, shoot dry mass (SDM), root dry mass (RDM), total dry mass (TDM) and leaf area (LA) and at 90 DAT organic solutes in the leaf. All variables were negatively affected by salinity and the effect observed in the open environment was more intense than under greenhouse conditions. The organic matter had no effect on mitigating the deleterious effects of salinity in plants of noni. The accumulation of proline was found to be a sign of stress damage, since the highest accumulation of this solute was observed in plants that experienced greater reductions in growth.

  1. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  2. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone

  3. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season

  4. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  5. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration levels in urban environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Stathopoulou; G Mihalakakou; M Santamouris; H S Bagiorgas

    2008-06-01

    The in?uence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3)concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study.Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three experimental stations while ozone concentration values were measured at three of the above-mentioned stations and for a period of two years (1996 –1997).The linear correlation between ozone concentration and air temperature values as well as the temporal variation of temperature and ozone concentration,for the above-mentioned experimental stations, were calculated and analysed.Moreover,a neural network approach was used for investigating the impact of temperature on the ozone concentration values over the greater Athens area.The neural network model used ambient air temperature as one of its input parameters and it was found that temperature is a predominant parameter,affecting considerably the ozone concentration values.

  6. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NOx concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NOx in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NOx) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality (mostly in October). The truck pathway tends to cause a much wider fluctuation in degradation or improvement of ozone air quality: percentage changes in peak ozone concentrations are approximately -0.01% to 0.04% for the assumed 9% market penetration, and approximately -0.03% to 0.1% for the 20% market penetration. Moreover, the 20% on-site pathway occasionally results in a decrease of about -0.1% of baseline ozone pollution. Compared to the current ambient pollution level, all three hydrogen pathways are unlikely to cause a serious ozone problem for market penetration levels of HFCVs in the 9-20% range. (Author)

  7. Development of a portable instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone is a key species related to air pollution, causing respiratory problems, damaging crops and forests, and affecting the climate. Our current understanding of the tropospheric ozone-forming chemistry indicates that net ozone production occurs via reactions of peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. Production rates of tropospheric ozone, P(O3), depend on concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (V OCs), but also on production rates of ROx radicals (OH + HO2 + RO2). The formation of ozone follows a complex nonlinear chemistry that makes strategies for reducing ozone difficult to implement. In this context, atmospheric chemistry models are used to develop emission regulations, but there are still uncertainties associated with the chemical mechanisms used in these models. Testing the ozone formation chemistry in atmospheric models is needed, in order to ensure the development of effective strategies for ozone reduction. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR) in ambient air. The OPR instrument is made of three components: (i) two quartz flow tubes to sample ambient air, one exposed to solar radiation and one covered by a UV filter, (ii) a NO2-to-O3 conversion unit, and (iii) an ozone analyzer. The total amount of ozone exiting each flow tube is conserved in the form of Ox = NO2 + O3. Ozone production rates P(O3) are derived from the difference in Ox concentration between the two flow tubes, divided by the exposure time of air inside the flow tubes. We will present studies that were carried out in the laboratory to characterize each part of the instrument and we will discuss the performances of the OPR instrument based on experiments carried out using synthetic air mixtures of known composition (NOx and V OCs). Chemical modeling will also be presented to assess the reliability of ozone production rate measurements.

  8. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Maritza F.; Hernández Rebeca; Martínez Goitybell; Vidal Genny; Gómez Magali; Fernández Harold; Garcés Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  9. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  10. Have ozone effects on carbon sequestration been over-estimated? A new biomass response function for wheat

    OpenAIRE

    H. Pleijel; Danielsson, H.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz, Germany 11 11 Funded by the German Federal Minister for Education and Research (BMBF) under contract 05HA6UMA .); Simpson, D.; Mills, G.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of tropospheric ozone can significantly impair the growth of crops. The reduced removal of CO2 by plants leads to higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2, enhancing radiative forcing. Ozone effects on economic yield, e.g. the grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are currently used to model effects on radiative forcing. However, changes in grain yield do not necessarily reflect changes in total biomass. Based on analysis of 21 ozone ex...

  11. Phytotoxic and competitive effects of tall fescue on Ladino clover as modified by ozone and/or Rhizoctonia solani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, M.

    1974-01-01

    An effort was made to look at the effects of fescue and/or ozone on clover decline in the grass-clover mixture. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if chemical interactions play a role in clover decline from a clover-fescue mixture, (2) if ozone affects the growth of clover, and (3) if ozone modifies plant-plant interactions between clover and fescue.

  12. Knowledge about stratospheric ozone; Erkenntnisse zum Ozon in der Stratosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, R. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie

    2000-12-01

    The contribution outlines the status of stratospheric ozone research. The processes of ozone formation and the main causes and extent of ozone depletion are gone into as well as the atmospherical dynamics and chemistry. Agreements for protection of the ozone layer are mentioned. [German] Der Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick zum Stand der stratosphaerischen Ozonforschung. Es werden die Prozesse der Ozonbildung sowie die wichtigsten Ursachen und das beobachtete Ausmass des Ozonabbaus beschrieben. Dabei wird sowohl auf die Dynamik wie auf die Atmosphaerenchemie eingegangen. Vereinbarungen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht werden genannt.

  13. Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cai-Hong; Wang, Tian-Zuo; Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while ...

  14. Effect of acute ozone induced airway inflammation on human sympathetic nerve traffic: A randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Tank, J.; Biller, H.; Heusser, K.; Holz, O; Diedrich, A.; Framke, T.; Koch, A; Grosshennig, A.; Koch, W; Krug, N.; Jordan, J.; Hohlfeld, J M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ozone concentrations in ambient air are related to cardiopulmonary perturbations in the aging population. Increased central sympathetic nerve activity induced by local airway inflammation may be one possible mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings: To elucidate this issue further, we performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, including 14 healthy subjects (3 females, age 22-47 years), who underwent a 3 h exposure with intermittent exercise to either ozone (250 ppb) ...

  15. Ozonation of cooling water prevents biofilms and legionella. Hygiene; Kuehlwasserbehandlung mit Ozon haelt Biofilme und Legionellen in Schach. Hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackl, W.; Hoffmann, M. [BWT Wassertechnik GmbH, Schriesheim (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung

    2006-11-15

    Legionella in plumes of evaporation cooling towers have often caused serious illnesses and even deaths. To prevent the growth of microorganisms in cooling towers, operators often use hazardous and toxic biocides or chlorine. There is an ecologically and also technically efficient alternative: In the Briey plant of the international Norma group, biofilm and legionella prophylaxis is achieved by ozonation. (orig.)

  16. ESTIMATING PRODUCT YIELDS FROM THE ATMOSPHERIC PHOTOOXIDATION OF AMBIENT AIR ALKENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yields of products have been calculated from the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and ozone with 19 of the two through six carbon alkenes. he rates and mechanisms of these reactions are utilized to calculate these yields. ased on these yields and an ambient air distribution for...

