WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient ozone growth

  1. Interactive effects of ambient ozone and climate measured on growth of mature loblolly pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Downing, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Analysis of the seasonal growth patterns of mature loblolly pine trees over the interval 1988-1993 has provided the first direct measurement of reductions of stem growth of large forest trees by ambient ozone. Patterns of stem expansion and contraction of 34 trees were examined in eastern Tennessee using serial measurements with sensitive dendrometer bind systems. Study sites varied in soil moisture, soil fertility, and stand density. Levels of ozone, rainfall, and temperature varied widely over the six year study interval. Regression analysis identified statistically and biologically significant influences of ozone on stem growth. Acting either individually or in interaction with high temperature and moisture stress, higher levels of ozone were associated with reduced stem expansion of individual trees within and across years. Observed responses to ozone were relatively rapid, differed widely among trees, and across years, and were significantly amplified by low soil moisture and high air temperatures. Both short term responses, clearly tied to changing stem water status, and longer term cumulative responses were identified. These data indicate that relatively low levels of ambient ozone can significantly reduce growth of mature forest trees and that interactions between ambient ozone and climate are likely to be important modifiers of future forest growth and function. Additional studies of mechanisms of short term response and inter species comparisons are clearly needed.

  2. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  3. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: A Lithuanian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustaitis, Algirdas [Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Forest Monitoring Laboratory, Studentu 13, LT-53362 Kaunas dstr. (Lithuania)], E-mail: algirdas.augustaitis@lzuu.lt; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [USDA Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O{sub 3} concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O{sub 3} can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels. - Peak ozone concentrations is one of the key factors affecting Scots pine trees.

  4. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  5. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  6. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-03-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O(3) concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O(3). PMID:19070410

  7. [Influence of ozone on snap bean under ambient air in two sites of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Sun, Jing-Song; Hu, En-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhao-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been assumed the most phytotoxic air pollutant and the snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is known to be an ozone-sensitive species. Two genotypes (R123, ozone-tolerance, S156, ozone-sensitivity) of snap bean were explored in three places. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the snap bean was influenced under the current ambient ozone concentration. The findings indicated that the leaves of bean grown at Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences (RCEES), Chinese Academy of Sciences and ChangPing showed visible ozone symptoms under the ambient ozone concentration, and the averaged ozone injury proportion in S156 was 23.5% higher than R123 during the entire growth season. The ozone damage to the snap bean depends on the plant growing stages. The injury symptoms appeared just after flowering, increased from the stages of flowering to pod formation, and reached the maximum at the stages of pod maturation. The ratio of S156/R123 in pod yield was 0.48, and 0.24 and 0.73 in the RCEES, ChangPing and Harbin, respectively. The ratio close to 1 was assumed that the plant growth is not affected by ozone, and the lower ratio is, the more damage caused by ozone. Obviously, the current ambient ozone concentration of Beijing area has significantly caused the yield loss of snap bean. PMID:25338389

  8. AMBIENT OZONE CAUSES UPPER AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION IN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone constitutes a major air-pollutant in western Europe. uring the summer national air quality standards are frequently exceeded which justifies concern about the health effects of ozone at ambient concentrations. e studied upper airways inflammation subsequent to ozone exposur...

  9. The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. - Highlights: ? Exposure of rice plants to elevated ozone during growth led to altered grain quality. ? Protein and lipid concentration increased whereas starch concentration and thousand kernel weight decreased. ? Rice grain, protein and iron yield tended to decrease in plants exposed to high ozone. ? These effects were responsive to different ozone levels and showed genotypic differences. ? The overall effect of nces. ? The overall effect of ozone o human nutrition is expected to be negative. - Ozone exposure during growth tends to increase the protein and lipid concentration in rice grains but decreases total grain and nutrient yields. These effects are dependent on ozone level and genotype.

  10. Study of ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Ukraine and ozone protective effect of some antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya

    2007-11-19

    The aim of the study was to assess ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Kyiv (Ukraine) using bioindicator clover plants (Trifolium subterraneum cv. Geraldton) and to test some natural and synthetic antioxidants as ozone protectants. The results obtained showed that ambient ozone concentrations were high enough to cause visible leaf injury in clover. All used substances showed partial ozone protective effect on clover. Water extracts from the leaves of plants, known to contain flavonoids-antioxidants showed weaker ozone protective effect and were less stable in the field conditions than synthetic antioxidants. Among the studied extracts, those from Ocimum basilicum and Tagetes patula were more effective as ozone protectants than the one from Salvia sclarea. PMID:17703879

  11. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O3) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O3-caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O3] on vegetation. PMID:20709436

  12. Effects of a three-year exposure to ambient ozone on biomass allocation in poplar using ethylenediurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions. -- Highlights: •A fast-growing ozone-sensitive poplar clone was treated with the ozone protectant ethylenediurea (EDU) for three years. •Ambient ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches. •Effects on stem length and diameter were not significant. •EDU protected from ozone visible foliar injury and reduction of biomass accumulation. -- Ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches, but did not affect stem length and diameter

  13. 77 FR 64036 - Determination of Attainment of the 1-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...the 1-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Sacramento...attained the revoked National Ambient Air Quality Standard (1-hour ozone...revoked 1-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (1-hour...

  14. 78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of Actions...for the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards for all areas in...for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' and...

  15. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY...Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External...Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First...

  16. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  17. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe

  18. Association between ambient ozone and health outcomes in Prague.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    H?nová, I.; Malý, Marek; ?ezá?ová, J.; Braniš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 86, ?. 1 (2013), s. 89-97. ISSN 0340-0131 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08077; GA AV ?R(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ambient ozone * cardiovascular diseases * hospital admissions * mortality * respiratory diseases Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2013

  19. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): A meta-analytic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O3) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O3-caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O3] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.

  20. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. PMID:15046838

  1. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P...AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone...

  2. 77 FR 34221 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several Counties...primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone...Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NO X...

  3. Assessment of ambient ozone effects on vegetation using snap bean as a bioindicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Kent O; Miller, Joseph E; Fiscus, Edwin L

    2005-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is toxic to plants, causing visible injury to foliage and a reduction in growth and yield. The use of plant bioindicators is one approach to assess the ozone impacts in diverse geographical areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a potential bioindicator species. Three snap bean genotypes known to exhibit a range of ozone sensitivity were grown in pots under charcoal-filtered (CF) or nonfiltered (NF) treatments in open-top chambers, or under ambient air (AA) conditions. Treatment effects on biomass were not significant at 56 days after planting (DAP), but midseason foliar injury increased in the NF and AA treatments relative to CF controls. An increase in ozone from 25 to 30 nL L(-1) in CF controls to approximately 50 nL L(-1) in the NF and AA treatments was found to suppress final pod dry weight per plant by 40 to 60% in the most sensitive genotype S156. The same treatments suppressed final pod dry weight by 20 to 30% in a moderately sensitive genotype Oregon-91, and by 10% or less in a tolerant genotype R123. An S156 to R123 yield ratio of approximately one was observed under CF conditions. The S156 to R123 yield ratio declined to 0.6 to 0.7 in the NF treatment and declined further to 0.4 to 0.5 in the AA treatment, suggesting that ozone impact was underestimated in the open-top chambers. The results suggest that a snap bean bioindicator system has the potential to detect ambient ozone effects at present-day ozone concentrations. PMID:15888894

  4. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50... AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and...

  5. Ambient Ozone and Emergency Department Visits for Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczys?aw Szyszkowicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to assess and estimate an association between exposure to ground-level ozone and emergency department (ED visits for cellulitis. All ED visits for cellulitis in Edmonton, Canada, in the period April 1992–March 2002 (N = 69,547 were examined. Case-crossover design was applied to estimate odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval per one interquartile range (IQR increase in ozone concentration (IQR = 14.0 ppb. Delay of ED visit relating to exposure was probed using 0- to 5-day exposure lags. For all patients in the all months (January–December and lags 0 to 2 days, OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.07. For male patients during the cold months (October-March: OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.09 for lags 0 and 2 and OR = 1.06 (1.02, 1.10 for lag 3. For female patients in the warm months (April-September: OR = 1.12 (1.06, 1.18 for lags 1 and 2. Cellulitis developing on uncovered (more exposed skin was analyzed separately, observed effects being stronger. Cellulitis may be associated with exposure to ambient ground level ozone; the exposure may facilitate cellulitis infection and aggravate acute symptoms.

  6. Development of KRISS standard reference photometer (SRP) for ambient ozone measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ozone has adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Accurate measurement of ambient ozone concentration is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies and understanding atmospheric chemistry. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed new ozone standard reference photometers (SRPs) for the calibration of ambient ozone instruments. The basic principle of the KRISS ozone SRPs is to determine the absorption of ultraviolet radiation at a specific wavelength, 253.7 nm, by ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone concentration is calculated by converting UV transmittance through the Beer-Lambert Law. This study introduces the newly developed ozone SRPs and characterizes their performance through uncertainty analysis and comparison with BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) SRP.

  7. Ambient ozone concentration and emergency department visits for panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jungwoo; Suh, Mina; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ambient air pollution on panic disorder in the general population has not yet been thoroughly elucidated, although the occurrence of panic disorder in workers exposed to organic solvents has been reported previously. We investigated the association of ambient air pollution with the risk of panic attack-related emergency department visits. Using health insurance claims, we collected data from emergency department visits for panic attacks in Seoul, Republic of Korea (2005-2009). Daily air pollutant concentrations were obtained using automatic monitoring system data. We conducted a time-series study using a generalized additive model with Poisson distribution, which included spline variables (date of visit, daily mean temperature, and relative humidity) and parametric variables (daily mean air pollutant concentration, national holiday, and day of the week). In addition to single lag models (lag1 to lag3), cumulative lag models (lag0-1 to lag0-3) were constructed using moving-average concentrations on the days leading up to the visit. The risk was expressed as relative risk (RR) per one standard deviation of each air pollutant and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 2320 emergency department visits for panic attacks were observed during the study period. The adjusted RR of panic attack-related emergency department visits was 1.051 (95% CI, 1.014-1.090) for same-day exposure to ozone. In cumulative models, adjusted RRs were 1.068 (1.029-1.107) in lag0-2 and 1.074 (1.035-1.114) in lag0-3. The ambient ozone concentration was significantly associated with emergency department visits for panic attacks. PMID:25669697

  8. Comparative analysis of seed transcriptomes of ambient ozone-fumigated 2 different rice cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Kouji; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations not only damage plant life but also cause considerable losses in plant productivity. To screen for molecular factors usable as potential biomarkers to identify for O3-sensitive and -tolerant lines and design O3 tolerant crops, our project examines the effects of O3 on rice, using high-throughput omics approaches. In this study, we examined growth and yield parameters of 4 rice cultivars fumigated for a life-time with ambient air (mean O3: 31.4–32.7 ppb) or fil...

  9. GROWTH OF COTTON UNDER CHRONIC OZONE STRESS AT TWO LEVELS OF SOIL MOISTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field research has shown that ambient concentrations of ozone(O3) have the potential to reduce yield of a number of economically important crop species. Less emphasis has been placed on characterization of the effects of 03 on growth of the total plant that ultimately dete...

  10. COTTON YIELD LOSSES AND AMBIENT OZONE CONCENTRATIONS IN CALIFORNIA'S SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on controlled experiments and simulation modeling, ozone air pollution has been estimated to cause significant yield losses to cotton. he study reported here was conducted to verify losses for Acala cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.'SJ2') along a gradient of ambient ozone (O3) ...

  11. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the great response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I...AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H...AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App...and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone...

  14. Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10-4 cm3 s-1 with detection limit of 58.8 ?g m-3 h-1. Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozonesure assessments of ozone

  15. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false National 8-hour primary...secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50... AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour...

  16. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false National 1-hour primary...secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50... AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour...

  17. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  18. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

  19. The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Michael; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Tietze, Stefan; Jekle, Mario; Hussein, Mohammed A; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. PMID:22257537

  20. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth, delta(13)C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Kristopher; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Fuhrer, Jürg; Skelly, John M; Kräuchi, Norbert; Schaub, Marcus

    2007-07-01

    We assessed the effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, delta(13)C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and visible injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) and non-filtered air (NF) in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Ambient ozone exposures in the region were sufficient to cause visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species. Ozone had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular CO(2) concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and delta(13)C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Compared with CF seedlings, mean ring width in the AA and NF P. nigra seedlings was reduced by 52 and 46%, respectively, in 2002, whereas in V. lantana and F. excelsior, ring width showed no significant reductions in either year. Although delta(13)C was usually more negative in CF seedlings than in AA and NF seedlings, with the exception of F. excelsior in 2001, ozone effects on delta(13)C were significant only for V. lantana and P. nigra in 2001. Among species, P. nigra exhibited the greatest response to ozone for the measured parameters as well as the most severe foliar injury and was the only species to show a significant reduction in ring width in response to ozone exposure, despite significant negative ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and the development of visible foliar injury in V. lantana and F. excelsior. Thus, significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased delta(13)C in all species, indicating that the timing of ozone exposure and severity of leaf-level responses may be important in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. PMID:17403646

  1. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

  2. Impact of Climate Change on Ambient Ozone Level and Mortality in Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fuentes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, and a health surveillance database. We first modeled present-day relationships between observed maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentrations and meteorology measured during the year 2000. Future ozone concentrations for the period 2041 to 2050 were then projected using calibrated climate model output data from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Daily community-level mortality counts for the period 1987 to 2000 were obtained from the National Mortality, Morbidity and Air Pollution Study. Controlling for temperature, dew-point temperature, and seasonality, relative risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient ozone during the summer months were estimated using a multi-site time series design. We estimated an increase of 0.43 ppb (95% PI: 0.14–0.75 in average ozone concentration during the 2040’s compared to 2000 due to climate change alone. This corresponds to a 0.01% increase in mortality rate and 45.2 (95% PI: 3.26–87.1 premature deaths in the study communities attributable to the increase in future ozone level.

  3. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth,{delta}{sup 13}C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Krauchi, N.; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Species specific plant responses to tropospheric ozone pollution depend on a range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as environmental factors. The effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, {delta}{sup 13} C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland were assessed during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and non-filtered air in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots. The objective was to determine if a relationship exists between measurable ozone-induced effects at the leaf level and subsequent changes in annual tree-ring growth and {delta} {sup 13} C signatures. The visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species was attributed to the ambient ozone exposures in the region. Ozone had pronounced negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and {delta}{sup 13} C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased {delta}{sup 13} C in all species, suggesting that the timing of ozone exposure and extent of leaf-level responses may be relevant in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Colorimetric determination of ambient ozone using indigo blue droplet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika P., Felix; Arnaldo A., Cardoso.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e sensível, baseado em uma gota líquida, é descrito para medida do ozônio atmosférico. Uma gota de 30 µL de solução de índigo azul é suspensa em uma corrente de ar para amostragem. O ozônio coletado reage com a solução de índigo azul, provocando seu descoramento. O sensor colorimét [...] rico é composto por duas fibras ópticas; a fonte de luz monocromática usada foi um LED vermelho (625 nm). A curva analítica foi construída com concentrações padrão de ozônio, na faixa de 37 a 123 ppbv. O limite de detecção alcançado foi 7,3 ppbv. O método considerado mostrou-se de fácil aplicação e resposta rápida, com um tempo total de análise de apenas 5 minutos. Abstract in english A simple and sensitive method based on a liquid droplet is described for the measurement of atmospheric ozone. A 30 µL drop of indigo blue solution is suspended in a flowing-air sampling stream. The ozone collected reacts with the indigo solution resulting in its decolorization. The colorimetric sen [...] sor is composed of two optical fibers and the source of monochromatic light was a red LED (625 nm). The calibration curve was constructed with ozone standard concentrations ranging from 37 - 123 ppbv. The detection limit achieved was 7.3 ppbv. The method considered here showed itself to be easy to apply with a fast response and a total analysis time of only 5 minutes.

  5. ADJUSTING AMBIENT OZONE AIR QUALITY INDICATORS FOR MISSING VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper focuses on the adjustment of the exposure indices developed in work on exposure-response studies on crops to deal with missing data patterns in ambient air quality data and present three statistical methods that are fundamentally related to the methods proposed by Davi...

  6. Comparative analysis of seed transcriptomes of ambient ozone-fumigated 2 different rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoungwon; Shibato, Junko; Kubo, Akihiro; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Kouji; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-11-01

    High ozone (O3) concentrations not only damage plant life but also cause considerable losses in plant productivity. To screen for molecular factors usable as potential biomarkers to identify for O3-sensitive and -tolerant lines and design O3 tolerant crops, our project examines the effects of O3 on rice, using high-throughput omics approaches. In this study, we examined growth and yield parameters of 4 rice cultivars fumigated for a life-time with ambient air (mean O3: 31.4-32.7 ppb) or filtered air (mean O3: 6.6-8.3 ppb) in small open-top chambers (sOTCs) to select O3-sensitive (indica cv Takanari) and O3-tolerant (japonica cv Koshihikari) cultivars for analysis of seed transcriptomes using Agilent 4 × 44K rice oligo DNA chip. Total RNA from dry mature dehusked seeds of Takanari and Koshihikari cultivars was extracted using a modified protocol based on cethyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction buffer and phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol treatment, followed by DNA microarray analysis using the established dye-swap method. Direct comparison of Koshihikari and Takanari O3 transcriptomes in seeds of rice plants fumigated with ambient O3 in sOTCs successfully showed that genes encoding proteins involved in jasmonic acid, GABA biosynthesis, cell wall and membrane modification, starch mobilization, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis are differently regulated in sensitive cv Takanari and tolerant cv Koshihikari. MapMan analysis further mapped the molecular factors activated by O3, confirming Takanari is rightly classified as an O3 sensitive genotype. PMID:24025514

  7. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, S.; Beig, G.; S. Ghude

    2009-01-01

    A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h) over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and World Health Organization (WHO) for vegetation protection (AOT40) have been used to assess the air quality...

  8. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA?s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  9. INTERRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURE AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY DATA FOR COMPARISON OF OZONE EXPOSURE INDICES AND ESTIMATING AGRICULTURAL LOSSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report evaluates ambient air quality indicators for ozone (O3) and estimates the exposure levels associated with agricultural losses. In support of the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) review and evaluation of a secondary National Ambient Air Qua...

  10. Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance, chemiluminescence, and DOAS instruments for ambient ozone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E J; Fehsenfeld, F C; Jobson, B T; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Stutz, J; McClenny, W A

    2006-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of ozone measurements made by monitors that determine ozone concentrations in ambient air by UV absorption. These monitors are typically used to measure ozone for the purpose of establishing local compliance to air-quality standards. The study was predicated by the concern that commercially available UV absorbance O3 monitors may be subject to interference from volatile organic carbon (VOC) species that absorb light at 254 nm. To test for these and other effects, we compared simultaneous O3 measurements made by a commercial UV O3 monitor with an O3-NO chemiluminescence instrument, which is not subject to interference by VOC compounds. The comparisons were carried out in the summers of 1999 and 2000 at urban/industrial sites in Nashville and Houston, and in 2004 aboard a ship in the Gulf of Maine. In the two urban areas, we also compared the 03 measurements from these two methods with O3 measurements made by a long-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS). Our tests indicate that, with well-maintained monitors, there are no significant interferences even in areas with significant ambient concentrations of potentially interfering VOCs. PMID:17007137

  11. Correlation of ambient inhalable bioaerosols with particulate matter and ozone: A two-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we have examined the relationships between the concentrations of ambient inhalable airborne fungi and pollen with PM1, PM2.5, ozone, organic carbon, selected trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc), temperature, and relative humidity. The database was collected in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, during two consecutive years. Measurements of all environmental variables were performed at the same site continuously 5 days a week except during winter months. The airborne concentrations of biological and non-biological pollutants ranged as follows: total fungi: 184-16 979 spores m-3; total pollen: 0-6692 pollen m-3; PM1: 6.70-65.38 ?g m-3; PM2.5: 5.04-45.02 ?g m-3; and ozone: 2.54-64.17 ppb. Higher levels of total inhalable fungi and particulate matter were found during fall and summer months. In contrast, total pollen concentration showed elevated levels in spring. Peak concentrations of ozone were observed during summer and beginning of fall. Our study concluded that several types of inhalable airborne fungi and pollen, particulate matter, and ozone could be positively correlated as a result of the atmospheric temperature influence. - Synergistic effects of these pollutants may increase incidence of respiratory health problem

  12. Ameliorating effect of UV-B radiation on the response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to ambient ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of both ozone and UV-B radiation are typical for high-altitude sites. Few studies have investigated their possible interaction on plants. This study reports interactive effects of O3 and UV-B radiation in four-year-old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. The trees were cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated climatic conditions recorded on Mt Wank, an Alpine mountain in Bavaria, and were exposed for one growing season to simulated ambient or twice-ambient ozone regimes at either near ambient or near zero UV-B radiation levels. Chlorotic mottling and yellowing of current year needles became obvious under twice-ambient O3 in both species at the onset of a high ozone episode in July. Development of chlorotic mottling in relation to accumulated ozone concentrations over a threshold of 40 nL L–1 was more pronounced with near zero rather than ambient UV-B radiation levels. In Norway spruce, photosynthetic parameters at ambient CO2 concentration, measured at the end of the experiment, were reduced in trees cultivated under twice-ambient O3, irrespective of the UV-B treatment. Effects on photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency were restricted to trees exposed to near zero levels of UV-B radiation, and twice-ambient O3. The data indicate that UV-B radiation, applied together with O3, ameliorates the detrimental effects of O3. Thealso demonstrate that foliar symptoms develop more rapidly in Scots pine than in Norway spruce at higher accumulated ozone concentrations. (author)

  13. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  14. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O3 treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O3, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O3. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O3-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O3 susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. - Capsule: The therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures o therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures of central of the Iberian peninsula present a great sensitivity to ozone, as derived from growth- and biomass-related variables

  15. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November and April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  16. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. Deb; Beig, G.; Ghude, Sachin D.

    2009-07-01

    A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h) over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and World Health Organization (WHO) for vegetation protection (AOT40) have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months). Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  17. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deb Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  18. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O3) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 ?Pa Pa-1 O3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O3 exposure

  19. The role of elevated ozone on growth, yield and seed quality amongst six cultivars of mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nivedita; Agrawal, S B

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) can be deleterious to plants by decreasing crop yield and quality. Present study was conducted on six cultivars of mung bean (HUM-1, HUM-2, HUM-6, HUM-23, HUM-24 and HUM-26) grown under ambient O3 (NFC) and elevated O3 levels (ambient+10 ppb; NFC+) in open top chambers (OTCs) for two consecutive years. Ozone monitoring data showed high mean ambient concentration of O3 at the experimental site, which was above the threshold value of 40 ppb. Ozone exposure induced symptoms of foliar injury and also depicted accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which led to increased membrane damage vis-a-vis solute leakage. Root/shoot allometric coefficient (k), yield and seed quality showed negative response to O3. Differential response of mung bean cultivars against elevated O3 was assessed by comparing the levels of antioxidants, metabolites, growth, total biomass and yield. Cultivar HUM-1 showed maximum sensitivity towards O3 as compared to other cultivars. Findings of present study emphasized the possibility of selection of suitable O3 resistant cultivars for the areas experiencing high concentrations of O3. PMID:25450946

  20. Growth of northeast arctic cod in relation to ambient temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Michalsen, Kathrine; Ottersen, Geir; Nakken, Odd

    1996-01-01

    In the present study temperature related changes in horizontal distribution are described and the influence of temperature on the growth of Northeast Arctic cod is interpreted. Data from acoustic-and bottom trawl surveys in the Barents Sea each February 1988-1995 has been used to relate mean length at age to the ambient winter temperature. Mean lengths at age increased with increasing temperature for ages greater than 2 years. Individual mean growth between age 1 and age 4 was significantly h...

  1. Impacts of summer ozone exposure on the growth and overwintering of UK upland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Felicity; Mills, Gina; Williams, Philip; Harmens, Harry; Büker, Patrick

    The effects of ozone exposure on species of an upland grassland were assessed. Thirty-three species from Snowdonia, North Wales, UK, were exposed for 10 weeks to a weekly episodic ozone regime in solardomes representing predicted future concentrations. Two solardomes were used as controls, with ozone added to charcoal-filtered air to give a continuous ozone concentration of 30 ppb (O 3(30)). A weekly episodic ozone regime was applied to two other solardomes, with concentrations rising for 8 h per day to 80 ppb on day 1, 100 ppb on days 2 and 3, and 80 ppb on day 4; ozone concentrations remained at 30 ppb at all other times (O 3(30+peaks)). The control and background ozone concentrations of 30 ppb were maintained throughout the night as well as during the daytime. During exposure to the episodic ozone regime, some species were sensitive to ozone and showed ozone-specific leaf injury symptoms (e.g . Carex echinata) and/or premature senescence (e.g. Festuca rubra) and/or changes in above-ground biomass (e.g. Armeria maritima), whereas other species (e.g Holcus lanatus and Carex demissa) showed no effects. Some species, although showing no effects during the 10-week ozone exposure, showed carry-over effects on biomass the following spring, after a winter period of ambient ozone exposure (e.g. Galium saxatile, Nardus stricta and Saxifraga stellaris). The carry-over effects shown in this study indicate the potential ecological impact of ozone on semi-natural vegetation species and indicate the importance of longer-term studies on the effects of ozone on plants.

  2. [Pollution characteristics and ozone formation potential of ambient vocs in winter and spring in Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Zhang, Han; Xing, Zhen-yu; Deng, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Air samples were collected at urban and rural sites in Xiamen from January to April 2014. The concentrations of 48 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC) species were measured by the method of cryogenic pre-concentrator and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ozone formation potential (OFP) of VOCs was also calculated with the method of maximum incremental reactivity (MIR). The results showed that the average mixing ratios of VOCs in winter were 11.13 x 10(-9) and 7.17 x 10(-9) at urban and rural sites, respectively, and those in spring were 24.88 x 10(-9) and 11.27 x 10(-9) at urban and rural sites, respectively. At both sites, alkanes contributed the most to VOCs, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The ratios of B/T showed that vehicle and solvent evaporation were the main sources of VOCs at urban site. While at rural site, transport of anthropogenic sources was another important source of VOCs besides local biomass emissions. Ten main components including propene, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane, n-hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m/p-xylene accounted for 61.57% and 45.83% of total VOCs at urban and rural sites in winter, respectively, and 62.83% and 53.74% at urban and rural sites in spring, respectively. Aromatics contributed the most to total OFP, followed by alkenes. Alkanes contributed the least to OFP with the highest concentration. C3, C4 alkenes and aromatics were found to be the more reactive species with relatively high contributions to ozone formation in Xiamen. Comparing the average MIR of VOCs at the two sites, it was found that the reactivity of VOCs at rural site was higher than that at urban site. PMID:25898641

  3. Effective interface passivation of a Ge/HfO2 gate stack using ozone pre-gate treatment and ozone ambient annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and electrical properties of a Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack are investigated. A thin interfacial GeO2 layer (?1 nm) is formed between Ge and HfO2 by dual ozone treatments, which passivates the Ge/high-k interface. Capacitors on p-type Ge substrates show very promising capacitance-voltage (C—V) characteristics by using in situ pre-gate ozone passivation and ozone ambient annealing after high-k deposition, indicating efficient passivation of the Ge/HfO2 interface. It is shown that the mid-gap interface state density atthe Ge/GeO2 interface is 6.4 × 1011 cm?2 · eV?1. In addition, the gate leakage current density of the Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack passivated by the dual ozone treatments is reduced by about three orders of magnitude compared to that of a Ge/HfO2/Al gate stack without interface passivation. (semiconductor technology)

  4. Effect of tropospheric ozone on morphological characteristics of Nicotiana tabacum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Petunia×Hybrida L. in ambient air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Wujeska, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    The cumulative ozone effect on morphological parameters (visible leaf injury, plant height and leaf growth, number of bean pods, petunia flowers and stalks) was examined in this study. Well-known ozonesensitive (Bel W3) and ozone-resistant (Bel B) tobacco cultivars as well as bean cv. Nerina and petunia cv. White cascade, both recognized as ozone sensitive, were used in the experiment. Investigations were carried out at two exposure sites varying in tropospheric ozone levels. Ozone negatively affected the leaf growth of both tobacco cultivars and bean. A negative relation was also found for ozone concentration and tobacco plant height. Number of petunia flowers and stalks and bean pods was positively correlated with ozone concentration. This could have been connected with earlier plant maturation due to faster generative development of plants in ozone-stress conditions. PMID:22453801

  5. Ozone detection by differential absorption spectroscopy at ambient pressure with a 9.6 µm pulsed quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, R.; Taslakov, M.; Simeonov, V.; CALPINI, B.; Jeanneret, F.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; van den Bergh, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report direct absorption spectroscopic detection of ozone at ambient pressure with a pulsed, DFB quantum-cascade laser (QCL) tuned within 1044–1050 cm-1 by temperature scanning. Wavelength calibration curves were derived from FTIR and CO2 spectra and interpreted with respect to the heat transfer from the heterostructure to the sink. The laser linewidth (~0.13 cm-1 FWHM) was found to decrease with temperature, probably as a result of operation at constant current. Spurious spectral features...

  6. Estimated Acute Effects of Ambient Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Yebin; Huang, Wei; Huang, Xiaoliang; Zhong, Liuju; Lu, Shou-En; Li, Yi; Dai, Lingzhen; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zhu, Tong

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives: Epidemiologic studies have attributed adverse health effects to air pollution; however, controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient oxidants [ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and mortality, especially in Asia. We conducted a four-city time-series study to investigate acute effects of O3 and NO2 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China, using data from 2006 through 2008.

  7. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive) and 'R123' (O3-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O3 concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O3-sensitive and O3-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O3. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozoner of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU

  8. Integrated biomonitoring of air quality with plants and lichens: a case study on ambient ozone from central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nali, C; Balducci, E; Frati, L; Paoli, L; Loppi, S; Lorenzini, G

    2007-05-01

    A biennial integrated survey, based on the use of vascular plants for the bioindication of the effects of tropospheric ozone together with the use of automatic analysers of ozone, as well as the mapping of lichen biodiversity was performed in the area of Castelfiorentino (Tuscany, central Italy). Photochemically produced ozone proved to be a fundamental presence during the warm season, with maximum hourly means reaching 114 ppb, exceeding the information threshold as fixed by EU: the use of supersensitive tobacco Bel-W3 confirmed the opportunity of carrying out detailed cost-effective monitoring surveys. The potential for didactical and educational implications of this methodology are appealing. Critical levels set up for the protection of vegetation have exceeded considerably. The comparison of biomass productivity in sensitive and resistant individuals (NC-S and NC-R white clover clones, in the framework of an European network) provided evidence that ambient ozone levels are associated with relevant reduction (up to 30%) in the performance of sensitive material; effects on flowering were also pronounced. The economic assessment of such an impact deserves attention. Mapping of epiphytic lichen biodiversity--which has been used to monitor air quality worldwide--was not related to ozone geographical distribution as depicted by tobacco response. PMID:17267010

  9. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2015-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one. PMID:25857292

  10. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P?5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  11. Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. - Epidemiological assessment of shoot growth suggests an ozone sensitivity of mature beech which is similar to seedlings

  12. Multi-year evaluation of ambient volatile organic compounds: temporal variation, ozone formation, meteorological parameters, and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ku H; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Jo, Wan K

    2015-02-01

    The multi-year characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their source contribution in a selected metropolitan (Seoul) and rural (Seokmolee) areas in Korea were investigated to provide the framework for development and implementation of ambient VOC control strategies. For Seoul, none of the three VOC groups exhibited any significant trend in their ambient concentrations, whereas for Seokmolee, they all showed a generally decreasing trend between 2005 and 2008 and an increasing trend after 2008. Two paraffinic (ethane and propane) and two olefin (ethylene and propylene) hydrocarbons displayed higher concentrations during the cold season than warm season, while the other target VOCs did not exhibit any significant trends. Ethylene and toluene were the first and second largest contributors to ozone formation, respectively, whereas several other VOCs displayed photochemical ozone formation potential values less than 0.01 ppb. For both areas, there was a significant negative correlation between ambient temperature and the selected VOC group concentrations. In contrast, a significant positive correlation was observed between relative humidity and the three VOC group concentrations, while no significant correlation was observed between wind speed and VOC group concentrations. For Seoul, the combination of vehicle exhaust and gasoline/solvent evaporation was the greatest source of VOCs, followed by liquid natural gas (LNG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). However, combination of LNG and LPG was the greatest source of VOCs at Seokmolee, followed by the combination of vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation, and then biogenic sources. PMID:25632908

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Ambient Ozone Level and Mortality in Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Fuentes; Chang, Howard H.; Jingwen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, and a health surveillance database. We first modeled present-day relationships between observed maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentrations an...

  14. Pulmonary epithelial integrity in children: relationship to ambient ozone exposure and swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerkvist, Birgitta Json; Bernard, Alfred; Blomberg, Anders; Bergstrom, Erik; Forsberg, Bertil; Holmstrom, Karin; Karp, Kjell; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Segerstedt, Bo; Svensson, Mona; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2004-12-01

    Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. The measurements were made on 57 children 10-11 years of age before and after outdoor exercise for 2 hr. Individual O3 exposure was estimated as the total exposure dose between 0700 hr until the second blood sample was obtained (mean O3 concentration/m3 times symbol hours). The maximal 1-hr value was 118 microg/m3 (59 ppb), and the individual exposure dose ranged between 352 and 914 microg/m3hr. These O3 levels did not cause any significant changes in mean serum CC16 concentrations before or after outdoor exercise, nor was any decrease in lung function detected. However, children who regularly visited chlorinated indoor swimming pools had significantly lower CC16 levels in serum than did nonswimming children both before and after exercise (respectively, 57 +/- 2.4 and 53 +/- 1.7 microg/L vs. 8.2 +/- 2.8 and 8.0 +/- 2.6 microg/L; p chlorination by-products in the air of indoor swimming pools has adverse effects on the Clara cell function in children. A possible relation between such damage to Clara cells and pulmonary morbidity (e.g., asthma) should be further investigated. PMID:15579425

  15. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...analyses for the 2008 ozone NAAQS as appropriate...each step of the modeling process. Coordination...able to approve the modeling-based attainment...HEDD) The current modeling guidance addresses...demand days require production of additional power...to coincide with ozone episodes,...

  16. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON THE GROWTH PROCESSES OF MAIZE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge substantiated by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, there are various ways, one of which is the ozonation of seeds before sowing. This method inhibits harmful microflora, which could be formed on the seed during the period of storage, and excites the chemical processes within the seed that can accelerate the process of growth. But despite the positive effect of ozone-air mixture of seeds and a variety of conducting research there is still no reliable data on the technological parameters of ozone effects on seed crops (e.g., corn. In this regard, we have conducted experimental studies to determine the effective parameters of the ozonation of corn seeds, such as the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exposure time and binning after treatment. The influence of these parameters was assessed by changes in growth performance of seed, such as germination, germination and growth of strength. Just at the end of the pilot study we carried out a statistical analysis of the data, which allowed us to estimate the degree of influence of each independent parameter (ozone concentration, exposure time, binning after treatment for each dependent parameter (germination energy, germination, growth force. The data obtained is presented in the article

  17. Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Wiseman, S.; Franz, E.; Jones, P.; Liber, K.; Giesy, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Gamal El-Din, M.; Marin, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O{sub 3}/L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O{sub 3}/L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O{sub 3}/L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.

  18. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  19. A cumulative ozone uptake-response relationship for the growth of Norway spruce saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway spruce saplings [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] were exposed during four growing seasons to different ozone treatments in open-top chambers: charcoal filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air with extra ozone (NF+, 1.4xambient concentrations). The CF and NF+ ozone treatments were combined with phosphorous deficiency and drought stress treatments. The total biomass of the trees was harvested at different intervals during the experimental period. The ozone uptake to current-year needles of the Norway spruce saplings was estimated using a multiplicative stomatal conductance simulation model. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction of total biomass and the estimated cumulative ozone uptake, which did not vary when different thresholds were applied for the rate of ozone uptake. The reduction of the total biomass was estimated to 1% per 10 mmol m-2 cumulated ozone uptake, on a projected needle area basis. - Growth reductions by Norway spruce saplings correlate with cumulative needle uptake of ozone

  20. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis was tested that O3-induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O3 regime (elevated O3), as released through a free-air canopy O3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O3. As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O3-induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ? We model O3-induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ? Elevated O3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ? Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ? O3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  1. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates at Purchase Knob, a high elevation site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased with increased foliar stipple. Sensitive plants had lower photosynthetic rates for all leaves, except the very youngest and oldest when compared to tolerant plants. Stomatal conductance decreased with increasing leaf age, but no ozone-sensitivity differences were found. Lower leaves had less starch than upper ones, while leaves on sensitive plants had less than those on tolerant plants. These results show that ambient levels of ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can adversely affect gas exchange, water use efficiency and leaf starch content in sensitive coneflower plants. Persistence of sensitive genotypes in the Park may be due to physiological recovery in low ozone years. - Highlights: ? Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared. ? Net photosynthesis decreased with increased foliar stipple and leaf age. ? Sensitive plants with visible stipple had lower photosynthetic rates when compared to tolerant plants. ? Stomatal conductance did not differ between sensitivity types. ? Sensitive plants had lower leaf starch content than tolerant plants. - Ambient ozone may cause declines in gas exchange acause declines in gas exchange and starch in ozone-sensitive genotypes of cutleaf coneflower.

