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Sample records for ambient ozone growth

  1. Black cherry growth response to ambient ozone and EDU.

    Long, R P; Davis, D D

    1991-01-01

    Field-grown black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings were treated with the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) to evaluate height, diameter, and above-ground dry-weight biomass growth response to ambient ozone over four years. Nine blocks with 44 trees/block were used in a randomized complete block design with three foliar spray treatments: (1) 1000 ppm EDU mixed with a surfactant and water; (2) surfactant mixed with water; and (3) water only. In each growing season treatments were applied seven times at approximately 10-day intervals. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant (P< or =0.05) treatment and year effects for log-transformed height and diameter growth over the four-year period. After four years, EDU-treated trees were approximately 17% taller and stem diameters were 21% greater than non-EDU-treated trees. Total above-ground dry-weight biomass at the end of four years was 47% greater for EDU-treated trees compared to non-EDU-treated trees. PMID:15092135

  2. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)]. E-mail: wmanning@microbio.umass.edu; Cooley, D.R. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Tuttle, A.F. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Frenkel, M.A. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Bergweiler, C.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects.

  3. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  4. Effects of ambient ozone on first-year growth and physiology of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. ) seedlings

    Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Dunn, K. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Black cherry seedlings of two open-pollinated families were exposed to ambient ozone in open plots (100%) and plots receiving non-filtered (95%), half-filtered (60%) and full-filtered (40%) concentrations via open-top chambers between early June and late-September 1992 in a replicated field experiment in central Pennsylvania. Seasonal 24-hour ambient ozone concentration averaged 34 ppb with a peak 1-hour concentration of 110 ppb. Foliar symptoms of ozone damage (adaxial stipple) occurred most prominently in open and non-filtered plots and differed between families. Net photosynthetic rate for both families was significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots on most dates, while ozone concentration had no consistent effect on leaf conductance or dark respiration. Leaf conductance of the ozone sensitive family was significantly greater than the ozone tolerant family on most dates. First-year height and diameter growth were significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots for both families.

  5. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: A Lithuanian case study

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O3) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O3 concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O3 can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels. - Peak ozone concentrations is one of the key factors affecting Scots pine trees

  6. INTERACTION OF SOIL MOISTURE STRESS AND AMBIENT OZONE ON GROWTH AND YIELDS OF SOYBEANS

    A field experiment was conducted in open-top chambers to determine how interactions of soil moisture stress and exposure to ozone may affect soybean yields. Cultivars Williams and Forrest were grown in 1982 and Williams & Corsoy in 1983. Five levels of O3-including charcoal-filte...

  7. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O3. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  8. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  9. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  10. Sensitivity of four hardwood species to ambient ozone in north central Pennsylvania

    Simini, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Davis, D.D.; Savage, J.E.; Comrie, A.C. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Pennsylvania Park, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the injury growth response of four native species to ambient ozone on three ridgetop sites of the Allegheny Plateau of north central Pennsylvania. Open-top chambers were established at each site and seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) were exposed to ambient air or to charcoal filtered air containing approximately 95, 60 or 40% of ambient ozone in randomized, complete blocks in 1988 and 1989. Black cherry seedlings were also exposed in 1990. Ozone was greatest in 1988 at all sites, and total ozone during the 3-year study was greatest at the westernmost sites. Foliar stipple injury of black cherry and yellow poplar were correlated positively with ozone within and among sites throughout the study. Premature leaf abscission of both species was significantly greater with higher ozone levels at one site in 1988 and 1989. Ozone stipple was not observed on red maple and red oak seedlings. Ambient ozone did not significantly decrease height, basal diameter, or leaf surface area of any species. Possible explanations for temporal and spatial ozone variation and subsequent plant response are discussed. 36 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe

  12. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  13. Effects of a three-year exposure to ambient ozone on biomass allocation in poplar using ethylenediurea

    We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions. -- Highlights: •A fast-growing ozone-sensitive poplar clone was treated with the ozone protectant ethylenediurea (EDU) for three years. •Ambient ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches. •Effects on stem length and diameter were not significant. •EDU protected from ozone visible foliar injury and reduction of biomass accumulation. -- Ozone reduced allocation of biomass to leaves, roots and lateral branches, but did not affect stem length and diameter

  14. The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype

    The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. - Highlights: ► Exposure of rice plants to elevated ozone during growth led to altered grain quality. ► Protein and lipid concentration increased whereas starch concentration and thousand kernel weight decreased. ► Rice grain, protein and iron yield tended to decrease in plants exposed to high ozone. ► These effects were responsive to different ozone levels and showed genotypic differences. ► The overall effect of ozone o human nutrition is expected to be negative. - Ozone exposure during growth tends to increase the protein and lipid concentration in rice grains but decreases total grain and nutrient yields. These effects are dependent on ozone level and genotype.