  17. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O3, depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  18. Inhomogeneous Ambient Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, C R; Hirachi, Kengo

    2006-01-01

    An extension of the ambient metric construction of Fefferman-Graham to infinite order in even dimensions is described. The main ingredients are the introduction of "inhomogeneous ambient metrics" with asymptotic expansions involving the logarithm of a defining function homogeneous of degree 2, and an invariant procedure for taking the smooth part of such an inhomogeneous ambient metric. The metrics which result depend on the choice of an "ambiguity tensor" as well as a conformal class. An application to the description of scalar conformal invariants in even dimensions is outlined.

  19. Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150 DU, below 220 DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and more than 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, (ii the date of disappearance of 150 DU ozone values, 220 DU ozone values, values 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and values 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, for each year, (iii daily minimum total column ozone values over Antarctica, and (iv daily values of the ozone mass deficit based on a O3<220 DU threshold. The assimilated data base combines satellite-based ozone measurements from 4 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS instruments, 3 different retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, and data from 4 Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet (SBUV instruments. Comparisons with the global ground-based Dobson spectrophotometer network are used to remove offsets and drifts between the different data sets to produce a global homogeneous data set that combines the advantages of good spatial coverage of satellite data with good long-term stability of ground-based measurements. One potential use of the derived indices is detection of the expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The suitability of the derived indicators to this task is discussed in the context of their variability and their susceptibility to saturation effects which makes them less responsive to decreasing stratospheric halogen loading. It is also shown that if the corrections required to match recent Earth Probe TOMS measurements to Dobson measurements are not applied, some of the indictors are affected so as to obscure detection of the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  20. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ?0.1 W/cm2. Interestingly, when input power is higher than ?0.1 W/cm2, ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  1. Effect of short term ozone variations on human ultraviolet radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent media reports on the ozone losses or 'hole' over Antarctica, the public, particularly in Australia has become more aware of the relationship between stratospheric ozone losses and increases in terrestrial UV irradiances. Measurements over a 4 day period during April 1999 in Toowoomba (27.5 deg S, 151 .9 deg E, altitude 693m) indicated that the clear sky erythemal UV exposures could increase by 14% with a 4.6% decrease in atmospheric ozone levels. Similar anti-correlation trends between atmospheric ozone levels and UV exposures were also found for this location for other measurement times during 1999. Heightened ambient UV irradiance levels of the magnitude found during the April, 1999 period have been estimated to increase the UV exposure to the human nose from 7.15 MED per day to 8.34 MED per day. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  2. Depletion of ozone layer and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in food supply, rather than an increase in cancers, could turn out to be the greatest danger from the loss of the Earth's ozone shield says the author. This could result from alterations in plants and animals that are more sensitive than humans to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation. Increasing ambient ultraviolet radiation within a short time would exert dramatic selective pressure on all living organisms, but the global consequences of such an occurrence cannot be predicted. Common skin cancer is the best understood link with ultraviolet radiation. In fact, the link is so straightforward that precise calculations are possible: a 1% decrease in ozone equals a 2% increase in ultraviolet radiation, which translates into a 3 to 6% increase in common skin cancers in the US. If the immune system is damaged, the body cannot survive the continual onslaught of infectious agents present in the environment. People's willingness to protect themselves against sunlight exposure has been dictated by fashion. The fashionability of hats and sunglasses is beneficial for reducing the risk of cataracts; on the other hand, the fashionability of sun-tans has probably contributed to the rising incidence of skin cancer among Caucasians. The best remedy she advises is to avoid overexposure to sunlight

  3. Low temperature atomic layer deposition of noble metals using ozone and molecular hydrogen as reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of noble metals by thermal processes has relied mostly on the use of molecular oxygen as a reactant at temperatures of 200 °C and above. In this study, the concept of using consecutive ozone and molecular hydrogen pulses with noble metal precursors in ALD is introduced for palladium, rhodium, and platinum metals. This approach facilitates the growth of noble metal thin films below 200 °C. Also the ALD of palladium oxide thin films is demonstrated by the ozone-based chemistry. The growth rates, resistivities, crystallinities, surface roughnesses, impurity contents, and adhesion of the films to the underlying Al2O3 starting surface are reported and the results are compared with the most common noble metal ALD processes. - Highlights: ? Atomic layer deposition used to deposit Rh, Pd, and Pt films below 200 °C. ? Noble metal film growth examined using ozone and molecular H2 as reactants. ? Deposition of palladium oxide films with ozone

  4. Ozone decontamination of bioclean rooms.

    OpenAIRE

    Masaoka, T; KUBOTA, Y; Namiuchi, S.; T Takubo; Ueda, T.; Shibata, H; H. Nakamura; Yoshitake, J; Yamayoshi, T; Doi, H.; Kamiki, T.

    1982-01-01

    To establish a convenient method for decontaminating bioclean rooms, the effect of ozone at 80 mg/m3 for 72 h was compared with formaldehyde vaporization at an initial concentration of 150 mg/m3 with a gradual decrease to 20 mg/m3 during 72 h. Ozone was found to be inferior to formaldehyde in activity. When the bioclean room was decontaminated twice with ozone, the mean colony count per 10 cm2 was decreased to about the same level as when formaldehyde was used. Ozone had a strong caustic effe...

  5. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  6. Efeitos de lâminas de água e fertirrigação potássica sobre o crescimento, produção e qualidade do tomate em ambiente protegido / Effects of water nivels and potassium fertirrigation on growth, production and quality of tomato fruits in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ladilson de Souza, Macêdo; Marco Antônio Rezende, Alvarenga.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de lâminas de água e fertilização potássica sobre o crescimento e produção da cultura do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) híbrido Bônus F1, em ambiente protegido, num Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico no Setor de Olericultura da Universidade Federal da Lavras, MG. Foram [...] testadas as lâminas de água 40, 60, 80 e 100% Kc.Ev e as doses de 300, 500, 700 e 900 kg ha-1 de K2O (nitrato de potássio e cloreto de potássio). As fertirrigações foram iniciadas 10 dias após o transplantio, três vezes por semana, durante o ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. As lâminas de água aplicadas influenciaram o crescimento das plantas aos 30, 60 e 90 dias de idade, no entanto, não houve efeito da fertilização potássica e sua interação com lâmina de água nessas características e na produção dos frutos. O número de frutos comerciais Extra AAA, Extra AA e Extra A aumentou na proporção de 0,462; 0,681 e 1,038 frutos.planta-1, respectivamente, para cada 20% Kc.Ev de acréscimo sobre a lâmina de água aplicada. Brix e pectina aumentaram em função das lâminas de água até 100% Kc.E V, enquanto Brix, acidez total e pH aumentaram em função das doses de potássio até 700 Kg.ha-1 de K2O. Abstract in english The effects of water levels and potassium fertirrigation on plant growth, production and quality of the fruits of Bônus F1 hibrid tomatoes (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.) were evaluated in protected environment, in the Horticulture Sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Br [...] azil, with the plants growing on a Dystroferric Red Latosol. Drip irrigation was used at levels of 40, 60, 80 and 100% Kc.Ev, with the dosages 300, 500, 700 and 900 kg.ha-1 of K2O (potassium nitrate and potassium chloride) being evaluated. Fertirrigations started 10 days after the transplanting and were done three times a week, during the cycle of the crop. The applied water levels influenced the plants growth at 30, 60 and 90 days, with no effect of potassium fertilization and its interaction with the levels of irrigation on plant growth or on the fruits production being observed. The number of tradable fruits Extra AAA, Extra AA and Extra A increased at 0.462; 0.681 and 1.038unities.plant-1 for each 20% of increase on the level of irrigation. Brix and soluble pectine increased with the irrigation levels until 100% Kc.Ev wheres Brix, acidity and pH increased with the potassium levels until 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O.