  2. Cultivar specific variations in antioxidative defense system, genome and proteome of two tropical rice cultivars against ambient and elevated ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan; Ahmad, Altaf; Rai, Shashi Pandey

    2015-05-01

    For the past few decades continuous increase in the levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations is posing to be a threat for agricultural productivity. Two high yielding tropical rice cultivars (Malviya dhan 36 and Shivani) were evaluated against different concentrations of O3 under field conditions. Experimental design included filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers having ambient O3 and 10 and 20ppb elevated O3 above the ambient. Study was conducted to assess differential response if any in induction of antioxidative defense system, genome stability, leaf proteome, yield and quality of the product in both the test cultivars. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were induced under ambient and elevated levels of O3. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of SOD, CAT and POD also displayed increased enzymatic activity along with associated alterations in specific isoforms. Ascorbic acid, thiols and phenolics were also stimulated at ambient and elevated O3. Structural alterations in DNA of rice plants due to O3 affecting its genome template stability (GTS) was examined using RAPD technique. 2-D PAGE revealed 25 differential spots in Malviya dhan 36 and 36 spots in Shivani after O3 treatment with reductions in RuBisCO subunits. Reductions in yield and change in the quality of grains were also noticed. PMID:25682587

  3. Effects of ozone on growth, lipid metabolism, and sporulation of fungi. [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; Alternaria oleraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M.; Harner, F.M.; Price, H.E.; Kormelink, J.R.

    1969-09-01

    Fumigations with ozone at concentrations of 10 pphm or more for 4 hr repeated daily for 4 days suppressed radial growth and spore production of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the most sensitive species studied. Neither radial nor mass growth of Alternaria oleraceae, a more tolerant species, was inhibited by 60 pphm ozone, although spore production was significantly accelerated. Since ozone did not affect spore viability, the inoculum potential was greatly enhanced. Histological effects of ozone included loss of pigmentation in C. lindemuthianum and abundant formation of light-refractive globules in the hyphae. Chemical analyses of mycelial mats showed an average 28% decrease in neutral lipid content of ozone-fumigated cultures. No differences were detectable in fatty acid composition of fumigated cultures. While some lipids may have leaked into the substrate, it was suspected that ozone penetrated into vital sites within the cell-oxidizing sulfhydryl groups, thereby suppressing lipid synthesis. The actual degree of suppression in fumigated hyphae may have been greater than indicated, since much of the mycelia analyzed grew within the substrate and was not directly subjected to ozone. 14 references.

  4. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  5. The impact of ambient ozone on mountain spruce forests in the Czech Republic as indicated by malondialdehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunova, Iva, E-mail: hunova@chmi.c [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Sabatce 17, 143 06 Prague 4-Komorany (Czech Republic); Novotny, Radek; Uhlirova, Hana [Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Jiloviste Strnady (Czech Republic); Vrablik, Tomas; Horalek, Jan [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Sabatce 17, 143 06 Prague 4-Komorany (Czech Republic); Lomsky, Bohumir; Sramek, Vit [Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Jiloviste Strnady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress, is measured over the long term in spruce Picea abies needles under real conditions in three Czech mountain border areas. The trends presented collate the MDA content in spruce needles with ambient ozone, temperature and precipitation as casual, and defoliation as a subsequent factor for the period 1994-2006. We have found the overall decreasing trends in MDA and defoliation. The highest MDA and defoliation are recorded in the Jizerske, the lowest in the Krusne hory Mts. Out of the examined variables the MDA is predicted best by mean temperature in vegetation season, median of O{sub 3} concentrations and AOT40; these three variables account for 34% of MDA1 and 36% of MDA2 variability. Our hypothesis that higher ambient O{sub 3} exposure results in higher MDA contents in P. abies needles under real conditions has not been approved. - The assumption that higher ambient O{sub 3} exposure results in higher MDA in Picea abies needles has not been approved in our study under real conditions in three Czech mountain forest areas.

  6. Impact of ozone on the growth of birch (Betula pendula) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant correlation was found between reductions of growth and daylight AOT40 for Betula pendula saplings. - Saplings of one half-sib family of birch, Betula pendula, were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (OTCs) during two growing seasons 1997-1998. The ozone treatments were non-filtered air (NF, accumulated daylight AOT40 over the two growing seasons of 3.0 ?l l-1 h), non-filtered air with extra ozone (NF+, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 27.3 ?l l-1 h) and non-filtered air with additional extra ozone (NF++, accumulated daylight AOT40 of 120 ?l l-1 h). The birch saplings, including the roots, were harvested after the first and second growing seasons. After the first growing season, the NF++ treatment reduced the total wood biomass by 22%, relative to the NF treatment. There was no further reduction of the total wood biomass in the NF++ treatment after the second growing season. The root biomass was reduced by 30% after the first growing season. The shoot/root ratio, as well as the proportional biomass of leaves, were increased by ozone during both years. The ozone impact on the relative growth rate was estimated to -2% per 10 ?l l-1 h daylight AOT40 per growing season

  7. EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS IN THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGIONS OF RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO A SIMULATED PATTERN OF URBAN AMBIENT OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electron microscopic morphometry was used to study the development of lung injury during and after chronic (78 weeks) exposure to a pattern of ozone designed to simulate high urban ambient concentrations that occur in some environments. he dolly exposure regimen consisted of a 1 ...

  8. Ozone's suffocating effect on soybean physiology, growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is damaging air pollutant that is currently costing U.S. farmers hundreds of millions of dollars in yield losses each year. The detrimental effect of O3 on soybean production has been recognized over the past 30 to 40 years, yet there has been little effort to improve soybean...

  9. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.F.D. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vera.thomas@iap.ch; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Flueckiger, W. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O{sub 3}). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive.

  10. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 yr-1) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive

  11. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  12. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, Benjamín; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Torre Llorente, Daniel de la; Elvira, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of ...

  13. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In field O3-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O3-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O3-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

  14. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the nd lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  15. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

  16. Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO2 and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO2 sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm-1) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag+, instead of Na+, Ca2+, or K+ ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO2 and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

  17. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  18. Seeding ice growth at ambient conditions using nano graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yi; Su, C. L.; Lu, Jiong; Loh, Kian Ping

    2013-01-01

    Water wetting on a hydrophobic surface at ambient conditions is disallowed by the nonpolar nature of the surface and high vapor pressure of water. However, the presence of sub-millimeter sized hydrophilic patches allows the waxy wings of desert beetles to become wettable by morning mist. Here, we show that a sprinkle of graphene oxide nanoflakes (nanoGOs) is effective in condensing water nanodroplets and seeding ice epitaxy on graphite at ambient conditions. By controlling r...

  19. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (?L) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange unde species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  20. The effects of tropospheric ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, K; Danielsson, H; Selldén, G; Pleijel, H

    2003-07-01

    An open-top chamber experiment with field grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) was performed in the south-west of Sweden in 1998. The experiment was aimed to investigate individual and interactive impacts of elevated ozone (O(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) on potato growth and yield. Treatments were ambient and elevated CO(2) with or without the addition of 20 nmol mol(-1) O(3). In addition, plants were grown in ambient air plots. Plants grown in elevated CO(2) and O(3) had a reduced tuber yield, compared to control, by 2% and 8%, respectively. These effects were, however, not statistically significant. Elevated CO(2) caused a significantly larger number of tubers of lower average size, while elevated O(3) induced significantly lower tuber dry matter content. The number of tuber initials (tubers injury appeared earlier and the number of yellow leaves 89 days after emergence was significantly larger in elevated O(3). In elevated CO(2), haulm dry weight was significantly (15%) lower at harvest and the haulm/tuber ratio was significantly reduced. There were significant interactive effects of O(3) and CO(2) on the final number of leaves and on stem height. Plants in elevated CO(2) reached final stem height earlier than in the other treatments. In summary, it was concluded: (a) that anticipated future O(3) levels are likely to have a negative impact on potato growth, although tuber yield effects may be hard to demonstrate experimentally in this plant due to large variation; (b) that whether any possible beneficial effect of elevated CO(2) on the magnitude of tuber yield will be expressed, depend on the climatic conditions prevailing; and (c) that potato growth responses to CO(2) and O(3) are not simply additive. PMID:12812743

  1. 75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...area's 1-hour ozone NAAQS classification should apply under the anti-backsliding...in the EPA Headquarters Library, Room Number 3334 in...1-hour ozone designation and classification as of the effective date...8-hour ozone designation and classification status. In many...

  2. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O3 under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant-1) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O3. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O3. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O3 under natural field conditions.

  3. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-01-01

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O(3) under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant(-1)) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O(3). EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O(3). PMID:19386404

  4. Growth of EuBa2Cu3O7-? films under an ozone atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the dependence of the crystallinity and the superconducting characteristics in the EuBa2Cu3O7-? (EuBCO) thin films on oxygen content. The EuBCO films were grown using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under an oxygen and an ozone atmosphere on (1 0 0) SrTiO3 substrates. The c-axis length of as-grown EuBCO films under the oxygen atmosphere was longer than that of the bulk. The c-axis length of in situ annealed EuBCO films was shortened as compared with the as-grown EuBCO films. Additionally, the surface resistance (R s) of the in situ 3 and 6 h annealed EuBCO films was lower than that of as-grown EuBCO films. However, the surface resistance of in situ annealed more than 24 h EuBCO films was not lower than that of in situ 6 h EuBCO films. The c-axis length of the as-grown EuBCO films grown under an ozone atmosphere showed 1.170 nm. It must be noted that the lowest surface resistance of EuBCO films was obtained by EuBCO films grown under the ozone atmosphere without any in situ annealing. We found that the growth of EuBCO films under the ozone atmosphere was good to dope oxygen in the films

  5. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  6. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10-4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  7. Influence of growth ambient on the surface and structural properties of vanadium oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of growth ambient on the surface and structural properties of vanadium oxide nanorods have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The vanadium oxide nanorods, which were synthesized through an ambient controlled vapor transport process, exhibit different surface electronic properties depending upon the growth ambient. The Raman data indicates that the as-grown samples are orthorhombic V2O5 phase with a small variation of stoichiometry. Under highly oxidative conditions, nearly stoichiometry sample can be grown. If the samples were grown under less oxidizing conditions, an increase of structural disorder was observed. The observed V 2p core level spectra of both samples showed a single peak with chemical shifts corresponding to the V5+ and V4+. XPS results suggested that the highly oxidized vanadium ions (V5+) are gradually reduced to lower oxidation state (V4+) with the decreases of ambient oxygen levels during growth. The results clearly show that surface non-stoichiometry may be correlated with structural disorder of V2O5 nanorods. The growth ambient and post-annealing may influence the vanadium oxidation state and subsequent surface reactivity significantly.

  8. ACUTE EFFECTS OF OZONE ON HEART RATE AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE UNANESTHETIZED, UNRESTRAINED RAT MAINTAINED AT DIFFERENT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present studies were conducted to investigate the concentration-response characteristics of acute ozone (O3) exposure on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function of the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat, and to examine the modulating effects produced by changes in ambi...

  9. Growth, radiation use efficiency, and canopy reflectance of wheat and corn grown under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of increases in future agricultural production in response to increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere are often based on the beneficial physiological effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth, especially in Ca plants. However, these estimates fail to consider the negative impact of ozone (O3) air pollution on crop production. Increases in tropospheric concentrations of both gases, CO2 and O3, have been observed over the past century, and both are predicted to continue to increase at even higher rates in the near future to levels when they may have a significant impact on agricultural production. Field studies with wheat (Friticum aestivum L.) in 1991 and 1992, and corn (Zea mays L.) in 1991 were conducted using open-top chambers to mimic atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (~ 500 ?L-1 CO2) and Oa (- 40 nL L-1 O3 above ambient air [O3] during 7 h day- 1, 5 days week-1) that are predicted to occur at the Earth's surface during the first half of the 21st century. Wheat and corn (C3 vs. C4) produced clearly different responses to CO2 enrichment, but similar responses to O3 exposure. In wheat, O3 exposure led to reduced grain yield, biomass, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, phytomass production per unit of energy received); in both years; but tion in accumulated absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (AAPAR) was observed only in 1991. Conversely, CO2 enrichment produced greater grain yield, dry biomass, and RUE. With CO2 enrichment, the Oa-induced stress to wheat plants was apparently ameliorated since responses were equivalent to the control group (low O3 and ambient CO2) for all variables. In contrast, corn demonstrated no benefit to CO2 enrichment for measured variables, and corn grain yield was the only parameter negatively influenced by O3 exposure that is attributed to O3-induced damage during the flowering process. Additionally, no treatment differences were observed for leaf area index (LAI) as determined nondestructively using the LICOR LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. Also, treatment differences for normalized difference vegetation index (ND) were only observed for wheat plants from the high-Oa and ambient CO2 treatment, at some growing stages. Otherwise, ND data were not helpful for identifying damage due to O3 fumigation or benefits due to CO2 enrichment. Significant interactive effects of CO2 vs. O3 were observed only for wheat grain yield in 1991 (p < 0.10), indicated that the detrimental effect of Oa air pollution was more than overcome under the CO2-enriched environment. (author)

  10. Crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade 2 steel in hydrogen at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Cyclic-load crack growth measurements were performed on ASME SA-105 Grade 2 steel specimens exposed to 10,000- and 15,000-psi hydrogen and to 5000-psi helium, all at ambient temperatures. The cyclic-load crack growth rate was found to be faster in high-pressure hydrogen than in helium. Cyclic-load crack growth rates in this steel were not reduced by preloading in air to a stress intensity of 1.5 times the cyclic K sub max in hydrogen. There are indications that holding under load in hydrogen, and loading and unloading in helium retards hydrogen-accelerated cyclic-load crack growth. Cyclic frequency and R (ratio of K sub min/k sub max) were important variables determining crack growth rate. The crack growth rate increased as a logarithm of the cycle duration and decreased with increasing R.

  11. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ? 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publicat-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  12. Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011. PMID:24911370

  13. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O3) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppbv of O3 (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of ?13C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in ?15N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N ensitive species since the changes in N concentration, ?15N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O3 concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

  14. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY...the review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone...Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards, First...

  15. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) was grown in open-top chambers under three carbon dioxide (ambient and seasonal mean concentrations of 550 and 680 ?mol mol-1 CO2) and two ozone concentrations (ambient and an 8 h day -1 seasonal mean of 50 nmol mol-1 O3) between emergence and final harvest. Periodic non-destructive measurements were made and destructive harvests were carried out at three key developmental stages (24, 49 and 101 days after emergence) to establish effects on growth and tuber yield. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 reduced above-ground dry weight at final harvest by 8.4% (P2 and O3 for any of the growth and yield variables examined. Non-destructive analyses revealed no significant effect of elevated CO2 on plant height, leaf number or green leaf area ratio. However, destructive harvests at tuber initiation and 500 deg Cd after emergence showed that above-ground dry weight (8 and 7% respectively) and tuber yield (88 and 44%) were significantly increased (P-1 CO2 treatment. Responses to 550 and 680 ?mol mol-1 CO2 were not significantly different for most parameters examined, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to the beneficial influence of CO2 enrichment. Significant effects2 enrichment. Significant effects on the above-ground dry weight and tuber yield were no longer apparent at final harvest, although tuber numbers were increased (P2, particularly in the smaller size categories. The results show that the O3 treatment imposed was insufficient to reduce tuber yields and that, although elevated CO2 enhanced crop growth during the early stages of the season, this beneficial effect was not sustained to maturity. (Author)

  16. Vertical and Horizontal Measurements of Ambient Ozone over a Gas and Oil Production Area using a UAV Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A.; Gowing, I.; Martin, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 wintertime Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS13), an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, coupled with an on-board UV ozone monitor, flew several spatial profiles near the location (Horse Pool) of other concentrated measurements by other co-investigators. The airframe, part of the Utah Water Research Laboratory's (UWRL) AggieAir UAV program, consisted of a custom-built, battery-operated plane with and 2.4 m (8 ft) wing span and a 12.7 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.5 cm payload bay with a carrying capacity of approximately 2.0 kg. With the current power system, the fully-loaded AggieAir UAV can fly for approximately 45 minutes at a nominal airspeed of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). The system can be operated either in manual control or be flown autonomously following preprogrammed waypoints via a built in GPS system. The AggieAir UAV systems were primarily designed for photographic and telemetry tracking projects. For the UBOS13 flights, a 2B Technologies Model 205 Ozone (O3) monitor was modified for minimal weight optimization, wrapped with lightweight insulation and secured into the UAV payload bay. Additionally, HOBO Model H08-001-02 shielded temperature/datalogger was secured to the exterior of the UAV from parallel thermal profile determination. During the study period, three demonstration flight profiles were obtained on February 17 and 18, 2013: two vertical 'curtain' profiles and a pair of 'stacked' horizontal profiles. As recorded by numerous ground-based monitoring sites, the ozone during the UAV test periods was characterized by initial trends of daytime O3 maximums over 130 ppb, followed by a meteorological front partially ventilating the Basin on the evening of Feb. 17th leading to decreased O3 minimums around 40 ppb. However, the ground level O3 rebuilt quickly to ground level maximums approaching 100 ppb. The vertical 'curtain' flown on the evening of Feb. 17th only reached a maximum elevation of about 2160 m ASL (600 m AGL) due to encountering upper level excessive winds as the low pressure front approached. However the flight was still able to capture a temperature profile indicating a well-mixed atmosphere below about 300 m AGL, sealed by a definitive inversion layer extending to the top of the measurement profile. The measured O3 profile went from about 140 ppb near the ground to around 60 ppb at the start of the inversion layer, and then remained essentially constant until the top of the elevation profile. The vertical profile late in the morning of the following day (after the front had passed), showed nearly straight vertical profiles of temperature (?2°C) and ozone (35-50 ppb) up to approximately 2400 m ASL (820 m AGL). The stacked horizontal profiles (1650 and 1750 m ASL) flown immediately after the vertical flight of Feb. 17th showed some differences on the horizontal scale, but it was unclear if these differences were associated with terrain differences (topography dropped rapidly to the south) or locational differences in precursor sources. The UAV measured ozone compared favorably to nearby co-investigators (NOAA/ESRL CSD TOPAZ Lidar and CU/INSTAAR tethered balloon).

  17. Ozone Impacts on forest Growth: A Sensitivity Analysis for Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Ozone is one of the most important damaging air pollutants for forests in Austria. The mean atmospheric ozone concentration varies between 22.5 and 51.5 ppb (parts per billion) depending on altitude. Based on the emissions of the precursor substances (nitrous oxides and volatile hydrocarbons), the concentrations increase around 0.2 ppb per year and exceed the threshold for effects on plants. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis is sensible to ozone load. This corresponds to a reduction of the potentially possible CO2 fixation and can be regarded as a proof of the damage potential of ozone. The defence capacity vis-à-vis increased ozone increases with increasing elevation. At higher elevations the higher natural stress potential is accompanied by a higher defence potential against ozone damage. Based on these findings the following working hypotheses were formulated: (i) Under the acceptance that ozone uptake leads to a reduction of volume increment, model calculations on volume increment should exhibit a systematic bias versus the ozone dose. (ii) For locations unencumbered by ozone, the model should underestimate, for strongly burdened locations it should overestimate volume increment. (iii) Error patterns should change with increasing elevation, due to the increasing defence potential. Results demonstrated that at elevations above 800 m a.s.l. no ozone effect was detectable via trends in errors versus ozone dose. At elevations below 800 m, a significant trend in errors from plots with low ozone doses to plots with high ozone doses was evident. Although the model used in this study includes no explicit ozone reactions, we can be confident at the 95 % level that Norway spruce trees growing below 800 m a.s.l. react to an increase in ozone dose with a reduction in volume increment. It is, however, important to emphasize that the evidence for increment reduction is qualitative evidence but does not allow the quantification of the ozone induced reduction in volume increment. A quantification of the reduction in volume increment requires the statistical validation of the dose-response relations on the basis of additional data series from sites with different ozone loads, elevations and site conditions.

  18. Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O3. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO2 did not amend the detrimental effects of O3 on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO2 alone had only minor effects. An O3-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O3 responses and CO2 amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment

  19. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  20. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. - Early-season O3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  1. Study of ozone gas formed in the industrial radiation process with cobalt-60 and its impact on the environment; Estudo sobre o gas ozonio formado no processo de irradiacao industrial com cobalto-60 e seu impacto no meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzueli, Daniel Henrique

    2013-07-01

    The radiation processing is present in various products such as foods, medical disposable, electrical cables, gems, among others. This process aims to improve the properties, sterilize or sanitize irradiated products. In industrial irradiators facilities, electromagnetic radiation (gamma and X-rays) or electrons before they interact with the products in processing, there are a layer of air. To interact with this air layer, it causes radiolytic effects on the molecules present in the ambient atmosphere, and the main interaction are with the oxygen molecules that have their bonds broken, separating them into two highly reactive atoms that recombine with the other molecule of oxygen to form ozone gas. In this work it was studied the formation, decay and dispersion of ozone in industrial gamma irradiators facilities that use cobalt-60 as a source of radiation. The monitoring of ozone concentration was performed by optical absorption method in a commercial monitor. (author)

  2. Use of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Italy: Verification of the effects of ambient ozone on crop plants and trees and investigation of EDU's mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four experiments where EDU was used to protect plants from ozone (O3) in Italy are reviewed. Doses of 150 and 450 ppm EDU at 2-3 week intervals were successfully applied to alleviate O3-caused visible injury and growth reductions in crop and forest species respectively. EDU was mainly applied as soil drench to crops and by stem injection or infusion into trees. Visible injury was delayed and reduced but not completely. In investigations on mode of action, EDU was quickly (8 days), as it cannot move via phloem. EDU did not enter cells, suggesting it does not directly affect cell metabolism. EDU delayed senescence, did not affect photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen content, and stimulated antioxidant responses to O3 exposure. Preliminary results suggest developing an effective soil application method for forest trees is warranted. - EDU was successful as a tool in determining ozone effects on vegetation in Italy, but while progress was made, its mode of action remains unresolved.

  3. Growth rates of nucleation mode particles in Hyytiälä during 2003?2009: variation with particle size, season, data analysis method and ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The condensational growth rate of aerosol particles formed in atmospheric new particle formation events is one of the most important factors influencing the lifetime of these particles and their ability to become climatically relevant. Diameter growth rates (GR of nucleation mode particles were studied based on almost 7 yr of data measured during the years 2003–2009 at a boreal forest measurement station SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. The particle growth rates were estimated using particle size distributions measured with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS, a Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzer (BSMA and an Air Ion Spectrometer (AIS. Two GR analysis methods were tested. The particle growth rates were also compared to an extensive set of ambient meteorological parameters and trace gas concentrations to investigate the processes/constituents limiting the aerosol growth. The median growth rates of particles in the nucleation mode size ranges with diameters of 1.5–3 nm, 3–7 nm and 7–20 nm were 1.9 nm h?1, 3.8 nm h?1, and 4.3 nm h?1, respectively. The median relative uncertainties in the growth rates due to the size distribution instrumentation in these size ranges were 25%, 19%, and 8%, respectively. For the smallest particles (1.5–3 nm the AIS data yielded on average higher growth rate values than the BSMA data, and higher growth rates were obtained from positively charged size distributions as compared with negatively charged particles. For particles larger than 3 nm in diameter no such systematic differences were found. For these particles the uncertainty in the growth rate related to the analysis method, with relative uncertainty of 16%, was similar to that related to the instruments. The growth rates of 7–20 nm particles showed positive correlation with monoterpene concentrations and their oxidation rate by ozone. The oxidation rate by OH did not show a connection with GR. Our results indicate that the growth of nucleation mode particles in Hyytiälä is mainly limited by the concentrations of organic precursors.

  4. Nucleation mode growth rates in Hyytiälä during 2003–2009: variation with particle size, season, data analysis method and ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yli-Juuti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensational growth rate of aerosol particles formed in atmospheric new particle formation events is one of the most important factors influencing the life time of these particles and their ability to become climatically relevant. Diameter growth rates (GR of nucleation mode particles were studied based on almost 7 yr of data measured during the years 2003–2009 at a boreal forest measurement station SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. The particle growth rates were estimated using particle size distributions measured with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS, a Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyser (BSMA and an Air Ion Spectrometer (AIS. Two GR analysis methods were tested. The particle growth rates were also compared to an extensive set of ambient meteorological parameters and trace gas concentrations to investigate the processes/constituents limiting the aerosol growth. The median growth rates of particles in the nucleation mode size ranges with diameters of 1.5–3 nm, 3–7 nm and 7–20 nm were 1.9 nm h?1, 3.8 nm h?1, and 4.3 nm h?1, respectively. The median relative uncertainties in the growth rates due to the size distribution instrumentation in these size ranges were 25 %, 19 %, and 8 %, respectively. For the smallest particles (1.5–3 nm the AIS data yielded on average higher growth rate values than the BSMA data, and higher growth rates were obtained from positively charged size distributions as compared with negatively charged particles. For particles larger than 3 nm in diameter no such systematic differences were found. For these particles the main uncertainty of the growth rate was related to the analysis method, as the values obtained with the two methods had a median difference of 35 %. The growth rates of 7–20 nm particles showed correlation with monoterpene concentrations and their oxidation rate by ozone. The oxidation rate by OH did not show a connection with GR. Our results indicate that the growth of nucleation mode particles in Hyytiälä is mainly limited by the concentrations and O3-oxidation of organic precursors.

  5. Effects of substrate and ambient gas on epitaxial growth indium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium oxide thin films were grown by pulsed electron beam deposition method at 500 °C on c-cut sapphire and (0 0 1) oriented LaAlO3 single crystal substrates in oxygen or argon gas. The effects of ambient gas and substrate symmetry on the growth of indium oxide thin films were studied. Stoichiometric In2O3 films are formed in oxygen, while oxygen deficient In2O2.5 films are grown in argon, with In metallic nanoclusters embedded in a In2O3 matrix (nanocomposite films). In both cases, epitaxial In2O3 films having the bixbyite phase were grown with various orientation relationships, depending upon the substrate symmetry and gas ambient (oxygen or argon). Domain matching epitaxy was used to describe the precise in-plane epitaxial film–substrate relationships. The differences in film texture were correlated to the differences in growth conditions, while the differences in the film properties were correlated to the film oxygen composition.

  6. Effects of substrate and ambient gas on epitaxial growth indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor Str. 109, L22 P.O. Box. MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Seiler, W. [PIMM, UMR CNRS 8006 Arts et Métiers ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l’Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Hebert, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); Matei, E. [National Institute of Materials Physics (NIMP), Atomistilor Str. 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Perrière, J., E-mail: jacques.perriere@insp.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-07-01

    Indium oxide thin films were grown by pulsed electron beam deposition method at 500 °C on c-cut sapphire and (0 0 1) oriented LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrates in oxygen or argon gas. The effects of ambient gas and substrate symmetry on the growth of indium oxide thin films were studied. Stoichiometric In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are formed in oxygen, while oxygen deficient In{sub 2}O{sub 2.5} films are grown in argon, with In metallic nanoclusters embedded in a In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix (nanocomposite films). In both cases, epitaxial In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having the bixbyite phase were grown with various orientation relationships, depending upon the substrate symmetry and gas ambient (oxygen or argon). Domain matching epitaxy was used to describe the precise in-plane epitaxial film–substrate relationships. The differences in film texture were correlated to the differences in growth conditions, while the differences in the film properties were correlated to the film oxygen composition.

  7. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops. PMID:21776257

  8. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

  9. Radiation utilization efficiency and the growth of soybeans exposed to ozone: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ozone (O3) on field-planted soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Davis’) were examined using a simple crop-growth model that resolves the rate of increase in crop dry weight into the total amount of radiation intercepted by a crop canopy and the efficiency of conversion of this energy into dry matter (?, termed utilization efficiency). The objectives were : (1) to examine the effects of O3 on light interception and ?, and compare these results with a similar study by Unsworth et al. to determine whether the effects of O3 are consistent from year to year, and (2) to determine whether ? is more sensitive to O3 during reproductive than vegetative growth and whether allocation of aboveground biomass to seed is affected by O3. Five O3 concentrations (seasonal means of 30, 52, 57, 76 and 99 ppb) were maintained in open-top chambers over the growing season. All treatments were irrigated. Leaf, stem and pod weights and leaf area were measured weekly throughout the season. Total incident solar radiation and total radiation transmission through the canopy were measured with tube solarimeters and electronic integrating devices. Increased O3 concentrations were accompanied by depressed leaf area expansion and earlier leaf senescence, but did not affect total light interception over the entire season. Utilization efficiency (?) was reduced in high O3nt factor in the reduction of yield; ? for the whole season declined from 0.89 g MJ?1 in the 30-ppb treatment to a low of 0.68 g MJ?1 in the 99-ppb treatment. Efficiencies were higher during reproductive than vegetative growth, but were not more sensitive to O3. Seed yield decreased from 450 g m?2 in the 30-ppb treatment to 320 g m?2 in the 99-ppb treatment. Fractional allocation of aboveground dry weight to seed was not affected by O3. Reduced ? values with increasing O3 concentrations were consistent with an earlier study by Unsworth et al. however, ? values for the vegetative phase of growth in this study were lower at all O3 concentrations. Lower ? values were attributed to canopy light saturation because of higher incident radiation and water stress caused by a shallow rooting zone during a hot, dry growing season. (author)

  10. Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Penko, E-mail: penmail@mail.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kumar, Narendra [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Abo/Turku (Finland); Sarker, Dipak K. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Pishev, Dimitar [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rakovsky, Slavcho [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-12-15

    Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO{sub 2} sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm{sup -1}) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag{sup +}, instead of Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, or K{sup +} ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

  11. Effects of salinity and ozone, individually and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants exposed to ozone, under high salinity conditions, further decline in growth. - The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ozone and salinity, singly and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties. Chickpea plants were grown in non-saline and saline conditions, with and without a repeated exposure to ozone. Salinity at a concentration of 30 mM NaCl caused a substantial reduction in plant height, number of leaves and the dry weights of the leaves, stems and roots. Biomass allocation to the leaves increased, predominantly at the expense of the roots. Ozone at a concentration of 85 nmol mol-1 for 6 h per day for 25 days reduced plant height and dry weights but had no effect on leaf number. The results show substantial effects of salinity and ozone on chickpea growth and ion concentrations. When ozonated plants are grown in the presence of salinity, further reductions in growth occur

  12. Minor effects of long-term ozone exposure on boreal peatland species Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum papillosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörsky, SK; Haapala, JK

    2011-01-01

    The effects of long-term ozone fumigation on two common peatland plant species, a sedge Eriophorum vaginatum L. and a moss Sphagnum papillosum Lindb., were studied applying peatland microcosms. The peat cores with intact vegetation were cored from an oligotrophic pine fen and partially embedded into the soil of an open-air experimental field for four growing seasons. The open-air ozone exposure field consists of eight circular plots of which four were fumigated with elevated ozone concentration (doubled ambient) and four were ambient controls. The results showed that E. vaginatum and S. papillosum can tolerate ozone better than expected. Elevated ozone concentration did not affect overall relative length growth of E. vaginatum or S. papillosum. The leaf cross-section area of E. vaginatum leaves was 8% bigger in the ozone treatment compared to that in the ambient control. Ultrastuctural variables did not show any significant treatment effect in E. vaginatum or in S. papillosum. Total chlorophyll (a + b) concentration tended to increase in early growing season under ozone exposure. During the first growing season, elevated ozone concentration decreased methanol-extractable, UV-absorbing compounds in E. vaginatum. The results suggest that E. vaginatum and S. papillosum are ozone tolerant plant species and are likely able to cope with expected increase in tropospheric ozone concentration

  13. Tropospheric ozone increases over the southern Africa region: bellwether for rapid growth in Southern Hemisphere pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. M.; Balashov, N. V.; Witte, J. C.; Coetzee, J. G. R.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2014-09-01

    Increases in free-tropospheric (FT) ozone based on ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2008 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion (21° S, 55° E; ~2800 km NE of Irene in the Indian Ocean), have been reported. Over Irene a large increase in the urban-influenced boundary layer (BL, 1.5-4 km) was also observed during the 18-year period, equivalent to 30% decade-1. Here we show that the Irene BL trend is at least partly due to a gradual change in the sonde launch times from early morning to the midday period. The FT ozone profiles over Irene in 1990-2007 are re-examined, filling in a 1995-1999 gap with ozone profiles taken during the Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project over nearby Johannesburg. A multivariate regression model that accounts for the annual ozone cycle, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possible tropopause changes was applied to monthly averaged Irene data from 4 to 11 km and to 1992-2011 Réunion sonde data from 4 to 15 km. Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle and upper troposphere (UT; 4-11 km over Irene, 4-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with increases ~1 ppbv yr-1 over Irene and ~2 ppbv yr-1 over Réunion. These changes are equivalent to ~25 and 35-45% decade-1, respectively. Both stations also display smaller positive trends in summer, with a 45% decade-1 ozone increase near the tropopause over Réunion in December. To explain the ozone increases, we investigated a time series of dynamical markers, e.g., potential vorticity (PV) at 330-350 K. PV affects UT ozone over Irene in November-December but displays little relationship with ozone over Réunion. A more likely reason for wintertime FT ozone increases over Irene and Réunion appears to be long-range transport of growing pollution in the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone increases are consistent with trajectory origins of air parcels sampled by the sondes and with recent NOx emissions trends estimated for Africa, South America and Madagascar. For Réunion trajectories also point to sources from the eastern Indian Ocean and Asia.

  14. Evaluation and calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Gillespie, J.; Schuder, M. D.; Duberstein, W.; Beverland, I. J.; Heal, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-power, and relatively low-cost, gas sensors have potential to improve understanding of intra-urban air pollution variation by enabling data capture over wider networks than is possible with 'traditional' reference analysers. We evaluated an Aeroqual Ltd. Series 500 semiconducting metal oxide O3 and an electrochemical NO2 sensor against UK national network reference analysers for more than 2 months at an urban background site in central Edinburgh. Hourly-average Aeroqual O3 sensor observations were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91) and of similar magnitude to observations from the UV-absorption reference O3 analyser. The Aeroqual NO2 sensor observations correlated poorly with the reference chemiluminescence NO2 analyser (R2 = 0.02), but the deviations between Aeroqual and reference analyser values ([NO2]Aeroq - [NO2]ref) were highly significantly correlated with concurrent Aeroqual O3 sensor observations [O3]Aeroq. This permitted effective linear calibration of the [NO2]Aeroq data, evaluated using 'hold out' subsets of the data (R2 ? 0.85). These field observations under temperate environmental conditions suggest that the Aeroqual Series 500 NO2 and O3 monitors have good potential to be useful ambient air monitoring instruments in urban environments provided that the O3 and NO2 gas sensors are calibrated against reference analysers and deployed in parallel.

  15. Monterrey, Mexico ozone study: Air quality measurements and photochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Martinez, Jeronimo

    The Monterrey Metropolitan Area is one of the fastest growing areas of Mexico. As a result of this growth, this major urban and industrial center has begun to experience air quality degradation. The Mexican ozone standard (110 ppbv) has been exceeded on 63 days during the period 1993-1995. This study is the first integrated examination of air quality, pollutant emissions, and climate to cover the ozone behavior in Monterrey. Pollutant concentrations and weather conditions were characterized spatially and temporally for all seasons during 1995. Higher ozone concentrations were found in the southwestern region during Spring. Diurnal patterns of ambient concentration ratios and distributions of daily ozone maximum for weekdays and weekends indicate that industrial emissions seem to be a important contributor of ozone formation. Pollutant emissions were estimated from continuous data of air quality network and on-road vehicle emissions. Diurnal patterns of CO and NOx emissions were calculated for January and July 1995 using a flow model based on mass conservation and estimated parameters of lateral advection and chemical loss. To predict how ozone will change in response to prescribed changes in emissions, this emission inventory is consistent and the most reliable. Circulation patterns associated to high-ozone episodes were identified from synoptic meteorological maps. High- pressure systems, migratory anticyclones, elevated mixed layer, cold front passages and mountain-valley winds produced subsidence, flow reversal, and stagnation when elevated ozone affected Monterrey. Hydrocarbon reduction was determined as the most effective strategy for reducing ozone applying a photochemical box model to high-ozone episodes in 1995. Using sensitivity analysis, emissions and meteorological variables were ranked by their relative contributions to ozone formation. The model employs the Carbon Bond Mechanism IV and a hybrid method for solving stiff chemical kinetic equations. The application of this model highlights the major mesoscale and synoptic features of the Monterrey climate. Incursions of air masses of subtropical and midlatitude circulation regimes are highly variable, while high solar radiation occurs all year.

  16. Ellipsometric study of ambient-produced overlayer growth rate on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Robert M.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Warner, Joseph D.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of ambient-reaction-produced BaCO3 overlayer growth on laser-ablated YBCO is presented as a function of time. The effects of the anisotropy of YBCO on the ellipsometric data inversion process are discussed, and it is concluded that with certain restrictions on the data acquisition method, the anisotropic substrate can be adequately modeled by its isotropic pseudodielectric function for the purpose of overlayer thickness estimation. It is found that after an initial period of rapid growth attributed to the chemical reaction of the exposed surface bonds, the BaCO3 overlayer growth is linear at 1-2 A per day. This slow growth rate is attributed to the complexity of the BaCO3-forming reaction, together with the need for ambient reactants to diffuse through the overlayer.

  17. In situ growth of high temperature superconductor thin films with evaporation techniques using an ozone jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on high quality YBa2Cu3O7 thin films grown in situ on various substrates (SrTiO3, Al2O3, Si) using MBE techniques and an ozone jet. The yttrium and copper are evaporated from electron gun sources and the barium is evaporated from a Knudsen cell. All sources are controlled by a single mass spectrometer feedback system to obtain the correct fluxes at high partial ozone pressures. During deposition the partial ozone pressure at the substrate position is estimated to be 10-3-10-2 mbar. The substrate holder temperature is 700 degrees C. The real substrate temperature is estimated to be lower than 650 degrees C. The films are analyzed with R(T), X-ray diffraction and RBS measurements. SEM photographs are taken of the surface

  18. Ethylene reduces plant gas exchange and growth of lettuce grown from seed to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuanjiu; Davies, Fred T

    2012-03-01

    Naturally occurring high levels of ethylene can be a problem in spaceflight and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) leading to sterility and irregular plant growth. There are engineering and safety advantages of growing plants under hypobaria (low pressure) for space habitation. The goals of this research were to successfully grow lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Buttercrunch) in a long-term study from seed to harvest under hypobaric conditions, and to investigate how endogenously produced ethylene affects gas exchange and plant growth from seed germination to harvest under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Lettuce was grown under two levels of total gas pressure [hypobaric or ambient (25 or 101 kPa)] in a long-term, 32-day study. Significant levels of endogenous ethylene occurred by day-15 causing reductions in photosynthesis, dark-period respiration, and a subsequent decrease in plant growth. Hypobaria did not mitigate the adverse ethylene effects on plant growth. Seed germination was not adversely affected by hypobaria, but was reduced by hypoxia (6 kPa pO(2)). Under hypoxia, seed germination was higher under hypobaria than ambient total pressure. This research shows that lettuce can be grown from seed to harvest under hypobaria (?25% of normal earth ambient total pressure). PMID:22118875

  19. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O3 prediction results, we explored the PFT area-loss artifact that occurs due to geographical disparity between the PFT and leaf area index distributions, and can cause increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, the PFT-loss artifact must be a source of limitation in the MEGAN biogenic emission modeling and the CTM O3 simulation results. Time changes of CMAQ O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios suggest that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 10 ppb. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of representative PFT distributions becomes more critical for O3 air quality modeling (or forecasting in support of air quality decision-making and human health studies.

  20. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  1. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Report Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in ... areas with unhealthful levels of ozone. What Is Ozone? Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atoms. ...

  2. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different grow...

  3. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology

    2008-02-15

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO{sub 2} on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO{sub 2} for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO{sub 2} doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO{sub 2}. It was concluded that exogenous NO{sub 2} additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  5. Growth of lithium silicate crystals inside porous silicon film and their exploitation for ozone detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon dioxide was formed by oxidizing porous silicon film and annealed, in a next step, at 920 deg. C with lithium nitrate embedded in its structure. These operations have produced the two lithium silicates, Li2Si2O5 and Li2SiO3, as it has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction measurements. At relative high temperature (230 deg. C), the experimental ionic conductivity of this achieved sample has doubled in presence of ozone flow. A comparison with other samples, prepared with varieties of metallic nitrates and by following the same experimental procedures as for the former one, has proved that the sample prepared with zirconium was also good for ozone detection

  6. No interaction between methyl jasmonate and ozone in Pima cotton: growth and allocation respond independently to both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, D A; Vu, H-B; Aguilar, C; Rea, M A

    2010-05-01

    Ozone (O3) is damaging to plants, inducing signalling pathways involving antagonism between jasmonates and ethylene. These pathways mediate O3 responses, particularly to acute exposure, and their manipulation protected several species against acute and chronic O3. We use chronic daily exposure of up to 163 ppb O3, and twice weekly application of up to 320 microg plant(-1) methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to test two hypothesizes: 1) a low rate of MeJA does not affect growth but increases O3 sensitivity; 2) a high rate inhibits growth but reduces O3 sensitivity. Both hypotheses were rejected. Growth declined with increases in both MeJA and O3. MeJA at 40 microg plant(-1) caused no direct effect, and at 160 microg plant(-1) reduced growth similarly at all O3. Neither rate altered O3 sensitivity. These additive responses are not consistent with protection by MeJA in this system. They may reflect inter-specific differences in signalling, since O3 concentrations used here exceeded some reported acute exposures. Alternatively, parallel responses to O3 and MeJA may suggest that O3-induced jasmonates play a developmental role in chronic response but no protective role in the absence of lesions characteristic of acute exposure. MeJA appears useful as a probe of these mechanisms. PMID:20002655

  7. Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, H S; Lee, E H; Renfro, J R; Hacker, W D

    2000-05-01

    Field symptoms typical of ozone injury have been observed on several conifer species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and tropospheric ozone levels in the Park can be high, suggesting that ozone may be causing growth impairment of these plants. The objective of this research was to test the ozone sensitivity of selected conifer species under controlled exposure conditions. Seedlings of three species of conifers, Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), were exposed to various levels of ozone in open-top chambers for one to three seasons in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee, USA. A combination of episodic profiles (1988) and modified ambient exposure regimes (1989-92) were used. Episodic profiles simulated an average 7-day period from a monitoring station in the Park. Treatments used in 1988 were: charcoal-filtered (CF), 1.0x ambient, 2.0x ambient, and ambient air-no chamber (AA). In 1989 a 1.5x ambient treatment was added, and in 1990, additional chambers were made available, allowing a 0.5x ambient treatment to be added. Height, diameter, and foliar injury were measured most years. Exposures were 3 years for Table Mountain pine (1988-90), 3 years for hemlock (1989-91), and 1 and 2 years for three different sets of Virginia pine (1990, 1990-91, and 1992). There were no significant (pozone on any biomass fraction for any of the species, except for older needles in Table Mountain and Virginia pine, which decreased with ozone exposure. There were also no changes in biomass allocation patterns among species due to ozone exposure, except for Virginia pine in 1990, which showed an increase in the root:shoot ratio. There was foliar injury (chlorotic mottling) in the higher two treatments (1.0x and 2.0x for Table Mountain and 2.0x for Virginia pine), but high plant-to-plant variability obscured formal statistical significance in many cases. We conclude, at least for growth in the short-term, that seedlings of these three conifer species are insensitive to ambient and elevated levels of ozone, and that current levels of ozone in the Park are probably having minimal impacts on these particular species. PMID:15092944

  8. Effect of Ozone and Simulated Acid Rain on Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Peroxidase Activity in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Ezzel-Arab Abdel Nasser

    2002-01-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L. CV. Giza 400) were exposed to ozone (100 ppb) and simulated acid rain (SAR) at pH 3, separately and combined over 2-weaks period while grown in climate controlled growth chambers. Ozone fumigation (O3) exposure was for 5 h day -1, whereas acid rain exposure was for 2 h per week. The results showed that exposure to high O3 concentration (100 ppb) decreased the number and weight of root nodules, suppressed nitrogenase activity and strongly induce...

  9. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O3 and three N levels. Increased O3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O3-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: ? Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. ? The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. ? Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O3on counterbalanced the O3-induced increase in senescence biomass. ? Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  10. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ, and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  11. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... higher ozone readings and more frequent high ozone days. Sunlight and heat create conditions that increase the ... Fortunately, these cities had significantly fewer unhealthy ozone days than they had a decade ago thanks to ...

  12. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Needs to Be Done Methodology and Acknowledgements Report Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone ... polluted by ozone, 22 had worse ozone problems. Weather played a factor. The warmer summers in 2010 ...

  13. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  14. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O3); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O3). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-01-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obt...

  16. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J., E-mail: j.sanz@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, V., E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muntifering, R., E-mail: muntirb@auburn.ed [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gonzalez-Fernandez, I., E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, B.S., E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, S., E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, R., E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O{sub 3} and three N levels. Increased O{sub 3} exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O{sub 3}-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O{sub 3}-induced increase in senescence biomass. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  17. A chamberless field exposure system for ozone enrichment of short vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only few studies have been conducted as yet which focus on the effects of rising tropospheric ozone levels on semi-natural vegetation under free-air conditions. A new technical approach was used to examine the response of calcareous grassland to ozone employing a chamberless fumigation system. Four different ozone regimes were applied (1-, 1.33-, 1.66- and 2-fold ambient air levels) with five replicates each. Ozone enrichment was carried out on circular plots of 2 m in diameter by a computer controlled exposure system. Transparent windscreens encircling each plot accelerated the mixing of ambient air and ozone released. Thus, the use of blowers could be avoided. The exposure system presented here is regarded as an appropriate technique for free-air trace gas enrichment on short vegetation avoiding microclimatic alterations known to affect plant growth and pollutant uptake. Furthermore, the chosen technical set-up was rather cost-effective. Hence, it enabled the establishment of a larger number of replications providing the basis for results of higher statistical power. - Capsule: The set-up and the performance of an advanced chamberless exposure system applying different ozone treatments and a high number of replicates are presented

  18. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  19. Ozone Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    This is the Ozone Hole Watch web site, where you can check on the latest status of the ozone layer over the South Pole. Satellite instruments monitor the ozone layer, and their data is used to create the images that depict the amount of ozone. The web site also contains links for classroom activities and instructional materials.

  20. Biaxial Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Aluminum Alloy 5083-H116 Under Ambient Laboratory and Saltwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, V. Y.; Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    Crack growth of aluminum alloy 5083 was investigated when subjected to the in-plane biaxial tension-tension fatigue with stress ratio of 0.5 under ambient laboratory and saltwater environments. Cruciform specimens with a center hole, containing a notch and precrack at 45° to the specimen's arms, were tested in a biaxial fatigue test machine. Two biaxiality ratios, ? = 1 and ? = 1.5, were studied. For ? = 1, crack propagated along a straight line collinearly with the precrack, while for ? = 1.5 case, the crack path was curved and non-collinear with the precrack. Uniaxial fatigue tests were also conducted. Crack growth rates were faster under the biaxiality fatigue in comparison to uniaxial fatigue at a given crack driving force (? K I or ? G) in both environments. Further, an increase in biaxiality ratio increased the crack growth rate, i.e., faster for ? = 1.5 case than ? = 1 case. Both biaxial fatigue and saltwater environment showed detrimental effects on the fatigue crack growth resistance of 5083, and its combination is highly detrimental when compared to uniaxial fatigue.

  1. Regional assessment of ozone sensitive tree species using bioindicator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W; Smith, Gretchen C; Smith, William D

    2003-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document direct foliar injury irrespective of direct measure of ozone uptake. We used bioindicator and field plot data from the USDA Forest Service to identify tree species likely to exhibit regional-scale ozone impacts. Approximately 24% of sampled sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 15% of sampled loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and 12% of sampled black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees were in the highest risk category. Sweetgum and loblolly pine trees were at risk on the coastal plain of Maryland, Virginia and Delaware. Black cherry trees were at risk on the Allegheny Plateau (Pennsylvania), in the Allegheny Mountains (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland) as well as coastal plain areas of Maryland and Virginia. Our findings indicate a need for more in-depth study of actual impacts on growth and reproduction of these three species. PMID:12691526

  2. Antarctic Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides near real time and historical data related to the extent of the ozone depletion in Antarctica. These graphs and plots can be used by students to determine differences in different seasons and allow substantial practice in reading graphs. The Ozone Hole Area graph provides a look at the extent of the Ozone hole in sq.km. over the past two years by month. The near real time data at this site includes ozone soundings from Neumayer Station; ozone soundings from South Pole Station; TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) (Satellite Picture); mean stratospheric temperatures; and ozone related links from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) 2003. Historical data includes ozone soundings from Neumayer Station; ozone soundings of Georg Forster Station; timeseries of ozone partial pressure since 1985; and TOVS archive.

  3. Secular variations of tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrgian, A.KH.

    1988-02-01

    The dependence of secular variations of tropospheric ozone on decreases of temperature and cloud growth in Central Europe is assessed on the basis of Vienna, Paris, and Athens data for 1853-1920. Decreases in ozone content occurring with a certain time lag after major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Krakatoa) are examined. The effect of the Tungusk-meteorite fall on ozone content is also discussed. 13 references.

  4. Growth of North-east Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L.) in relation to ambient temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Michalsen, Kathrine; Ottersen, Geir; Nakken, Odd

    1998-01-01

    Temperature related changes in horizontal distribution of North-east Arctic cod are described and the influence of temperature on the growth is interpreted. By using data from acoustic and bottom trawl surveys in the Barents Sea conducted in February1988–1995, mean length at age is related to the winter temperature. Mean lengths at age increased with increasing temperature for cod of age 2–6. Mean individual growth was highest for year classes experiencing high temperatures. Due to the se...

  5. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD 6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone ( p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m -2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  6. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. PMID:25765971

  7. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know about the Obama Administration’s Ozone Pollution Standards Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk Protect Yourself Methodology City Rankings ...

  8. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Needs to Be Done Methodology and Acknowledgements Report Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone ... slightly more unhealthy days than in the 2013 report. Twenty-two of the 25 most ozone-polluted ...

  9. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card Widget Or Enter Your Zip Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in the ... Communities will need more help to reduce ozone pollution in the warmer temperatures expected from the changing ...

  10. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State of the Air® app. Learn More » Trusted Links AirNow National Association of Clean Air Agencies U. S. ... Ozone Standards Will Save Lives, Protect Health Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round ...

  11. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more days of high ozone in 2010-2012. Measuring more unhealthy days on average were 22 other ... in counties that got an F for all three measures: ozone, year-round particle pollution and short- ...

  12. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C; Stewart, Thomas G; Luben, Thomas J; Davis, J Allen; Langlois, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. PMID:25782177

  13. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  14. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Hämeri, K.; Vaattovaara, P.; Joutsensaari, J.; Junkermann, W.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2005-03-01

    Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity) of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3-8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility) resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  15. Ozone, ozone production rates and NO observations on the outskirts of Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality measurements of ambient ozone, ozone production rates and nitrogen oxides, in addition to baseline meterology observations, are being taken at a recently built roof-top facility on the campus of Universidad San Francisco de Quito, in Ecuador. The measurement site is located in Cumbayá, a densely populated valley adjacent to the city of Quito. Time series of ozone and NO are being obtained with commercial air quality monitors. Rush-hour peaks of NO, above 100 ppb, have been observed, while daytime ozone levels are low. In addition, ozone production rates are being measured with the Ecuadorian version of the MOPS, Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor, originally built at Penn State University in 2010. NO and ozone observations and test results of measured ozone production rates will be presented.

  16. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac)2], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnOx–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnOx films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac)2 as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnOx thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO2 or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications

  17. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ? Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ? Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ? Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ? The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  18. MOVPE growth of improved nonequilibium MCT device structures for near-ambient-temperature heterodyne detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, C. D.; Jones, C. L.; Metcalfe, N. E.; Catchpole, R. A.; Gordon, Neil J.; White, A. M.; Elliot, C. T.

    1997-10-01

    Cadmium mercury telluride (Hg1-xCdxTe or MCT) non- equilibrium detector structures which allow room temperature operation have been grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These devices suppress the auger generation by reducing the intrinsic electron and hole concentrations in the active region of the device. The MCT characteristics in this region should then be determined by the extrinsic doping concentration. In order to minimize the remaining generation processes within this so called (pi) -region, it is best formed from low acceptor doped (low X1015 cm-3) MCT, with as low a trap density as possible. The p+(pi) n+ device structure which is required to achieve the non-equilibrium phenomena requires stringent control on acceptor and donor doping, as well as composition. Acceptor doping studies with trisdimethylamino arsine (DMAAs) have been performed using GaAs and CdZnTe substrates. Minority carrier lifetime results have been obtained which are near rotatively limited and comparable to As-doped, Hg-rich liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown layers on CdZnTe substrates. Ambient temperature, auger-suppressed devices have levels of 1/f noise which currently limit their use in imaging applications. However, they are of great interest in other applications such as approximately equals 10 micrometer negative luminescence emitter devices and heterodyne detection of 10.6 micrometer infrared (IR) radiation from carbon-dioxide lasers. Reduction in the series resistances has been achieved by utilizing a device design with a n+ MCT common which should improve the frequency response of these devices. Another design modification, predicted to reduce the leakage current, has been the introduction of low doped, wide band gap regions either side of the (pi) -region. In practice these structures have produced over an order of magnitude improvement in the leakage current characteristics.

  19. Effect of Ambient Temperature and Light Intensity on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Heavy Broiler Chickens at 56 days of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers were investigated in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consist...

  20. Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Depletion site contains scientific, policy, and practical information for the general public and for industry in particular. Information for the public includes introductory materials on ozone depletion science, the nature of the harmful effects on the environment and on human health, personal protective measures against UV radiation, individual actions to help protect the ozone layer, lists of ozone depleting substances, background on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the Antarctic ozone hole, and the UV Index. Information for businesses that use or manufacture ozone-depleting substances (ODS) includes lists of these substances (including their ozone-depletion potential (ODP), global warming potential (GWP), and CAS numbers), the benefits of CFC phase-out, methyl bromide, and substitutes for ozone-depleting substances. Reference materials are provided on United States laws and regulations concerning ODS and are accompanied by compliance guidance for regulations issued under the Clean Air Act. Other notable resources include the Executive Summary of Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (1994), an ODS Management Technologies Database, downloadable stratospheric ozone depletion interactive software, images and animations of the Antarctic ozone hole, downloadable data from the EPA's Ultraviolet Monitoring Program, and a glossary. External links are also provided to various dynamic interactive, and database resources hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  1. in situ analysis of minor gaseous species in crystal growth ambients using molecular beam mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molecular beam-mass spectrometry system has been designed for high temperature (600 to 11000C) atmospheric pressure gas sampling. A sharp conical nozzle was adopted as a sampling probe and the gas dynamics of the expansion was thoroughly characterized. Both advantages and disadvantages of this sampling method, in contrast to the conventional thin plate orifice or sonic nozzle, are discussed. One of the most significant features of this sampling method is the effect of mass separation; the concentration of the sampled beam will, in general, differ from the concentration of the sample itself. Experimental data and analysis of this mass separation as a function of the mass number are presented and guidelines given for suitable correction factors. With this sampling method, resolution in the parts per million range is obtainable. The high temperature chemical transport reactions were studied for a typical crystal growth reactor system containing graphite, purified hydrogen gas, and fused quartz. Both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of relevant chemical transport reactions were investigated. The implications of these reactions on the impurity incorporation in conventional liquid phase epitaxial crystal growth techniques are discussed

  2. Crescimento de Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae em ambiente natural Growth of Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae in natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Trevisan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 em ambiente natural. Para isso foram realizadas coletas mensais de abril de 2006 a maio de 2007 no arroio Passo Taquara, no município de São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando armadilhas plásticas e puçá. Os espécimes foram sexados e tiveram mensurado o comprimento do cefalotórax (CC, em seguida foram devolvidos ao córrego. O crescimento foi avaliado utilizando o modelo de von Bertalanffy. As curvas de crescimento do cefalotórax, estimadas para machos e fêmeas, são descritas pelas seguintes equações Ct = 28,00 [1 - e-0,0047(t+10,63] e Ct = 25,16 [1 - e-0,0051(t+17,65], respectivamente. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores que as fêmeas. A longevidade foi estimada em três anos para os machos e dois anos e meio para as fêmeas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth of Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 in natural environment. Samplings were monthly performed, from April/2006 to May/2007, in a tributary of Ibicuí-Mirim River, which belongs to the Uruguay River basin, at São Pedro do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Traps and dip nets were used to collect the animals. The specimens were sexed and had their cephalothoracic length (CL measured, using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision. The growth was evaluated using the von Bertalanffy model. The growth curves in length (mm, for the data obtained through the modal progression, are described by the equations: Ct = 28.00 [1 - e-0.0047(t+10.63] for males and Ct = 25.16 [1 - e-0.0051(t+17.65] for females. The maximum estimated age for males was three years and for females was two years and six months.

  3. Crescimento de Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) em ambiente natural / Growth of Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) in natural environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Trevisan; Sandro, Santos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 em ambiente natural. Para isso foram realizadas coletas mensais de abril de 2006 a maio de 2007 no arroio Passo Taquara, no município de São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os organi [...] smos foram coletados utilizando armadilhas plásticas e puçá. Os espécimes foram sexados e tiveram mensurado o comprimento do cefalotórax (CC), em seguida foram devolvidos ao córrego. O crescimento foi avaliado utilizando o modelo de von Bertalanffy. As curvas de crescimento do cefalotórax, estimadas para machos e fêmeas, são descritas pelas seguintes equações Ct = 28,00 [1 - e-0,0047(t+10,63)] e Ct = 25,16 [1 - e-0,0051(t+17,65)], respectivamente. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores que as fêmeas. A longevidade foi estimada em três anos para os machos e dois anos e meio para as fêmeas. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the growth of Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 in natural environment. Samplings were monthly performed, from April/2006 to May/2007, in a tributary of Ibicuí-Mirim River, which belongs to the Uruguay River basin, at São Pedro do Sul municipality, sta [...] te of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Traps and dip nets were used to collect the animals. The specimens were sexed and had their cephalothoracic length (CL) measured, using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision. The growth was evaluated using the von Bertalanffy model. The growth curves in length (mm), for the data obtained through the modal progression, are described by the equations: Ct = 28.00 [1 - e-0.0047(t+10.63)] for males and Ct = 25.16 [1 - e-0.0051(t+17.65)] for females. The maximum estimated age for males was three years and for females was two years and six months.

  4. Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Ander; Rappold, Ana G.; Neas, Lucas M.; Reich, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of ambient ozone levels and temperatures which, in turn, may impact public health. Much research has focused on the effect of short-term ozone exposures on mortality and morbidity while controlling for temperature as a confounder, but less is known about the joint effects of ozone and temperature. The extent of the health effects of changing ozone levels and temperatures will depend on whether these effects are additive or...

  5. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition: The roles of precursor design and growth ambient in film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of chemical control in CVD of metallic and ceramic films are highlighted. Specific attention is paid to the complexity of precursor design. The effect of reactor environment on growth chemistry is investigated. Examples where reducing or oxidizing atmosphere provide a high level of control over deposit composition are outlined. The system examined centers on yttrium and yttria. These materials are, in general, desired less for their optical or electronic properties and more for their structural properties. Thus, the rigid purity demands of the microelectronics industry are somewhat relaxed. Nevertheless, critical attention must be paid to the issues of vapor pressure and decomposition profile. Where sufficient data is available to justify it, some explanation of the issues relevant to vapor pressure is presented

  6. Ozone measurement systems: associated instrumentation and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bellido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects produced by ozone have lead to a vast regulation to define and establish the quality goals of ambient air, based on common methods and criteria. The surveillance nets of atmospheric pollution are worldwide extended systems and the applied technology for the ozone measurement is nowadays quite standardized. The aim of this paper is to give a general view of the most common systems used in the ozone measurement in ambient air from a practical point of view. The used instrumentation and the usual calibration methods will be described.

  7. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O(3) effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. PMID:18331769

  8. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  9. Plant Signals Disrupt (regulate?) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Under Enhanced Ozone and CO2 Growing Conditions for Populus tremuloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. M.; Podila, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the genetic determinants of keystone symbiotic relationships is essential to elucidating adaptive mechanisms influencing higher-order processes, including shifts in community composition following environmental perturbations. The Aspen FACE project offers a unique opportunity to address adaptive processes with an imposed three way interaction experiment composed of the atmospheric pollutant ozone (eO3), elevated CO2 (eCO2) fumigations, five Populus tremuloides (aspen) genotypes, and both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal interactions. The 10 year time span of this experiment has allowed for a realistic and mechanistic understanding of above ground responses of the aspen genotypes to eCO2, eO3 and the interaction effects of eCO2 and eO3. Even so, treatment influences to the below ground, including carbon allocation to roots and associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and rhizosphere dynamics are just beginning to be understood. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal responses to eCO2, eO3, and the interaction effects of eCO2+eO3 are conditioned by the degree of response of their aspen hosts. We intend to describe the molecular mechanisms of an important critical interaction between host and fungus using microarray analysis of expression profiles, as well as metabolic profiling of aspen roots and their associated mycorrhizal partner, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices, under eCO2, eO3 and eCO2+eO3. We present evidence that host-derived factors, expressed in response to eCO2+eO3, trigger responses in Glomus leading to the partitioning or metabolic shift in lipid biosynthesis that is associated with reduced extraradical hyphae growth and altered lipid metabolism. We then scale these lower-level responses to give better insight to fungal intraradical and extraradical allocation of biomass and fungal and root lipid and carbohydrate content in association with aspen genotype responses to the imposed treatments. By evaluating microarray data of more than 2300 genes that are regulated (out of 25,000) in aspen mycorrhizal roots, the eCO2 responsive and eO3 tolerant aspen ecotype 271 demonstrated upregulation for antioxidant genes under eCO2+eO3 conditions. We found decreased expression of both neutral and acid invertase genes indicating that the availability of carbohydrate to the fungus is reduced. We also found an increase in plant amino acid transporters under eO3 and eCO2+eO3 that partitions more nitrogen to the plant from mycorrhizal roots and triggers the fungus into an N-starvation and lipid storage mode. This observation is supported by down-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen utilization in Glomus and the enrichment of hyphal 15N content, as well as an increase in the AMF marker storage lipid (neutral fatty acid 16:1w5c)in the root. The up-regulation of pathways involved in the formation of triglycerides that can be taken up by the fungus may be a critical step for changes in Glomus lipid metabolism. Also, in support of the above findings, is the rather high expression of genes involved in iron sequestration by aspen clone 271 when exposed to both eO3 and eCO2+eO3 fumigation. Iron is needed for both fatty acid (FA) desaturases and fatty acid synthase. Under eCO2+eO3, we found down-regulation of FA desaturases in Glomus, suggesting reduced levels of iron could be a potential signal for the fungus to go into storage mode and reduced growth of extraradical hyphae into the soil.

  10. In situ laser ablation plasma diagnostics in the film growth regime: Effects of ambient background gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of the laser-induced plasma formed by KrF irradiation of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 has been characterized in background pressures of oxygen and argon typically used for thin film growth. The ion current transmitted through the background gases was recorded along the normal to the irradiated pellet as a function of distance in order to measure the decreasing velocity and magnitude of the expanding plasma current due to collisional slowing and attenuation of the laser plume. The integrated ion charge delivered to a substrate at low pressures can be described by elastic scattering giving a general integral cross sections of ?e[O2] = 3.2 x 10-16 cm2 and ?e[Ar] = 2.7 x 10-16 cm2. At higher pressures, inelastic scattering leads to increased recombination and reactive conversion of ions indicated by increased fluorescence of all the species, which becomes dominated by fluorescence of YO and BaO. Spatially resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the luminous boundary to the plasma follows a weak shock front which coincides with the ion flux propagation. The ion transmission is found to drop exponentially with distance and background pressure, in agreement with a simple scattering model which yields general scattering cross sections for ion-argon ?i-Ar = 2.1 x 10-16 cm2 and ion-oxygen ?i-O2 = 2.3 x 10-16 cm2 interactions in background pressures up to 300 mTorr. The general features of the plume deceleration are described in terms of a drag force model. 9 refs., 5 figs

  11. Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Office of Air and Radiation)

    2008-04-25

    The ozone layer forms a thin shield in the upper atmosphere, protecting life onEarth from the suns ultraviolet (UV) rays. In the 1980s, scientists began accumulating evidence that the ozone layer was being depleted. Depletion of the ozone layer results in increased UV radiation reaching the Earths surface, which in turn can lead to a greater chance of overexposure to UV radiation and the related health effects of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune suppression.

  12. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiology of maize at ambient and low temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Song, Fengbin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM colonization. Low temperature remarkably decreased plant height and total dry weight but increased root dry weight and root-shoot ratio. The AM plants had higher proline content compared with the non-AM plants. The maize plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and G. intraradices had higher malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents under low temperature condition. The activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase of AM inoculated maize were higher than those of non-AM ones. Low temperature noticeably decreased the activities of CAT. The results suggest that low temperature adversely affects maize physiology and AM symbiosis can improve maize seedlings tolerance to low temperature stress.

  13. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  14. Alterações bioquímicas associadas a injúrias foliares visíveis em plantas jovens de Psidium guajava 'Paluma' mantidas em ambiente contaminado por ozônio / Biochemical alterations associate with visible foliar injury in saplings of Psidium guajava 'Paluma' maintained in an environment polluted by ozone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula de Souza, Dias; Mirian Cilene Spasiani, Rinaldi; Regina Maria de, Moraes.

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava 'Paluma' é sensível ao ozônio, ao qual responde com características injúrias foliares visíveis. Foram avaliadas a concentração de ácido ascórbico (AA) e a atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD) e peroxidases (POD) em folhas novas e velhas de plantas expostas (n = 13) em reg [...] ião contaminada por ozônio (Ibirapuera, São Paulo, SP) e em um ambiente controlado (casa de vegetação com ar filtrado), com o objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de injúrias latentes (alteração em AA, SOD e/ou POD) e se a ocorrência destas diferia entre folhas com ou sem injúrias visíveis. A concentração de AA foi maior nas plantas do Ibirapuera, sem diferença entre novas ou velhas e com ou sem injúrias. A atividade de SOD e POD diferiu entre folhas novas e velhas, mas não com relação ao local de exposição e a presença ou ausência de injúrias foliares. Não houve decréscimo na biomassa das plantas expostas no Ibirapuera. Conclui-se que em P guajava 'Paluma' SOD e POD não estão relacionadas à proteção contra injúrias foliares visíveis nessa espécie e que o AA é um indicador de injúria latente. Abstract in english Psidium guajava 'Paluma' is sensitive to ozone, to which reacts with characteristic visible foliar injuries. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) had been evaluated in new and old leaves of plants exposed (n = 13) to ozon [...] e in a contaminated area (Ibirapuera, São Paulo, SP) and in a controlled environment (glasshouse with filtered air) to assess the occurrence of latent injuries (alteration in AA, SOD and/or POD) and if the occurrence of these differed between leaves with or without visible injuries. The AA concentration was higher in plants of Ibirapuera, without difference between new or old and with or without visible injuries. The activity of SOD and POD differed between new and old leaves, but not with relation to the site of exposition and the presence or absence of foliar injuries. There was no significant decrease in biomass in plants exposed in Ibirapuera. We conclude that in P. guajava 'Paluma' SOD and POD are not related to the protection against visible foliar injuries and that the AA is a indicator of latent injury.

  15. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Matthew James; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry in smoke plumes from three fires: the Otavi savannah fire in Namibia, an Alaska boreal forest fire, and the Timbavati savannah fire. Our model explained the observations of ozone in the Otavi and Alaska plumes fairly well, but our initial model simulation of the Timbavati...

  16. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Key Findings Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Pollution Short Term Particle Pollution Cleanest Cities People at Risk What Needs ... F for all three measures: ozone, year-round particle pollution and short-term particle pollution. Help us ...

  17. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 3. Most of the evidence comes from studies of ambient particles concentrations. However, in Europe and elsewhere, the air pollution profile has gradually changed toward a more pronounced photochemical component. Ozone is one of the most toxic components of the photochemical air pollution mixture. Indeed, the biological basis for these observations has not been elucidated. In the present review, the role of ozone as chemical molecule will be firstly considered. Secondly, pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the atmospheric ozone level and cardiovascular pathology will be examined. Thirdly, the literature relating hospitalization frequency, morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular causes and ozone concentration will be studied. The correlation between ozone level and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction will be eventually discussed.

  18. Three days after a single exposure to ozone, the mechanism of airway hyperreactivity is dependent on substance P and nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Verhein, Kirsten C.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Moulton, Bart C.; Jacoby, Isabella W.; Jacoby, David B.; Fryer, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone causes persistent airway hyperreactivity in humans and animals. One day after ozone exposure, airway hyperreactivity is mediated by release of eosinophil major basic protein that inhibits neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors, resulting in increased acetylcholine release and increased smooth muscle contraction in guinea pigs. Three days after ozone, IL-1?, not eosinophils, mediates ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, but the mechanism at this time point is largely unknown. IL-1? increase...

  19. Polar ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Grose, W. L.; Jones, R. L.; Mccormick, M. P.; Molina, Mario J.; Oneill, A.; Poole, L. R.; Shine, K. P.; Plumb, R. A.; Pope, V.

    1990-01-01

    The observation and interpretation of a large, unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica has changed the international scientific view of stratospheric chemistry. The observations which show the veracity, seasonal nature, and vertical structure of the Antarctic ozone hole are presented. Evidence for Arctic and midlatitude ozone loss is also discussed. The chemical theory for Antarctic ozone depletion centers around the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in Antarctic winter and spring; the climatology and radiative properties of these clouds are presented. Lab studies of the physical properties of PSCs and the chemical processes that subsequently influence ozone depletion are discussed. Observations and interpretation of the chemical composition of the Antarctic stratosphere are described. It is shown that the observed, greatly enhanced abundances of chlorine monoxide in the lower stratosphere are sufficient to explain much if not all of the ozone decrease. The dynamic meteorology of both polar regions is given, interannual and interhemispheric variations in dynamical processes are outlined, and their likely roles in ozone loss are discussed.

  20. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  1. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omowumi Alabi

    In class, students are introduced to atmospheric composition and how this can be altered by human activities. As an example, ozone is introduced as an air pollutant, mostly due to human activities. Computer models are used to illustrate the formation of ozone and demonstrate the factors that affect the concentration of ozone in the troposphere (using the SmogCity2 simulation game). The health hazards of ozone pollution are deliberated on, and the concept of 'ozone alert day' introduced. As class example, the instructor obtains data from http://airnow.gov/ to investigate the relationship between ozone pollution in Kansas City and the season. The result of the investigation is reported in a sample mini-journal paper. The students' assignment is to select a city of choice in the United States, and use data to investigate the relationship between ozone pollution and any of the following: season, human population industrialization, city location, or asthma. This activity gives students practice in using data to investigate an air pollution problem and communicate their result to others in a standard format. Each student will report the result of their investigation in a mini-journal paper, with a relevant title, and the following sub-sections: an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion and references. Guided by a grading rubric, this activity helps student to learn how to a write technical paper.

  2. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NOx concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NOx coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NOx ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  3. Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pratte

    2004-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet light can be harmful to many biological systems, as this higher energy radiation has a mutagenic effect on plant and animal cells. This activity studies the relationship between the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that gets to Earth's surface and the amount of stratospheric ozone overhead. Users plot remote sensing data from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and UV monitors at the South Pole to see if any correlation exists between the two variables. Links to related sites and to a radio program from Naional Public Radio on the ozone hole that appeared over the Arctic in 2000 are provided.

  4. Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pratte

    Discussion of holes in the stratospheric ozone layer usually revolves around investigations of the thickness of the layer near the South Pole. This online activity allows users to study the thickness of the ozone layer over any location on Earth to see how it has changed over time. This is done by plotting historical data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Program, which has been in operation since 1978. Users are allowed to select their own location on Earth and the period over which they plot the data. A link to TOMS datasets is provided.

  5. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  6. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... live in the 296 counties that received an F for ozone levels. These people live where the ... 1150 Chicago, IL 60601 T: 1-800-LUNGUSA | F: 202-452-1805 Connect with Us Follow us ...

  7. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What You Can Do News from the American Lung Association Every Breath You Take: State of the Air 2015 How Public Health Issues Affect Lung Health New Ozone Standards Will Save Lives, Protect ...

  8. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breath You Take: State of the Air 2015 Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk Protect Yourself Methodology City Rankings ...

  9. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a molecule of three oxygen atoms. Ozone attacks lung tissue by reacting chemically with it. To ... pollution can also cause early death and heart attacks, strokes and emergency room visits for people with ...

  10. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What You Can Do News from the American Lung Association Mission Moment May 2015 Unlocking the Asthma- ... the Air 2015 How Public Health Issues Affect Lung Health New Ozone Standards Will Save Lives, Protect ...

  11. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 How Public Health Issues Affect Lung Health Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk Protect Yourself Methodology City Rankings ...

  12. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 How Public Health Issues Affect Lung Health Smart links footer - Homepage Key Findings Ozone Pollution Year Round Particle Short Term Particle Cleanest Cities People at Risk Protect Yourself Methodology City Rankings ...

  13. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particle Pollution Short Term Particle Pollution Cleanest Cities People at Risk What Needs to Be Done Methodology ... Code: Ozone Pollution More than 4 in 10 people in the United States (44.8%) live in ...

  14. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O3), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years

  15. Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Baroniya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes, UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight and to determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significant inverse association between the enhancement in vegetative growth and number of pods among the cultivars tested, indicating differences in the carbon partitioning amongst the cultivars by the way of exclusion of solar UV-B. NRC-7, Pusa-24 and JS-335 showed maximum promotion in vegetative growth and less enhancement in crop yield after solar UV-B exclusion. Kalitur, JS71-05, Hardee, PK-472 and PK-1029 showed improved performance both in terms of number of pods/plant and seed weight after solar UV-B exclusion. An enhancement in the crop yield by exclusion of solar UV-B indicated poor response of the cultivar to the ambient solar UV-B; these cultivars would be more suitable at latitudes, which received less UV-B. According to UV-SI, sensitivity of eight Indian soybean cultivars to ambient level of UV-B (280-320 nm radiation had the following descending order; PK-472 > JS-335 > Hardee > Kalitur > JS71-05 > Pusa-24 > NRC-7 > PK-1029. These findings suggest the way to select the best-suited cultivar for particular latitude.

  16. Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ambient ultraviolet-B radiation in growth and yield characteristics of eight soybean cultivars grown under field conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sanjay S., Baroniya; Sunita, Kataria; G.P., Pandey; Kadur N., Guruprasad.

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) to determine the effect of exclusion of solar UV-B on the vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, no. of nodes), UV absorbing compounds (implicated in UV protection) and crop yield (No. of pods and seed weight) and to [...] determine the cultivar difference in their sensitivity to ambient UV-B. Exclusion of solar UV-B enhanced the vegetative growth and yield of all the soybean cultivars. The results showed a significant inverse association between the enhancement in vegetative growth and number of pods among the cultivars tested, indicating differences in the carbon partitioning amongst the cultivars by the way of exclusion of solar UV-B. NRC-7, Pusa-24 and JS-335 showed maximum promotion in vegetative growth and less enhancement in crop yield after solar UV-B exclusion. Kalitur, JS71-05, Hardee, PK-472 and PK-1029 showed improved performance both in terms of number of pods/plant and seed weight after solar UV-B exclusion. An enhancement in the crop yield by exclusion of solar UV-B indicated poor response of the cultivar to the ambient solar UV-B; these cultivars would be more suitable at latitudes, which received less UV-B. According to UV-SI, sensitivity of eight Indian soybean cultivars to ambient level of UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation had the following descending order; PK-472 > JS-335 > Hardee > Kalitur > JS71-05 > Pusa-24 > NRC-7 > PK-1029. These findings suggest the way to select the best-suited cultivar for particular latitude.

  17. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte LindstrØm

    2012-01-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  18. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoiimportant than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

  19. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  20. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ? Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ? The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ? Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ? Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ? These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  1. Spatio-temporal modeling for real-time ozone forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Paci, Lucia; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate assessment of exposure to ambient ozone concentrations is important for informing the public and pollution monitoring agencies about ozone levels that may lead to adverse health effects. High-resolution air quality information can offer significant health benefits by leading to improved environmental decisions. A practical challenge facing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is to provide real-time forecasting of current 8-hour average ozone exposure over the entire ...

  2. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Ozone Indicator Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This verification test will address ozone indicator cards (OICs) that provide short-term semi-quantitative measures of ozone concentration in ambient air. Testing will be conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through the Environmental Tec...