  7. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  8. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    OpenAIRE

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Costa, M.J.; Serrano, A.; D. Bortoli; M. Bañón; Vilaplana, J.M.; Silva, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending ...

  9. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies. Short-term exposure of healthy humans to 0.2 ppm ozone induced a neutrophil influx in peripheral airways at 6 h post exposure, but no apparent inflammatory response in proximal airways. This response seems to be mediated at least in part by interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha}. (au) 26 refs.

  10. Oxidation of the PAH Coronene by Ozone and OH Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, H.; Mysak, E. R.; Smith, J. D.; Ashby, P. D.; Newberg, J. T.; Wilson, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The oxidation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene by both ozone and OH radicals has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thin (< 1nm) coronene films were grown on Ag(111) substrates by evaporation from a bulk coronene source. Scanning force microscopy measurements confirmed the homogeneity of the coronene films. Freshly prepared coronene films were exposed to ozone as well as OH radicals inside an ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, which is located at beamline 11.0.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA. By moitoring the carbon 1s, oxygen 1s and silver 3d core level spectra we determine the kinetics of the reaction of coronene with ozone and OH radicals. Chemical shifts in the carbon 1s core level of the reaction products allow for the quantitative speciation of the reaction products as a function of reaction time. Since the mean free path of the photoelectrons is on the order of the coronene film thickness, we can not only quantitatively determine the speciation of the reaction products and the oxygen/carbon ratio, but also the volatilization of the coronene film. On the basis of the XPS results we propose a mechanism for the reaction and subsequent volatilization of coronene with ozone and OH radicals.

  11. Ozone lamina characteristics from ozone vertical profile measurements.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Kozubek, M.

    Boston : American Meteorological Society, 2013. [AMS Annual Meeting /93./. 05.01.2013–10.01.2013, Austin] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone lamina characteristics * ozone vertical profile measurements Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://ams.confex.com/ams/93Annual/webprogram/Paper215935.html

  12. Germinação de sementes osmocondicionadas e não osmocondicionadas e crescimento inicial de Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) em ambientes salinos / Germination of osmoprimed and non-osmoprimed seeds and initial growth of Physalis angulata (Solanaceae) in saline environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuela Oliveira de, Souza; Cíntia Luiza Mascarenhas de, Souza; Claudinéia Regina, Pelacani.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Physalis pertencente à família Solanaceae, possui 110 espécies, das quais 11 ocorrem no Brasil. Physalis angulata L. destaca-se no gênero pela presença de vitaesteróides, principalmente as fisalinas, encontradas em raízes, caules e folhas, com propriedades imunomoduladora, antimicrobiana e [...] anticancerígena. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinabilidade de sementes osmocondicionadas e não osmocondicionadas e o crescimento inicial de P. angulata em ambientes salinos. Foram realizados experimentos nos quais as sementes foram submetidas ao osmocondicionamento (PEG 6000) e colocadas para germinar em soluções com diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14 e 16 dS m-1). O controle (0 dS m-1) foi realizado com água destilada. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a germinabilidade das sementes, o índice de velocidade de germinação das sementes (IVG), o coeficiente de uniformidade de germinação e a massa seca total das plântulas. Houve diminuição da germinabilidade e do IVG, em ambos os tratamentos. No entanto, as sementes osmocondicionadas apresentaram maior tolerância ao estresse salino. Apesar da redução significativa da massa seca em relação ao aumento da salinidade do meio, o osmocondicionamento como tratamento pré-germinativo poderia ser utilizado para favorecer a tolerância ao estresse salino, uma vez que a germinabilidade foi maior para sementes osmocondicionadas. Abstract in english The genus Physalis belongs to the Solanaceae family, with 110 species, of which 11 occur in Brazil. Physalis angulata L. stands out in the genus due to the presence of vitasteroids, especially physalins, found in roots, stems and leaves, showing antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory propert [...] ies. This study aimed to evaluate the germination of osmotic priming treatment and non-primed seeds and the initial growth of P. angulata in saline environments. The seeds were subjected to priming (PEG 6000) and incubated in solutions with increasing concentration of NaCl (2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14 and 16 dS m-1). Distilled water was used as control (0 dS m-1). The parameters evaluated were seed germinability, rate of germination, coefficient of uniformity and total dry mass of seedlings. A decrease in germinability and IVG was observed in both treatments. However, primed seeds showed higher tolerance of salt stress. Despite the significant reduction in dry mass with increasing salinity, priming as a pre-germinative treatment could be used to foster tolerance, since germinability was higher for primed seeds.

  13. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a significant change in the distribution of ozone. The occurrence of extremely low ozone (near 100% ozone depletion) has been declining significantly in favor of the occurrence of low ozone (80-90% ozone depletion). Finally the potential for continuation of this attribution method in the light of the currently available and future planned satellite remote sensing capacity will be shortly addressed.

  14. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  15. Modelling the Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, P. J.; Bruhl, C.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers performed model calculations of the ozone depletions taking place in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. Making the assumption that odd nitrogen is frozen out on stratospheric haze particles, an analysis is given of how much homogeneous reactions can contribute to ozone loss during September-October. Comparisons with observations indicate the potential importance of reactions with HCl in the polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  16. ORAMUS(WINDOWS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Biller, W.F. [William F. Biller Consultants, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  17. ORAMUS(DOS). Ozone Risk AssessMent Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G.; Jusko, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Biller, W.F. [William F. Biller Consultants, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates are based on the EPA`s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 acute health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.