  3. Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. A, Lage Filho; L. R. F, Carvalho; M. L. A, Lopes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and [...] ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h) and contact time (min) were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

  4. Ozone depletion zone and ozone smog. Ozone chemistry fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book elucidates the fundamentals of the ozone theory. The knowledge verified through measurements is compiled, and the gaps in the knowledge of ozone are defined. While the knowledge of ozone appears to be well-established the gaps in the knowledge are responsible for uncertainties. Measurement methods for determination of the atmospheric concentration of ozone are described. Details are given about the basic processes of atmospheric ozone formation and ozone depletion and about the role of CFC. The factors which determine ozone concentrations in the southern hemisphere are described first because South Pole ozone formation processes, in spite of their complexity, are not as complex as North Pole ozone formation processes. The differences between these processes in the two polar regions are described. (orig.)

  5. Enxertia, produção e qualidade de tomateiros cultivados em ambiente protegido Grafting, production and quality of tomato growth in protected environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Araujo Loos; Fabiano Ricardo Brunele Caliman; Derly José Henriques da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da enxertia na produção e qualidade de tomateiros cultivados em ambiente protegido, conduziu-se um experimento em Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG). Seis tratamentos foram avaliados no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, resultantes da combinação de duas cultivares de tomate 'Débora' e 'Sta. Clara', enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Anchor T' e 'BGH 3472', além das duas cultivares de pés francos. A enxertia foi realizada por encostia. Os ...

  6. Crescimento de Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) em ambiente natural Growth of Aegla manuinflata (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae) in natural environment

    OpenAIRE

    André Trevisan; Sandro Santos

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Aegla manuinflata Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2009 em ambiente natural. Para isso foram realizadas coletas mensais de abril de 2006 a maio de 2007 no arroio Passo Taquara, no município de São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando armadilhas plásticas e puçá. Os espécimes foram sexados e tiveram mensurado o comprimento do cefalotórax (CC), em seguida foram devolvidos ao córrego. O cres...

  7. Effects of ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation, alone and in combination, on growth of cucumber plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izuta, T.; Takahashi, S.; Aoki, M.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-03-10

    Cucumber plants were exposed to 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20{mu}l{center_dot}L{sup -1}O3 and UV radiation (190mW{center_dot}m{sup -2}UV-B{sub BE}), alone and in combination, for 6 hrs/a day, 6 times during an exposure period of 15 days from the 7th to the 21st day after sowing. The effects of relatively low concentrations of O3 and UV-B radiation on the growth of cucumber plants are investigated, alone and in combination. The dry weight growth of cucumber plants was not affected by the single exposure to O3 at 0.10{mu}l{center_dot}L{sup -1}. However, single exposure to O3 at 0.15 or 0.20{mu}l{center_dot}L{sup -1} caused the reductions in the areal growth of leaves and dry weight growth of the plants. The most important result obtained was that there were significant interactive effects of O3 at 0.15 or 0.20{mu}l{center_dot}L{sup -1} and UV radiation at 190mW{center_dot}m{sup -2}UV-B{sub BE} on the growth of cucumber plants. The degree of reduction in the dry weight growth of the plants simultaneously exposed to O3 and UV radiation was greater than that of the plants exposed to O3 or UV radiation alone. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Desarrollo de Pinus pseudostrobus bajo distintos ambientes de crecimiento en jardín común / Development of Pinus pseudostrobus under different environments of growth in common garden

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Hugo, Cambrón-Sandoval; Humberto, Suzán-Azpiri; Cuauhtémoc, Sáenz-Romero; Naúm M., Sánchez-Vargas.

    Full Text Available A partir de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP), se plantea la interpretación y clasificación de tres ambientes de competencia sobre el desarrollo de individuos de P. pseudostrobus integrando resultados previamente publicados dentro del mismo ensayo; las variables evaluadas fueron: el creci [...] miento (altura y diámetro a la base del tallo), producción de clorofila (cantidad de pigmentos de clorofila a y b), supervivencia, producción y distribución de biomasa total, raíz, rama, hoja y tallo, y arquitectura de crecimiento (largo de rama y altura de inserción de la primera rama) en familias de medios hermanos de P. pseudostrobus evaluados en un ensayo de jardín común a 10 meses de edad bajo tres ambientes de competencia. (I) baja densidad inter-familiar (0.24 × 0.12 m), (II) alta densidad inter-familiar (0.12 × 0.06 m) y (III) alta densidad intra-familiar (0.12 × 0.06 m). Se estimó que los tres componentes con mayor peso (CP) explican el 82.9% de la variación total. El componente principal de mayor varianza se interpreta como crecimiento (CP1), agrupando a las familias por ambiente de competencia; al aumentar la densidad de plantación, posteriormente, las familias se agrupan por la capacidad de supervivencia y por la plasticidad fisiológica (CP2). Finalmente, la diferencia entre los ambientes la hace la plasticidad fenotípica de las familias como respuesta al ambiente de competencia (cambios en la arquitectura) (CP3). Los resultados evidenciaron un elevado nivel de plasticidad fenotípica de P. pseudostrobus y se hace hincapié en la importancia de la selección de ambientes y de genotipos acordes para aumentar la adaptación y productividad en los programas de mejora. Abstract in english From a principal component analysis (PCA), is is proposed the interpretation and classification of three main environments competition on the development of individuals of P. pseudostrobus integrating previous results within the same trial. The variables were: growth (height and base diameter), chlo [...] rophyll production (chlorophyll pigments total, a, b and the ratio a/b), survival, production and distribution of dry weight biomass (total biomass of root, branch, leaf and stem) and growth architecture (length of branch insertion height and the lowest branch on the stem). All variables were measured in half-sibling families of P. pseudostrobus in a common garden test for 10 months-old seedlings in three competitive environments: (I) inter-family of low density (0.24 × 0.12 m), (II) inter-family of high density (0.12 × 0.06 m) and (III) intra-family with high density (0.12 × 0.06 m). The first three components (PC) explained 82.9% of the total variation. The growth was the major component (PC1), grouping families for competitive environments as PC2 with families grouped by survivability and physiological plasticity, and finally, architectural structural changes as PC3. The results showed a high level of phenotypic plasticity of P. pseudostrobus, and emphasize the importance of the selection of environments and genotypes consistent to enhance adaptation and productivity improvement programs.

  9. Assessment of growth and yield losses in two Zea mays L. cultivars (quality protein maize and nonquality protein maize) under projected levels of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-02-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic developments have increased the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget since preindustrial times, and presently, it is supposed to be a major threat to crop productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.), a C4 plant is the third most important staple crop at global level with a great deal of economic importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two maize cultivars [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] and [DHM117: nonquality protein maize (NQPM)] to variable O3 doses. Experimental setup included filtered chambers, nonfiltered chambers (NFC), and two elevated doses of O3 viz. NFC+15 ppb O3 (NFC+15) and NFC+30 ppb O3 (NFC+30). During initial growth period, both QPM and NQPM plants showed hormetic effect that is beneficial due to exposure of low doses of a toxicant (NFC and NFC+15 ppb O3), but at later stages, growth attributes were negatively affected by O3. Growth indices showed the variable pattern of photosynthate translocation under O3 stress. Foliar injury in the form of interveinal chlorosis and reddening of leaves due to increased production of anthocyanin pigments was observed at higher concentrations of O3. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of leaves taken from NFC+30 showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins, and differential response was observed between the two test cultivars. Decline in the number of male flowers at elevated O3 doses suggested damaging effect of O3 on reproductive structures which might be a cause of productivity losses. Variable carbon allocation pattern particularly to husk leaves, foliar injury, and damage of photosynthetic proteins led to significant reductions in economic yield at higher O3 doses. PCA showed that both the cultivars responded more or less similarly to O3 stress in their respective groupings of growth and yield parameters, but magnitude of their response was variable. It is further supported by difference in the significance of correlations between variables of yield and AOT40. Cultivar response reflects that QPM performed better than NQPM against elevated O3. PMID:24114383

  10. INFLUÊNCIA DA PROTEÇÃO AMBIENTAL COM ESTUFA DE POLIETILENO TRANSPARENTE SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PIMENTÃO / INFLUENCE OF A POLYETHYLENE GREENHOUSE IN SWEET PEPPER GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jerônimo Luiz, Andriolo; Galileo Adeli, Buriol; Nereu Augusto, Streck; Jackson, Fiorin.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Determinou-se a influência do ambiente interno de uma estufa de polietileno tipo capela sobre a produção de matéria seca dos órgãos da planta (raízes, caule, folhas e frutos), área foliar e rendimento de frutos de pimentão, cv. Cascadura Ikeda. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de F [...] itotecnia da UFSM, em Santa Maria, RS, com semeaduras realizadas em 05/09/89, em ambiente natural, e em 19/04/90, 04/05/90 e 26/07/90, no interior da estufa. Os parâmetros de crescimento foram determinados em intervalos de 14 dias e as variáveis meteorológicas foram registradas diariamente durante todo o período de experimentação. Os resultados mostraram que o crescimento das partes vegetativas aéreas da planta e o número de frutos foram mais elevados no interior da estufa, havendo porém um aumento na duração do ciclo vegetativo, principalmente nos meses mais frios do inverno. Abstract in english SUMMARY The influence of a polyethylene greenhouse in plant growth and development of sweet pepper, cv. Cascadura Ikeda, was determined. Dates of sowing were September 5, in normal summer growth condition, and in April 19, May 4 and July 26, in winter greenhouse condition. The parameters of root, st [...] em, leaf and fruit dry matter and number of leaf and fruits were evaluated in intervals of 14 days, during part of the plant cicle period. Daily meteorological data of maximum and minimum air temperatures, soil temperature (10cm depth) and air relative humidity were registered. The results showed in greenhouse conditions at growth of plant aerial organs and fruit number were higher. Plant vegetative cycle was longer in the coldest winter months.

  11. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  12. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator

  13. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of Environment...Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date...NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV,...

  14. Ozone tolerance of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larix decidua has been classified as a tree species ''highly sensitive'' to ozone. However, in Austria its main distribution is at altitudes where the recommended limits for ozone concentrations for sensitive plants are strongly exceeded for long periods. Long-term fumigation of twigs of a mature larch tree with ambient or double ambient air ozone concentrations did not cause any visible damage or negative influence on the gas exchange. However very high exposure of 1200 ppb ozone led to acute damage in long shoot needles with high gas exchange rates in the sun, but led only to small damages on shaded long shoots. Needles on short shoots neither developed visible damages nor were their capabilities for photosynthesis and stomatal regulation reduced, nor did they exhibit signs of premature senescence. According to the results of this investigation, European larch should be classified as ''intermediate'' or even as ''less sensitive'' to ozone. (orig.)

  15. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness, dehierarchization, ubiquity and the production of unfocused sensations in contrast to the conventional notion of the aesthetic experience as a focused contemplation of a stationary object.

  16. Ozone Pollution

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AirNow National Association of Clean Air Agencies U. S. Environmental Protection Agency sites: Clean School Bus USA Information ... Communities National Ambient Air Quality Standards Protect the Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do News from ...

  17. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air.

  18. Stratospheric ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, M.

    2006-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone acquired a huge importance two decades ago because of the discovery of strong anomalies above the Antarctica due to gases of anthropogenic origin. From that date, stratosphere has become one of the research lines receiving more funding. A result, an important progress in the development of observational techniques, the understanding of the dynamics of the polar regions and, above all, in understanding of the chemical interactions among the species that influence the chemic...

  19. A versatile low-pressure ozone source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-pressure source for pure ozone has been developed and successfully tested in the growth of oxide superconductor thin films. Ozone is selectively adsorbed on silica gel at a temperature of -77 degree C from an O3/O2 gas mixture stream containing 8 wt% O3, produced by a commercial ozone generator. Since only O3 is trapped, no further purification steps are required. Ozone/gel loading factors below 10% (wt/wt) ensure the safe storage of O3 over prolonged periods. Pure O3 is extracted from the silica gel trap, in which the O3 vapor pressure is maintained at around 10 mTorr, by applying a dynamic vacuum. Films of Ba2YCu3O7-? with Tc above 86 K have been grown in situ by molecular beam epitaxy techniques using this ozone source

  20. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (P<0.05) O3-induced decreases were noted for both cultivars in terms of gas exchange, relative water content, growth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (P<0.01) corresponding decreases were measured in Dekang961 but not in Lumai15 in the salinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (P<0.05) interactions were noted in both salinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions. PMID:25173858

  1. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  2. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of ozone disintegration kinetics in the chemical reactor which is developed for decomposition of tyres in the ozone-air environment are presented. Analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from parameters of the task, such as volume speed of ozone-air mixture feed on a reactor input, concentration of ozone on the input to the reactor, volume speed of output of the used mixture, reactor size, and square of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that at the same speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, with growth of ozone concentration on the input, value of stationary concentration in the reactor grows, remaining always less than concentration on the input. It is also shown that at the same ozone concentration on the input, with growth of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, value of stationary ozone concentration in the reactor also grows, remaining always less than ozone concentration on the input. The ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor in a wide range of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 m3/hour) and various ozone concentration on the input (5, 10, 15, 20 g/m3) is experimentally studied. It is shown that experimental results with good accuracy coincide with the theoretical. Direct experiment showed the essential influence of the internal surface of the reactor ce of the internal surface of the reactor on the ozone disintegration kinetics.

  3. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, R.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGE II ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is related to...

  4. Ozone exaggerates nasal allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, D; Trajkovska-Dokic, E

    2013-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). A double-blind randomised trail design was used to address the effect of ambient ozone on the nasal airways and to evaluate the effects of ozone on allergic mucosa. Ten grass pollen allergic rhinitics were exposed for 2 hours at rest on 2 separate occasions to 400 ppb ozone and filtered air respectively. The exposure to 400 ppb ozone and filtered air was performed prior to the grass pollen season and again during the season. Baseline nasal lavage in which histamine, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total proteins, and albumin were measured and neutrophils, eosinophils and epithelial cells were counted, was made immediately prior to exposure (-120 min). After 2h of exposure to ozone/filtered air repeated measurements were performed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 minutes post exposure. Significant increases were observed when exposed to ozone versus filtered air during the pollen season for histamine (AUC1; p = 0.05), MPO (AUC2; p = 0.05), ECP (AUC2; p = 0.008), total proteins (AUC, p = 0.02; AUC1, p = 0.007; AUC2, p = 0.05), and albumin (AUC, p = 0.007; AUC1, p = 0.02; AUC2, p = 0.005). There was also a significant increase in the total protein level (AUC, p = 0.05; AUC1, p = 0.02; AUC2 p = 0.05) and albumin (AUC, p = 0.03; AUC1, p = 0.03; AUC2, p = 0.04) after ozone exposure versus air out of season. Significant increase of the neutrophils (p = 0.01 and p = 0.007) in the nasal lavage fluid (NLF) at time points 0 min and 360 min respectively were observed, while eosinophils and epithelial cells significantly increased only at time point 360 min (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 respectively) all of them after ozone exposure versus filtered air during the season. Neutrophils also significantly increased in the NLF at time point 0 min and 360 min (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01) while epithelial cells increased only at time point 360 min (p = 0.01) after ozone exposure versus filtered air out of season. We can conclude that ozone induces neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment into the nose and this is accom-panied by activation, as evidenced by release of MPO and ECP in NAL. Pre-existing allergic mucosal inflam-mation during the pollen season, exaggerates the response to ozone, particularly in relationship to the re-cruitment of eosinophils and neutrophils 6h following exposure. Key words: mediators, allergic rhinitis, ozone. PMID:23917748

  5. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters / Crescimento de Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambientes marinho e estuarino em águas brasileiras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Ruschel, Lopes; Carlos Henrique Araujo de Miranda, Gomes; Cláudio Rudolfo, Tureck; Claudio Manuel Rodrigues de, Melo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento da ostra-do-mangue Crassostrea gasar cultivada em ambiente marinho e estuarino. As ostras foram cultivadas por 11 meses em sistema de espinhel, em dois locais de estudo - São Francisco do Sul e Florianópolis -, em Santa Catarina. A concentração de [...] clorofila-?, a temperatura e a salinidade da água foram registradas semanalmente. As ostras foram medidas mensalmente (tamanho da concha e ganho de peso) para avaliar o crescimento. No final do período de cultivo, os pesos médios de carne úmida, carne seca e concha foram determinados, bem como a distribuição das ostras por classes de tamanho. Seis modelos não lineares (logístico, exponencial, Gompertz, Brody, Richards e Von Bertalanffy) foram ajustados aos dados de crescimento das ostras. As médias finais de tamanho da concha foram maiores em São Francisco do Sul do que em Florianópolis. Além disso, as ostras cultivadas em São Francisco do Sul apresentaram distribuição mais uniforme nas classes de tamanho do que aquelas cultivadas em Florianópolis. Os maiores valores médios de peso de carne úmida e peso de concha foram observados em São Francisco do Sul, enquanto o peso da carne seca não diferiu entre os locais. O ambiente estuarino é mais promissor para o cultivo de ostras. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southe [...] rn Brazil. Water chlorophyll-? concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain) to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy) were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

  6. Crescimento inicial de Marcela (Achyrocline satureioides em ambiente protegido Initial growth of Marcela (Achyrocline satureioides in protected enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Charão Marques

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o estabelecimento e crescimento inicial de plantas de marcela e a viabilidade da produção de mudas a partir de sementes. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. A semeadura foi feita a lanço sobre um substrato 1:1:1 de turfa, casca de arroz carbonizada e composto orgânico, em bandejas de alumínio. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Determinou-se a massa fresca e seca de 10 plantas por repetição a cada 10 dias, até os 70 dias após a semeadura. A germinação das sementes foi desuniforme e o ganho de massa fresca e seca indicou que o crescimento inicial foi lento; havendo maior incremento a partir dos 50 dias da semeadura. O estabelecimento das plantas foi satisfatório e a obtenção de mudas através de sementes foi viável.The stablishment, initial growth and viability of the seedling production by seeds of marcela plants were evaluated.. The study was driven at greenhouse. The sowing was made on a pot medium with peat; organic compound and carbonized rice hulls (1:1:1, in trays of aluminum. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replications. Fresh and dry mass was determined every 10 days, until the 70 days after sowing, using 10 plants by replication. Germination was not uniform and plant growth analysis showed that the initial growth was slow, the biggest increment of fresh and dry mass started only at 50 days after sowing. Plant establishment was satisfactory and the seedling production by seeds was viable.

  7. Crescimento inicial de Marcela (Achyrocline satureioides) em ambiente protegido / Initial growth of Marcela (Achyrocline satureioides) in protected enviroment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Charão, Marques; Ingrid Bergman Inchausti de, Barros.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o estabelecimento e crescimento inicial de plantas de marcela e a viabilidade da produção de mudas a partir de sementes. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. A semeadura foi feita a lanço sobre um substrato 1:1:1 de turfa, casca de arroz carbonizada e composto orgânico, em bande [...] jas de alumínio. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Determinou-se a massa fresca e seca de 10 plantas por repetição a cada 10 dias, até os 70 dias após a semeadura. A germinação das sementes foi desuniforme e o ganho de massa fresca e seca indicou que o crescimento inicial foi lento; havendo maior incremento a partir dos 50 dias da semeadura. O estabelecimento das plantas foi satisfatório e a obtenção de mudas através de sementes foi viável. Abstract in english The stablishment, initial growth and viability of the seedling production by seeds of marcela plants were evaluated.. The study was driven at greenhouse. The sowing was made on a pot medium with peat; organic compound and carbonized rice hulls (1:1:1), in trays of aluminum. The experimental design w [...] as completely randomized, with 10 replications. Fresh and dry mass was determined every 10 days, until the 70 days after sowing, using 10 plants by replication. Germination was not uniform and plant growth analysis showed that the initial growth was slow, the biggest increment of fresh and dry mass started only at 50 days after sowing. Plant establishment was satisfactory and the seedling production by seeds was viable.

  8. The Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Antarctic ozone levels and the discovery of a hole in the Antarctic region are examined. The effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on the level of stratospheric ozone are analyzed. Three cycles explaining the cause of ozone depletion in the poles are proposed. A comparison of field data and proposed depletion cycles reveals that the chemical origin of the ozone hole is due to CFCs. The potential global effects of the Antarctic ozone hole are discussed.

  9. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O3-specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O3, injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O3-specific symptoms, but onlpecies for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ? 50 W m?2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure deficit and global radiation. In the model with all factors, Species was most important, and when Species was omitted, stomatal conductance was the most important determinant for leaf injury to occur, whereas mean relative growth rate was less important. With no plant-related factors included, air vapour pressure deficit and AOT40 were of highest importance. Only in eight species was a positive relationship found between these two factors during the five days before the onset of injury, indicating increasing protection from ozone with increasing air vapour pressure deficit in some but not all species. These data show that across a range of grassland species, leaf injury caused by elevated levels of ozone is most likely to occur in species with high stomatal conductance and that protection from ozone during dry periods is species-specific and depends on a reduction in stomatal conductance due to a decreaoisture potential. Protection under increased vapour pressure deficit can occur in some but not all species, depending on the relationship between stomatal conductance and air vapour pressure deficit. (author)

  10. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction.

  11. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Godzik; Nataliya Pavluchenko; Nataliya Didyk; Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensi...

  12. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T B; Trainer, M; Holloway, J S; Parrish, D D; Huey, L G; Sueper, D T; Frost, G J; Donnelly, S G; Schauffler, S; Atlas, E L; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Hubler, G; Meagher, J F; Fehsenfeld, F C

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural U.S. coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NO(x) (NO plus NO(2)) concentration, which is determined by plant NO(x) emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modulate ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NO(x) and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NO(x) emission rates and geographic locations in current and future U.S. ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NO(x) reductions from these sources. PMID:11326097

  13. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.S.; Parrish, D.D.; Huey, L.G.; Sueper, D.T.; Frost, G.J.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Kuster, W.C.; Goldan, P.D.; Huebler, G.; Meagher, J.F.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (USA). Aeronomy Lab.

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural US coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO{sub 2}) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modular ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future US ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography [obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)] are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs

  15. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2008. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2008, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (au)

  16. Evaluation of light-duty vehicle mobile source regulations on ozone concentration trends in 2018 and 2030 in the western and eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Susan; Minoura, Hiroaki; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Kinugasa, Yukio; Karamchandani, Prakash

    2014-02-01

    To improve U.S. air quality, there are many regulations on-the-way (OTW) and on-the-books (OTB), including mobile source California Low Emission Vehicle third generation (LEV III) and federal Tier 3 standards. This study explores the effects of those regulations by using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for 8-hr ozone concentrations in the western and eastern United States in the years 2018 and 2030 during a month with typical high ozone concentrations, July. Alterations in pollutant emissions can be due to technological improvements, regulatory amendments, and changes in growth. In order to project emission rates for future years, the impacts of all of these factors were estimated. This study emphasizes the potential light-duty vehicle emission changes by year to predict ozone levels. The results of this study show that most areas have decreases in 8-hr ozone concentrations in the year 2030, although there are some areas with increased concentrations. Additionally, there are areas with 8-hr ozone concentrations greater than the current US. National Ambient Air Quality Standard level, which is 75 ppb. PMID:24654386

  17. Ozone and the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed Active Archive Center

    This web site, hosted by NASA, discusses the chemical composition and evolution of Earth's atmosphere, focusing on the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere. The destructive properties of tropospheric ozone are also presented. Diagrams and animation sequences are used to visually depict the delicate structure of the ozone molecule and the chemical reactions involved in its formation and destruction. Ozone destroying pollutants were first identified in 1973. Since that time there has been a considerable amount of controversy surrounding the subject of ozone depletion. More than 20 years of ozone-related scientific studies, international meetings, and global industrial agreements are summarized in the last section of this site.

  18. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  19. Antarctic ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  20. The Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-07-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future.

  1. Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Méndez Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensores en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población .Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also raising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

  2. Salud y medio ambiente: Health and environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Méndez Martínez; Arelis, Alberto Palenzuela; Ernesto, Morales Santana.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivado por la importancia del control del medio ambiente se realiza un panel con los estudiantes de la especialidad de Tecnología de la Salud en el municipio de Matanzas, con el objetivo de fomentar en estos una conciencia ambientalista y de esta forma sensibilizar a los mismos, para ser defensore [...] s en la protección del medio ambiente y así elevar el conocimiento en cuanto a materia ambiental. Desde el triunfo revolucionario en 1959, la protección del medio ambiente y el uso racional de los recursos naturales ha sido objetivo estratégico nacional. Y en medio de la difícil situación económica actual, los esfuerzos por encausar la recuperación económica y la protección ambiental con un enfoque integral, constituyen un importante desafío para los cubanos. La contaminación de ríos y arroyos por contaminantes químicos se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ambientales más graves de nuestra sociedad. El ozono es un contaminante que produce afectaciones a la salud. La explotación forestal debe ser realizada sobre la base de garantizar la repoblación. Son diversos los factores que determinan el crecimiento elevado de la población en los países subdesarrollados. La concentración de la población, la industria y el transporte automotor en zonas urbanas ha producido un desequilibrio ecológico con grave afectación a la higiene del ambiente. Cuba, a pesar de ser un país subdesarrollado, el crecimiento económico y la industrialización han llevado aparejadas medidas consecuentes para la protección del ambiente y el desarrollo sostenible. Los riesgos como consecuencia de los fenómenos naturales o provocados por las actividades humanas están íntimamente relacionados con la naturaleza de los mismos. En todos los casos se hacen necesario priorizar los servicios de saneamiento básico esenciales para garantizar la salud de la población . Abstract in english Due to the importance of the environmental control, we carried out a debate with the students of the specialty of Health Technologies in the municipality of Matanzas with the objective of forming an environmental awareness and inducing them to be defenders of the environmental protection, and also r [...] aising their knowledge on the environmental matters. Since the triumph of the Cuban revolution in 1959, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources have been a national strategic objective. Inserted in the current difficult economic situation, the efforts for achieving the economic recuperation and environmental protection through an integral approach are an important challenge for Cubans. Rivers and brooks contamination by chemical substances has become one of the most serious environmental problems in our society. Ozone is a contaminant producing health affections. Forestal exploitation should be carried on the bases of warranting repopulation. Several factors determine a high growth of population in the underdeveloped countries. The concentration of population, industries and auto transport in urban areas has produced an ecological disequilibrium with serious damage of the environmental hygiene. Although Cuba is an underdeveloped country, the economic growth and industrialization have been led together with tenacious measures to protect the environment and a sustainable development. Risks due to natural phenomena or caused by human activity are tightly related with their nature. In all the cases it is necessary to pay an especial attention to the services and measures guarantying the population health.

  3. Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido / Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaina, Paulino; Marcos V., Folegatti; Danilton L., Flumignan; Cornélio A., Zolin; Cícero R. A., Barboza Júnior; Sônia M. de S., Piedade.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.). Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adap [...] tabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta. Abstract in english There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditio [...] ns. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

  4. Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Paulino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adaptabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta.There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditions. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

  5. Ozone biomonitoring in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanego, L; Biondi, F; Schenone, G

    1992-05-01

    This report presents the results of an ozone monitoring experience performed with tobacco indicator plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. 'Bel-W3'). These bioindicators were exposed to ambient air in 23 sites in Northern Italy from 27 April 1987 to 21 October 1987. Typical ozone-induced leaf necrosis was observed in every site. The percentage increase in injured leaf area was estimated weekly and a Leaf Injury Index (LII) was calculated. The weekly series of LIIs were statistically inspected for spatial and temporal relationships. Sample correlation coefficients were statistically significant for almost every possible pair of sites. The time series properties of ten series of LIIs with no missing data were analyzed using Box-Jenkins models. An autoregressive first order model, or AR(1), was selected to remove the autocorrelation from these series. Linear correlation coefficients between 'prewhitened' (i.e. from which autocorrelation had been removed) pairs of LII series were statistically significant. Hence synchronous variations in leaf necrosis could only be related to the regional diffusion of tropospheric ozone. PMID:24234405

  6. Measurement of Ozone Precursor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, B.R. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting. A number of international experts were invited to present the state-of-the-art of specific aspects of the measurement of ozone precursor volatile organic compounds, such as adsorptive and canister sampling, thermal desorption, hydrocarbon analysis by gas chromatography, formaldehyde analysis by liquid chromatography, (inter)calibration, quality assurance, and measurement networks. Individual expert contributions are presented in part 2 of this report: Analytical Methods and QA/QC for Ozone Precursor VOCs. Part 1 comprises Introduction, Summary and Conclusions of the Expert Meeting/workshop. Part 3 is about Monitoring Networks for Ozone Precursor VOCs and Part 4 are papers on Methods and Concentration levels of Ozone Precursor VOCs in European Countries. Part 5 contains the Annex, including the minutes and the text of the Directive 2002/3/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2002 relating to ozone in ambient air.

  7. Protection of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var Allgreen) plants from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical and physiological variations in alleviating the adverse impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-06-01

    Ameliorative effects of ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolinidyl) ethyl]-N' phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU) against ozone stress were studied on selected growth, biochemical, physiological and yield characteristics of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var Allgreen) plants grown in field at a suburban site of Varanasi, India. Mean eight hourly ozone concentration varied from 52 to 73 ppb which was found to produce adverse impacts on plant functioning and growth characteristics. The palak plants were treated with 300 ppm EDU at 10 days after germination at 10 days interval up to the plant maturity. Lipid peroxidation in EDU treated plants declined significantly as compared to non-EDU treated ones. Significant increment in F(v)/F(m) ratio in EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones was recorded. EDU treated plants showed significant increment in ascorbic acid contents and reduction in peroxidase activity as compared to non-EDU treated ones. As a result of the protection provided by EDU against ozone induced stress on biochemical and physiological characteristics of palak, the morphological parameters also responded positively. Significant increments were recorded in shoot length, number of leaves plant(-1), leaf area and root and shoot biomass of EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones. Contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe were higher in EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones. The present investigation proves the usefulness of EDU in partially ameliorating ozone injury in ambient conditions. PMID:19286241

  8. Ozone and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Ozone and Your Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... can be harmful to your health. How can ozone affect my health? If you have asthma, bronchitis, ...

  9. Health Benefits from Large-Scale Ozone Reduction in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse D. Berman; Fann, Neal; Hollingsworth, John W.; Pinkerton, Kent E; Rom, William N.; Szema, Anthony M.; Patrick N. Breysse; White, Ronald H.; Curriero, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone has been associated with adverse health effects, including premature mortality and cardiopulmonary and respiratory morbidity. In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone to 75 ppb, expressed as the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hr average over a 24-hr period. Based on recent monitoring data, U.S. ozone levels still exceed this standard in numerous locations, re...

  10. 77 FR 58058 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Beaumont/Port Arthur Ozone Maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...BPA) 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance air quality State Implementation Plan...strategy SIP revisions and maintenance plans for nonattainment and maintenance areas for a given National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)....

  11. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions ings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  12. Emergência e crescimento inicial de Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo em ambientes contrastantes de luz / Emergency and initial growth of Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo in contrasting light environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Peixoto, Borges; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho, Costa; Rogério Ferreira, Ribas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, popularmente conhecida como ipê-roxo ou ipê-roxo-desete-folhas, é uma Bignoniaceae nativa da Mata Atlântica, de importância econômica, medicinal e ornamental, além de ser indicada para reflorestamentos. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas sobre essa espécie a [...] inda são escassas. Assim, visando dispor de informações que auxiliem na sua propagação e conservação, este trabalho avaliou a emergência e crescimento inicial dessa espécie em regimes contrastantes de luz. Foram realizados dois experimentos independentes. O primeiro em condições controladas, com os tratamentos 70% de sombreamento e a pleno sol; e o segundo em ambiente natural, com os tratamentos clareira e sub-bosque. Entre os parâmetros utilizados para avaliar a emergência sob influência das intensidades luminosas, apenas a porcentagem de emergência diferiu estatisticamente no ambiente natural, sendo superior na clareira. Em condições controladas, houve significância para a velocidade de emergência, sendo maior nas plantas submetidas ao a pleno sol. A espécie apresentou reduzido crescimento inicial no sub-bosque, sendo todos os parâmetros estatisticamente inferiores em relação às plantas da clareira, com exceção da razão de área foliar e área foliar específica. Em condições controladas, os resultados que diferiram significativamente foram todos superiores nas plantas a pleno sol. O estudo evidenciou que a espécie apresenta capacidade de formar plântulas em diferentes regimes de luz, inclusive sob forte sombreamento natural, porém essa condição reduz significativamente seu crescimento inicial, sendo este favorecido por maiores intensidades luminosas. Abstract in english Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo, known as "ipê-roxo" or" ipê-roxo-de sete-folhas", is a native species of Atlantic Forest, with an economic, medicinal and ornamental role, suitable for reforestation. However, ecophysiological information about it is scarce. In order to provide information about [...] propagation and conservation for this specie, the present study evaluated emergence and early growth of this species in different light exposure. We lead two independent trials. In the first we considered controlled conditions, with two treatments: 70% shade and full sun. The second was developed in a natural environment, with two treatments: gap and understory environments. From the total parameters used to evaluate the emergence of the species under influence of light intensities, only the emergence percentage was statistically different from the natural environment, with high values observed at gap treatment. Significant differences were observed in controlled environment, considering the emergence speed. This variable was higher in plants grown under full sun. Slower initial growth was observed for plants regenerated in the understory, compared to the plants growing in gaps, except for following characteristics: leaf area ration and specific leaf area. In controlled conditions, the results with higher significant differences were observed for plants under full sun. The study shows that the species has the capacity to germinate in different light conditions, even under strong natural shading. However, this condition reduces significantly its initial growth, which is favored by higher light intensities.

  13. Growth analysis of sweet pepper cultivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse / Análise de crescimento de pimentão cultivado em fibra de coco em ambiente protegido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamilton César de O, Charlo; Sueyde F de, Oliveira; Renata, Castoldi; Pablo F, Vargas; Leila T, Braz; José Carlos, Barbosa.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre o crescimento das culturas permite o planejamento de métodos de cultivo racional, que contribuirá para alcançar um maior potencial de espécies vegetais, além de fornecer informações para a construção de modelos matemáticos descritivos de crescimento. Diante disto, o objetivo des [...] te estudo foi determinar a curva de crescimento do pimentão amarelo (híbrido Eppo) cultivado em fibra de coco em ambiente protegido com fertirrigação. O experimento compreendeu inicialmente 160 plantas, divididas em quatro blocos, sendo colhidas duas por bloco a cada 21 dias após o transplante, finalizando-se aos 189 dias após o transplante. O cultivo de pimentão foi feito em vasos plásticos de 13 L contendo fibra de coco, distribuídos em fila dupla, com espaçamento de 0,5 x 0,8 m entre fileiras simples e 1,1 m entre fileiras duplas. Em cada colheita foram avaliados o crescimento das plantas e a produção e qualidade de frutos maduros. A massa seca da parte aérea aumentou com o tempo, seguindo um modelo exponencial de primeira ordem, atingindo um máximo de 451,5 g/planta aos 189 dias após o transplante (DAT). A produção de massa seca de folhas, caule, raiz e frutos também aumentou ao longo do tempo, seguindo o mesmo modelo, atingindo valores máximos de 68.7, 65.8, 11.5 e 302.9 g/planta, respectivamente, aos 189 DAT. O mesmo ocorreu com a área foliar por planta, altura da planta e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, cujos valores máximos foram de 6.183,5 cm², 136.9 cm e 4.4 g/planta/dia, respectivamente. O crescimento das plantas foi contínuo ao longo do ciclo, sendo que a maior quantidade de massa seca foi acumulada nos frutos, cuja produção comercial chegou a 97.3 t ha-1, sendo totalmente classificados como Extra. Abstract in english Knowledge about the growth of crops allows the planning of rational cultivation methods which contribute to achieve greater potential of plant species, besides supplying information for the construction of descriptive mathematical models of growth. The growth curve of sweet pepper (Eppo hybrid), cul [...] tivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse with fertirrigation, was determined. The experiment consisted initially of 160 plants divided into four blocks. Two plants were analyzed per block every 21 days after transplanting, ending at 189 days after transplant. The cultivation was carried out in plastics pots of 13 L containing coconut fiber, which were arranged in double rows, spaced 0.5 x 0.8 m between simple rows and 1.1 m between double rows. In each harvest the plant growth, production and quality of mature fruits were evaluated. The dry mass of the shoot increased with time, following the experimental model exponential of first order, reaching a maximum of 451.5 g/plant, 189 days after transplanting (DAT). The production of dry mass of leaves, stem, root and fruit also increased over time reaching maximum values of 68.7, 65.8, 11.5 and 302.9 g/plant, respectively, at 189 DAT. The same occurred with the leaf area per plant, plant height and the absolute rate of growth, whose maximum values were 6.183,5 cm², 136.9 cm and 4.4 g/plant/day, respectively. The growth of the plant was continuous throughout the cycle, and the highest amount of dry mass was accumulated in fruits, reaching a marketable production of 97.3 t ha-1. All fruits were classified as Extra.

  14. Influence of Global Atmospheric Change on the Feeding Behavior and Growth Performance of a Mammalian Herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Habeck, Christopher W.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air), ...

  15. ALTERNATIVE AIR QUALITY INDICATORS FOR A SECONDARY FEDERAL STANDARD FOR OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, established in 1979, was based on limited information from a few field studies on vegetation and may not be protective of crop damage due to ozone, alone or in combination with other pollutants. onside...

  16. Chemical control of ozone damage on watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieldhouse, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Foliar air pollution damage resulting from ambient ozone was essentially eliminated on watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, with the use of N-(2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl)-N'-phenylurea applied as a combination of soil and foliar applications. Use of this experimental plant protectant resulted in higher yields with Sugar Baby watermelon due to increased melon size and an increase in the number of marketable melons. Sugar content was also significantly increased.

  17. Ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, W; Aarts, E

    2005-01-01

    Addresses ambient intelligence used to support human contacts and accompany an individual''s path through the complicated modern world, from applications that are imminent, since they use essentially existing technologies, to ambitious ideas whose realization is still far away, due to major unsolved technical challenges.

  18. Manifestation of solar activity processes in the Earth ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis of total ozone and its vertical distribution was carried out on the base of data obtained by rocket soundings with the aim to reveal influence of solar activity. THe coherence between monthly mean total ozone data series for six latitudinal zones in the Northern Hemisphere and solar spots has weak but steady maxima for 9 and 13-15 years periods of oscillations. The value of coherence does not exceed 0.15 and growth to the higher latitudes. The analysis of ozone profiles for middle latitudes reveals the decrease in ozone concentration between 30-50 km for winter and increase for autumn. 20 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Intercontinental trans-boundary contributions to ozone-induced crop yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Hollaway; Arnold, S.R.; A. J. Challinor; Emberson, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced surface ozone concentrations are known to be harmful to vegetation, reducing crop growth and yields. Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased steadily since pre-industrial times, driven by in-situ production from anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), CO and volatile organic compounds. Transport of ozone and its precursors between continents has been shown to contribute to surface ozone air quality exceedences in many regions of the Northern ...

  20. Estrés oxidativo en un modelo de ratón quemado tratado con Aloe b, ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico / Oxidative stress in a model of burnt mouse treated with Aloe b, ozone and epidermal growth factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresita, Montero González; José, Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; José Carlos, García Piñeiro; Niurka A., Llopiz Janer; Silvia, Menéndez Cepero; Jorge, Berlanga Acosta.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad por quemadura estimula la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y el daño múltiple de órganos, su expresión morfológica. Con el propósito de identificar el comportamiento del estrés oxidativo mediante el malondialdehído, la superóxido dismutasa y la catalasa y su modificación con el empleo [...] del tratamiento sistémico con Aloe b, ozono o factor de crecimiento epidérmico, se elaboró un modelo de quemadura seca de un área de 11 %, en ratones hembras, balb/c de 20 ± 2 g (n= 24). Se aplicó eutanasia en diferentes tiempos, se estudiaron los órganos con evaluación cualitativa en grados de intensidad y las variables bioquímicas se obtuvieron del riñón y del hígado. La prueba G se empleó para conocer la dependencia entre las variables y la prueba t se usó al comparar porcentajes. El análisis de varianza bifactorial y la prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan se empleó en las variables del estrés oxidativo estudiadas. Se siguieron las normas éticas en el trabajo con los animales. Existió dependencia entre los diferentes grupos y la vitalidad (G= 268,83***) superior en los grupos tratados. Los grupos no tratados tuvieron mayor intensidad del daño múltiple de órganos y peor respuesta del estrés oxidativo. Los grupos con mejor evolución fueron el tratado con ozono y el tratado con factor de crecimiento epidérmico. El tratamiento inmediatamente después de la quemadura con ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico resultó favorable para la evolución y supervivencia de los animales. Abstract in english Burn disease stimulates systemic inflammatory response and its morphologic expression that is multiple organ failure. With the objective of identifying the behaviour of oxidative stress through malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and its change by using the systemic treatment based on [...] Aloe b, ozone or epidermal growth factor, a dry burn model of a 11 % area in balb/c female mice of 20 ± 2 g (n= 24) was designed. Eutanasia was applied at different moments, organs were studied with qualitative evaluation of intensity degrees, and biochemical variables were analyzed from the kidney and the liver of mice. Test G served to find out dependence among variables and Test t was used to compare percentages. Bifactoral variance analysis and Duncan´s multiple range test were used in the studied oxidative stress variables. Ethical standards on work with animals were complied with. Dependence was observed among the various groups and survival rate (G= 268,83***) was higher in the treated groups. Untreated groups showed more intensive multiple organ damage and worse oxidative stress response. The groups treated with ozone and epidermal growth factor showed better recovery. The treatment with ozone and epidermal growth factor immediately after burning favored recovery and survival of balb/c mice.

  1. Estrés oxidativo en un modelo de ratón quemado tratado con Aloe b, ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico Oxidative stress in a model of burnt mouse treated with Aloe b, ozone and epidermal growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Montero González

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad por quemadura estimula la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y el daño múltiple de órganos, su expresión morfológica. Con el propósito de identificar el comportamiento del estrés oxidativo mediante el malondialdehído, la superóxido dismutasa y la catalasa y su modificación con el empleo del tratamiento sistémico con Aloe b, ozono o factor de crecimiento epidérmico, se elaboró un modelo de quemadura seca de un área de 11 %, en ratones hembras, balb/c de 20 ± 2 g (n= 24. Se aplicó eutanasia en diferentes tiempos, se estudiaron los órganos con evaluación cualitativa en grados de intensidad y las variables bioquímicas se obtuvieron del riñón y del hígado. La prueba G se empleó para conocer la dependencia entre las variables y la prueba t se usó al comparar porcentajes. El análisis de varianza bifactorial y la prueba de rango múltiple de Duncan se empleó en las variables del estrés oxidativo estudiadas. Se siguieron las normas éticas en el trabajo con los animales. Existió dependencia entre los diferentes grupos y la vitalidad (G= 268,83*** superior en los grupos tratados. Los grupos no tratados tuvieron mayor intensidad del daño múltiple de órganos y peor respuesta del estrés oxidativo. Los grupos con mejor evolución fueron el tratado con ozono y el tratado con factor de crecimiento epidérmico. El tratamiento inmediatamente después de la quemadura con ozono y factor de crecimiento epidérmico resultó favorable para la evolución y supervivencia de los animales.Burn disease stimulates systemic inflammatory response and its morphologic expression that is multiple organ failure. With the objective of identifying the behaviour of oxidative stress through malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and its change by using the systemic treatment based on Aloe b, ozone or epidermal growth factor, a dry burn model of a 11 % area in balb/c female mice of 20 ± 2 g (n= 24 was designed. Eutanasia was applied at different moments, organs were studied with qualitative evaluation of intensity degrees, and biochemical variables were analyzed from the kidney and the liver of mice. Test G served to find out dependence among variables and Test t was used to compare percentages. Bifactoral variance analysis and Duncan´s multiple range test were used in the studied oxidative stress variables. Ethical standards on work with animals were complied with. Dependence was observed among the various groups and survival rate (G= 268,83*** was higher in the treated groups. Untreated groups showed more intensive multiple organ damage and worse oxidative stress response. The groups treated with ozone and epidermal growth factor showed better recovery. The treatment with ozone and epidermal growth factor immediately after burning favored recovery and survival of balb/c mice.

  2. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  3. The Ozone Hole Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ozone Hole Tour is a concise survey of the ozone depletion problem presented in four sequential parts and utilizing maps, videos, and computer simulations to convey measurement and observation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Part I covers the history in detection of the ozone hole, the nature and formation of ozone, the general nature of the ozone hole, and current governmental measures intended to reduce ozone depletion. Part II details recent ozone loss over Antarctica with emphasis on satellite measurements. Part III explores the chemistry and meteorological phenomena associated with ozone loss. Lastly, Part IV presents chemical modeling efforts at the University of Cambridge. In addition to the various visualization media, certain terminology throughout the four sections is linked to an online glossary. Finally, a reference list [found under More Info on the main page] contains links to sites related to ozone measurement, general ozone information, environmental groups and campaigns, relevant institutions, and the Scientific Visualization Studio at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  4. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  5. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based on ozone concentration with others based on ozone flux models.

  6. Stratospheric Ozone, the Protector

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an overview of the ozone layer, the layer of life-protecting ozone found at the top of the stratosphere that is critical to life on earth as we know it because it protects living organisms from ultraviolet (uv) radiation. This radiation is present in natural outdoor light and can be blocked or filtered by various substances like ozone. The site provides a brief history of the discovery of the ozone hole and presents scientific evidence that ozone is destroyed in the stratosphere. Diagrams illustrate how some human-released chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are speeding up the breakdown of ozone in the atmosphere and maps and graphs show the developing ozone hole. This site serves as a reference for and has links to three student activities.

  7. Improving assessments of tropospheric ozone injury to Mediterranean montane conifer forests in California (USA) and Catalonia (Spain) with GIS models related to plant water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn C.; Peñuelas, Josep; Ustin, Susan L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, and the Pyrenees of Catalonia, Spain, were measured using field assessments and GIS variables of landscape gradients related to plant water relations, stomatal conductance and hence to ozone uptake. Measurements related to ozone injury included visible chlorotic mottling, needle retention, needle length, and crown depth, which together compose the Ozone Injury Index (OII). The OII values observed in Catalonia were similar to those in California, but OII alone correlated poorly to ambient ozone in all sites. Combining ambient ozone with GIS variables related to landscape variability of plant hydrological status, derived from stepwise regressions, produced models with R2 = 0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2 = 0.36, p ozone is negatively impacting forest health in California and Catalonia and also that modeling ozone injury improves by including GIS variables related to plant water relations.

  8. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results obtained from this photolysis study demonstrate that the local ground level ozone formation is not only influenced by the strong solar radiation and changing aerosol makeup, but also by other heterogeneous factors and reactions. In addition, this research provided good evidence that the ground level ozone precursor regime in El Paso during the ozone episode of June 2006 was mostly VOC-limited. Much of this estimation was derived from measurements of local ambient VOC/NOx ratios. This finding shows that at least during June 2006, the non-linear surface ozone production increased during weekends compared to workdays in a habitually VOC-limited regime. The seasonal variations of columnar ozone as measured by a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband instrument installed at the UTEP campus are analyzed for the first time for this region and results are presented. This investigation has addressed the problem of ground-level ozone formation in the Paso del Norte region. Urban ozone is a complex problem with many aspects that are not fully understood. In this investigation, a range of techniques has been used to address the study of local surface ozone episodes with the purpose of acquiring new insights and knowledge that will help understand and remediate the diverse atmospheric pollution events that affect this bi-national region recurrently. Innovative techniques were developed and used, ranging from the use of local ambient atmospheric pollution data to the utilization of complex modeling techniques to achieve the best possible computer results. Finally, the influence of ground level ozone concentrations in admissions to hospitals for this region due to respiratory diseases is analyzed. The comprehensive results obtained in this work will help to better understand ozone formation in the Paso del Norte Region for future policy regulation implementations.

  9. Aura Ozone Monitoring Garden Lithograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-23

    This lithograph describes where ozone is found, how it is formed, and the effects of ozone on biological processes. How and why NASA studies ozone is covered along with how individuals can monitor ground level (tropospheric) ozone by starting their own ozone-monitoring garden.

  10. Ethylenediurea (EDU): A research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O3) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O3 and in the presence of O3 before initiating multiple applications to prevent O3 injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O3 symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O3 under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O3 injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O3 in causing injury in plants. - EDU is a verified and effective tool for the assessment of the effects of ozone on plants.

  11. Additive effects of enhanced ambient ultraviolet B radiation and increased temperature on immune function, growth and physiological condition of juvenile (parr) Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Ilmari E.; Salo, Harri M.; Markkula, Eveliina; Rikalainen, Kaisa; Arts, Michael T.; Browman, Howard I.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change models predict increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation levels due to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. In order to study the impact of these two environmental stressors acting simultaneously on the physiology of fish, Atlantic salmon parr were exposed, for 8 weeks in outdoor tanks, to different combinations of UVB radiation (depleted and enhanced) and temperature (standard rearing temperature of 14 °C or 19 °C). The immune function (plasma IgM, lysozyme activity...

  12. Ozone chemistry in aqueous solution : ozone decomposition and stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Ozone is used in many applications in the industry as an oxidising agent for example for bleaching and sterilisation. The decomposition of ozone in aqueous solutions is complex, and is affected by many properties such as, pH, temperature and substances present in the water. Additives can either accelerate the decomposition rate of ozone or have a stabilising effect of the ozone decay. By controlling the decomposition of ozone it is possible to increase the oxidative capacity of ozone. In this...

  13. Semiconductor Sensors Application for Definition of Factor of Ozone Heterogeneous Destruction on Teflon Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Finogenova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we present the results of our research, which was carried out by means of semiconductor sensor techniques (SCS, which allowed evaluating heterogeneous death-rate of ozone (γ Teflon surface. When ozone concentration is near to Ambient Air Standard value, γ is assessed to be equal to 6,57*10-7. High technique response provide possibility to determine ozone contents in the air media and the percentage of ozone, decomposed on the communication surfaces and on the surfaces of installation in the low concentration range (1–100 ppb.

  14. Ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Basten, Twan; de Groot, Harmke

    2007-01-01

    ""This book is truly an eye-opener as it is the first book that relates the dream scenarios of Ambient Intelligence quantitatively to the technical challenges and requirements of the huge distributed and interoperable embedded systems needed to implement AmI systems in the real world. This book is strongly recommended to a wide spectrum of engineers interested to embark in this rapidly emerging and fascinating technology."" (From the foreword by Hugo De Man, Professor K.U. Leuven and Senior Research Fellow IMEC)

  15. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h.

  16. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can do to protect yourself. Read About It Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Describes ozone depletion effects on human health, plants, marine ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycles. Ozone (Tox ...

  17. INJURY RESPONSE OF 'PHASEOLUS VULGARIS' TO OZONE FLUX DENSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper by Amiro et al. (1984) provides significant insight concerning the effect of ozone on plants. Their data clearly distinguish between the terms air pollutant exposure (ambient concentration averaged over time) and air pollutant flux density (amount of pollutant absorbed ...

  18. Ozone. Part 3. ; Application of ozone. Ozon wo ikasu. 3. ; Ozon no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Central Research Lab.); Shinriki, N. (Hokkaido National Industrial Research Inst., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-04-20

    Ozonization technology was utilized to disinfect drinking water for a long time. It was then applied to other water treatment such as disposing sewage and decolorization. The use of ozone has now spread to more fields. Ozone generators and the ozonization technology have been developing in Japan since around 1970. In this paper, the latest typical application of ozone is introduced. A high degree treatment of drinking water is explained pointing out the problems that arose after water sources got worse. The present state of a high degree treatment of sewage and the purification of waters of swimming pools, industrial cooling, aquariums and fish farms is described. It is pointed out that ozone may be harmful if used erroneously in household utensils. The application to the food industry, the chemical industry and medical care are also explained. 14 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive) and 'R123' (O3-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O3) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R10) growth phases. Results at V4 indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R10, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V4 phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O33. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O3

  20. Ozone exposure of field-grown winter wheat affects soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2-year open-top chamber experiment with field-grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Astron) was conducted to examine the effects of ozone on plant growth and selected groups of soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere. From May through June in each year, plants were exposed to two levels of O3: non-filtered (NF) ambient air or NF+ 40 ppb O3 (NF+). During O3 exposure, soil sampling was performed at two dates according to different plant growth stages. O3 exposure reduced above- and below-ground plant biomass in the first year, but had little effect in the second year. The individual density of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites decreased significantly in the rhizosphere of plants exposed to NF+ in both years. Differences were highest around anthesis, i.e. when plants are physiologically most active. The results suggest that elevated O3 concentrations may influence the dynamic of decomposition processes and the turnover of nutrients. - Ozone reduced the individual densities of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites in the rhizosphere of winter wheat indirectly via the plant-soil-system.

  1. Ozone carcinogenesis in vitro and its co-carcinogenesis with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O/sub 3/), a reactive species of oxygen, is an important natural constituent of the atmosphere. Background levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere may range up to 0.1 ppm and are modified by geographic elevation, solar radiation and climatic conditions. Since some ozone effects are radiomimetic, its actions may be enhanced in the presence of ionizing radiation from background and/or manmade sources. While stratospheric ozone spares the earth from excess solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, high levels of ozone in the environment are toxic and present a health hazard to man. Excess environmental exposure to ozone can result from a variety of sources. Ozone is a key component in oxidant smog and in the vicinity of high electric voltage equipment when in operation. Ozone is widely used as a disinfectant for air and water, in bleaches, waxes, textiles, oils. and inorganic synthesis. Enhanced levels of ozone are found in planes flying at high altitudes. Because of the toxic nature of ozone and its potential hazard to man, its levels in the environment are subject to government regulation. The current standard is set at an hourly average of 235 ?g/m/sup 3/ (0.12 ppm) not to be exceeded more than once per year. Urban areas with high levels of photochemical smog (e.g. Southern California) may experience high ambient ozone levels which can reach 0.5 ppm

  2. Artificial ozone holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolya, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to...

  3. COTTON YIELD RESPONSES TO OZONE AS MEDIATED BY SOIL MOISTURE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. 'SJ-2'), grown in open-top chambers in the Central Valley of California, was exposed to 6 ozone (O3) treatments ranging from charcoal-filtered (CF) to ambient plus 0.10 ppm O3 (1981) or twice ambient O3 concentrations (1982) for the entire growin...

  4. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O3 monitoring and foliar O3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  5. Short-term effects of multiple ozone metrics on daily mortality in a megacity of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Yan, Meilin; Ma, Wenjun; Ban, Jie; Liu, Tao; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Zhaorong

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have widely demonstrated association between ambient ozone and mortality, though controversy remains, and most of them only use a certain metric to assess ozone levels. However, in China, few studies have investigated the acute effects of ambient ozone, and rare studies have compared health effects of multiple daily metrics of ozone. The present analysis aimed to explore variability of estimated health effects by using multiple temporal ozone metrics. Six metrics of ozone, 1-h maximum, maximum 8-h average, 24-h average, daytime average, nighttime average, and commute average, were used in a time-series study to investigate acute mortality associated with ambient ozone pollution in Guangzhou, China, using 3 years of daily data (2006-2008). We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze the mortality, ozone, and covariate data. We also examined the association by season. Daily 1- and 8-h maximum, 24-h average, and daytime average concentrations yielded statistically significant associations with mortality. An interquartile range (IQR) of O3 metric increase of each ozone metric (lag 2) corresponds to 2.92 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.24 to 5.66), 3.60 % (95 % CI, 0.92 to 8.49), 3.03 % (95 % CI, 0.57 to 15.8), and 3.31 % (95 % CI, 0.69 to 10.4) increase in daily non-accidental mortality, respectively. Nighttime and commute metrics were weakly associated with increased mortality rate. The associations between ozone and mortality appeared to be more evident during cool season than in the warm season. Results were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants, weather, and time trend. In conclusion, these results indicated that ozone, as a widespread pollutant, adversely affects mortality in Guangzhou. PMID:25572272

  6. The tropospheric ozone problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Detlev

    2004-04-01

    Derived from measurements it has been concluded that in the last hundred years the ground-based ozone concentration has risen by about a factor of two. Models also show a doubling of the tropospheric ozone content due to human activities. It is very likely that mean ozone concentration will further increase. In contrast, episodes with excess ozone levels ("summer smog") have become rare in Central Europe during the last five years. This controversial finding is explained by the reduction of NOx (being the "catalyst" in ozone formation) as well as of reactive ozone precursors like non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) due to catalytic converters in motor cars. On the other hand, a further increase of methane emissions and probably carbon monoxide is responsible for regional and even global background increase of ozone. The principal formation mechanisms are well understood, despite some open questions concerning the contribution of specified organic substances, especially from biogenic sources. Less known, however, are chemical sinks, especially heterogeneous processes. A better knowledge of these processes may influence the global ozone budget by up to 30% and the regional/local even more. The key question considering ozone abatement is that for determining precursors in time and space. Air quality control has also to consider the question of ozone impact on vegetation, animals and man. Moreover, ozone also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Air pollution control, based on ecological and economic principles, needs a complex understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the biosphere. Measures should not be focused on single pollutants, but on impacts, which always have complex causes. Only quantified impacts with consequences unaccepted by society may be a problem. PMID:15137177

  7. Effectiveness of different EDU concentrations in ameliorating ozone stress in carrot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2010-07-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) is suggested for use to evaluate plant response under ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations. Four EDU treatments, viz. 0 (non-EDU), 150, 300 and 450 mg L(-1), applied as soil drench at 10 days interval to carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Pusa Kesar), grown at a tropical suburban site of Varanasi experiencing mean O(3) concentration of 36.1 ppb during the experimental period. EDU treated plants showed significantly higher antioxidative defense, assimilation capability and reduced membrane lipid peroxidation, which led to better growth and significant yield increments compared to non-EDU treated ones. The magnitude of positive responses was highest at 150 mg L(-1) EDU treatment at 60 DAG, representing the metabolically most active phase of root filling in carrot. This study suggests that the lowest EDU concentration was sufficient to provide protection against negative effects of O(3). PMID:20403638

  8. Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

    2014-09-01

    Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

  9. Ozone isotopes retrievals

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, C.; Dudhia, A.; Payne, V.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D

    2005-01-01

    The isotopic ratios of stratospheric ozone can be used as valuable tracers for many processes in the atmosphere. Here we compare stratospheric enrichments of heavy ozone obtained from two limb sounders: MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding), on board Envisat, SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer), on board the Odin satellite.

  10. Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level or "bad" ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile ... the major sources of NOx and VOC. Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems, particularly ...

  11. Desempenho e orientação do crescimento do pepino japonês em ambiente protegido / Performance and growth conduction of Japanese cucumber in protected environment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalberto, Santi; Walcylene LMP, Scaramuzza; Danilo MJ, Soares; José Fernando, Scaramuzza; Rivanildo, Dallacort; Willian, Krause; Rafael Cesar, Tieppo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção de pepino japonês Tsuyataro, com diferentes métodos de orientação do crescimento das hastes, a partir do controle de brotações laterais das hastes e do número de hastes por planta, realizados através da poda. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no período de outubro a dezembro de 2010, [...] em ambiente protegido em Tangará da Serra-MT, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2x3. O primeiro fator foi constituído de desbrota, ou seja, realização ou não da retirada dos ramos laterais das hastes e o segundo fator foi constituído pelo controle do número de hastes por planta: uma, duas e três hastes/planta, em cinco repetições. Foram avaliadas as características número de frutos total e comercial; taxa de frutos comerciais, comprimento, diâmetro, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto, produtividade total e comercial de frutos por planta; e massa média dos frutos do pepino. A condução da haste principal sem a retirada dos ramos laterais foi o tratamento que apresentou superioridade com relação ao número de frutos total e comercial por planta (19,4 e 16,0), e também maior produtividade total e comercial de frutos (4.235,8 e 3.438,3 g/planta). Já a poda das brotações laterais promoveu aumento no comprimento, diâmetro e na massa média dos frutos do pepino de 24,5 para 25,1 cm; 3,4 para 3,5 cm e 212,1 para 228,3 g/fruto, respectivamente. Abstract in english The production of the Japanese cucumber Tsuyataro was evaluated using methods of stems growth conduction, controlling the lateral buds and number of stems per plant, through pruning. The research was carried out from October to December 2010, in a protected environment in Tangará da Serra, Mato Gros [...] so state, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design, with five replications, in a factorial scheme (2x3). The first factor was the pruning, i.e., removal or not of lateral stems and the second factor was constituted of the control of number of stems: one, two and three stems per plant, with five replications. We evaluated the following characteristics: total and marketable number of fruits, commercial fruits rate, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit length/diameter ratio, total and marketable yield of fruit per plant and fruit average weight. The treatment with conduction of the main stem without removal of lateral buds had better performance on total and marketable number of fruits per plant (19.4 and 16.0) and higher total and marketable yield of fruits (4,235.8 and 3,438.3 g per plant). The pruning of lateral buds provided increase in length, diameter and average mass of cucumber fruits of 24.5 to 25.1 cm; 3.4 to 3.5 cm and 212.1 to 228.3 g per fruit, respectively.

  12. Visible foliar injury and infrared imaging show that daylength affects short-term recovery after ozone stress in Trifolium subterraneum

    OpenAIRE

    Vollsnes, Ane V.; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Otterholt, Eli; Kvaal, Knut; Oxaal, Unni; Futsaether, Cecilia M.

    2009-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been investigated. Young Trifolium subterraneum plants kept in environmentally controlled growth rooms under long day (10?h bright light, 14?...

  13. Fundamentals of ISCO Using Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using ozone involves the introduction of ozone gas (O3) into the subsurface to degrade organic contaminants of concern. Ozone is tri-molecular oxygen (O2) that is a gas under atmospheric conditions and is a strong oxidant. Ozone may react with ...

  14. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Rocìo; Bermejo, Victoria; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  15. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Belchor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 ?g/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 ?g of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  16. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition from ozone mode to nitrogen oxides mode occurs as the discharge power increases. One prominent example of plasma biotechnology is the use of plasma-derived reactive species as a novel disinfectant. Ambient-air plasma is an attractive means of disinfection because it is non-thermal, expends a small amount of power, and requires only air and electricity to operate. Both solid surfaces and liquid volumes can be effectively and efficiently decontaminated by the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that plasma generates. Dry surfaces are decontaminated most effectively by the plasma operating in NOx mode and less effectively in ozone mode, with the weakest antibacterial effects in the transition region, and neutral reactive species are more influential in surface disinfection than charged particles. Aqueous bacterial inactivation correlates well with ozone concentration, suggesting that ozone is the dominant species for bacterial inactivation under the condition of a low-power discharge. Alternatively, air plasma operating in the higher-power, nitrogen oxides-rich mode can create a persistently antibacterial solution. Finally, when near-UV (UVA) treatment follows plasma treatment of bacterial suspension, the antimicrobial effect exceeds the effect predicted from the two treatments alone, and addition of nitrite to aqueous solution, followed by photolysis of nitrite by UVA photons, is hypothesized as the primary mechanism of synergy. The results presented in this dissertation underscore the dynamic nature of air plasma chemistry and the importance of careful chemical characterization of plasma devices intended for biological applications. The complexity of atmospheric pressure plasma devices, and their sensitivity to subtle differences in design and operation, can lead to different results with different mechanisms.

  17. Seasonal ozone behavior along an elevation gradient in the Colorado Front Range Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Molly; Helmig, Detlev; Oltmans, Samuel

    2010-12-01

    Ambient surface ozone was monitored for one year at a series of seven sites along an elevation gradient from 1600 m to 3500 m above sea level (ASL) in Boulder County, Colorado. Spatial variability of ozone, quantified as the root mean squared deviation of hourly ozone per kilometer horizontal separation, decreased with elevation and distance from local sources, validating the assumption that (except at the City of Boulder (BO) site) the results of the study are representative of the Colorado Front Range. The northern hemisphere (NH) tropospheric spring ozone peak was clearly apparent in late April and early May and affected ozone at all elevations. Ozone consistently increased with elevation during winter, with a mean monthly rate of 1.5 ppbv per 100 m elevation. In summer, this monotonic increase in ozone with elevation was not observed; instead mean monthly ozone increased in two steps, by ˜15 ppbv between 1610 m and 1940 m ASL and by ˜10 ppbv between 3350 m and 3530 m ASL to a maximum of 60 ppbv. The amplitude of the diurnal ozone cycle decreased with increasing elevation. Average summertime diurnal swings in ozone concentration had a magnitude of 29 ppbv at 1610 m ASL, and 7-16 ppbv at the mid-elevation sites. In winter a diurnal cycle was observed only at the BO site, ozone concentrations at the remaining six locations changed on a multi-day timescale, indicating regional background behavior as the primary factor for wintertime ozone. Even the highest elevation site was influenced by transported urban air pollution in summer, indicated by the average 5 ppbv diurnal increase in ozone. Ozone exposure at the mid- to high-elevation sites in many instances approached and exceeded the 8-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppbv. The elevated ozone levels along this transect were interpreted to be caused by the confounding effects of the high elevation of these sites, increased ozone in long-range transported air, and anthropogenic ozone production in air transported from the nearby urban and suburban areas east of the Colorado Front Range Mountains.

  18. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    LJILJANA TAKI?; VLADA VELJKOVI?; SRDJAN PEJANOVI?

    2008-01-01

    The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone abs...

  19. barrido ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Neri Basurto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El casco es una estructura relativamente sencilla, constituida por queratina, proteína bastante sulfatada, que provee al casco de dureza y cierta elasticidad para soportar el peso y distribuir la intensidad del impacto en el casco. Para este fi n, se necesita que el casco tenga una calidad adecuada, que requiere de buena nutrición basada en proteínas, vitaminas y minerales. Los minerales constituyen 4% del peso corporal y se conforman en macrominerales (calcio, fósforo, sodio, cloro, potasio, magnesio y azufre y microminerales (selenio, yodo, cobre y zinc. El zinc participa en la formación del casco al inducir la producción de queratina. Su defi ciencia en la dieta causa problemas al tejido córneo, como cascos delgados, friables y fi suras en la pared. Para que el Zn++ sea absorbido adecuadamente, es necesario que sea ingerido en forma quelada como metionina de zinc. La dieta de siete caballos fue complementada con 5.4 g/día/caballo de metionina de zinc por un periodo de seis meses. Se obtuvieron muestras a nivel de la muralla y se realizaron cortes transversales; antes y después del tratamiento, se analizó su morfología y contenido de minerales (Mg++, Cl-, S, Ca++, Na++, K+, P, Si, Fe++, Cu++, Zn++ en el microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental equipado con dispersor de rayos X. Se observó que la morfología presentaba mejor constitución y compactación de los cuernos tubulares e intratubulares en el estrato medio, así como aumento sustancial de zinc (32.9% y de azufre (68.4%, lo cual sugiere incremento de queratina y mejor estructuración del casco

  20. Ozone - plant surface reactions an important ozone loss term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Canaval, Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billions dollar per year. Plant injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: How much ozone enters the plant through open stomata and how much ozone is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? Until now surface losses are estimated from measured total ozone deposition fluxes and calculated stomatal conductance values. While stomatal conductance of CO2 and H2O is well understood and extensively used in describing plant atmosphere gas exchange, stomatal conductance of ozone is not well known. Here we use different Nicotiana tabacum varieties and find that surface reactions of ozone with diterpenoids synthesized by glandular trichomes reduce ozone flux through open stomata. Our measurements reveal that fast ozone loss at the plant surface is accompanied with prompt release of oxygenated volatile compounds. In the ozone fumigation experiments of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties the release of specific volatile oxy-VOCs allowed to identify the semi volatile precursor compounds at the plant surface. Ozone fumigation experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), two common species in the Northern Hemisphere, show also a significant ozone loss at the plant surface for Picea abies. Fluid dynamic calculations of ozone transport in the diffusive leaf boundary layer reveal a vertical but no horizontal ozone gradient thus reducing ozone fluxes through the pores in case of efficient ozone scavenging plant surfaces. We explain this efficient ozone protection mechanism by the porous surface architecture of plants in combination with unsaturated semi-volatile compounds deposited at the plant surface. These results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as oxygenated VOC source, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the plant's ozone tolerance

  1. Ozone lidar monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ozone lidar system was installed at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (36 deg. N, 140 deg. E) in March, 1988 and observation of ozone profiles commenced from August 1988. The lidar system consists of XeCl, XeF and KrF excimer lasers, 2 m and 56 cm telescope optics and data processing systems. Since the Ozone Lidar Monitoring Program of the Center for the Environmental Research started in October 1990, frequent measurements (more than 50 times per year) have been made. After checking the statistical and systematic errors, the ozone profiles were archived. Comparisons between the lidar data and SAGE II satellite data were done for mutual validation and gave good results. Seventy four vertical profiles of ozone archived for the period from August 1990 through December 1991 are presented in this report. The seasonal and altitudinal variations of stratospheric ozone distribution can be explained by generally understood transport and photochemical reaction processes. Longer term monitoring is required to detect trends in the vertical profile of ozone

  2. Artificial ozone holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  3. Estonian total ozone climatology

    OpenAIRE

    Eerme, K.; Veismann, U.; Koppel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 19...

  4. Ozone response of tomato plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and/or tobacco mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Kemp, W.G.

    1979-10-01

    The sensitivity of three tomato cultivars to several concentrations of ozone was evaluated after prior sequential inoculations with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and/or cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Ozone injury in inoculated and uninoculated tomatoes varied from slight to severe depending on the virus, cultivar, ozone concentration and virus incubation period. The frequency of increased ozone injury was about twice as great as that of suppressed injury on infected plants. Ozone injury occurred more frequently in TMV-inoculated plants than in those inoculated with CMV. There were more increases than decreases in ozone injury after 7 or 14 days of virus infection, but mainly decreases in injury after 21 days infection. Growth was significantly reduced in plants exposed to ozone after a 21-day virus incubation period, particularly when they were inoculated with both viruses.

  5. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Factors Affecting the Association between Ambient Concentrations and Personal Exposures to Particles and Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Coull, Brent Andrew; Schwartz, Joel David; Gold, Diane R.; Suh MacIntosh, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    Results from air pollution exposure assessment studies suggest that ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?g (PM2.5)], but not ambient gases, are strong proxies of corresponding personal exposures. For particles, the strength of the personal–ambient association can differ by particle component and level of home ventilation. For gases, however, such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), the impact of home ventilation on personal–a...

  7. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

    2014-11-01

    High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

  9. Consequences of ozone depletion for terrestrial plant productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many plants are greatly affected by increases in UV-B radiation but there is tremendous variability in their sensitivity. Plants have evolved natural adaptations such as anatomical, morphological and biochemical features which protect them from UV-B radiation. The extent of these natural adaptations may be related to the geographic origin of the species. For example, species originating from areas receiving high ambient levels of UV-B radiation were found to be highly resistant to UV-B radiation. In sensitive species, photosynthetic activity may be reduced by direct effects on photosynthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways or by indirect effects on photosynthetic pigments or stomatal function. The fluence response of these changes has yet to be clearly demonstrated in most cases. These biochemical and physiological responses may result in reduced growth (plant height, dry weight, leaf area, etc.) photosynthetic activity and flowering. Approximately half of the species tested appear sensitive and sensitivity also differs greatly among cultivars of the same species. Increases in UV-B radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion could alter productivity in some species, as shown in field studies with soybean and loblolly pine. However, in order to assess the magnitude of such changes, we must further understand the mechanisms of UV-B protection in tolerant species and damage in sensitive species as well as the potential indirect effects such as changes in competindirect effects such as changes in competitive interactions or ecosystem processes

  10. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  11. The effect of reciprocal treatments with ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation on photosynthesis and growth of perennial grass Elymus athericus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on plant growth of the simultaneously changing factors of the global climate, rising tropospheric O3 concentrations and increasing UV-B radiation fluxes, has been tested in a combined glasshouse and growth chamber experiment. The saltmarsh grass species Elymus athericus was sequentially fumigated for two weeks with O3 and for another two weeks irradiated with UV-B (vv). Exposure to elevated UV-B did not negatively affect photosynthesis or plant growth. Fumigation with O3 had a depressing effect on net photosynthesis, the number and biomass of flowers, the number of leaves and the number of shoots. O3-induced damage only was observed in plants which had been fumigated during the last two weeks of the experiment. Since interactive responses were not observed, results suggest different primary target sites for O3 and UV-B within the plant

  12. Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs tree stomatal response to carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising concentrations of both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3), it is important to better understand the interacting effects of these two trace gases on plant physiology affecting land-atmosphere gas exchange. We investigated the effect of growth under elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination, on the primary short-term stomatal response to CO2 concentration in paper birch at the Aspen FACE experiment. Leaves from trees grown in elevated CO2 and/or O3 exhibited weaker short-term responses of stomatal conductance to both an increase and a decrease in CO2 concentration from current ambient level. The impairement of the stomatal CO2 response by O3 most likely developed progressively over the growing season as assessed by sap flux measurements. Our results suggest that expectations of plant water-savings and reduced stomatal air pollution uptake under rising atmospheric CO2 may not hold for northern hardwood forests under concurrently rising tropospheric O3. - Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs stomatal CO2 responsiveness of birch in the Aspen FACE experiment.

  13. The Effect of Air Pollution on Ozone Layer Thickness in Troposphere over the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Al Jeran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to Ultra Violet (UV radiation. United States environmental protection agency and European community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal protocol in 1987. Problem statement: This research deled with data analysis of ozone layer thickness obtained from Abu-Dhabi station and detailed measurement of air pollution levels in Kuwait. Approach: The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been correlated with the measured pollution levels in the State of Kuwait. The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade had been evaluated. Other factor that strongly affects the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere is local pollution levels of primary pollutants such as total hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides. Results: The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels presented in detail reflecting negative relation of both non-methane hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations in ambient air. Conclusion: Ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been measured for five years (1999-2004 reflecting minimum thickness in the month of December and maximum in the month of June. The ozone thickness related to the ground level concentration of non-methane hydrocarbon and can be used as an indicator of the health of ozone layer thickness in the stratosphere.

  14. Threat to food security under current levels of ground level ozone: A case study for Indian cultivars of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Richa; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    A higher ozone concentration in rural agricultural region poses threat to food production in developing countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the growth, biomass accumulation and allocation pattern, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grains for two tropical rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L. cv NDR 97 and Saurabh 950) at ambient O 3 concentrations at a rural site in the Indo Gangetic plains of India. Percent inhibition in number of leaves was higher for NDR 97, but in leaf area for Saurabh 950 grown in non filtered chambers (NFCs) compared to filtered chambers (FCs). Higher inhibition in root biomass was recorded in Saurabh 950 and in leaf and standing dead biomass for NDR 97. During vegetative phase, relative growth rate showed more percent inhibition in Saurabh 950, but at reproductive phase in NDR 97. Net assimilation rate showed higher values for Saurabh 950 than NDR 97 in NFCs but percent inhibition in leaf area ratio was higher for former than latter cultivar in NFCs. The ozone resistance was higher in NDR 97 during vegetative phase, but in Saurabh 950 at reproductive phase. Number of grains was higher in NDR 97 than Saurabh 950, but test weight and weight of grains m -2 showed reverse trends. Concentrations of starch, protein, P, N, Ca, Mg and K decreased, while reducing and total soluble sugar increased in grains of both the cultivars in NFCs compared to FCs. The study concluded that under ambient condition of O 3 exposure, the two cultivars responded differently. Saurabh 950 favoured biomass translocation priority towards ear in reproductive phase and hence showed higher resistivity due to maintenance of higher test weight. NDR 97, however, showed better growth during vegetative period, but could not allocate efficiently to developing ears, hence higher number of unfilled grains in NFCs led lower test weight.

  15. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  16. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  17. Catalytic for Ozone Converters

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of New Catalytic Systems, Methods of Formation of Catalytic Elements on this Basis, and Development of a Laboratory Version of the Low-Temperature Catalytic Ozone Converter for Life Support Systems in Civil Aviation

  18. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, which in concert with clima...