  18. Indice SPAD en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de lisianthus en función de diferentes dosis de nitrógeno en ambiente protegido / SPAD index according growth and development of lisianthus plants in relation to different nitrogen levels under protected environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Ribeiro da, Cunha; Ieoschua, Katz; Antônio de Pádua, Sousa; Raúl Andres, Martinez Uribe.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de lisianthus en Brasil es poco estudiado con relación a las condiciones ideales de cultivo, principalmente con relación al estado nutricional de las plantas. El diagnóstico del estado nutricional de la planta con relación al nitrógeno puede ser hecho por medio del análisis de su contenid [...] o en la hoja. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de lisianthus en maceteros con diferentes dosis de nitrógeno en ambiente protegido, y a partir de esto, establecer un valor crítico del índice de clorofila (SPAD) en las hojas para el monitoreo de la necesidad de nitrógeno. El diseño experimental fue totalmente al azar con seis tratamientos y parcelas subdivididas, constituido por seis dosis de nitrógeno en la forma de nitrato de amonio (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 mg macetero-1). El SPAD fue obtenido en las hojas mediante un medidor de clorofila SPAD-502 para identificar el momento exacto en que hay necesidad de nitrógeno. El modelo polinomial cuadrático creciente representó el desarrollo fisiológico de la planta con relación al aumento de la dosis de nitrógeno con tendencia de correlación positiva. El modelo polinomial cuadrático decreciente representó la disminución del SPAD al largo del crecimiento de la planta, y también con relación al aumento de la disponibilidad de la radiación fotosintéticamente activa. La mayor disponibilidad de radiación fotosintéticamente activa solamente aumenta el SPAD se hay aumento de la dosis de nitrógeno. El período de más necesidad de nitrógeno fue establecido en función del SPAD, entre 63 y 105 DDPi (días después del pinzado "pinch") y con índices SPADs de 52,14 a 52,78, asociado a la mayor dosis de nitrógeno (300 mg) y al intervalo de 233 a 261 Wm-2 de radiación fotosintéticamente activa, responsables por el mayor número de botones florales de lisianthus. Abstract in english The cultivation of lisianthus in Brazil is little studied in relation to the ideal growing conditions, especially with regarding the nutritional status of plants. The diagnosis of nutritional status in relation to plant nitrogen can be done through analysis of its contents in the leaf. The aim was t [...] o evaluate the growth and development of plants of lisianthus in pots under different nitrogen levels in a protected environment, and then establish a critical value of the chlorophyll content or SPAD on the leaves of the need for monitoring of nitrogen. The design was completely randomized with six treatments and a split plot, consisting of six levels of nitrogen as ammonium nitrate (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/pot). The SPAD was obtained by the leaves of lisianthus by a chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 to identify the exact moment that there is a need for nitrogen. The increasing quadratic polynomial model represented the physiological development of plant lisianthus in relation to increasing the dosis of nitrogen with trend of positive correlation. The quadratic polynomial model represented the descending SPAD that decreased throughout the growth and development of the culture of lisianthus, and also in relation to the increasing availability of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The greater availability of PAR radiation only increases the SPAD index with increasing dosis of nitrogen. The period of greatest need for nitrogen was established at the SPAD, which covers the period between 63 and 105 DDPi, ranging from 52.14 to 52.78 SPADs for the cultivation of lisianthus, associated with a higher dosis of nitrogen used (300mg) and range from 233 to 261 W m-2 of PAR radiation, responsible for the greatest number of flower buds of lisianthus.

  19. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Mills, Gina; Illidge, Rosemary; Davies, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution is already decreasing global crop yields (from ?2.2-5.5% for maize to 3.9-15% and 8.5-14% for wheat and soybean, respectively), to differing extents depending on genotype and environmental conditions, and this problem is predicted to escalate given climate change and increasing ozone precursor emissions in many areas. Here a summary is provided of how ozone pollution affects yield in a variety of crops, thus impacting global food security. Ozone causes visible injury symptoms to foliage; it induces early senescence and abscission of leaves; it can reduce stomatal aperture and thereby carbon uptake, and/or directly reduce photosynthetic carbon fixation; it can moderate biomass growth via carbon availability or more directly; it can decrease translocation of fixed carbon to edible plant parts (grains, fruits, pods, roots) due either to reduced availability at source, redirection to synthesis of chemical protectants, or reduced transport capabilities via phloem; decreased carbon transport to roots reduces nutrient and water uptake and affects anchorage; ozone can moderate or bring forward flowering and induce pollen sterility; it induces ovule and/or grain abortion; and finally it reduces the ability of some genotypes to withstand other stresses such as drought, high vapour pressure deficit, and high photon flux density via effects on stomatal control. This latter point is emphasized here, given predictions that atmospheric conditions conducive to drought formation that also give rise to intense precursor emission events will become more severe over the coming decades. PMID:22016429

  20. Simplified Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone Formation Considering Alternative Fuels Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aragão Ferreira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian cities have been constantly exposed to air quality episodes of high ozone concentrations (O3 . Known for not be emitted directly into the environment, O3 is a result of several chemical reactions of other pollutants emitted to atmosphere. The growth of vehicle fleet and government incentives for using alternative fuels like ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG are changing the Brazilian Metropolitan Areas in terms of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's present in the atmosphere and known to act on the kinetics of ozone. Driven by high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in urban/industry centers and its implications for environment and population health, the target of this work is understand the kinetics of ozone formation through the creation of a mathematical model in FORTRAN 90, describing a system of coupled ordinary differential equations able to represent a simplified mechanism of photochemical reactions in the Brazilian Metropolitan Area. Evaluating the concentration results of each pollutant were possible to observe the precursor’s influence on tropospheric ozone formation, which seasons were more conducive to this one and which are the influences of weather conditions on formation of photochemical smog.

  1. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Emberson, L.D. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Terry, A.C. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Toet, S. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status.

  2. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Gonzalo A.

    2000-01-01

    La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambient...

  3. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  4. Is the Ozone Hole over Your Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Eugene C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of first year university science students regarding their understanding of the ozone layer, ozone depletion, and the effect of ozone depletion on Australia. Suggests that better teaching resources for environmental issues such as ozone depletion and global warming are needed before improvements in student understanding can be…

  5. Geostationary satellite observations of ozone air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zoogman, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    Ozone in surface air is the primary cause of polluted air in the United States. The current ozone observing network is insufficient either to assess air quality or to fully inform our understanding of the factors controlling tropospheric ozone. This thesis investigates the benefit of an instrument in geostationary orbit for observing near surface ozone using Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs).

  6. Options to accelerate ozone recovery: ozone and climate benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs and N2O are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC, globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact on ozone depletion that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS and N2O emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1–2% during the period 2030–2100 compared to a case of no additional restrictions. Direct radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower from the elimination of anthropogenic N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower from the destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC bank. Due to the potential impact of N2O on future ozone levels, we provide an approach to incorporate it into the EESC formulation, which is used extensively in ozone depletion analyses. The ability of EESC to describe total ozone changes arising from additional ODS and N2O controls is also quantified.

  7. The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

  8. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.G.; Hubbard, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction of building materials and ozone under such extreme conditions. It would be useful to understand, for example in the case of building re-occupation planning, what types and amounts of reaction products may form and persist in a building after ozonation. In this study, 24 materials were exposed to ozone at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged from 1 to 20 mg m(-2), with most of the carbonyls being of lower molecular weight (C-1-C-4). In contrast, total BOBP mass released from wood-based products ranged from 20 to 100 mg m(-2), with a greater fraction of the BOBPs being heavier carbonyls (C-5-C-9). The total BOBP mass released during an ozonation event is a function of both the total surface area of the material and the BOBP emission rate per unit area of material. Ceiling tile, carpet, office partition, and gypsum wallboard with flat latex paint often have large surface areas in commercial buildings and these same materials exhibited relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP persistence following ozonation; some BOBPs (e.g., nonanal) persist for months or more at emission rates large enough to result in indoor concentrations that exceed their odor threshold.

  9. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related health effects by extensive review of the literature as well as further analyses of published data. FINDINGS: Daily inhalation intakes of indoor ozone (micrograms per day) are estimated to be between 25 and ...