  19. Ozonization manual for water and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masschelein, W.J. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    This book is divided into parts discussing ozone generation, water ozonization principles, practical aspects, and ozone analysis. Critical questions in ozone practice, costs, new developments, and flow sheets are also presented.

  20. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l-1, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l-1, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne

  1. The effect of ozone on pollen development in Lolium perenne L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, K.; Franz, J.-Th.; Masuch, G

    2004-10-01

    Perennial ryegrass plants (Lolium perenne L.) were exposed in 'Closed-Top Chambers' to different ozone concentrations and to charcoal filtered ambient air to study the effect of ozone on the development of pollen. Ozone at ambient (65 nl l{sup -1}, 8 h) and elevated (110 nl l{sup -1}, 4 h) concentrations affected the maturing of pollen by inhibiting starch accumulation in pollen throughout the anther. Affected pollen persisted in the vacuolated state while normal pollen in the same anther were filled with amyloplasts. The percentage of underdeveloped pollen--determined in transversal sections--was significantly higher in exposed plants than in plants grown in filtered air. Results indicate that ozone stress was responsible for the disrupted development of pollen in L. perenne.

  2. Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, C.

    2008-12-01

    The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

  3. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  4. Effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietz, Matthias; Hall, Michael R; Høj, Lone

    2009-07-01

    Microbial biofilms developing in aquaculture tanks represent a reservoir for opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and procedures to control formation and bacterial composition of biofilms are important for the development of commercially viable aquaculture industries. This study investigated the effects of seawater ozonation on biofilm development on microscope glass slides placed in small-scale aquaculture tanks containing the live feed organism Artemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that ozonation accelerated the biofilm formation cycle, while it delayed the establishment of filamentous bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups in the biofilm for both water types, but ozonation influenced their dynamics. With ozonation, the bacterial community structure was relatively stable and dominated by Gammaproteobacteria throughout the experiment (21-66% of total bacteria). Without ozonation, the community showed larger fluctuations, and Alphaproteobacteria emerged as dominant after 18 days (up to 54% of total bacteria). Ozonation of seawater also affected the dynamics of less abundant populations in the biofilm such as Betaproteobacteria, Planctomycetales and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium branch of phylum Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Thiothrix, a bacterial genus capable of filamentous growth and fouling of larvae, increased with time for both water types, while no temporal trend could be detected for the genus Vibrio. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated temporal changes in the dominant bacterial populations for both water types. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed the FISH data, and sequences were related to bacterial groups commonly found in biofilms of aquaculture systems. Several populations were closely related to organisms involved in sulfur cycling. Improved Artemia survival rates in tanks receiving ozonated water suggested a positive effect of ozonation on animal health. Although the used ozonation protocol did not hinder biofilm formation, the results suggest ozonation as a promising approach for manipulation of bacterial populations in aquaculture systems, which can prove beneficial for cultured animals. PMID:19446976

  5. Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Jürg

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is the most important regional-scale air pollutant causing risks for vegetation and human health in many parts of the world. Ozone impacts on yield and quality of crops and pastures depend on precursor emissions, atmospheric transport and leaf uptake and on the plant’s biochemical defence capacity, all of which are influenced by changing climatic conditions, increasing atmospheric CO2 and altered emission patterns. In this article, recent findings about ozone effects under current conditions and trends in regional ozone levels and in climatic factors affecting the plant’s sensitivity to ozone are reviewed in order to assess implications of these developments for future regional ozone risks. Based on pessimistic IPCC emission scenarios for many cropland regions elevated mean ozone levels in surface air are projected for 2050 and beyond as a result of both increasing emissions and positive effects of climate change on ozone formation and higher cumulative ozone exposure during an extended growing season resulting from increasing length and frequency of ozone episodes. At the same time, crop sensitivity may decline in areas where warming is accompanied by drying, such as southern and central Europe, in contrast to areas at higher latitudes where rapid warming is projected to occur in the absence of declining air and soil moisture. In regions with rapid industrialisation and population growth and with little regulatory action, ozone risks are projected to increase most dramatically, thus causing negative impacts major staple crops such as rice and wheat and, consequently, on food security. Crop improvement may be a way to increase crop cross-tolerance to co-occurring stresses from heat, drought and ozone. However, the review reveals that besides uncertainties in climate projections, parameters in models for ozone risk assessment are also uncertain and model improvements are necessary to better define specific targets for crop improvements, to identify regions most at risk from ozone in a future climate and to set robust effect-based ozone standards.

  6. Measurement of ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is the triatomic form of oxygen developing in catalytic processes from atmospheric oxygen under the influence of high-energy radiation (UV light). These reactions are very much accelerated by air pollution such as nitrous gases (NOx). Ozone ranks immediately behind the chemical element fluorine leading the range of highly oxidising agents. Ozone is poorly water-soluble and can therefore penetrate into deep layers of lung tissue via the respiratory track. Ozone may also be produced indoors through the effects of UV light on atmospheric oxygen. A part from external air which, of course, reaches the interior of building by airing, other sources. A method which employed particularly at workplaces is measurement using direct-reading Drager detector tubes. In the case of the Drager ozone detector tube 0.05/b this method works on the principle that ozone reacts with the reagent system in the test tube. The air sample to be analysed is admitted to this reagent system by pumping of defined air volume flow through the system. (A.B.)

  7. Ozone Exposure of a Weed Community Produces Adaptive Changes in Seed Populations of Spergula arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Landesmann, Jennifer B.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Martínez-Ghersa, M. Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted...

  8. Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L; Alvarez, S.; J. Golovko; M. Buhr; FIELD, R; Soltis, J.; D. C. Montague; B. Hauze; Adamson, S; Risch, D.; G. Wilkerson; Bush, D; T. Stoeckenius; C. Keslar

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB), Wyoming during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv). Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combinatio...

  9. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  10. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O3 on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O3, 100 ppb O3, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O3, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O3 exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O3, and that not only O3, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O3 may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  11. Ozone inhalation leads to a dose-dependent increase of cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nina; Davé, Veronica; Venkat, Subha; Wong, Hofer; Donde, Aneesh; Balmes, John R; Arjomandi, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    Ozone is an important constituent of ambient air pollution and represents a major public health concern. Oxidative injury due to ozone inhalation causes the generation of reactive oxygen species and can be genotoxic. To determine whether ozone exposure causes genetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes, we used a well-validated cytokinesis-block micronucleus Cytome assay. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and nucleoplasmic bridges (NB) were used as indicators of cytogenetic damage. Samples were obtained from 22 non-smoking healthy subjects immediately before and 24-hr after controlled 4-hr exposures to filtered air, 100 ppb, and 200 ppb ozone while exercising in a repeated-measure study design. Inhalation of ozone at different exposure levels was associated with a significant dose-dependent increase in MN frequency (P?ozone also caused an increase in the number of apoptotic cells (P?=?0.002). Airway neutrophilia was associated with an increase in MN frequency (P?=?0.033) independent of the direct effects of ozone exposure (P?ozone exposure, and show that damage is dose-dependent. Further study of ozone-induced cytogenetic damage in airway epithelial cells could provide evidence for the role of oxidative injury in lung carcinogenesis, and help to address the potential public health implications of exposures to oxidant environments. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:378-387, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25451016

  12. Effects of elevated ozone on CO2 uptake and leaf structure in sugar maple under two light environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of ozone and light on leaf structure, carbon dioxide uptake and short-term carbon allocation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings were examined using gas exchange measurements and 14C-macroautoradiographic techniques. Two-year-old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated from budbreak for 5 months with ambient or 3 × ambient ozone in open-top chambers, receiving either 35% (high light) or 15% (low light) of full sunlight. Ozone accelerated leaf senescence, and reduced net photosynthesis, 14CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance, with the effects being most pronounced under low light. The proportion of intercellular space increased in leaves of seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, possibly enhancing the susceptibility of mesophyll cells to ozone by increasing the cumulative dose per mesophyll cell. Indeed, damage to spongy mesophyll cells in the elevated ozone × low light treatment was especially frequent. 14C macroautoradioraphy revealed heterogeneous uptake of 14CO2 in well defined areole regions, suggesting patchy stomatal behaviour in all treatments. However, in seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, the highest 14CO2 uptake occurred along larger veins, while interveinal regions exhibited little or no uptake. Although visible symptoms of ozone injury were not apparent in these seedlings, the cellular damage, redsynthetic rates and reduced whole-leaf chlorophyll levels corroborate the visual scaling of whole-plant senescence, suggesting that the ozone × low light treatment accelerated senescence or senescence-like injury in sugar maple. (author)

  13. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations. Rate constant...

  14. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF OZONE

    OpenAIRE

    Thiebeaux, C.; Courtois, D.; Delahaigue, A.; Mouanda, J.

    1991-01-01

    A ten micron laser heterodyne spectrometer has been developed for the purpose of investigating the frequency, intensity, and lineshape of some ozone lines. High resolution spectra of ozone have been recorded and compared with available data.

  16. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Introduction to models of economic growth with a great deal of focus on the Solow Growth Model both its theory and testing it with data. Also contains a discussion of the effects of the Greenspan Put. From a macroeconomics course at the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  17. 72 FR 37818 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-11

    ...a plausible link between O ...physiological mechanisms by which O...adults tested saw > 2 fold increases...beginning to suggest mechanisms that may link O 3 exposure...information about the mechanisms underlying respiratory...judgment that the link between O...

  18. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...release from lung epithelial cells of platelet activating factor (PAF) that may contribute...default convergence criteria in generalized additive models (GAM) did not change the effect... has been studied very little, but additive effects of heat and O 3...

  19. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; R J, Alvarez; Brioude, Je?rome; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S. P.; Weickmann, A. M.; Williams, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport from the Los Angeles Basi...

  20. Atmospheric emissions and economic growth. Environmental Kuznets Curve and Kyoto protocol; Emisiones atmosfericas y crecimiento economico en Espana. La Curve de Kuznets ambiental y el protocolo de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Jusmet, J.; Padilla Rosa, E.

    2004-07-01

    From the beginning of the 90s the analysis of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressures has been influenced by the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis or inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental pressure and per capita income. Following this hypothesis, once achieved certain income level, more economic growth is followed by environmental quality improvement. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the theories that support this hypothesis as well as the empirical evidence on this subject. Further on we analyse the relationship between per capita income and the main environmental pollutants for the case does not support the hypothesis. The empirical evidence shows that economic growth, by itself, does not entail a pollution reduction. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Responses of red spruce seedlings to ozone and acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, R.L.; Jensen, K.F.; Schier, G.A. (USDA Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, OH (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings were treated with ozone and simulated acid precipitation to determine the effects of these pollutants on growth, nonstructural carbohydrates, and foliar mineral content. One-year-old seedlings were fumigated with ozone (at 0.15{mu}l/l for 6 h/d or at 0.15 {mu}l/l for 6 h/d plus 0.07 {mu}l/l for 18 h/d) and treated with simulated precipitation (pH 3.5, 4.0, or 4.5) for up to 28 weeks. Seedlings were harvested at 7-week intervals. Ozone had no effect on growth, and precipitation acidity affected only terminal length. Carbohydrate pools were altered little by the ozone and precipitation treatments. Of eight minerals tested, only Ca was affected by precipitation acidity and only P and Cu were affected by ozone. The result show that red spruce seedlings that receive ample supplies of water and nutrients are tolerant to ozone and changes in precipitation acidity. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Modelling of long-term anthropogenic changes in stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A numerical two-dimensional interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and by ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The mechanisms of the impact of each of the pollutants on stratospheric temperature have been analysed, their relative contributions to the predicted temperature change have been estimated. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere, have been studied in details. The contributions of different pollutions to the predicted ozone changes have been estimated. The results of the calculations show that the basic mechanism by which greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer is stratospheric cooling accompanied by a weakness in the efficiency of the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction due to temperature dependencies of the photochemical gas-phase reactions. Modification of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the Cs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases is important only for the polar ozone. An essential influence of the greenhouse gases on the ozone by a modification of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol is revealed. The aerosol changes caused by the greenhouse gases modify the distribution of the ozone-active gaseous chlorine, bromine and nitrogen components by means of heterogeneous reactions on the aerosol surface, resulting in a significant decrease in springtime polar ozone depletion of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  3. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, B. M.; Andersen, S. B.; Christiansen, B.; Larsen, N.; Rex, M.; Harris, N. R. P.; Naujokat, B.

    2004-01-01

    Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result is that Arctic ozone...

  4. Impact of ozone on the water relations of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Susann.

    1996-01-01

    During the field seasons 1993 and 1994, five-year-old field-grown ash trees as well as potted two-year-old saplings and one-year-old seedlings of ash (Fraxinu. g exccl. 5ior L. ) were exposed to ozone episodes in open-top chambers. The plants received either charcoal-filtered air (CF) or charcoal-filtered air to which 150 ppb of ozone were added (CF+03). Plants in unchambered plots, receiving ambient air (Ambient), were included into the investigation for comparison. Half of the two-year-old ...

  5. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005 (winter and 2006 (summer. Statistical analysis showed that there are significant statistical differences between cohorts obtained from natural environment and those obtained in hatchery. The Tukey's test showed differences between CN2003 and CH2003 and also between CN2005 and CH2005, while there were no significant differences between CN2006 and CH2006. These differences indicate that the cohorts of natural environment seeds grew faster than those of hatchery. Inter annual comparison showed significant statistical differences. These results are discussed in terms of the cultivation temperature and the heterozygosity for the growing population.

  6. Lung Function and Inflammatory Responses in Healthy Young Adults Exposed to 0.06 ppm Ozone for 6.6 Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chong S.; Alexis, Neil E; Rappold, Ana G.; Kehrl, Howard; Hazucha, Milan J.; Lay, John C; Schmitt, Mike T; Case, Martin; Devlin, Robert B.; Peden, David B; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to ozone causes a decrease in spirometric lung function and an increase in airway inflammation in healthy young adults at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm, close to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ground level ozone.

  7. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger JØrgensen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin-secreting hemibiotrophic spot blotch fungus increased compared to ambient conditions, implying that climate-induced changes in disease severity could be linked to the trophic lifestyle of the pathogens. Elevated [CO2] decreased powdery mildew infection but had no effect on spot blotch disease compared to ambient condition. However, the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature did not act in an additive manner when combined. This led to a surprising disease development in the combination treatments, where powdery mildew infection increased despite the individual reducing effect of the climatic factors, and spot blotch disease decreased despite the individual promoting effect of temperature and ozone, emphasizing the importance of conducting multifactorial experiments when evaluating the potential effects of climate change.

  8. Evidências de interação genótipo x ambiente sobre características de crescimento em bovinos de corte Evidences of genotype x environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello de Alencar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre os pesos à desmama (PD e aos 12 meses de idade (P12, o ganho de peso diário da desmama aos 12 meses de idade (GDA e o desempenho com base em um índice (CPG de componentes principais envolvendo essas três características, em um rebanho da raça Canchim. O ambiente foi considerado a época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres do animal. Para avaliar a interação genótipo x ambiente, foram utilizadas duas metodologias: 1 - estimativas de parâmetros genéticos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas (REML, com análise bicaráter (mesma característica nas duas épocas, com o modelo estatístico incluindo os efeitos fixos de sexo, ano e mês de nascimento do animal e idade da vaca ao parto como covariável (linear e quadrático e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e do resíduo; e 2 - semelhante à metodologia 1, porém, no modelo estatístico, incluiu-se ou não o efeito aleatório não correlacionado de touro-época de nascimento, testando a diferença entre os dois modelos pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança. Pela Metodologia 1, as correlações genéticas obtidas para a mesma característica nas duas épocas de nascimento foram iguais a 0,87; 0,97; 0,91 e 0,88, para PD, P12, GDA e CPG, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram semelhantes para as duas épocas de nascimento, para todas as características estudadas. Pela metodologia 2, o efeito de touro-época de nascimento foi significativo para todas as características estudadas. Estes resultados evidenciam a existência de interação genótipo x época de nascimento para as características estudadas, sugerindo que as avaliações genéticas e a seleção dos animais desse rebanho devem considerar essa interação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction for body weight at weaning (WW and 12 months of age (W12, average daily gain from weaning to 12 months of age (ADG, and performance based on a principal components index (PC involving these three traits, in a Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu herd. The environment was the season (semester of birth, and two methods were used to evaluate the genotype x environment interaction: Method 1 - genetic parameters estimated by the derivative free maximum likelihood method (REML, using two-trait analyses (the same trait in the two seasons, and a model that included the effects of year and month of birth, sex and age of cow as a covariate (linear and quadratic effects, and the random effect of animal; and Method 2 - same methodology as Method 1, but with two statistical models, with or without the uncorrelated random effect of sire - season of birth, testing the difference between the two models using the likelyhood ratio test. By Method 1, the genetic correlations for the same trait in the two environments (seasons were equal to 0.87, 0.97, 0.91 and 0.88 for WW, W12, ADG and PC, respectively. The heritability estimates were very similar for both environments, for all traits studied. By Method 2, the sire-season of birth effect was significant for all traits studied. These results show evidence of genotype x season of birth interaction for the traits studied, suggesting that, in this herd, genetic evaluation and selection should take this interaction into account.

  9. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  10. DEVELOPMENTS IN OZONATION OF WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensar O?UZ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, has been used in both industrial and synthetic chemistry. From this point of view, ozone-organic chemistry related papaers have been published by many researcher. Forthermore; its role in air and water pollution problems is more important today. As a result of ozone researches, it is clear that ozone is to be the brightest expection for future in industrial, domestic, and driking water treatment. Ozone, a high grade oxidation matter, has been used for removing the pollutants and toxic materials from waste waters.

  11. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  12. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  13. Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae in natural habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Angélica de Pádua Bueno

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W, to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The animals were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W. The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of the crab were registered. And after that, the animals were returned to the stream. In the statistical analysis von Bertalanffy's model was used. The growth curves in length (mm of males and females are described, respectively, by the following equations: L1 = 17.39 [1 - e -0041(t + 3913] and L1 = 19.12 [1 - e -0.0033 (t + 50.38]. The equations that describe the growth in weight (g of males and females, respectively, are: Wt = 2.48 [1 - e -0.0041(t + 3913]3.04 and Wt - 3.38 [1 - e - 0033(t + 50.38]3.05 Among 36,5% males had larger left chelae and 52% of females had chelae of the same size.

  14. Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) / The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) in natural habitat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Angélica de Pádua, Bueno; Georgina, Bond-Buckup; Ludwig, Buckup.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W) in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The anima [...] ls were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W). The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of the crab were registered. And after that, the animals were returned to the stream. In the statistical analysis von Bertalanffy's model was used. The growth curves in length (mm) of males and females are described, respectively, by the following equations: L1 = 17.39 [1 - e -0041(t + 3913)] and L1 = 19.12 [1 - e -0.0033 (t + 50.38)]. The equations that describe the growth in weight (g) of males and females, respectively, are: Wt = 2.48 [1 - e -0.0041(t + 3913)]3.04 and Wt - 3.38 [1 - e - 0033(t + 50.38)]3.05 Among 36,5% males had larger left chelae and 52% of females had chelae of the same size.

  15. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  16. Ground-level ozone and its potential impacts on forests in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunova, I.; Livorova, H.; Ostatnicka, J. [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, CHMI, Komorany (Czech Republic); Uhlirova, H. [Forest Management and Gamekeeping Research Institute, VULHM, Zbraslav (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The ground-level ozone is a strong oxidant which at elevated concentrations is harmful for human health, ecosystems and materials. Experiments show that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations result in trees damage manifested e.g. by defoliation. 30 min ground-level ozone concentrations from 60 automated ambient air quality stations and defoliation values recorded annually at monitoring sites throughout the country were used as input values. The AOT40 values for forests for vegetation periods of 1994-1998 were calculated. The critical level exceeding fields for a threshold value set as 10 ppmh have been derived using the ARC/INFO system and its module GRID. The IDW has been used for interpolation, the altitude's effect on ozone concentrations is taken in account. The results show that the above threshold value is exceeded on nearly the entire territory of the country even in years with meteorological conditions unfavourable for ground-level ozone formation. This results in rather high potential harmful effects of ground-level ozone for forests at the territory of the Czech Republic. The relationship between ground-level ozone concentrations (CHMI monitoring sites) and forest tree defoliation (monitoring sites of VULHM) is studied and similar trends of ozone concentration and defoliation of coniferous trees from selected sites are presented. (authors)

  17. Ozone stress and antioxidant substances in Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Severino, Joyce [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria) and Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: y.ferreira-severino@umweltforschung.at; Stich, Karl [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemark 9/166, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Research/UU, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.soja@arcs.ac.at

    2007-04-15

    Ozone-sensitive (NC-S clone) and resistant plants (NC-R clone) of Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea were exposed to moderate ozone concentrations in ambient air. The aim of this study was the investigation of the relation between ozone-sensitivity and leaf concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity). NC-R clone showed the highest concentrations of antioxidants with 50-70% more ascorbic acid than NC-S. NC-R had about 5 times more ascorbic acid in the young leaves and 9 times more in the old leaves than Centaurea. In a fumigation experiment with acute ozone stress (100 nl L{sup -1}) the antioxidant levels changed profoundly. The ozone-injured leaves of NC-S had 6-8 times more total phenolics than uninjured leaves. Generally older leaves had lower antioxidant concentrations and were more prone to ozone injury than younger leaves. Ascorbic acid concentrations were closer related to the appearance of visible ozone injury than the other antioxidative parameters. - Low leaf ascorbic acid levels are a main cause for visible ozone injuries in Trifolium and Centaurea.

  18. Ozone stress and antioxidant substances in Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone-sensitive (NC-S clone) and resistant plants (NC-R clone) of Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea were exposed to moderate ozone concentrations in ambient air. The aim of this study was the investigation of the relation between ozone-sensitivity and leaf concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity). NC-R clone showed the highest concentrations of antioxidants with 50-70% more ascorbic acid than NC-S. NC-R had about 5 times more ascorbic acid in the young leaves and 9 times more in the old leaves than Centaurea. In a fumigation experiment with acute ozone stress (100 nl L-1) the antioxidant levels changed profoundly. The ozone-injured leaves of NC-S had 6-8 times more total phenolics than uninjured leaves. Generally older leaves had lower antioxidant concentrations and were more prone to ozone injury than younger leaves. Ascorbic acid concentrations were closer related to the appearance of visible ozone injury than the other antioxidative parameters. - Low leaf ascorbic acid levels are a main cause for visible ozone injuries in Trifolium and Centaurea

  19. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  20. Interação genótipo × ambiente e estimativas de parâmetros genéticos de características ponderais de bovinos Tabapuã / Genotype by environment interaction and genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Tabapuã cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.B., Fridrich; M.A., Silva; D., Fridrich; G.S.S., Corrêa; L.O.C., Silva; E.S., Sakaguti; I.C., Ferreira; B.D., Valente.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dados de pesos aos 205 (P205) e 365 (P365) dias de idade, de 28.946 animais Tabapuã, provenientes de 152 fazendas dos diversos estados brasileiros, nascidos no período de 1976 a 1995, foram utilizados nesta análise. Foram avaliadas as interações genótipo-ambiente, bem como estimadas herdabilidades d [...] ireta e materna pelo método de máxima verossimilhança restrita em modelo estatístico, que incluiu efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, idade da vaca ao parto (covariável) e efeitos aleatórios genéticos direto e materno. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e materna para P205 nas regiões Sul (R1), Sudeste (R2), Centro-Oeste (R3) e Nordeste (R4) foram: 0,02 e 0,31 (R1), 0,17 e 0,19 (R2), 0,20 e 0,09 (R3) e 0,06 e 0,16 (R4). Para P365, foram 0,05 e 0,03 (R1), 0,20 e 0,03 (R2), 0,51 e 0,62 (R3) e 0,15 e 0,05 (R4). As correlações genéticas encontradas para as características P205 e P365, ambas consideradas características distintas nas regiões R1, R2, R3 e R4, foram: 1,00 e 0,99, 0,84 e 0,99, -0,86 e -0,73, 0,98 e 0,93, 0,51 e 0,45, 1,00 e 0,12 para R1/R2, R1/R3, R1/R4, R2/R3, R2/R4 e R3/R4, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam que, na desmama (P205), o efeito da interação genótipo x ambiente foi observado somente nas combinações que envolveram a região Nordeste (R4) e as regiões Sul (R1) e Sudeste (R2). Para pesos pós-desmama (P365), o efeito dessa interação foi evidenciado em todas as combinações que incluíram a região Nordeste. Abstract in english Body weight records at 205 (205BW) and 365 (365BW) days of age of 28,946 Tabapuã animals born during the 1976-1995 period from 152 Tabapuã herds of several states of Brazil, were used to evaluate genotype by environment interactions and to estimate genetic and maternal heritability by restricted max [...] imum likelihood methodology. The statistical model included the fixed effects of contemporary group and age of cow (covariate), and the random additive genetic and maternal effects. Maternal and genetic heritability estimates for BW205 considered as different traits in each of the South (R1), Southeast (R2), Central West (R3), Northeast (R4) regions were .02 and .31, .17 and .19, .20 and .09 and .06 and .16, respectively, and for BW365 they were .05 and .03 (R1), .20 and .03 (R2), .51 and .62 (R3) and .15 and .05 (R4). The genetic correlation for 205BW and 365BW both considered as different traits in each of the South (R1), Southeast (R2), Central West (R3), Northeast (R4) regions were, respectively, 1.00 and .99, .84 and .99, -.86 and -.73, .98 and .93, .51 and .45, 1.00 and .12 for BW205 and BW365 in R1/R2, R1/R3, R1/R4, R2/R3, R2/R4 e R3/R4, respectively, indicating a significant genotype by environment interaction for 205BW only for the combination between Northeast and the South and Southeast regions. For the 365BW there was a significant genotype by environment interaction for all combinations involving the Northeast region.

  1. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  2. Response of native plants of northeastern United States and southern Spain to ozone exposures; determining exposure/response relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous plants species confirmed sensitive to ambient ozone in eastern United States, and southeastern Spain. - Tropospheric ozone has been identified as the most important regional scale air pollutant across much of eastern United States of America and many areas of Mediterranean climes in southern Europe. Recent field surveys in the northeastern USA and in southeastern Spain have revealed many additional plant species that exhibit symptoms typical of ozone-induced injuries. Objectives of this study were to confirm ozone as the cause of the observed foliar symptoms, determine ozone induced exposure/response relationships, and identify possible bio-indicator species. Thirteen native species of northeastern USA and 27 native species of southeastern Spain were selected for study. Plant species were exposed to ozone within 16 CSTR chambers in a greenhouse during the summer seasons of 2000 and 2001; ozone exposures of 30, 60, 90, and 120 ppb were delivered for 7 h/day, 5 days/week. Results have confirmed that with few exceptions, symptoms observed in the field were induced by exposures to ambient ozone. Species differed significantly in terms of the exposures required for the initiation of visible symptoms and subsequent injury progression

  3. Efeito da densidade de estocagem na homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu em ambiente confinado Stocking density effect on growth homogeneity of juvenile pirarucu in confined environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de estocagem sobre a homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas em tanques-rede de pequeno volume. Foram usados 12 tanques-rede de 1 m³ em um viveiro de 120 m² perfazendo três tratamentos (15, 20 e 25 peixes/m³ com quatro repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso médio inicial de 10,1±0,3 g e distribuídos homogeneamente (p>0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os coeficientes de variação do crescimento e do fator de condição não apresentaram diferenças significativas (p>0,05 ao contrário do consumo e da conversão alimentar aparente (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the stocking density over fish growth homogeneity of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas juveniles in small volumes cages. Twelve 1 m³ netcages were used in a 120 m² earth pond consisting of three treatments (15, 20 and 25 fish/m³ with four repetitions each. Fish were stocked with an initial mean weight of 10.1±0.3 g and homogeneous distributed (p>0.05 between treatments. Coefficient of variation for growth and condition factor did not present significant (p>0.05 differences, contrary to consumption and apparent feed conversion (p<0.05. Consumption was inversely proportional to the increment of density, indicating that stockings densities increases are favorable to a better feed use. There were not any observed behavior differences between treatments. Juveniles pirarucu growth was not influenced by the stocking density or intraspecifics interactions.

  4. Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke en distintos ambientes de fertilidad Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in different environnement of fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Herrera Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántulas de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes, Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S. Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA y de las raíces (MSR, contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plant growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, Standard (nature soil, Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.

  5. Crecimiento de plántulas de estátice (Limonium sinuatum) y viola (Viola cornuta) en ambientes contrastantes / Growth of statice (Limonium sinuatum) and viola (Viola cornuta) seedlings in contrasting environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Javier, Ayala-Garay; José Alfredo, Carrillo-Salazar; Evelia, Hernández-García; Elizabeth, Díaz-Martínez; Manuel, Livera-Muñoz; Gustavo, Almaguer-Vargas.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En producción rústica de ornamentales se requiere conocer el efecto medioambiental en la emergencia y crecimiento de plántulas para optimizar el proceso de producción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el efecto de tres condiciones de producción: un túnel cubierto por polietileno, malla [...] -sombra de 50 % de transmisión de radiación solar y a la intemperie, en el crecimiento de plántulas de estátice y viola, durante el invierno en el Valle de México. Se midieron la temperatura del aire, porcentaje de emergencia (E%), área foliar por planta (AF) y biomasa seca por planta (PS) a los 10,18, 24, 31 y 35 días después de siembra (dds) en estátice, y 21, 28, 35, 43 y 52 dds en viola; se calcularon las tasas absoluta de crecimiento (TAC), relativa de crecimiento (TRC) y de asimilación neta (TAN). En túnel de polietileno y malla-sombra se tuvieron valores de E % más altos: 95 y 93 % para estátice y 97 y 95 % para viola, respectivamente. En ambas especies existieron dos cinéticas sigmoidales de crecimiento en PS: la cinética de crecimiento en el túnel de polietileno fue la mayor (P Abstract in english In order to grow ornamental plants in non-controlled environments, the effect of temperature on seedling emergence and growth must be known in order to optimize plant production. The aim of this research was to compare the growth of statice and viola seedlings, during the winter in the Valley of Mex [...] ico, under three production conditions: a polyethylene-covered tunnel, shade netting that cuts light transmission by 50 %, and in the open. We measured air temperature (0C), emergence percentage (E%), leaf area (LA) per plant and dry weight biomass (DWB) per plant at 10, 18, 24, 31 and 35 days after planting (dap) in statice seedlings, and at 21, 28, 35, 43 and 52 dap in viola seedlings. In addition, the absolute growth rate (AGR), the relative growth rate (RGR) and the net assimilation rate (NAR) were calculated. Compared to the outdoor treatment (control), The polyethylene tunnel and shade netting produced higher E% values: 95 and 93 % for statice and 97 and 95 % for viola, respectively. Two different sigmoid curves of dry matter accumulation were observed in both species. The polythene tunnel produced higher DWB than the other conditions (P

  6. Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae) in natural habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Angélica de Pádua Bueno; Georgina Bond-Buckup; Ludwig Buckup

    2000-01-01

    The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, São Paulo, Brazil (20º60'S, 47º40'W), to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (50º01'10"S, 75º18'45"W) in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The animals were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29º46'S, 50º53"W). The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of...

  7. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  8. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  9. Efeitos da restrição alimentar protéica ou energética sobre o crescimento de frangos de corte criados em diferentes temperaturas ambiente Effect of protein or energy restriction on broilers growth reared at different environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Regina Leone

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da restrição protéica ou energética, entre o 8º e o 14º dia de idade, sobre o crescimento e a composição da carcaça de frangos de corte criados em diferentes temperaturas ambientes. Foram utilizados 900 pintos de um dia, machos, da linhagem Ross, os quais foram alojados em três diferentes câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 25 ou 33°C, do 1º ao 42º dia de idade. Para cada temperatura, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as parcelas corresponderam ao programa alimentar (controle - 2850 kcal EM/kg e 20% de proteína bruta do 1º ao 21º dia de idade e 3040 kcal EM/kg e 17% de PB do 22º ao 42º dia; restrição energética - 2565 kcal EM/kg e 20% de PB e restrição protéica - 2850 kcal EM/kg e 15% de PB entre o 8º e o 14º dia de idade e as subparcelas, à idade das aves. Entre o 1º e o 7º dia de idade e após o período de restrição as aves receberam a mesma dieta do que os animais controles. Foram avaliados o peso vivo e a composição da carcaça das aves. Os resultados mostraram que, de forma independente da temperatura de criação, as restrições alimentares (energética ou protéica não afetaram o peso vivo e a composição da carcaça aos 42 dias de idade, evidenciando que o frango em temperaturas ambientes diversas mantém a capacidade de ganho compensatório.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of protein or energy restriction from 8th to 14th days of age, on growth and carcass composition of broiler chickens raised at different environmental temperatures. It was used 900 day-old, male chickens from Ross strain, reared in three environmentally controlled rooms where ambient temperature were maintained at 18, 25 and 33°C up to 42 days of age. For each temperature, a split-plot design was used with feed program as the main plot (control - 2850 kcal ME/kg and 20% of crude protein from 1 to 21 days and 3040 kcal ME/kg and 17% of crude protein from 22 to 42 days; energy restriction - 2565 kcal ME/kg and 20% of crude protein and protein restriction - 2850 kcal ME/kg and 15% of crude protein from 8th to 14th days of age and age as the sub-plot. From 1 to 7 days of age and after restriction period, the chicks were fed with the control diet. The body weight and carcass composition were analyzed. The results showed that, irrespective of ambient temperature, the qualitative energy or protein restriction did not affect the body weight and carcass composition at 42 days of age, indicating that broilers kept a compensatory gain ability in different ambient temperatures.

  10. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect’ or ‘surround effect’. To make an ambient space is to produce a sensation of being surrounded by highlighting the very spatial properties of a given space. Ambient space is space as a surrounding ubiquity, space as ‘world’. Despite often being used almost synonymously, the concepts of ambient space and atmosphere thus have quite different connotations. As I will argue, this not only includes the difference between place and non-place and between space as dwelling and transitory space. It also concerns, on a more general level, differences between particular and generalized space; between spatial involvement and detachment; between allocentric and idiocentric space; and between space as social and sensory experience.

  11. Efeito da densidade de estocagem na homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu em ambiente confinado / Stocking density effect on growth homogeneity of juvenile pirarucu in confined environments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Adan Sagratzki, Cavero; Manoel, Pereira-Filho; Rodrigo, Roubach; Daniel Rabello, Ituassú; André Lima, Gandra; Roger, Crescêncio.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de estocagem sobre a homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) em tanques-rede de pequeno volume. Foram usados 12 tanques-rede de 1 m³ em um viveiro de 120 m² perfazendo três tratamentos (15, 20 e 25 peixes/m³) co [...] m quatro repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso médio inicial de 10,1±0,3 g e distribuídos homogeneamente (p>0,05) entre os tratamentos. Os coeficientes de variação do crescimento e do fator de condição não apresentaram diferenças significativas (p>0,05) ao contrário do consumo e da conversão alimentar aparente (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the stocking density over fish growth homogeneity of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) juveniles in small volumes cages. Twelve 1 m³ netcages were used in a 120 m² earth pond consisting of three treatments (15, 20 and 25 fish/m³) with four repetitions each. Fish we [...] re stocked with an initial mean weight of 10.1±0.3 g and homogeneous distributed (p>0.05) between treatments. Coefficient of variation for growth and condition factor did not present significant (p>0.05) differences, contrary to consumption and apparent feed conversion (p

  12. Continuous laser irradiation under ambient conditions: A simple way for the space-selective growth of gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Visible continuous laser direct-write gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith. ? The presence of the additive (Na2CO3) is not necessary to the growth of gold nanoparticles. ? A simple heat treatment leads to precipitation of gold nanoparticles inside the silica matrices with, or without, the additive. ? The local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism. -- Abstract: Thanks to the potential and various applications of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, their syntheses constitute an interesting subject in material research. In this work, we demonstrate the achievement of gold nanocrystals growth through a visible and continuous laser irradiation. The in situ and direct space-selective generation of metallic nanoparticles is localized under the surface within transparent silica monoliths. For that purpose, the porous silica monoliths are prepared using a sol-gel route and post-doped with gold precursors before the irradiation. The presence of Au nanoparticles inside the irradiated areas was evidenced using absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The comparison between the results obtained after a laser irradiation and by a simple heat-treatment reveals that the local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism.

  13. Low soil temperature reduces the positive effects of high nutrient supply on the growth and biomass of white birch seedlings in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing at a rate of 1.9 ?mol per mol per year as a result of both natural and human-induced emissions. This study investigated the effects of soil temperature and nutrient supply on the growth responses of white birch in relation to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Birch seedlings were grown under 2 different CO2 regimes and 3 different nutrient and soil regimes for a period of 4 months. The study showed that there were significant 3-factor interactive effects on root collar diameter (RCD); stem biomass; and leaf mass ratio. Lower soil temperatures reduced RCD at high nutrient supply ratios. Stem biomass was also reduced at intermediate and high nutrient supply regimes with elevated CO2 ratios. The effect of soil temperature was negligible in low nutrient supply regimes. It was concluded that growth and biomass was higher with higher nutrient supplies at all soil temperatures. Results of the study suggested that low soil temperatures reduced the positive effect of high nutrient supply on biomass production. 68 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Economía ambiental: perspectiva institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Caballero M\\u00EDguez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una primera aproximación teórica de corte institucional al estudio de las interrelaciones entre economía y medio ambiente. En concreto, se manifiesta la insuficiencia de una Economía del Medio Ambiente edificada sobre la economía neoclásica ortodoxa. A partir del teorema de Coase, tantas veces mal interpretado en la economía ambiental, y del cuerpo teórico de la nueva economía institucional, se formula una ?revisión débil? que destaca el peso de las instituciones sobre la cuestión ambiental. Pero además, se formulan una serie de argumentos alejados del reduccionismo económico que constituyen un intento de ?revisión fuerte? al defender la insuficiencia de una economía ambiental neoclásica ortodoxa centrada en el objetivo de la eficiencia económica. A través de ambas vías se concluye la relevancia de cuestiones como las instituciones, la ética y el derecho en el análisis económico ambiental, por lo que se finaliza presentando unas consideraciones jurídicas generales sobre el medio ambiente.