  10. Evidence of ozone-induced adverse effects on crops in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Ivano; Gimeno, Benjamin S.; Velissariou, Dimitris; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Mills, Gina

    The impacts of ambient ozone pollution on crops in the Mediterranean countries have been recorded regularly in the so-called "grey literature" of UN/ECE Workshop Reports for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, and less frequently in the peer-reviewed literature. This short communication reviews such records and shows that ambient ozone episodes have been reported to cause visible injury on 24 agricultural and horticultural crops grown in commercial fields including three of the most important crops in the region (wheat, maize, and grapevine). On one occasion, the damage was so extensive that complete crop loss occurred in commercial glasshouses of Butterhead lettuce in one area of Greece. Experiments with open-top chambers have indicated that ambient ozone caused 17-39% yield loss in crops such as wheat, bean, watermelon and tomato. The applicability of the long-term critical level of ozone described by Fuhrer et al. (Environ. Pollut. 97 (1997) 91) for the Mediterranean areas is also considered.

  11. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America

  13. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Cuyler K; Zhou, Shouming; Burrow, Timothy E; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s long-lived radical species were identified in cigarette tar. Since then, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been observed in ambient particulate matter, and have been generated in particulate matter generated from internal combustion engines. For the first time, we measure in situ the formation and decay of EPFRs through the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and several polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). Solid anthracene (ANT), pyrene (PY), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[ghi]perylene (BGHIP), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4NQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) were reacted with gas-phase ozone in a flow system placed in the active cavity of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, and the formation of radicals was measured on the timescale of tens of minutes at ambient levels of ozone down to 30 ppb. For most substrates the net radical production is initially rapid, slows at intermediate times, and is followed by a slow decay. For oxidized solid BAP, radical signal persists for many days in the absence of ozone. To evaluate the effect of substrate phase, the solid PAHs were also dissolved in squalane, an organic oil inert to ozone, which yielded a much higher maximum radical concentration and faster radical decay when exposed to ozone. With higher mobility, reactants were apparently able to more easily diffuse and react with each other, yielding the higher radical concentrations. The EPR spectra exhibit three radicals types, two of which have been assigned to semiquinone species and one to a PAH-derived, carbon-centered radical. Although our system uses levels of PAC not typically found in the environment it is worth noting that the amounts of radical formed, on the order of 10(18) radicals per g, are comparable to those observed in ambient particulate matter. PMID:26603953

  14. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species. - Exposure of calcareous grassland turfs to ozone for three years resulted in small, but significant, changes in species composition

  15. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thwaites, R.H. [Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Morton, A.J. [Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Pakeman, R.J. [Ecology of Grazed Ecosystems, Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.pakeman@macaulay.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species. - Exposure of calcareous grassland turfs to ozone for three years resulted in small, but significant, changes in species composition.

  16. Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric levels of human-produced chlorocarbons and bromocarbons are projected to make only small contributions to ozone depletion by 2100. Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) will become increasingly important in determining the future of the ozone layer. N2O increases lead to increased production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contributing to ozone depletion. CO2 increases cool the stratosphere and affect ozone levels in several ways. Cooling decreases the rate of many photochemical reactions, thus slowing ozone loss rates. Cooling also increases the chemical destruction of nitrogen oxides, thereby moderating the effect of increased N2O on ozone depletion. The stratospheric ozone level projected for the end of this century therefore depends on future emissions of both CO2 and N2O. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to explore a wide range of values for the boundary conditions for CO2 and N2O, and find that all of the current scenarios for growth of greenhouse gases project the global average ozone to be larger in 2100 than in 1960.

  17. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  18. Effects of Temperature and Flow Rates of Ozone Generator on the DBD by Varying Various Electrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Vaduganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study rationale a high voltage power supply which varies of (O-5 kV with the variable frequency of 50 Hz-5 kHz. The power supply is used in the dielectric barrier discharge tube for the ionization process to yield concentration of ozone.This setup points the development of small and high efficient ozone generators using corona discharge method. Ozone generation was carried out by varying parameters including voltage, frequency, flow rate and temperature to yield high concentration of ozone. The feeding gas composition greatly affected the ozone generation rate, which was increased in order of ambient air to dry air. With increase in temperature, ozone concentration is increased while ozone generation rate is enhanced. In the experiments, a maximum ozone concentration of approximately 83 ppm is obtained, the peak value of applied voltage of about 5kV and gap of electrode is 4.3mm respectively. Dry air is used as feeding gas with residence time of 10.58 sec."

  19. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  20. Effects of stratospheric ozone recovery on photochemistry and ozone air quality in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S.; Huang, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2014-04-01

    There has been significant stratospheric ozone depletion since the late 1970s due to ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, stratospheric ozone is expected to recover towards its pre-1980 level in the coming decades. In this study, we examine the implications of stratospheric ozone recovery for the tropospheric chemistry and ozone air quality with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). With a full recovery of the stratospheric ozone, the projected increases in ozone column range from 1% over the low latitudes to more than 10% over the polar regions. The sensitivity factor of troposphere ozone photolysis rate, defined as the percentage changes in surface ozone photolysis rate for 1% increase in stratospheric ozone column, shows significant seasonal variation but is always negative with absolute value larger than one. The expected stratospheric ozone recovery is found to affect the tropospheric ozone destruction rates much more than the ozone production rates. Significant decreases in surface ozone photolysis rates due to stratospheric ozone recovery are simulated. The global average tropospheric OH decreases by 1.7%, and the global average lifetime of tropospheric ozone increases by 1.5%. The perturbations to tropospheric ozone and surface ozone show large seasonal and spatial variations. General increases in surface ozone are calculated for each season, with increases by up to 0.8 ppbv in the remote areas. Increases in ozone lifetime by up to 13% are found in the troposphere. The increased lifetimes of tropospheric ozone in response to stratospheric ozone recovery enhance the intercontinental transport of ozone and global pollution, in particular for the summertime. The global background ozone attributable to Asian emissions is calculated to increase by up to 15% or 0.3 ppbv in the Northern Hemisphere in response to the projected stratospheric ozone recovery.

  1. The Role of Inflammatory Mediators in the Synergistic Toxicity of Ozone and 1-Nitronaphthalene in Rat Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Schmelzer, Kara R.; Wheelock, Åsa M; Dettmer, Katja; Morin, Dexter; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient air is polluted with a mixture of pulmonary toxicants. Previous studies indicate that prior exposure to atmospheric oxidant pollutants such as ozone may significantly alter the response to other pollutants, such as 1-nitronaphthalene (1-NN). 1-NN, a component of the particulate exhaust from diesel engines, has been found at low concentrations in ambient air. Using a metabolomic approach, we investigated inflammatory responses in arachidonic and linoleic acid biochemical cascades (35 m...

  2. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ?8 × 10?3?g m?2 s?1, respectively ?0.01 cm s?1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10?2 cm s?1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.

  3. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain four months of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the aerodynamic gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ?8 × 10?3 ?g m?2 s?1, respectively ~0.01 cm s?1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10?2 cm s?1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment, deployed at Summit for a period of four months, allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and seasonal dependencies.