  15. Non-Thermal Plasma Ozone Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Peka?rek, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews ozone properties, ozone applications and the mechanism of ozone production in non-thermal plasma. An analysis is made of the influence of a reduced electric field and discharge space temperature on ozone production. The phenomenon of discharge poisoning is also explained. Finally, a modern ozone production system based on dielectric barrier electrical discharge is described.

  16. Estudo da interação genótipo × ambiente sobre características de crescimento de bovinos de corte utilizando-se inferência bayesiana / A study of the genotype × environment interaction for growth traits in beef cattle using Bayesian inference

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arthur dos Santos, Mascioli; Maurício Mello de, Alencar; Alfredo Ribeiro de, Freitas; Elias Nunes, Martins.

    2275-22-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a interação genótipo × ambiente em um rebanho da raça Canchim por meio de estimativas de parâmetros genéticos dos pesos à desmama e aos 12 meses de idade, do ganho de peso diário entre essas idades e do desempenho estimado por um índice obtido de componentes principais envolvendo essas tr [...] ês características. O ambiente foi representado por época de nascimento (primeiro e segundo semestres) e os parâmetros genéticos foram obtidos em análises bicaráter (mesma característica nas duas épocas), utilizando-se a metodologia de inferência bayesiana, por meio de amostrador de Gibbs, cujo modelo incluiu os efeitos fixos de sexo, ano e mês de nascimento do animal e idade da vaca ao parto (linear e quadrática) e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Houve evidências de interação genótipo × época de nascimento para as características estudadas, sugerindo que as avaliações genéticas e a seleção dos animais devem ser feitas considerando-se a existência dessa interação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotype × environment interaction for weaning and yearling weights, daily weight gain from weaning to 12 months of age and the growth performance in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) beef cattle estimated by a principal components analysis including [...] those three traits. The environment was defined by season of birth (first and second semesters of the year). Genetic parameters were estimated by bayesian method with the Gibbs sampler using bivariate analyses (considering the trait in each of the two seasons as a different one) and models that included the fixed effects of year and month of birth, sex and age of cow (linear and quadratic) and the random effects of animal and residual. The results suggested that genetic evaluation and selection in Canchim beef cattle for the traits studied should consider the genotype and season of birth interaction.

  17. Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2004-01-01

    High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

  18. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NOx concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NOx in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway aecursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NOx) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality (mostly in October). The truck pathway tends to cause a much wider fluctuation in degradation or improvement of ozone air quality: percentage changes in peak ozone concentrations are approximately -0.01% to 0.04% for the assumed 9% market penetration, and approximately -0.03% to 0.1% for the 20% market penetration. Moreover, the 20% on-site pathway occasionally results in a decrease of about -0.1% of baseline ozone pollution. Compared to the current ambient pollution level, all three hydrogen pathways are unlikely to cause a serious ozone problem for market penetration levels of HFCVs in the 9-20% range. (Author)

  19. Development of a portable instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone is a key species related to air pollution, causing respiratory problems, damaging crops and forests, and affecting the climate. Our current understanding of the tropospheric ozone-forming chemistry indicates that net ozone production occurs via reactions of peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. Production rates of tropospheric ozone, P(O3), depend on concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (V OCs), but also on production rates of ROx radicals (OH + HO2 + RO2). The formation of ozone follows a complex nonlinear chemistry that makes strategies for reducing ozone difficult to implement. In this context, atmospheric chemistry models are used to develop emission regulations, but there are still uncertainties associated with the chemical mechanisms used in these models. Testing the ozone formation chemistry in atmospheric models is needed, in order to ensure the development of effective strategies for ozone reduction. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR) in ambient air. The OPR instrument is made of three components: (i) two quartz flow tubes to sample ambient air, one exposed to solar radiation and one covered by a UV filter, (ii) a NO2-to-O3 conversion unit, and (iii) an ozone analyzer. The total amount of ozone exiting each flow tube is conserved in the form of Ox = NO2 + O3. Ozone production rates P(O3) are derived from the difference in Ox concentration between the two flow tubes, divided by the exposure time of air inside the flow tubes. We will present studies that were carried out in the laboratory to characterize each part of the instrument and we will discuss the performances of the OPR instrument based on experiments carried out using synthetic air mixtures of known composition (NOx and V OCs). Chemical modeling will also be presented to assess the reliability of ozone production rate measurements.

  20. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  1. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  2. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone

  3. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season

  4. Effects of rooting medium and fertilizer rate on response of white clover to tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagle, A S; Miller, J E

    1996-01-01

    Two white clover (Trifolium repens L.) clones with varying sensitivity to O(3) are being developed as a system to indicate effects of ambient concentrations of tropospheric O(3) on plants. One clone (NC-S) is highly sensitive to O(3) and the other (NC-R) is highly resistant. The system relies on periodic measurement of foliar injury, foliar chlorophyll, and forage production of NC-S and NC-R grown in 15-liter pots throughout a summer season. Relative amounts of foliar injury and ratios (NC-S/NC-R) for chlorophyll and forage weight can be used to estimate biologically effective ambient O(3) concentrations. The effect of variation in rooting media formulation and fertilizer rate on response of NC-S and NC-R to ambient O(3) was determined in the present study. In the rooting medium experiment, clover was grown in three mixtures of sandy loam topsoil:course washed sand:Metro Mix 220 (ratios (by volume) of 2:1:1, 2:1:5, and 6:1:1). In the fertilizer experiment, clover was grown in the 2:1:1 medium at four fertilizer rates (soluble 5-11-26 (N-P-K) at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g per pot). Ozone caused more foliar injury, more chlorosis, and a greater decrease in forage production of NC-S than of NC-R in all studies. Rooting media treatments affected both clones similarly and occasional clone x media interactions were judged to be random. Forage production by NC-S, relative to that of NC-R, was generally greater in the 0.0 fertilizer treatment, but the forage ratios were similar at all other fertilizer treatments. The relative response of NC-S and NC-R to O(3) is fairly stable under cultural conditions that support normal plant growth. PMID:15091458

  5. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Maritza F.; Hernández Rebeca; Martínez Goitybell; Vidal Genny; Gómez Magali; Fernández Harold; Garcés Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  6. Ozone and ozone byproducts in the cabins of commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Clifford; Weschler, Charles J; Mohan, Kris; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2013-05-01

    The aircraft cabin represents a unique indoor environment due to its high surface-to-volume ratio, high occupant density, and the potential for high ozone concentrations at cruising altitudes. Ozone was continuously measured and air was sampled on sorbent traps, targeting carbonyl compounds, on 52 transcontinental U.S. or international flights between 2008 and 2010. The sampling was predominantly on planes that did not have ozone scrubbers (catalytic converters). Peak ozone levels on aircraft without catalytic convertors exceeded 100 ppb, with some flights having periods of more than an hour when the ozone levels were >75 ppb. Ozone was greatly reduced on relatively new aircraft with catalytic convertors, but ozone levels on two flights whose aircraft had older convertors were similar to those on planes without catalytic convertors. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO) were detected in the aircraft cabin at sub- to low ppb levels. Linear regression models that included the log transformed mean ozone concentration, percent occupancy, and plane type were statistically significant and explained between 18 and 25% of the variance in the mixing ratio of these carbonyls. Occupancy was also a significant factor for 6-MHO, but not the linear aldehydes, consistent with 6-MHO's formation from the reaction between ozone and squalene, which is present in human skin oils. PMID:23517299

  7. Application of ozone to aquarium; Suizokukan eno ozone no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-10

    When culturing sea water of aquarium is treated by ozone, basic technology, introduction example, and its effects are described. For the ozone treatment of fresh water, ozone is dissolved in the water in a form of molecules, resulting in the water quality purification through decoloring, sterilization, and oxidation/decomposition of organic substances. Since excess ozone is converted into oxygen molecules through self-decomposition, ozone has only low residual property, resulting in high stability. For the ozone treatment of sea water, ozone reacts with bromine ion which is contained at about 60 mg/liter in the natural sea water, to generate hypo-bromous acid and bromic acid with strong oxidation force. The bromine oxides generated by the reaction between ozone and sea water are generally called as oxidants, which are useful for the purification of sea water through decomposition of ammonia nitrogen as well as disinfection and decomposition of organic substances. In contrast, they provide toxicity for fish in low concentration and strong residual property. A treatment method using activated carbon is effective for certain removal of oxidants. Applications of the ozone treatment to culturing tests of aquatic organisms in the sea water in aquarium are also introduced. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Real-time monitoring of ozone in air using substrate-integrated hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensors

    OpenAIRE

    João Flávio da Silveira Petruci; Paula Regina Fortes; Vjekoslav Kokoric; Andreas Wilk; Ivo Milton Raimundo; Arnaldo Alves Cardoso; Boris Mizaikoff

    2013-01-01

    Ozone is a strong oxidant that is globally used as disinfection agent for many purposes including indoor building air cleaning, during food preparation procedures, and for control and killing of bacteria such as E. coli and S. aureus. However, it has been shown that effective ozone concentrations for controlling e.g., microbial growth need to be higher than 5?ppm, thereby exceeding the recommended U.S. EPA threshold more than 10 times. Consequently, real-time monitoring of such ozone concen...

  9. OZONE SENSITIVE AND RESISTANT LINES OF SNAP BEAN. I. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread areas of crop production are at risk for damage at ambient ozone (O3) concentrations. Past research has not determined the plant mechanisms that cause differences in O3 sensitivity. Therefore, a study was undertaken to examine the effects of O3 on three snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) ge...

  10. The international ozone assessment - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojkov, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 1994, prepared under leadership of the World Meteorological Office in collaboration with UNEP, presents the latest information and current understanding of ozone and will be part of the scientific basis for future decisions by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol regarding the protection of the ozone layer. It is a product of 300 scientists from 35 countries. The Assessment covers: observed changes of ozone and source gases; the atmospheric processes responsible for observed changes in the polar tropical and mid-latitude stratospheric and tropospheric ozone; model simulations; radiative forcing and surface UV as consequences of ozone changes; and scientific information for future decisions on methylbromide, aircraft emissions, substitutes for long-lived halocarbons and chlorine-bromine bonding. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Slow Crack Growth Behavior and Life/Reliability Analysis of 96 wt % Alumina at Ambient Temperature With Various Specimen/Loading Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Powers, Lynn M.; Nemeth, Noel N.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive constant stress-rate testing for 96 wt % alumina was conducted in room-temperature distilled water using four different specimen/loading configurations: rectangular beam test specimens under four-point uniaxial flexure, square plate test specimens in ring-on-ring biaxial flexure, square plate test specimens in ball-on-ring biaxial flexure, and dog-boned tensile test specimens in pure tension. The slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n was almost independent of specimen/loading configurations, in either four-point uniaxial flexure, ring-on-ring biaxial flexure, ball-on-ring biaxial flexure, or pure tension, ranging from n = 35 to 47 with an average value of n = 41.1 +/- 4.5. The prediction of fatigue strength/reliability based on the four-point uniaxial flexure data by using the CARES/Life design code as well as a simple PIA model was in good agreement with both the ring-on-ring biaxial and the ball-on-ring biaxial flexure data. A poor prediction using the PIA model was observed for the dog-boned tensile test specimens, presumably due to different flaw population involved in the tensile test specimens.

  12. 76 FR 13289 - Approval of One-Year Extension for Attaining the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard in the Baltimore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    EPA is approving the extension of the attainment date from June 15, 2010 to June 15, 2011 for the Baltimore nonattainment area, which is classified as moderate for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This extension is based on the air quality data for the 4th highest daily 8-hour monitored value during the 2009 ozone season. Accordingly, EPA is revising the table......

  13. 75 FR 43114 - Approval of One-Year Extension for Attaining the 1997 8-Hour Ozone Standard in the Baltimore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    EPA is proposing to extend the attainment date from June 15, 2010 to June 15, 2011 for the Baltimore nonattainment area, which is classified as moderate for the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). This extension is based in part on air quality data for the 4th highest daily 8-hour monitored value during the 2009 ozone season. In the final rules section of this Federal......

  14. Flixweed Is More Competitive than Winter Wheat under Ozone Pollution: Evidences from Membrane Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cai-Hong; Wang, Tian-Zuo; Li, Yong; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ozone on winter wheat and flixweed under competition, two species were exposed to ambient, elevated and high [O3] for 30 days, planted singly or in mixculture. Eco-physiological responses were examined at different [O3] and fumigating time. Ozone reduced the contents of chlorophyll, increased the accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde in both wheat and flixweed. The effects of competition on chlorophyll content of wheat emerged at elevated and high [O3], while ...

  15. Effect of Acute Ozone Induced Airway Inflammation on Human Sympathetic Nerve Traffic: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tank, J.; Biller, H.; Heusser, K.; Holz, O.; Diedrich, A.; Framke, T.; Koch, A.; Grosshennig, A.; Koch, W.; Krug, N.; Jordan, J.; Hohlfeld, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ozone concentrations in ambient air are related to cardiopulmonary perturbations in the aging population. Increased central sympathetic nerve activity induced by local airway inflammation may be one possible mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings: To elucidate this issue further, we performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, including 14 healthy subjects (3 females, age 22-47 years), who underwent a 3 h exposure with intermittent exercise to either ozone (250 ppb) ...

  16. Estimation of ozone dry deposition over Europe for the period 2071-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjáthy, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; László Lagzi, István.; Mészáros, Róbert

    2010-05-01

    Ozone in the lower troposphere is a phytotoxic air pollutant which can cause injury to plant tissues, causing reduction in plant growth and productivity. In the last decades, several investigations have been carried out for the purpose to estimate ozone load over different surface types. At the same time, the changes of atmospheric variables as well as surface/vegetation parameters due to the global climate change could also strongly modify both temporal and spatial variations of ozone load over Europe. In this study, the possible effects of climate change on ozone deposition are analyzed. Using a sophisticated deposition model, ozone deposition was estimated on a regular grid over Europe for the period 2071-2100. Our aim is to determine the uncertainties and the possible degree of change in ozone deposition velocity as an important predictor of total ozone load using climate data from multiple climate models and runs. For these model calculations, results of the PRUDENCE (Predicting of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects) climate prediction project were used. As a first step, seasonal variations of ozone deposition over different vegetation types in case of different climate scenarios are presented in this study. Besides model calculations, in the frame of a sensitivity analyses, the effects of surface/vegetation parameters (e.g. leaf area index or stomatal resistance) on ozone deposition under a modified climate regime have also been analyzed.

  17. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria sp. on Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Wani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of “gaseous” ozone in reducing numbers and re-growth of food-borne pathogens, (Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., on leafy salads was investigated using spinach. A preliminary in vivo study showed 1-log reduction in six strains of E. coli and two species of Listeria spp. on spinach exposed to 1 ppm ozone for 10 min. A range of ozone treatments were explored to deliver optimal bacterial inactivation while maintaining the visual appearance (color of produce. Exposure to a higher ozone concentration for a shorter duration (10 ppm for 2 min significantly reduced E. coli and Listeria spp. viable counts by 1-log and the pathogens did not re-grow following treatment (over a nine-day storage period. Impacts of 1 and 10 ppm ozone treatments were not significantly different. Approximately 10% of the pathogen population was resistant to ozone treatment. We hypothesized that cell age may be one of several factors responsible for variation in ozone resistance. E. coli cells from older colonies demonstrated higher ozone resistance in subsequent experiments. Overall, we speculate that gaseous ozone treatment constitutes the basis for an alternative customer-friendly method to reduce food pathogen contamination of leafy produce and is worth exploring on a pilot-scale in an industrial setting.

  18. Effect of a chronic and moderate ozone pollution on the phenolic pattern of bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina): relations with visible injury and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoun, M; Goulas, M J.P.; Biolley, J -P.

    2001-05-01

    From sowing, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Nerina) plants were exposed to three chronic doses of ozone for 7h.day(-1): non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered air supplied with 40nl.l(-1) ozone (NF+40) and non-filtered air supplied with 60nll(-1) ozone (NF+60). Four harvests were carried out 6, 13, 20 and 27 days after emergence. Either primary leaves, or first trifoliate leaves, or both were sampled as far as possible. For each sampled leaf, visible ozone injuries were registered, the free polyphenolic pool was analysed using HPLC and the dry matter was weighed. Visible damage on leaves was related to both exposure time and ozone concentration added. There were no adverse effects of added ozone on the biomass of primary leaves while a significant reduction of first trifoliates dry matter could be observed (NF+60 atmosphere, third and fourth harvest). Among the normally occurring phenolics, we detected a significant decrease in the accumulation of a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative as the ozone concentration increased. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that this ozone-induced modification could be sometimes distinguishable with difficulties from changes expected to be of development relevance. Beside this phenolic disbalance, we detected a de novo biosynthesis of compounds that closely depended on the level of visible ozone injury. Since their accumulation increased with leaf damage, these ozone-induced phenolics could be used to detect phytotoxic ambient levels of tropospheric ozone. PMID:11274768

  19. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO3SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and es of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status

  20. Relationship between ozone and temperature during the 2003 heat wave in France: consequences for health data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veron Nadège

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PAPRICA is a research program designed to estimate the impact on the health of patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency of a prevention strategy based on notification of ozone pollution. The first year of this study was conducted during the 2003 heat wave, and high temperatures were therefore considered as a confounding factor in the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between ozone and temperature in order to propose a methodology to distinguish between the effects of ozone and temperature on the impact of a prevention strategy with regard to ozone pollution. Methods Multivariate analyses were used to identify associated climate and ozone pollution profiles. This descriptive method is of great value to highlight the complexity of interactions between these parameters. Results Ozone concentration and temperature were strongly correlated, but the health impact of ozone pollution alone will be evaluated by focusing on situations characterized by ozone concentrations above 110 ?g/m3/8h (air quality guidelines to protect human health defined by the French legislation and temperatures lower than 26°C, below the discomfort threshold. Conclusion The precise relationship between ambient ozone concentration and temperature identified during the PAPRICA 2003 study period will be used in analysing the PAPRICA health data.

  1. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ?0.1 W/cm2. Interestingly, when input power is higher than ?0.1 W/cm2, ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  2. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O3, depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  3. Acerca de la biotecnología ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Pla, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of environmental biotecnology is to correct environmental imbalances caused by modern industrial activities. Many of these imbalances affect biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere, mainly catalysed by microorganisms. Deviations in the balances of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and iron compounds may cause very complex phenomena such as global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, environmental pollution and acidification of the sea. On the other hand, the poorly understood microbial interactions --either with each other or the environment-- have important consequences in generating highly recalcitrant chemical species which, accumulating in the trophic chains, are highly toxic for living organisms. To cope with these problems it is necessary to improve knowledge of microbial ecology and the functioning of the biogeochemical cycles at the molecular level, although it is also worth designing technologies to eliminate pollutants either in situ or ex situ, to avoid its uncontrolled production as well as to correct the unbalancing processes affecting phases of the biogeochemical cycles, either in the present day or in the future.La Biotecnología ambiental trata de corregir los desequilibrios causados en el medio ambiente por actividades industriales que alteran los ecosistemas naturales mediante contaminación química o biológica y que también afectan a los grandes ciclos biogeoquímicos en la biosfera, mayoritariamente catalizados por seres vivos, entre los que los microrganismos juegan un papel esencial. Las desviaciones en los balances de compuestos carbonados, nitrogenados y azufrados atmosféricos pueden causar fenómenos de gran complejidad como el calentamiento global, la destrucción de la capa de ozono, la contaminación ambiental o la lluvia ácida. Por otra parte, las interacciones de los microorganismos entre sí y con el medio, desconocidas en su mayor parte, tiene importantes repercusiones en la generación y persistencia de especies químicas que, depositadas en las cadenas tróficas, son altamente tóxicas para los organismos vivos. Para atajar estos problemas es necesario avanzar en el conocimiento a nivel molecular de la ecología microbiana y del funcionamiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos, aunque no es menos necesario desarrollar tecnologías para la eliminación de contaminantes industriales in situ y ex situ, evitar su producción y utilización incontroladas así como corregir las actuaciones desequilibrantes, actuales o futuras, de la biogeoquímica planetaria.

  4. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech tcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  5. Emission sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over equatorial Africa during the summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bouarar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model LMDz_INCA is used to investigate the contribution of African and Asian emissions to tropospheric ozone over central and West Africa during the summer monsoon. The model results show that ozone in this region is most sensitive to lightning NOx and to central African biomass burning emissions. However, other emission categories also contribute significantly to regional ozone. The maximum ozone changes due to lightning NOx occur in the upper troposphere between 400 hPa and 200 hPa over West Africa and downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Biomass burning emissions mainly influence ozone in the lower and middle troposphere over central Africa, and downwind due to westward transport. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds, which can be uplifted from the lower troposphere into higher altitudes by the deep convection that occurs over West Africa during the monsoon season, dominate the ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. Convective uplift of soil NOx emissions over the Sahel region also makes a significant contribution to ozone in the upper troposphere. Concerning African anthropogenic emissions, they make a lower contribution to ozone compared to the other emission categories. The model results indicate that most ozone changes due to African emissions occur downwind, especially over the Atlantic Ocean, far from the emission regions. The influence of Asian emissions should also be taken into account in studies of the ozone budget over Africa since they make a considerable contribution to ozone concentrations above 150 hPa. Using IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report estimates of anthropogenic emissions for 2030 over Africa and Asia, the model calculations suggest largest changes in ozone due to the growth of emissions over Asia than over Africa over the next 20 years.

  6. Depletion of ozone layer and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in food supply, rather than an increase in cancers, could turn out to be the greatest danger from the loss of the Earth's ozone shield says the author. This could result from alterations in plants and animals that are more sensitive than humans to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation. Increasing ambient ultraviolet radiation within a short time would exert dramatic selective pressure on all living organisms, but the global consequences of such an occurrence cannot be predicted. Common skin cancer is the best understood link with ultraviolet radiation. In fact, the link is so straightforward that precise calculations are possible: a 1% decrease in ozone equals a 2% increase in ultraviolet radiation, which translates into a 3 to 6% increase in common skin cancers in the US. If the immune system is damaged, the body cannot survive the continual onslaught of infectious agents present in the environment. People's willingness to protect themselves against sunlight exposure has been dictated by fashion. The fashionability of hats and sunglasses is beneficial for reducing the risk of cataracts; on the other hand, the fashionability of sun-tans has probably contributed to the rising incidence of skin cancer among Caucasians. The best remedy she advises is to avoid overexposure to sunlight

  7. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    OpenAIRE

    Anto?n, M.; Lo?pez, M.; Costa, M. J.; Serrano, A.; Bortoli, D.; Ban?o?n, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending ...

  8. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  9. In situ stratospheric ozone measurements by long path UV absorption - Developments and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Schiller, C. M.; Anderson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A high-sensitivity, in situ UV absorption ozone sensor has been developed for use in the stratosphere. The instrument couples 254-nm radiation from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp into a 40-pass White cell to attain a high-sensitivity ozone absorption measurement. Preflight/postflight laboratory tests utilizing an ozone source coupled to a laboratory UV ozone photometer in a fast-flow system as well as in-flight diagnostics verify the successful operation of the instrument. Evidence is presented to verify that in situ UV absorption ozone photometers can measure stratospheric ozone with better than 3 percent precision and 5 percent accuracy, provided proper attention is given to both the thermal field surrounding the gondola and the ambient pressure measurements. Ozone data are compared with modeled profiles in the 28- to 40-km region. An assessment of the disagreement between observations and modeled profiles is given along with suggestions for future experiments designed to constrain photochemical models.

  10. Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen, E-mail: yuchenlin@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Chang, Cheng-Yi [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hong, P.K. Andy [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Hsueh, Han-Fang [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFOA and PFOS are degraded by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment at pH 11. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of PFOA and PFOS by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under alkaline condition is enhanced when the compounds are pretreated by 15 min of ozonation at ambient pH (4-5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFOA and PFOS removal by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 11 was efficient relative to existing methods in terms of energy and contact time. - Abstract: The elimination of recalcitrant, ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is desirable for reducing potential human health and environmental risks. We here report the degradation of PFOA and PFOS by 85-100% via ozonation under alkaline condition being studied at environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations of 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 5 mg L{sup -1}, with enhanced removal rates by addition of hydrogen peroxide. Enhanced removal is achieved by ozonation pretreatment for 15 min at the ambient pH (i.e. 4-5), followed by elevation of pH to 11 and continued ozonation treatment for 4 h. The ozonation pretreatment resulted in increased degradation of PFOA by 56% and PFOS by 42%. The results indicated hydroxyl radical-driven degradation of PFOA and PFOS in both treatments by ozone and peroxone under alkaline conditions. Wastewaters from electronics and semiconductor fabrication plants in the Science Park of Hsinchu city, Taiwan containing PFOA and PFOS have been readily treated by ozonation under alkaline condition. Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate.

  11. Ozone lamina characteristics from ozone vertical profile measurements.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Kozubek, M.

    Boston : American Meteorological Society, 2013. [AMS Annual Meeting /93./. 05.01.2013–10.01.2013, Austin] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone lamina characteristics * ozone vertical profile measurements Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://ams.confex.com/ams/93Annual/webprogram/Paper215935.html

  12. Large-scale distribution of surface ozone mixing ratio in southern Mongolia: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, F. X.; Behrendt, T.; Ermel, M.; Hempelmann, N.; Andreae, M. O.; Jöckel, P.

    2012-04-01

    For the first time, measurements of surface ozone mixing ratio have been performed from semi-arid steppe to arid/hyper-arid southern Mongolian Gobi desert. During 12-29 August 2009, ozone mixing ratio was continuously measured from a mobile platform (4x4 Furgon SUV). The survey (3060 km / 229171km2) started at the Mongolian capital Ulaan-Baatar (47.9582° N, 107.0190° E ), heading to south-west (Echin Gol, 43.2586° N, 99.0255° E), eastward to Dalanzadgad (43.6061° N, 104.4445° E), and finally back to Ulaan-Baatar. Ambient air was sampled (approx. 1 l/min) through a 4 m long PTFE-intake line along a forward facing boom mounted on the roof of a 4x4 Furgon SUV. Ozone mixing ratio has been measured by UV-spectroscopy using a mobile dual-cell ozone analyzer (model 205, 2BTechnologies, Boulder, U.S.A.). While ozone signals were measured every 5 seconds, 1 minute averages and standard deviations have been calculated on-line and stored into the data logger. The latter are used to identify and to discriminate against unrealistic low or high ozone mixing ratios which have been due to occasionally passing plumes of vehicle exhaust and/or biomass burning gases, as well as gasoline (at gas filling stations). Even under desert conditions, the temporal behaviour of ozone mixing ratio was characterized by considerable and regular diel variations. Minimum mixing ratios (15-25 ppb) occurred early in the morning (approx. 06:00 local), when surface depletion of ozone (by dry deposition) can not be compensated by supply from the free troposphere due to thermodynamic stability of the nocturnal boundary layer. Late in the afternoon (approx. 17:00 local), under conditions of a turbulently well mixed convective boundary layer, maximum ozone mixing ratios (45-55 ppb) were reached. Daily amplitudes of the diel cycle of ozone mixing ratio were in the order of 30 ppb (steppe), 20 ppb (arid desert), to approx. 5 ppb (hyper-arid Gobi desert (Shargyn Gobi)). Ozone surface measurements were compared to gridded ozone mixing ratios calculated by the global ECHAMMESSy model. Despite the model data's nature and the rather coarse spatial resolution (approx. 220 km) of the MESSy model, the agreement between (late afternoon) measured data and modelled data is surprisingly good. The attempt is made to estimate the (night-time) dry deposition of ozone to steppe and desert soils from the observed diel cycles of ozone mixing ratio by application of the "Nocturnal Boundary Layer Mass Balance Technique".

  13. High ground-level ozone events over the Eastern United States: meteorology and source attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, M.; Clifton, O.; Guo, J.; Murray, L. T.; Valin, L. C.; Fiore, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    To establish effective emission controls to achieve National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), state air agencies need to quantify contributions to extreme ozone events from anthropogenic precursor emissions sources from a given state versus from regional and international pollution transport or from natural sources. An understanding of the meteorology and sources contributing to observed high ozone events is a first step towards assessing the impacts on surface ozone from future changes in regional climate. We analyze two Eastern U.S. (EUS) high ozone events that led to exceedances of the ozone NAAQS in multiple states: (1) June 10-18, 2007 and (2) June 24-July 14, 2012. These events are prototypes for determining source contributions and establishing a baseline for comparison with other EUS ozone pollution episodes. We (1) use daily NOAA weather maps, observed surface ozone concentrations, and satellite NO2 columns to identify regional transport and (2) analyze a series of emission perturbation simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model (2ºx 2.5º) to estimate contributions from several sources. We find that enhancements of the NO2 column persist for days over multiple states and are examining whether the persistence of this typically short-lived ozone precursor is due to regional transport and its contribution to the pollution event. As in other historical EUS extreme ozone events, high pressure systems facilitate regional ozone build-up during June 10-18, 2007. For example, observed surface ozone over WI is 60-85 ppb. GEOS-Chem captures the main features of the observed ozone enhancements and attributes less than 15% (~4-10 ppb) to WI anthropogenic emissions; over 50% (~32-50 ppb) to other U.S. states' anthropogenic emissions; and greater than 10% (~10-20 ppb) to Canadian anthropogenic emissions. Similar to the 2007 event, high pressure systems dominate the EUS during the 2012 episode and the model indicates that anthropogenic U.S. sources contribute the most to the high ozone observed on these days. During the first two weeks of July, however, the region is influenced by stationary fronts. We will discuss how the changing meteorological situation influences the relative source contributions to regional ozone accumulation.

  14. I Situ Stratospheric Ozone Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, Andrew Emory

    In situ measurements of stratospheric ozone have been made from both balloon and ER-2 aircraft platforms. The ozone instrument uses the absorption of 253.7-nm radiation to measure ozone with a total uncertainty of +/- 5% (including statistical and systematic errors). During March 1992, a balloon gondola was flown to 30 km over Greenland to investigate the chemistry of inorganic chlorine. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, ClO, and NO are used to test our knowledge of the partitioning of the Cl_{rm y} and NO_{rm y} families. Analysis of these profiles demonstrates the importance for the chemistry of the stratosphere of heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosol surfaces. A year later, a similar ozone instrument flew on the ER-2 as part of the Central Equatorial Pacific EXperiment (CEPEX) from Nadi, Fiji. Using a simple photochemical -dynamical model employing climatological cloud cover, we are able to reproduce our ozone measurements, which supports the view that the concentration of ozone in the tropical lower stratosphere is controlled by production and transport, with chemical loss playing an insignificant role. Finally, four mid-latitude ozone profiles obtained during the summers of 1987, 1988, and 1989 are presented. Comparisons with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) ozone data show that, between 25 and 37 km, SAGE II ozone is ~10% higher than the Harvard ozone profiles. Statistical analyses indicate that this is a systematic difference that cannot be explained by atmospheric or instrumental variability. This work also shows that zonal averages of satellite and in situ instruments can be effectively compared when atmospheric flow is predominantly zonal.

  15. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies. Short-term exposure of healthy humans to 0.2 ppm ozone induced a neutrophil influx in peripheral airways at 6 h post exposure, but no apparent inflammatory response in proximal airways. This response seems to be mediated at least in part by interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha}. (au) 26 refs.

  16. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a significant change in the distribution of ozone. The occurrence of extremely low ozone (near 100% ozone depletion) has been declining significantly in favor of the occurrence of low ozone (80-90% ozone depletion). Finally the potential for continuation of this attribution method in the light of the currently available and future planned satellite remote sensing capacity will be shortly addressed.

  17. [Man, the environment and ozone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovi?, M; Alebi?-Jureti?, A; Klasinc, L; Trinajsti?, N; Turk, R; Kezele, N

    1994-09-01

    Ozone is a naturally occurring gas, formed in the trimolecular reaction of oxygen atoms with molecular oxygen. Its strong absorption in the UV region provides protection from excessive irradiation of the Earth's surface. Occupational exposure to ozone involves electric arc welding, mercury vapour lamps, office photocopy machines, X-ray generators and other high voltage electrical equipment, water purification and bleaching. Ozone is the most abundant oxidant in the photochemical smog. The lung cell injury induced by ozone involves a complex biochemical mechanism which is due to free radical generation. Moderate exposure produces upper respiratory tract symptoms and eye irritation, severe acute exposure results in pulmonary oedema. Measurements of atmospheric ozone concentrations in Croatia began at the end of the 19th century; continuous monitoring has been carried out since 1975. PMID:7763188

  18. Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment / Evaluación del Modelo de Crecimiento de Arroz ORYZA2000 bajo Condiciones Limitadas de Nitrógeno en un Ambiente Mediterráneo Regado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pamela, Artacho; Francisco, Meza; José Antonio, Alcalde.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ORYZA2000 es un modelo para arroz tropical regado desarrollado por el Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Arroz y Universidad de Wageningen, que ha sido evaluado en un amplio rango de ambientes. Sin embargo, los reportes para cultivares japónica creciendo en ambientes templados son escasos. [...] En este estudio, ORYZA2000 fue calibrado y evaluado usando datos de experimentos realizados en el centro-sur de Chile, que incluyeron una variedad japónica cultivada bajo un ambiente Mediterráneo regado, y varias dosis de N. Posteriormente ORYZA2000 fue aplicado para explorar rendimientos potenciales y respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N bajo probables condiciones climáticas de la principal zona arrocera de Chile. ORYZA2000 fue suficientemente preciso en simular rendimiento de grano y absorción de N del cultivo al final de la estación. La absorción de N del cultivo fue simulada con una raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE) de 20 kg ha-1 (15%) y el rendimiento de grano con una RMSE de 1666 kg ha-1 (19%). La predicción de biomasa y absorción de N de órganos individuales durante la estación fue pobre. El estudio de simulación a largo plazo confirmó un rendimiento potencial tan alto como 12 000 kg ha-1 en Parral, y la existencia de un margen para incrementar los rendimientos. La respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N fue predicha aún a dosis de 300 kg ha-1, aunque también se observó una probabilidad significativa de bajos rendimientos. Este hecho apoya la necesidad de incorporar un manejo dinámico del N en la producción arrocera chilena. Abstract in english ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate cli [...] mates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000 was sufficiently accurate to simulate grain yield and crop N uptake at the end of the season. Final crop N uptake was simulated with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 20 kg ha-1 (15%) and grain yield with a RMSE of 1666 kg ha-1 (19%). However, the prediction of biomass and N uptake of individual organs throughout the season was poor. A long-term simulation study confirmed a potential yield as high as 12 000 kg ha-1 in the Parral area, as well as the existence of a scope for yield increase. The yield response to N fertilization was predicted even at rates of 300 kg ha-1, although a significant probability of low yields was also observed. This trend supports the need to incorporate dynamic N management in Chilean rice production.

  19. Efecto de dos ambientes lumínicos en el crecimiento inicial y calidad de plantas de Crescentia cujete Effect of two light environments on the initial growth and quality of Crescentia cujete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarito Piña

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae es una especie nativa de porte pequeño, raíces profundas y arquitectura, flores y frutos ornamentales que la hacen adecuada para la arborización urbana, además de sus usos en la medicina tradicional y elaboración de artesanía. La planta se adapta bien a condiciones semi-áridas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos ambientes lumínicos (luz y sombra en el crecimiento inicial y calidad de la planta. La intensidad promedio máxima en horas del día fue de 1170 µmol·m-2·s-1 en el tratamiento de luz, y de 280 µmol·m-2·s-1 en el tratamiento de sombra. Las plántulas con dos pares de hojas verdaderas se colocaron en recipientes y se llevaron a los dos ambientes de luminosidad. A los seis meses, las plantas bajo sombra fueron más altas y con menor diámetro de tallo, con hojas más grandes y mayor contenido de clorofila. La acumulación total de biomasa seca no difirió entre tratamientos, pero la distribución de fotoasimilados fue mayor hacia el componente foliar en las condiciones de sombra y hacia las raíces en la mayor intensidad lumínica. La relación biomasa foliar/biomasa radical bajo sombra duplicó el promedio obtenido en el tratamiento de luz. Aunque en ambos ambientes lumínicos los parámetros de calidad de planta expresados en los índices de esbeltez y calidad de Dickson fueron aceptables, las plantas que crecieron a 1170 µmol· m-2·s-1 fueron de mayor calidad. La especie desarrolló plasticidad morfológica y fisiológica que le permitió adaptarse a las iradiancias evaluadas.Crescentia cujete is a small, deep rooted native plant whose architecture, flowers and ornamental fruit makes it suitable for urban tree, in addition to its use in traditional medicine and handicrafts. The plant is well adapted to semi-arid conditions The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two light environments (light and shade on the initial growth and quality of C. cujete plants. The mean maximum ligth intensity at midday was 1170 µmol·m-2·s-1 in the lighted treatment and 280 µmol·m-2·s-1 under the shade. Seedlings with two pairs of true leaves were transplanted into containers and placed under the two environments. Six months later, shade plants were taller and with less stem diameter, with larger leaves and higher chlorophyll content. Total accumulation of biomass did not differ between treatments, but the assimilated distribution was higher toward the leaf component under shade conditions and higher toward the roots under the lighted treatment. The leaf to root biomass ratio under shade doubled the average obtained under light. Although in both environments the quality indexes were acceptable, the plants that grew at 1170 µmol. m-2.s-1 showed higher quality. This species developed morphological and physiological plasticity that allowed it to adapt to both light environments.