  4. Field assessment of a snap bean ozone bioindicator system under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free air system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-sensitive (S156) and -tolerant (R123 and R331) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tested as a plant bioindicator system for detecting O3 effects at current and projected future levels of tropospheric O3 and atmospheric CO2 under field conditions. Plants were treated with ambient air, 1.4× ambient O3 and 550 ppm CO2 separately and in combination using Free Air Concentration Enrichment technology. Under ambient O3 concentrations pod yields were not significantly different among genotypes. Elevated O3 reduced pod yield for S156 (63%) but did not significantly affect yields for R123 and R331. Elevated CO2 at 550 ppm alone did not have a significant impact on yield for any genotype. Amelioration of the O3 effect occurred in the O3 + CO2 treatment. Ratios of sensitive to tolerant genotype pod yields were identified as a useful measurement for assessing O3 impacts with potential applications in diverse settings including agricultural fields. - Highlights: ? Elevated O3 and CO2 plots were established using free air concentration enrichment. ? Yield was measured for O3 sensitive (S156) and tolerant (R123, R331) snap beans. ? Elevated O3 reduced yields by 63% for S156 with no effect on tolerant genotypes. ? Sensitive/tolerant yield ratios can be used as a bioindicator to assess O3 impacts. ? Elevated CO2 prevented S156 yield loss from elevated O3. - Differential yield responses of ozone-sensitive (S156) and tolerant (R123, R331) snap beans as a bioindicator system to assess ozone effects in the field.

  5. Avaliação da sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio / Ozone sensitivity assessment of 'Pedro Sato' guava

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Maria de, Moraes; Cláudia Maria, Furlan; Sérgio Tadeu, Meirelles; Deborah Yara Alves Cursino dos, Santos; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Sandra Regina de Araújo da Silva, Viola; Fernanda Mendes de, Rezende; Joyce Marques, Barbosa; Robson Lazareti, Domingos.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio (O3), em comparação à cultivar Paluma, descrita como sensível. Oito plantas de cada cultivar foram submetidas separadamente a ar filtrado e a ar filtrado + O3, cinco horas por dia, durante quatro dias. Foram av [...] aliadas fotossíntese (Asat), injúrias foliares visíveis e concentração de antocianinas e taninos. Plantas das duas cultivares também foram expostas, durante três meses, a condições ambientais em local contaminado por O3, tendo-se avaliado fotossíntese, injúrias foliares e crescimento. Plantas fumigadas com O3 apresentaram redução de Asat e da atividade fotoquímica, além de manifestação de injúrias foliares. 'Paluma' apresentou maior redução de Asat, injúrias foliares mais severas e redução de taninos. Quando exposta ao ambiente contaminado, 'Paluma' apresentou trocas gasosas mais altas, mas apresentou redução de Asat 30 dias antes que 'Pedro Sato'. O crescimento não foi afetado em 'Pedro Sato', cujas injúrias foliares tiveram menor incidência, severidade e precocidade do que em 'Paluma'. A menor taxa de crescimento de 'Paluma' indica maior sensibilidade ao O3. Apesar de responder com menor intensidade ao estresse induzido pelo O3, a cultivar Pedro Sato não pode ser considerada tolerante, pois apresenta danos fotoquímicos, injúrias foliares e alterações nos conteúdos de metabólitos secundários quando exposta a esse poluente. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of 'Pedro Sato' guava to ozone (O3), in comparison to the cultivar Paluma, considered sensitive. Eight plants of each cultivar were subjected separately to filtered air and filtered air + O3 five hours per day, for four days. Photosynthesis [...] (Asat), visible foliar injuries, and concentration of anthocyanin and tannin were evaluated. Plants of both cultivars were also exposed, during three months, to environmental conditions at a site polluted by O3, and growth, photosynthesis, and injuries were evaluated. Plants fumigated with O3 showed reduction of Asat and photochemical activity, besides foliar injury expression. 'Paluma' showed greater reduction of Asat, severe foliar injury and tannin reduction. When exposed to the polluted environmental conditions, 'Paluma' had higher gas exchange, but showed Asat decrease 30 days before 'Pedro Sato'. Growth was not affected in 'Pedro Sato', whose foliar injuries had lower incidence, severity, and precocity than in 'Paluma'. The lower growth rate of 'Paluma' indicates greater O3 sensitivity. Although the cultivar Pedro Sato responded with less intensity to ozone-induced stress, it cannot be considered tolerant, since it is susceptible to photochemical damage, foliar injuries, and alterations in secondary metabolite content when exposed to this contaminant.

  6. Effect of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on cuticular membrane ultrastructure of yellow poplar (liriodendron tulipifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone causes damage to leaves of many tree species and has been shown to increase cuticular membrane thickness in a conifer (red spruce). It has been suggested that elevated carbon dioxide can protect plants against air pollutants by reducing pollutant flux into the leaves, but it is not known whether ozone-induced changes in the leaf cuticle will be altered by elevated carbon dioxide. In 1991, white pine (Pinus strobus) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) seedlings were planted in a previously forested area. In May 1992, seedlings were enclosed in open-top chambers and the following treatments were initiated: 1) charcoal-filtered (CF) air, 2) ambient air (1X ozone), 3) two times ambient ozone (2x ozone), and 4) 2X ozone plus 350 ppm carbon dioxide (2X plus CO2). First-year leaf samples were collected in August 1992. Midregions of white pine needles and yellow poplar leaves were prepared for electron microscopy by conventional methods and examined in a transmission electron microscope. The cuticular membrane of white pine grown in CF air was approximately 500 nm thick and consisted of an amorphous outer region and an inner reticulate region. Cuticular membrane thickness and wax tubule diameter were slightly greater in white pine needles grown in 2X plus CO2. The cuticular membrane of yellow poplar leaves grown in CF air was approximately 200 nm thick and consisted of an outer polylamellate region and a reticulate inner region. Cuticular membranes of leaves grown in 2X plus CO2 were also approximately 200 nm thick, but the outer membrane region had an amorphous structure. The cuticular membrane of yellow poplar leaves grown in 2X ozone were approximately 150 nm thick due to a thinner reticulate region. Second-year white pine and yellow poplar leaves will be collected in late August 1993, and cuticular membrane structure will be compared with the 1992 results. (orig.)

  7. Energías vs medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Victoria Landa Fitzgerald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una actividad ABP de química en la que los alumnos investigan sobre diferentes tipos de energía: combustibles fósiles, energías alternativas y energía nuclear, y la influencia de ellas en el medio ambiente: efecto invernadero, smog fotoquímico, capa de ozono, lluvia ácida.

  8. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation. PMID:25212822

  9. Ethylenediurea (EDU): A research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States); Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it [IPP CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sandermann, Heinrich [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O{sub 3}) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O{sub 3} and in the presence of O{sub 3} before initiating multiple applications to prevent O{sub 3} injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O{sub 3} symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O{sub 3} under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O{sub 3} injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O{sub 3} in causing injury in plants. - EDU is a verified and effective tool for the assessment of the effects of ozone on plants.

  10. The Lagrangian structure of ozone mini-holes and potential vorticity anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    James, P. M.; Peters, D

    2002-01-01

    An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale area of strongly reduced column total ozone, which undergoes a growth-decay cycle in association with baroclinic weather systems. The tracks of mini-hole events recorded during the TOMS observation period over the Northern Hemisphere provide a database for building anomaly fields of various meteorological parameters, following each mini-hole center in a Lagrangian sense. The resulting fields provide, for the first time, a complete mean Lagrangian ...

  11. Removal of Metribuzin by Ozonation: Effect of Initial Concentration and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Micheline O. Honório; Everson Vaz de Liz Junior; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; Rênnio Felix de Sena; Humberto Jorge José

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are chemical compounds capable of killing or inhibiting the growth of certain plants and they have been frequently detected in natural waters. Advanced treatments, including those using ozone, have been used in order to remove herbicides from different types of water with good treatment efficiency. The efficiency of ozonation, an oxidative process, in the removal of persistent compounds is affected by several factors, such as pH and the concentration of the contaminant. The compou...

  12. The role of phytohormone signaling in ozone-induced cell death in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaoki, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Ozone is the main photochemical oxidant that causes leaf damage in many plant species, and can thereby significantly decrease the productivity of crops and forests. When ozone is incorporated into plants, it produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. These ROS induce the synthesis of several plant hormones, such as ethylene, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. These phytohormones are required for plant growth, development, and defense responses, ...

  13. Ozone Applications in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sava?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Known as active oxygen Ozone (O3, are among the most effective antimicrobials. The sun's ultraviolet rays and ozone caused by electric arcs of lightning occurring instantly around the world, and is available as a protective shield protects the animals against the effects of the sun's radiation. In the food industry, directly or indirectly in contact with food during processing of foods and chemical treatment of water disinfection bacteriological emerges as an alternative protection method. In this study, the effects of the ozone applications will evaluated as an alternative to conventional disinfectants in food industry.

  14. Ozone and Ozonated Oils in Skin Diseases: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagli, V.; Zanardi, I.; Valacchi, G.; Bocci, V.

    2010-01-01

    Although orthodox medicine has provided a variety of topical anti-infective agents, some of them have become scarcely effective owing to antibiotic- and chemotherapeutic-resistant pathogens. For more than a century, ozone has been known to be an excellent disinfectant that nevertheless had to be used with caution for its oxidizing properties. Only during the last decade it has been learned how to tame its great reactivity by precisely dosing its concentration and permanently incorporating the gas into triglycerides where gaseous ozone chemically reacts with unsaturated substrates leading to therapeutically active ozonated derivatives. Today the stability and efficacy of the ozonated oils have been already demonstrated, but owing to a plethora of commercial products, the present paper aims to analyze these derivatives suggesting the strategy to obtain products with the best characteristics. PMID:20671923

  15. Atmospheric blocking signatures in total ozone and ozone miniholes

    OpenAIRE

    Barriopedro Cepero, David; Antón Martínez, Manuel; García García, José Agustín

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between the total ozone column (TOC) and atmospheric blocking using 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data for the 1978-98 period, with special emphasis on winter and the European and eastern Pacific sectors. Regional blocking occurrence is accompanied by a decrease of TOC within the anticyclonic circulation region and a distinctive ozone increase upstream and downstream (upstream and south) i...

  16. Options to accelerate ozone recovery:ozone and climate benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, J. S.; E. L. Fleming; Portmann, R.W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including N2O, are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in ...

  17. Impact of synoptic controls and boundary layer processes on ground-level ozone evolution at an urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Christine Lanier

    Houston, Texas frequently exceeds the standard for ground-level ozone during the spring and fall. The large commuting population and vast number of industrial sources provide the necessary ingredients for photochemical ozone production in the presence of favorable meteorological conditions. The lack of continuous boundary layer (BL) observations prevents a comprehensive understanding of its role in ozone evolution. In this study, almost two years of BL observations are utilized to investigate the impacts of synoptic and micrometeorological-scale forcings on ozone. Aerosol gradients derived from ceilometer backscatter retrievals are used to identify the BL and residual layers (RL). Overall agreement is found between ceilometer and sonde estimates of the RL and BL heights (BLH), but difficulty detecting the layers occurs during cloud periods or immediately following precipitation. Large monthly variability is present in the peak afternoon BLH (e.g. mean August and December peaks are ˜2000 and 1100 m, respectively). Monthly nocturnal BLHs display much smaller differences. The majority of ozone exceedances occur during large-scale subsidence and weak winds in a postfrontal environment. These conditions result in turbulent kinetic energy, mechanical mixing, and ventilation processes that are 2--3 times weaker on exceedance days, which inhibit morning BL growth by an average of ˜100 m·hr-1 compared to low ozone days. The spring has higher nocturnal ozone levels, which is likely attributable to longer day lengths (˜78 minutes), stronger winds (˜0.78 m·s -1), and higher background ozone (˜5 ppbv) compared to the fall. Boundary layer entrainment plays an important role in ozone evolution. Exceedance days show a characteristic early morning rapid rise of ozone. Vertical ozone profiles indicate the RL ozone peak is ˜60 ppbv on exceedance days, which is ˜25 ppbv (+/- 10 ppbv) greater than low ozone days. The Integrated Profile Mixing (IPM) and Photochemical Budget (PB) methods are used to quantify ozone transport and photochemical production. On low ozone days, both the IPM and PB methods indicate ozone entrainment is ˜3--4 ppbv·hr-1 in this low photochemical environment of ˜1--4 ppbv·hr-1. During the rapid early morning ozone rise on exceedance days, RL entrainment and photochemical ozone production rates are 5--10 and 10--15 ppbv·hr -1, respectively.

  18. Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Alessandra; Screpanti, Augusto [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [Institute of Plant Protection, National Council of Research (IPP-CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Which is the best standard for protecting plants from ozone? To answer this question, we must validate the standards by testing biological responses vs. ambient data in the field. A validation is missing for European and USA standards, because the networks for ozone, meteorology and plant responses are spatially independent. We proposed geostatistics as validation tool, and used durum wheat in central Italy as a test. The standards summarized ozone impact on yield better than hourly averages. Although USA criteria explained ozone-induced yield losses better than European criteria, USA legal level (75 ppb) protected only 39% of sites. European exposure-based standards protected >=90%. Reducing the USA level to the Canadian 65 ppb or using W126 protected 91% and 97%, respectively. For a no-threshold accumulated stomatal flux, 22 mmol m{sup -2} was suggested to protect 97% of sites. In a multiple regression, precipitation explained 22% and ozone explained <0.9% of yield variability. - Geostatistics can be used as a tool for testing the effects of ozone standards on plant responses in the field.

  19. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude

  20. Surface ozone variation at Bhubaneswar and intra-corelationship study with various parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P S Mahapatra; J Jena; S Moharana; H Srichandan; T Das; G Roy Chaudhury; S N Das

    2012-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of year long (December 2009 to January 2011) continuous measurements of daytime (0700–1745) ozone (O3) in the ambient air and related meteorological parameters at Bhubaneswar (21° 15?N–85° 15?E), Odisha. The seasonal variation shows distinct daytime ozone maxima during winters with a peak in January (?85 ppbv), a slight increase (?38 ppbv) in June and lowest in August (?20 ppbv). The backward trajectory analysis during winter months suggests long distance transport of airmass from mainly Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and western part of Indian peninsula, a major industrial hub. In other seasons, wind reaches the observation site from less polluted landmasses and the Bay of Bengal, thereby considerably reducing the pollution load. On the contrary, ozone build-up was found to be maximum and minimum in pre-monsoon and monsoon, respectively. An anti-weekend ozone effect (?5 ppbv) was observed in winter. Paired t-test and F-test along with principal component analysis (PCA) were done to determine significance between various components (ozone, precursors and meteorological parameters). The t- and F-test showed significant monthly variation of ozone mixing ratio. The PCA showed that three components explained 79.1% of variances.