  20. Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment Evaluación del Modelo de Crecimiento de Arroz ORYZA2000 bajo Condiciones Limitadas de Nitrógeno en un Ambiente Mediterráneo Regado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Artacho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L. developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate climates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000 was sufficiently accurate to simulate grain yield and crop N uptake at the end of the season. Final crop N uptake was simulated with a root mean squared error (RMSE of 20 kg ha-1 (15% and grain yield with a RMSE of 1666 kg ha-1 (19%. However, the prediction of biomass and N uptake of individual organs throughout the season was poor. A long-term simulation study confirmed a potential yield as high as 12 000 kg ha-1 in the Parral area, as well as the existence of a scope for yield increase. The yield response to N fertilization was predicted even at rates of 300 kg ha-1, although a significant probability of low yields was also observed. This trend supports the need to incorporate dynamic N management in Chilean rice production.ORYZA2000 es un modelo para arroz tropical regado desarrollado por el Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Arroz y Universidad de Wageningen, que ha sido evaluado en un amplio rango de ambientes. Sin embargo, los reportes para cultivares japónica creciendo en ambientes templados son escasos. En este estudio, ORYZA2000 fue calibrado y evaluado usando datos de experimentos realizados en el centro-sur de Chile, que incluyeron una variedad japónica cultivada bajo un ambiente Mediterráneo regado, y varias dosis de N. Posteriormente ORYZA2000 fue aplicado para explorar rendimientos potenciales y respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N bajo probables condiciones climáticas de la principal zona arrocera de Chile. ORYZA2000 fue suficientemente preciso en simular rendimiento de grano y absorción de N del cultivo al final de la estación. La absorción de N del cultivo fue simulada con una raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RMSE de 20 kg ha-1 (15% y el rendimiento de grano con una RMSE de 1666 kg ha-1 (19%. La predicción de biomasa y absorción de N de órganos individuales durante la estación fue pobre. El estudio de simulación a largo plazo confirmó un rendimiento potencial tan alto como 12 000 kg ha-1 en Parral, y la existencia de un margen para incrementar los rendimientos. La respuesta en rendimiento a la fertilización N fue predicha aún a dosis de 300 kg ha-1, aunque también se observó una probabilidad significativa de bajos rendimientos. Este hecho apoya la necesidad de incorporar un manejo dinámico del N en la producción arrocera chilena.

  1. Modelling future changes in surface ozone: a parameterized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wild

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a simple parameterization to estimate regionally averaged changes in surface ozone due to past or future changes in anthropogenic precursor emissions based on results from 14 global chemistry transport models. The method successfully reproduces the results of full simulations with these models. For a given emission scenario it provides the ensemble mean surface ozone change, a regional source attribution for each change, and an estimate of the associated uncertainty represented by the variation between models. Using the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP emission scenarios as an example, we show how regional surface ozone is likely to respond to emission changes by 2050 and how changes in precursor emissions and atmospheric methane contribute to this. Surface ozone changes are substantially smaller than expected with the SRES A1B, A2 and B2 scenarios, reflecting the assumptions of more stringent precursor emission controls under the RCP scenarios. We find an average difference of around 5 ppb between the outlying RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, about 75% of which can be attributed to differences in methane abundance. The study reveals the increasing importance of limiting atmospheric methane growth as emissions of other precursors are controlled, but highlights differences in modelled ozone responses to methane changes of as much as a factor of two, indicating that this remains a major uncertainty in current models.

  2. Ozone and NO 2 exchange to fruit orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Duyzer, J.

    Critical levels proposed for ozone to protect sensitive plant species including cereal and fruit crops are exceeded throughout the rural U.K. in most summers. Negative growth rates can occur in ozone polluted air. Predictions of future crop yields based on pollution scenarios require information on the deposition rates of the various pollutants. In this paper we present canopy scale measurements of ozone and NO x deposition to a fruit orchard, apple ( Pyrus Coronaria) in a semi-rural environment. Daytime deposition velocities for ozone were found to vary from 3 to 5 mm s -1 while nocturnal values varied from 0.5 to 2 mm s -1. Canopy uptake of ozone was primarily under stomatal control. NO 2 deposition velocities were variable but could reach high values of up to 6 mm s -1 probably due to soil uptake beneath the orchard canopy rather than by canopy stomatal uptake. There was evidence for a canopy NO 2 compensation or equilibrium point, CCP NO 2 of approximately 4 ppbv consistent with model predictions of the bidirectional NO 2 flux if an alpha value of 0.9 is used.

  3. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Emberson, L.D. [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Terry, A.C. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Toet, S. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status.

  4. Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) affect the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere since they react with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone, and participate in ozone formation in the presence of sufficient amounts of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products contribute to new particle formation and growth processes. While isoprene is emitted in the largest amount among BVOCs into the atmosphere, monoterpenes are also important for atmospheric chemistry. Tree species are responsible of the most BVOC emissions to the atmosphere but little is known about the contribution of shrub and long-range transport to the ambient BVOC concentrations. In the Mediterranean region monoterpene measurements are scarce and are limited in temporal and ecosystem coverage (forested areas). The present study presents long- term measurements of monoterpenes at a remote coastal site without tree vegetation under typical phrygana vegetation of Crete island in Greece. Measurements took place (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (http://finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr). Two intensive campaigns took place, one during spring (13/03-08/04/2014) and one during summer(19/06 - 04/08/2014). During each campaign diurnal cycles were measured collecting 9 samples per day(every two hours). In addition, one diurnal cycle per week has been measured since 13/10/2014. Off-line sampling took place in adsorption tubes, using stainless steel cartridges filled with Tenax TA for one hour at 200 ml/min flow rate. Samples were stored at 40C and analyzed within two days. The samples were after desorption by a Thermal Desorber were analyzed by a GC-FID system. The most abundant monoterpenes were found to be ?3-carene and limonene.Highest concentrations were observed during autumn when a clear diurnal cycle has been seen with maximum for both ?3-carene and limonene at late afternoon. During summer, no clear diurnal variance was observed while in spring the cycle was weaker. The results are analyzed together with new particle formation observations at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of BVOCs to the formation and growth processes of atmospheric particles in the area.

  5. Ozone Standards Pose Health Risks, Scientists Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU

    A three-dimensional model of atmospheric chemistry was used to simulate background ozone for the United States. A great variability in ozone was found, depending upon the season, elevation, and geographic area. This indicates that the EPA is overestimating the ozone background level in the United States, and as a result is underestimating the health risk associated with ozone pollution.

  6. Geostationary satellite observations of ozone air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Zoogman, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    Ozone in surface air is the primary cause of polluted air in the United States. The current ozone observing network is insufficient either to assess air quality or to fully inform our understanding of the factors controlling tropospheric ozone. This thesis investigates the benefit of an instrument in geostationary orbit for observing near surface ozone using Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs).

  7. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  8. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.G.; Hubbard, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction of building materials and ozone under such extreme conditions. It would be useful to understand, for example in the case of building re-occupation planning, what types and amounts of reaction products may form and persist in a building after ozonation. In this study, 24 materials were exposed to ozone at concentrations of 1000 ppm in the inlet stream of experimental chambers. Fifteen target carbonyls were selected and measured as building ozonation by-products (BOBPs). During the 36 h that include the 16 h ozonation and 20 h persistence phase, the total BOBP mass released from flooring and wall coverings ranged from 1 to 20 mg m(-2), with most of the carbonyls being of lower molecular weight (C-1-C-4). In contrast, total BOBP mass released from wood-based products ranged from 20 to 100 mg m(-2), with a greater fraction of the BOBPs being heavier carbonyls (C-5-C-9). The total BOBP mass released during an ozonation event is a function of both the total surface area of the material and the BOBP emission rate per unit area of material. Ceiling tile, carpet, office partition, and gypsum wallboard with flat latex paint often have large surface areas in commercial buildings and these same materials exhibited relatively high BOBP releases. The greatest overall BOBP mass releases were observed for three materials that building occupants might have significant contact with: paper, office partition, and medium density fiberboard, e.g., often used in office furniture. These materials also exhibited extended BOBP persistence following ozonation; some BOBPs (e.g., nonanal) persist for months or more at emission rates large enough to result in indoor concentrations that exceed their odor threshold.

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Organic Aerosol Composition: Laboratory and Ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, ManNin

    Organic compounds contribute a significant mass fraction of ambient aerosol and play a role in determining the physiochemical properties of ambient aerosol. A significant fraction of organic aerosol is secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is produced when the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originated from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources react with atmospheric oxidants such as ozone, hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals to form lower volatility organic compounds, which subsequently partition into the particle phase. Understanding the composition of ambient aerosol is crucial for identifying their sources and formation mechanisms and predicting their properties and effects on various ambient processes. This thesis focuses on investigating the composition of laboratory-generated SOA formed from the oxidation of biogenic VOCs of atmospheric importance (isoprene and beta-caryophyllene) and ambient aerosol collected in the field campaigns using advanced mass spectrometric techniques. By comparing the mass spectrometric data collected for the both laboratory-generated SOA and ambient aerosol, we propose reaction pathways and new chemical tracers for these biogenic VOCs, which enhance our knowledge of the composition, sources, and formation pathways of SOA in the atmosphere. With a better knowledge of the SOA composition, a product-specific model is proposed to predict the composition and aerosol mass yields (mass of SOA formed per mass of hydrocarbon reacted) of laboratory-generated ?-pinene SOA.

  10. El ambiente social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el título de« Ambiente Social» se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecológico (físico-biótico. Así mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la noción de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significación a la «experiencia ambiental», ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensión de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediación de las dimensiones psicológica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolíticos y económicos con el ánimo de planificación, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  11. Influência da matéria orgânica e do ambiente no crescimento e acúmulo de solutos em Morinda citrifolia submetida à salinidade / Influence of organic matter and the environment in growth and in solute accumulation in Morinda citrifolia submitted to salinity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Martins Ribeiro de, Souza; Claudivan Feitosa de, Lacerda; Aiala Vieira, Amorim; Ademir Silva, Menezes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) é uma planta tolerante aos efeitos salinos e alcalinos dos solos e desenvolve-se em regiões de clima seco ou úmido. Apesar da adaptabilidade intercontinental, ainda são poucas as informações sobre sua tolerância aos sais no solo brasileiro. Baseado no exposto, objetivo [...] u-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos da água salina no crescimento inicial do Noni. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento em vasos de polietileno com capacidade para 20 L, em Sobral, Ceará. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, disposto no esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, com 5 repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos ambientes de cultivo (céu aberto e telado), as subparcelas pelos níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,3;1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1) e as subsubparcelas foram representadas pela ausência e presença de matéria orgânica. Aos 110 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT), avaliaram-se: altura, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA), da raiz (MSR), total (MST) e área foliar (AF), e aos 90 (DAT) os teores foliares de solutos orgânicos. Todas as variáveis de crescimento estudadas foram afetadas negativamente pela salinidade, sendo que o efeito observado a céu aberto foi mais expressivo do que no ambiente telado. A matéria orgânica não teve efeito atenuante sobre os efeitos deletérios da salinidade em plantas de noni. O acúmulo de prolina mostrou-se um sinalizador de dano causado pelo estresse, visto que os maiores acúmulos ocorreram nas plantas que sofreram maiores reduções no crescimento. Abstract in english Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is a plant tolerant to the effects of saline and alkaline soils and grows in dry or moist climates. Despite the intercontinental adaptability, in Brazil there is little information about its tolerance to soil salinity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate t [...] he effects of saline water on the growth of Noni. For this an experiment was conducted in polyethylene pots with a capacity of 20 L, in Sobral, Ceará. The statistical design was a randomized block design arranged in split plot scheme, with 5 repetitions. The plots consisted of the cultivation environments (open sky and greenhouse), the subplots by salinity levels of irrigation water (ECw: 0.3, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1), and the subsubplots were represented by the absence and presence of organic matter. At 110 days after treatment (DAT), the following variables were evaluated: height, shoot dry mass (SDM), root dry mass (RDM), total dry mass (TDM) and leaf area (LA) and at 90 DAT organic solutes in the leaf. All variables were negatively affected by salinity and the effect observed in the open environment was more intense than under greenhouse conditions. The organic matter had no effect on mitigating the deleterious effects of salinity in plants of noni. The accumulation of proline was found to be a sign of stress damage, since the highest accumulation of this solute was observed in plants that experienced greater reductions in growth.

  12. Ozone fluxes over South-East Asian tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer; Coyle, Mhairi; Helfter, Carole; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin; Percival, Carl; Nemitz, Eiko; Fowler, David

    2010-05-01

    Ozone flux measurements were made over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (April & June/July 2008) and an oil palm plantation (June 2008), as part of the NERC OP3 and ACES projects. Flux measurements over the rainforest were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower, where ozone fluxes were measured by the gradient approach (concentrations at 30, 45, 60, 75 m) and by eddy-covariance (45 and 75 m). The hourly median flux at the forest site peaked before midday and did not differ greatly between Period 1 (P1, April, end of wet season) and Period 3 (P3, June/July, dry season). The periods were however clearly contrasted by the different levels of ambient ozone and concentrations were larger during P1 by about 50 %, with diurnal hourly medians ranging from 26 - 38 ?g m-3 in P1 versus 15 - 27 ?g m-3 in P3. Ozone deposition velocities were smaller during P1 than P3 and median daytime maxima of deposition velocity in P1 were 5 mm s-1 compared to 11 mm s-1 in P3. The magnitude of fluxes and deposition velocities are similar to those observed over the Amazon rainforest (Rummel et al., 2007), but the diurnal profile differs slightly as ozone concentrations showed a stronger diurnal amplitude in the Amazon. Fluxes from 45 and 75 m are compared and ozone flux divergence with height is investigated. Flux measurements at the oil palm plantation were made using the eddy covariance method for 8 days (4th to 11th June 2008). During this period concentrations were very small with a diurnal range of 0 - 7 ?g m-3, probably due to the combined effect of a low measurement height, low turbulence and O3 destruction by soil NO emissions. However, median deposition velocity was 5 mm s-1 indicating that the oil palms are an effective sink for ozone. The ozone flux will be decomposed into stomatal ozone uptake by the vegetation, estimated from conductance modelling, ozone destruction by VOC chemistry (estimated from the measured VOC concentrations) and ozone destruction on plant surfaces, and their relative importance for the ozone budget will be presented for both sites. Reference: Rummel et al., 2007. Seasonal variation of ozone deposition to a tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, pp. 5415-5435.

  13. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America

  14. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  15. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thwaites, R.H. [Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Morton, A.J. [Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Pakeman, R.J. [Ecology of Grazed Ecosystems, Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.pakeman@macaulay.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species. - Exposure of calcareous grassland turfs to ozone for three years resulted in small, but significant, changes in species composition.

  16. Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric levels of human-produced chlorocarbons and bromocarbons are projected to make only small contributions to ozone depletion by 2100. Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) will become increasingly important in determining the future of the ozone layer. N2O increases lead to increased production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contributing to ozone depletion. CO2 increases cool the stratosphere and affect ozone levels in several ways. Cooling decreases the rate of many photochemical reactions, thus slowing ozone loss rates. Cooling also increases the chemical destruction of nitrogen oxides, thereby moderating the effect of increased N2O on ozone depletion. The stratospheric ozone level projected for the end of this century therefore depends on future emissions of both CO2 and N2O. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to explore a wide range of values for the boundary conditions for CO2 and N2O, and find that all of the current scenarios for growth of greenhouse gases project the global average ozone to be larger in 2100 than in 1960.

  17. The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone has been shown to reduce the growth of individual species and to alter the composition of simple species mixtures, there is little understanding of its long-term effects on species dynamics and composition in real communities. Intact turfs of calcareous grassland were exposed to four different ozone regimes in open-top chambers over three consecutive summers. Treatments provided a mean seasonal AOT40 ranging from approximately zero to 15 ppm h. Cumulative ozone exposure was a significant factor in compositional change, but only explained 4.6% of the variation. The dominant grass species (Festuca rubra) showed a consistent decline in cover in the high ozone treatment over time and the forb Campanula rotundifolia was lost from all three ozone treatments. The frequency of some species (Galium verum and Plantago lanceolata) increased with ozone exposure. Long-term effects of ozone on species composition in chalk grassland may be a function of both the sensitivity of individual species and the response of the dominant species. - Exposure of calcareous grassland turfs to ozone for three years resulted in small, but significant, changes in species composition

  18. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The difference in the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer at the southern and northern polar latitudes through PCS modification is determined by the difference in temperature regimes of the Polar Regions. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  19. Effects of Temperature and Flow Rates of Ozone Generator on the DBD by Varying Various Electrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Vaduganathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study rationale a high voltage power supply which varies of (O-5 kV with the variable frequency of 50 Hz-5 kHz. The power supply is used in the dielectric barrier discharge tube for the ionization process to yield concentration of ozone.This setup points the development of small and high efficient ozone generators using corona discharge method. Ozone generation was carried out by varying parameters including voltage, frequency, flow rate and temperature to yield high concentration of ozone. The feeding gas composition greatly affected the ozone generation rate, which was increased in order of ambient air to dry air. With increase in temperature, ozone concentration is increased while ozone generation rate is enhanced. In the experiments, a maximum ozone concentration of approximately 83 ppm is obtained, the peak value of applied voltage of about 5kV and gap of electrode is 4.3mm respectively. Dry air is used as feeding gas with residence time of 10.58 sec."

  20. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  1. The Ozone Layer: Our Global Sunscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ChemMatters article provides a history of the study of ozone, a description of an experimental simulation called "The World Avoided," a brief introduction to the chemistry of ozone, an explanation of how ozone is measured, and the difference between "good" ozone in the stratosphere vs "bad" ozone in the troposhere. ChemMatters is an educational magazine published by the American Chemical Society.

  2. Ozone Science: The Facts Behind the Phaseout

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site explains the layers of Earth's atmosphere, including the stratosphere, where the ozone is most concentrated; the harmful effects of the UVB portion of ultraviolet light; and the effects of chlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer. The history of ozone depletion and the world's reaction to it is presented. There is also information on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency programs to prevent ozone layer depletion and other links to the history and science of ozone depletion.

  3. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  4. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain four months of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the aerodynamic gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ?8 × 10?3 ?g m?2 s?1, respectively ~0.01 cm s?1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10?2 cm s?1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment, deployed at Summit for a period of four months, allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and seasonal dependencies.

  5. Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bocquet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ?8 × 10?3?g m?2 s?1, respectively ?0.01 cm s?1 for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10?2 cm s?1. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.

  6. Brewer Umkehr ozone profile retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Disterhoft, P.; Lantz, K. O.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Stanek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Dobson Umkehr network has been a key data set for stratospheric ozone trend calculations (WMO Ozone assessments) and has earned its place as a benchmark network for stratospheric ozone profile observations. The Umkehr data has also been used to provide a long-term reference to the merging of the satellite ozone records (MOD), estimate the seasonal influence of an 11-year solar signal in the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, and to assess the ability of several remote and in-situ sensing systems in capturing ozone variability. It was found that Dobson Umkehr measurement errors were often comparable to errors derived for satellite and ozone-sounding methods. The Umkehr measurements are also available from the Brewer spectrophotometers [McElroy et al., 1995]. In 2005, the Dobson Umkehr algorithm (UMK04) was modified to retrieve ozone profile data from Brewer Umkehr measurements taken at two spectral channels [Petropavlovskikh et al, 2011]. The PC version of the Brewer algorithm was developed by M. Stanek (IOC, Canada and Czech Republic Meteorological Institute) in close collaboration with I. Petropavlovskikh. It was implemented at the NEUBrew network for operational processing of Umkehr data retrieved daily for all operational sites. The most recently developed Brewer ozone retrieval algorithm (MSBU) utilizes measurements that are currently available from the operational Brewer instruments. Umkehr measurements at multiple wavelength channels (similar to the satellite BUV method) and significantly reduced range of solar zenith angle are used for the twice a day operational ozone profile retrievals. Intercomparisons against ozone climatology, sounding, satellite overpasses and Dobson ozone datasets for NOASA/Goddard, Boulder, CO and MLO, HI sites are presented in this paper. The MSBU algorithm reduces noise in the intra-annual variability of the Brewer retrieved ozone as compared to the single pair ozone retrieval. Tropospheric ozone retrievals also appear to be very promising. Addition of the new Brewer ozone data extracted from current measurements at selected US continental sites is expected to enhance global ground-based ozone data sets when used in the future trend analysis. The multi-spectral algorithm allows retrieving profiles for measurements taken at shorter SZA range (between 88 and 90 degrees) as compared to the 70-90 SA range of the standard Umkehr retrieval. It shortens operational time and allows for better data management. This addition to the well-established, but aging Dobson Umkehr network assures continuous ground-based support for current and future satellite-based global monitoring of stratospheric ozone recovery. The new dataset is expected to contribute to the understanding of the sources, transformation, and transport of trace species in the Earth's atmosphere which will be based on the continuous NOAA/SBUV, Aura/OMI, and future OMPS aboard the JPSS (former NPOESS) Earth observations from space.

  7. Total ozone trend over Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, G. K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    A world wide interest in protecting ozone layer against manmade effects is now increasing. Assessment of the ozone depletion due to these activities depends on how successfully we can separate the natural variabilities from the data. The monthly mean values of total ozone over Cairo (30 05N) for the period 1968-1988, have been analyzed using the power spectral analysis technique. The technique used in this analysis does not depend on a pre-understanding of the natural fluctuations in the ozone data. The method depends on increasing the resolution of the spectral peaks in order to obtain the more accurate sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. Also it handles the possible sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. The results show that it is possible to detect some of the well known national fluctuations in the ozone record such as annual, semiannual, quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations. After separating the natural fluctuations from the ozone record, the trend analysis of total ozone over Cairo showed that a decrease of about -1.2% per decade has occurred since 1979.

  8. Ambient Temperature and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Moellering, Douglas R; Daniel L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Homeotherms maintain an optimal body temperature that is most often above their environment or ambient temperature. As ambient temperature decreases, energy expenditure (and energy intake) must increase to maintain thermal homeostasis. With the wide spread adoption of climate control, humans in modern society are buffered from temperature extremes and spend an increasing amount of time in a thermally comfortable state where energetic demands are minimized. This is hypothesized to contribute t...

  9. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solutionition from the rain solution

  10. Effect of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on cuticular membrane ultrastructure of yellow poplar (liriodendron tulipifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone causes damage to leaves of many tree species and has been shown to increase cuticular membrane thickness in a conifer (red spruce). It has been suggested that elevated carbon dioxide can protect plants against air pollutants by reducing pollutant flux into the leaves, but it is not known whether ozone-induced changes in the leaf cuticle will be altered by elevated carbon dioxide. In 1991, white pine (Pinus strobus) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) seedlings were planted in a previously forested area. In May 1992, seedlings were enclosed in open-top chambers and the following treatments were initiated: 1) charcoal-filtered (CF) air, 2) ambient air (1X ozone), 3) two times ambient ozone (2x ozone), and 4) 2X ozone plus 350 ppm carbon dioxide (2X plus CO2). First-year leaf samples were collected in August 1992. Midregions of white pine needles and yellow poplar leaves were prepared for electron microscopy by conventional methods and examined in a transmission electron microscope. The cuticular membrane of white pine grown in CF air was approximately 500 nm thick and consisted of an amorphous outer region and an inner reticulate region. Cuticular membrane thickness and wax tubule diameter were slightly greater in white pine needles grown in 2X plus CO2. The cuticular membrane of yellow poplar leaves grown in CF air was approximately 200 nm thick and consisted of an outer polylamellate region and a reticulate inner region. Cuticular mand a reticulate inner region. Cuticular membranes of leaves grown in 2X plus CO2 were also approximately 200 nm thick, but the outer membrane region had an amorphous structure. The cuticular membrane of yellow poplar leaves grown in 2X ozone were approximately 150 nm thick due to a thinner reticulate region. Second-year white pine and yellow poplar leaves will be collected in late August 1993, and cuticular membrane structure will be compared with the 1992 results. (orig.)

  11. Devices for ozone concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes three types of ozone concentration meters working on different principles: spectroscopic based ultraviolet absorption at a wavelength of 254 nm (measuring range of 0.1 to 80 mg/l), based on a corona discharge (measuring range of 0.1 to 40 mg/l) and on the basis of semiconductor ozone sensor (measuring range of 0.2 to 10 maximum admissible concentration - MAC). All ozone meters are controlled by the PIC18F2550 microcontrollers, produced by Microchip Technology Inc.

  12. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  13. Avaliação da sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio / Ozone sensitivity assessment of 'Pedro Sato' guava

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Maria de, Moraes; Cláudia Maria, Furlan; Sérgio Tadeu, Meirelles; Deborah Yara Alves Cursino dos, Santos; Silvia Ribeiro de, Souza; Sandra Regina de Araújo da Silva, Viola; Fernanda Mendes de, Rezende; Joyce Marques, Barbosa; Robson Lazareti, Domingos.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio (O3), em comparação à cultivar Paluma, descrita como sensível. Oito plantas de cada cultivar foram submetidas separadamente a ar filtrado e a ar filtrado + O3, cinco horas por dia, durante quatro dias. Foram av [...] aliadas fotossíntese (Asat), injúrias foliares visíveis e concentração de antocianinas e taninos. Plantas das duas cultivares também foram expostas, durante três meses, a condições ambientais em local contaminado por O3, tendo-se avaliado fotossíntese, injúrias foliares e crescimento. Plantas fumigadas com O3 apresentaram redução de Asat e da atividade fotoquímica, além de manifestação de injúrias foliares. 'Paluma' apresentou maior redução de Asat, injúrias foliares mais severas e redução de taninos. Quando exposta ao ambiente contaminado, 'Paluma' apresentou trocas gasosas mais altas, mas apresentou redução de Asat 30 dias antes que 'Pedro Sato'. O crescimento não foi afetado em 'Pedro Sato', cujas injúrias foliares tiveram menor incidência, severidade e precocidade do que em 'Paluma'. A menor taxa de crescimento de 'Paluma' indica maior sensibilidade ao O3. Apesar de responder com menor intensidade ao estresse induzido pelo O3, a cultivar Pedro Sato não pode ser considerada tolerante, pois apresenta danos fotoquímicos, injúrias foliares e alterações nos conteúdos de metabólitos secundários quando exposta a esse poluente. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of 'Pedro Sato' guava to ozone (O3), in comparison to the cultivar Paluma, considered sensitive. Eight plants of each cultivar were subjected separately to filtered air and filtered air + O3 five hours per day, for four days. Photosynthesis [...] (Asat), visible foliar injuries, and concentration of anthocyanin and tannin were evaluated. Plants of both cultivars were also exposed, during three months, to environmental conditions at a site polluted by O3, and growth, photosynthesis, and injuries were evaluated. Plants fumigated with O3 showed reduction of Asat and photochemical activity, besides foliar injury expression. 'Paluma' showed greater reduction of Asat, severe foliar injury and tannin reduction. When exposed to the polluted environmental conditions, 'Paluma' had higher gas exchange, but showed Asat decrease 30 days before 'Pedro Sato'. Growth was not affected in 'Pedro Sato', whose foliar injuries had lower incidence, severity, and precocity than in 'Paluma'. The lower growth rate of 'Paluma' indicates greater O3 sensitivity. Although the cultivar Pedro Sato responded with less intensity to ozone-induced stress, it cannot be considered tolerant, since it is susceptible to photochemical damage, foliar injuries, and alterations in secondary metabolite content when exposed to this contaminant.

  14. Avaliação da sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio Ozone sensitivity assessment of 'Pedro Sato' guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Moraes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' ao ozônio (O3, em comparação à cultivar Paluma, descrita como sensível. Oito plantas de cada cultivar foram submetidas separadamente a ar filtrado e a ar filtrado + O3, cinco horas por dia, durante quatro dias. Foram avaliadas fotossíntese (Asat, injúrias foliares visíveis e concentração de antocianinas e taninos. Plantas das duas cultivares também foram expostas, durante três meses, a condições ambientais em local contaminado por O3, tendo-se avaliado fotossíntese, injúrias foliares e crescimento. Plantas fumigadas com O3 apresentaram redução de Asat e da atividade fotoquímica, além de manifestação de injúrias foliares. 'Paluma' apresentou maior redução de Asat, injúrias foliares mais severas e redução de taninos. Quando exposta ao ambiente contaminado, 'Paluma' apresentou trocas gasosas mais altas, mas apresentou redução de Asat 30 dias antes que 'Pedro Sato'. O crescimento não foi afetado em 'Pedro Sato', cujas injúrias foliares tiveram menor incidência, severidade e precocidade do que em 'Paluma'. A menor taxa de crescimento de 'Paluma' indica maior sensibilidade ao O3. Apesar de responder com menor intensidade ao estresse induzido pelo O3, a cultivar Pedro Sato não pode ser considerada tolerante, pois apresenta danos fotoquímicos, injúrias foliares e alterações nos conteúdos de metabólitos secundários quando exposta a esse poluente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of 'Pedro Sato' guava to ozone (O3, in comparison to the cultivar Paluma, considered sensitive. Eight plants of each cultivar were subjected separately to filtered air and filtered air + O3 five hours per day, for four days. Photosynthesis (Asat, visible foliar injuries, and concentration of anthocyanin and tannin were evaluated. Plants of both cultivars were also exposed, during three months, to environmental conditions at a site polluted by O3, and growth, photosynthesis, and injuries were evaluated. Plants fumigated with O3 showed reduction of Asat and photochemical activity, besides foliar injury expression. 'Paluma' showed greater reduction of Asat, severe foliar injury and tannin reduction. When exposed to the polluted environmental conditions, 'Paluma' had higher gas exchange, but showed Asat decrease 30 days before 'Pedro Sato'. Growth was not affected in 'Pedro Sato', whose foliar injuries had lower incidence, severity, and precocity than in 'Paluma'. The lower growth rate of 'Paluma' indicates greater O3 sensitivity. Although the cultivar Pedro Sato responded with less intensity to ozone-induced stress, it cannot be considered tolerant, since it is susceptible to photochemical damage, foliar injuries, and alterations in secondary metabolite content when exposed to this contaminant.

  15. Atmospheric blocking signatures in total ozone and ozone miniholes

    OpenAIRE

    Barriopedro Cepero, David; Anto?n Marti?nez, Manuel; Garci?a Garci?a, Jose? Agusti?n

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between the total ozone column (TOC) and atmospheric blocking using 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data for the 1978-98 period, with special emphasis on winter and the European and eastern Pacific sectors. Regional blocking occurrence is accompanied by a decrease of TOC within the anticyclonic circulation region and a distinctive ozone increase upstream and downstream (upstream and south) i...

  16. Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Which is the best standard for protecting plants from ozone? To answer this question, we must validate the standards by testing biological responses vs. ambient data in the field. A validation is missing for European and USA standards, because the networks for ozone, meteorology and plant responses are spatially independent. We proposed geostatistics as validation tool, and used durum wheat in central Italy as a test. The standards summarized ozone impact on yield better than hourly averages. Although USA criteria explained ozone-induced yield losses better than European criteria, USA legal level (75 ppb) protected only 39% of sites. European exposure-based standards protected ?90%. Reducing the USA level to the Canadian 65 ppb or using W126 protected 91% and 97%, respectively. For a no-threshold accumulated stomatal flux, 22 mmol m-2 was suggested to protect 97% of sites. In a multiple regression, precipitation explained 22% and ozone explained <0.9% of yield variability. - Geostatistics can be used as a tool for testing the effects of ozone standards on plant responses in the field.

  17. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Calatayud, V. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, G. [Servicio de Proteccion de los Montes contra Agentes Nocivos, Direccion General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Gran Via de San Francisco, 4, E-28005, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude.

  18. Foliage surface ozone deposition: a role for surface moisture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Altimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the potential role of surface wetness in ozone deposition to plant foliage. We studied Scots pine foliage in field conditions at the SMEARII field measurement station in Finland. We used a combination of data from flux measurement at the shoot (enclosure and canopy scale (eddy covariance, information from foliage surface wetness sensors, and a broad array of ancillary measurements such as radiation, precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity. Environmental conditions were defined as moist during rain or high relative humidity and during the subsequent twelve hours from such events, circumstances that were frequent at this boreal site. From the measured fluxes we estimated the ozone conductance using it as the expression of the strength of ozone removal surface sink or total deposition. Further, we estimated the stomatal contribution and the remaining deposition was interpreted and analysed as the non-stomatal sink. The combined time series of measurements showed that both shoot and canopy-scale ozone total deposition were enhanced when moist conditions occurred. On average, the estimated stomatal deposition accounted for half of the measured removal at the shoot scale and one third at the canopy scale. However, during dry conditions the estimated stomatal uptake predicted the behaviour of the measured deposition, but during moist conditions there was disagreement. The estimated non-stomatal sink was analysed against several environmental factors and the clearest connection was found with ambient relative humidity. The relationship disappeared under 70% relative humidity, a threshold that coincides with the value at which surface moisture gathers at the foliage surface according to the leaf surface wetness measurements. This suggests the non-stomatal ozone sink on the foliage to be modulated by the surface films. We attempted to extract such potential modulation with the estimated film formation via the theoretical expression of adsorption. Whereas this procedure could predict the behaviour of the non-stomatal sink, it implied a chemical sink that was not accountable as simple ozone decomposition. We discuss the existence of other mechanisms whose relevance in the removal of ozone needs to be clarified, in particular: a significant nocturnal stomatal aperture neglected in the estimations, and a potentially large chemical sink offered by reactive biogenic organic volatile compounds.

  19. Further ozone decline during the northern hemisphere winter-spring of 1994-1995 and the new record low ozone over Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojkov, R.D.; Fioletov, V.E. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Balis, D.S. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1995-10-15

    The authors report observations of ozone column amounts in the northern hemisphere at high and middle latitudes in the period from mid January to mid April 1995. In general there was an observed decline of roughly 10 percent, with a peaking observed over Siberia more in the range of 25 percent. These observations are also correlated with ambient temperature readings for the stratosphere in the same time frame.

  20. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  1. Efeitos de lâminas de água e fertirrigação potássica sobre o crescimento, produção e qualidade do tomate em ambiente protegido / Effects of water nivels and potassium fertirrigation on growth, production and quality of tomato fruits in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ladilson de Souza, Macêdo; Marco Antônio Rezende, Alvarenga.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de lâminas de água e fertilização potássica sobre o crescimento e produção da cultura do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) híbrido Bônus F1, em ambiente protegido, num Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico no Setor de Olericultura da Universidade Federal da Lavras, MG. Foram [...] testadas as lâminas de água 40, 60, 80 e 100% Kc.Ev e as doses de 300, 500, 700 e 900 kg ha-1 de K2O (nitrato de potássio e cloreto de potássio). As fertirrigações foram iniciadas 10 dias após o transplantio, três vezes por semana, durante o ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. As lâminas de água aplicadas influenciaram o crescimento das plantas aos 30, 60 e 90 dias de idade, no entanto, não houve efeito da fertilização potássica e sua interação com lâmina de água nessas características e na produção dos frutos. O número de frutos comerciais Extra AAA, Extra AA e Extra A aumentou na proporção de 0,462; 0,681 e 1,038 frutos.planta-1, respectivamente, para cada 20% Kc.Ev de acréscimo sobre a lâmina de água aplicada. Brix e pectina aumentaram em função das lâminas de água até 100% Kc.E V, enquanto Brix, acidez total e pH aumentaram em função das doses de potássio até 700 Kg.ha-1 de K2O. Abstract in english The effects of water levels and potassium fertirrigation on plant growth, production and quality of the fruits of Bônus F1 hibrid tomatoes (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.) were evaluated in protected environment, in the Horticulture Sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Br [...] azil, with the plants growing on a Dystroferric Red Latosol. Drip irrigation was used at levels of 40, 60, 80 and 100% Kc.Ev, with the dosages 300, 500, 700 and 900 kg.ha-1 of K2O (potassium nitrate and potassium chloride) being evaluated. Fertirrigations started 10 days after the transplanting and were done three times a week, during the cycle of the crop. The applied water levels influenced the plants growth at 30, 60 and 90 days, with no effect of potassium fertilization and its interaction with the levels of irrigation on plant growth or on the fruits production being observed. The number of tradable fruits Extra AAA, Extra AA and Extra A increased at 0.462; 0.681 and 1.038unities.plant-1 for each 20% of increase on the level of irrigation. Brix and soluble pectine increased with the irrigation levels until 100% Kc.Ev wheres Brix, acidity and pH increased with the potassium levels until 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O.

  2. Efeitos de lâminas de água e fertirrigação potássica sobre o crescimento, produção e qualidade do tomate em ambiente protegido Effects of water nivels and potassium fertirrigation on growth, production and quality of tomato fruits in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladilson de Souza Macêdo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de lâminas de água e fertilização potássica sobre o crescimento e produção da cultura do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. híbrido Bônus F1, em ambiente protegido, num Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico no Setor de Olericultura da Universidade Federal da Lavras, MG. Foram testadas as lâminas de água 40, 60, 80 e 100% Kc.Ev e as doses de 300, 500, 700 e 900 kg ha-1 de K2O (nitrato de potássio e cloreto de potássio. As fertirrigações foram iniciadas 10 dias após o transplantio, três vezes por semana, durante o ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. As lâminas de água aplicadas influenciaram o crescimento das plantas aos 30, 60 e 90 dias de idade, no entanto, não houve efeito da fertilização potássica e sua interação com lâmina de água nessas características e na produção dos frutos. O número de frutos comerciais Extra AAA, Extra AA e Extra A aumentou na proporção de 0,462; 0,681 e 1,038 frutos.planta-1, respectivamente, para cada 20% Kc.Ev de acréscimo sobre a lâmina de água aplicada. Brix e pectina aumentaram em função das lâminas de água até 100% Kc.E V, enquanto Brix, acidez total e pH aumentaram em função das doses de potássio até 700 Kg.ha-1 de K2O.The effects of water levels and potassium fertirrigation on plant growth, production and quality of the fruits of Bônus F1 hibrid tomatoes (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill. were evaluated in protected environment, in the Horticulture Sector of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with the plants growing on a Dystroferric Red Latosol. Drip irrigation was used at levels of 40, 60, 80 and 100% Kc.Ev, with the dosages 300, 500, 700 and 900 kg.ha-1 of K2O (potassium nitrate and potassium chloride being evaluated. Fertirrigations started 10 days after the transplanting and were done three times a week, during the cycle of the crop. The applied water levels influenced the plants growth at 30, 60 and 90 days, with no effect of potassium fertilization and its interaction with the levels of irrigation on plant growth or on the fruits production being observed. The number of tradable fruits Extra AAA, Extra AA and Extra A increased at 0.462; 0.681 and 1.038unities.plant-1 for each 20% of increase on the level of irrigation. Brix and soluble pectine increased with the irrigation levels until 100% Kc.Ev wheres Brix, acidity and pH increased with the potassium levels until 700 kg.ha-1 of K2O.