  1. ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE EFFECTS IN PEANUT. I. GAS-EXCHANGE, BIOMASS, AND LEAF CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suppression of plant growth and yield by the air pollutant, ozone, can be ameliorated in many crops by elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, comparative growth and yield responses depend in part on concentration of the gases and sensitivity of the crop species and cult...

  2. Development of ozone sterilization system for pharmacy plant; Ozone sui mekkin system no iyakuhin eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamase, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Sakurai, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone has the strongest oxidization effect after fluorine, and so has been used in sterilization, deodorization, decolorization, and oxidization. An ozone sterilization system has been developed by IHI for the effective use of ozonized water, consisting of a high concentration ozone generator, ozone dissolving device, and treatment tank. A high concentration of dissolved ozone over 40 mg/l is obtained by a novel type of effective dissolving device and high concentration ozone generator. Evaluation of the bactericidal effects confirmed adequate effectiveness for pharmaceutical applications. The ozone sterilization systems are expected to be widely used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic plants. (author)

  3. Det ambientes fænomenologi : Anmeldelse af Ulrik Schmidts bog Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem for alt meget velskrevet fremstilling, der, det relativt specifikke fokus til trods, har bred kunstteoretisk appel

  4. Herbivore-mediated material fluxes in a northern deciduous forest under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy D; Couture, John J; Bennett, Alison E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and ozone (O3 ) are known to alter tree physiology and growth, but the cascading effects on herbivore communities and herbivore-mediated nutrient cycling are poorly understood. We sampled herbivore frass, herbivore-mediated greenfall, and leaf-litter deposition in temperate forest stands under elevated CO2 (c. 560 ppm) and O3 (c. 1.5× ambient), analyzed substrate chemical composition, and compared the quality and quantity of fluxes under multiple atmospheric treatments. Leaf-chewing herbivores fluxed 6.2 g m(-2)  yr(-1) of frass and greenfall from the canopy to the forest floor, with a carbon : nitrogen (C : N) ratio 32% lower than that of leaf litter. Herbivore fluxes of dry matter, C, condensed tannins, and N increased under elevated CO2 (35, 32, 63 and 39%, respectively), while fluxes of N decreased (18%) under elevated O3 . Herbivore-mediated dry matter inputs scaled across atmospheric treatments as a constant proportion of leaf-litter inputs. Increased fluxes under elevated CO2 were consistent with increased herbivore consumption and abundance, and with increased plant growth and soil respiration, previously reported for this experimental site. Results suggest that insect herbivory will reinforce other factors, such as photosynthetic rate and fine-root production, impacting C sequestration by forests in future environments. PMID:25078062

  5. Overt and Latent Cardiac Effects of Ozone Inhalation in Rats: Evidence for Autonomic Modulation and Increased Myocardial Vulnerability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3) is a well-documented respiratory oxidant, but increasing epidemiologic evidence points to extra-pulmonary effects including positive associations between ambient O3 concentrations and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. With preliminary reports linking O3 exposure wit...

  6. The Variable Effects of Ozone and/or Diesel Particulate Inhalation Exposure on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particle matter (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates asthma. Likewise, similar effects have been reported with exposure to the oxidizing air pollutant ozone (O3). Since levels of both pollutants in ambient air are e...

  7. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Method of sterilization using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  10. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles Journal of geophysical research, 1996. 101(D14): p. 19607-19,620. [3] Kamm, S., et al., The heterogeneous reaction of ozone with soot aerosol. Atmospheric Environment, 1999. 33(28): p. 4651-4661. [4] Stephens, S., M.J. Rossi, and D.M. Golden, The heterogeneous reaction of ozone on carbonaceous surfaces. International journal of chemical kinetics, 1986. 18(10): p. 1133-1149. [5] Pöschl, U., et al., Interaction of ozone and water vapor with spark discharge soot aerosol particles coated with benzo [a] pyrene: O3 and H2O adsorption, benzo [a] pyrene degradation, and atmospheric implications. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2001. 105(16): p. 4029-4041.

  11. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; chen, Wan

    2002-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time, improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma-ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, a...

  12. Ozone therapy: A clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, A. M.; Ekta, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone (O3) gas discovered in the mid-nineteenth century is a molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen in a dynamically unstable structure due to the presence of mesomeric states. Although O3 has dangerous effects, yet researchers believe it has many therapeutic effects. Ozone therapy has been utilized and heavily studied for more than a century. Its effects are proven, consistent, safe and with minimal and preventable side effects. Medical O3 is used to disinfect and treat disease. Mechan...

  13. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  14. Arte e ambiente terapêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Clemesha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O momento é propício para questionar a validade de se investir em arte ? cada vez mais presente nos orçamentos para a saúde. Recentemente, diante dos extremos do funcionalismo e do racionalismo, hospitais têm aumentado orçamentos para paisagismo, arte e decoração. Profissionais do marketing abraçaram a tendência. Nossa geração deve investigar se é possível ir além da funcionalidade modernista, sem desperdiçar as lições e inovações desse período admirável. Dados de pesquisa provindos de uma larga gama de ciências, desde a medicina até a psicologia ambiental, fornecem a arquitetos e administradores hospitalares, meios para a promoção da eficiência e da eficácia no ambiente terapêutico. São apresentadas evidências quanto ao valor de investimento em vários tipos de espaços destinados à estimulação mental e sensorial e ao descanso, além de dados sobre a seleção e produção de arte para hospitais e clínicas, e suas possíveis conseqüências para o bem-estar de seu público-alvo.

  15. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  16. La imposición ambiental gallega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gago Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo comienza fundamentando teóricamente la imposición ambiental con un resumen de las principales razones económicas para la aplicación de estos instrumentos y con el análisis de su asignación jurisdiccional. A continuación, situamos los tributos propios ambientales de la comunidad gallega (canon de saneamiento e impuesto sobre la contaminación atmosférica tanto en el contexto español como en el internacional. En este sentido, el relato pormenorizado y de valoración del diseño regulador escogido en los tributos ambientales gallegos y de sus efectos económicos y ambientales constituye el núcleo del trabajo. Finalmente, este artículo concluye con una reflexión global sobre el presente de la imposición ambiental gallega y de cómo, a nuestro entender, deberían discurrir sus desarrollos futuros.

  17. Políticas y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente edición de Letras Verdes está dedicada al amplio tema de las interacciones entre las políticas y el ambiente. Las preguntas que planteamos tenían como fin convocar a reflexiones tanto sobre los cambios discursivos en las políticas ambientales en América Latina, como sobre los impactos materiales que éstas han tenido, al suscitar (o no procesos de transformación en la relación que mantenemos con nuestro entorno.

  18. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats.

  19. Ozone correlates with antibacterial effects from indirect air dielectric barrier discharge treatment of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient-condition air plasma produced by indirect dielectric barrier discharges can rapidly disinfect aqueous solutions contaminated with bacteria and other microorganisms. In this study, we measured key chemical species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions and the associated antimicrobial effect for varying discharge power densities, exposu