  15. Association between ambient ozone and health outcomes in Prague

    Hůnová, I.; Malý, Marek; Řezáčová, J.; Braniš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2013), s. 89-97. ISSN 0340-0131 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08077; GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ambient ozone * cardiovascular diseases * hospital admissions * mortality * respiratory diseases Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2013

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. Ambient Ozone and Emergency Department Visits for Cellulitis

    Mieczysław Szyszkowicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to assess and estimate an association between exposure to ground-level ozone and emergency department (ED visits for cellulitis. All ED visits for cellulitis in Edmonton, Canada, in the period April 1992–March 2002 (N = 69,547 were examined. Case-crossover design was applied to estimate odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval per one interquartile range (IQR increase in ozone concentration (IQR = 14.0 ppb. Delay of ED visit relating to exposure was probed using 0- to 5-day exposure lags. For all patients in the all months (January–December and lags 0 to 2 days, OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.07. For male patients during the cold months (October-March: OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.09 for lags 0 and 2 and OR = 1.06 (1.02, 1.10 for lag 3. For female patients in the warm months (April-September: OR = 1.12 (1.06, 1.18 for lags 1 and 2. Cellulitis developing on uncovered (more exposed skin was analyzed separately, observed effects being stronger. Cellulitis may be associated with exposure to ambient ground level ozone; the exposure may facilitate cellulitis infection and aggravate acute symptoms.

  18. Ambient ozone concentration and emergency department visits for panic attacks.

    Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jungwoo; Suh, Mina; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ambient air pollution on panic disorder in the general population has not yet been thoroughly elucidated, although the occurrence of panic disorder in workers exposed to organic solvents has been reported previously. We investigated the association of ambient air pollution with the risk of panic attack-related emergency department visits. Using health insurance claims, we collected data from emergency department visits for panic attacks in Seoul, Republic of Korea (2005-2009). Daily air pollutant concentrations were obtained using automatic monitoring system data. We conducted a time-series study using a generalized additive model with Poisson distribution, which included spline variables (date of visit, daily mean temperature, and relative humidity) and parametric variables (daily mean air pollutant concentration, national holiday, and day of the week). In addition to single lag models (lag1 to lag3), cumulative lag models (lag0-1 to lag0-3) were constructed using moving-average concentrations on the days leading up to the visit. The risk was expressed as relative risk (RR) per one standard deviation of each air pollutant and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 2320 emergency department visits for panic attacks were observed during the study period. The adjusted RR of panic attack-related emergency department visits was 1.051 (95% CI, 1.014-1.090) for same-day exposure to ozone. In cumulative models, adjusted RRs were 1.068 (1.029-1.107) in lag0-2 and 1.074 (1.035-1.114) in lag0-3. The ambient ozone concentration was significantly associated with emergency department visits for panic attacks. PMID:25669697

  19. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  20. Development of KRISS standard reference photometer (SRP) for ambient ozone measurement

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface ozone has adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Accurate measurement of ambient ozone concentration is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies and understanding atmospheric chemistry. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed new ozone standard reference photometers (SRPs) for the calibration of ambient ozone instruments. The basic principle of the KRISS ozone SRPs is to determine the absorption of ultraviolet radiation at a specific wavelength, 253.7 nm, by ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone concentration is calculated by converting UV transmittance through the Beer-Lambert Law. This study introduces the newly developed ozone SRPs and characterizes their performance through uncertainty analysis and comparison with BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) SRP.

  1. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  2. Nocturnal stomatal conductance and ambient air quality standards for ozone

    Musselman, Robert C.; Minnick, Tamera J.

    Vegetation response to ozone depends on ozone conductance into leaves and the defensive action inside the leaf. Ozone parameters currently used for air quality standards do not incorporate conductance or defensive components. Nighttime flux has often been ignored in ozone metrics relating to plant response, since ozone concentration and conductance are considered to be minimal at night. However, ozone concentration can remain relatively high at night, particularly in mountainous areas. Although conductance is lower at night than during the day for most plants, nocturnal conductance can result in considerable ozone flux into plants. Further, plants can be more susceptible to ozone exposure at night than during the daytime, a result of lower plant defenses at night. Any ozone metric used to relate air quality to plant response should use a 24 h ozone exposure period to include the nighttime exposures. It should also incorporate plant defensive mechanisms or their surrogate.

  3. Modelling ambient ozone in an urban area using an objective model and geostatistical algorithms

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Valiente, Pablo; Lpez, Fernando; Muoz de la Pea, Arsenio

    2012-12-01

    Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air pollutants of most concern. Ozone levels continue to exceed both target values and the long-term objectives established in EU legislation to protect human health and prevent damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Researchers or decision-makers frequently need information about atmospheric pollution patterns in urbanized areas. The preparation of this type of information is a complex task, due to the influence of several factors and their variability over time. In this work, some results of urban ozone distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest (140,000 inhabitants) and most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are shown. Twelve sampling campaigns, one per month, were carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer. Later, to evaluate the overall ozone level at each sampling location during the time interval considered, the measured ozone data were analysed using a new methodology based on the formulation of the Rasch model. As a result, a measure of overall ozone level which consolidates the monthly ground-level ozone measurements was obtained, getting moreover information about the influence on the overall ozone level of each monthly ozone measure. Finally, overall ozone level at locations where no measurements were available was estimated with geostatistical techniques and hazard assessment maps based on the spatial distribution of ozone were also generated.

  4. Assessing the effects of ambient ozone in China on snap bean genotypes by using ethylenediurea (EDU)

    Four genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selected to study the effects of ambient ozone concentration at a cropland area around Beijing by using 450 ppm of ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant. During the growing season, the 8 h (9:00–17:00) average ozone concentration was very high, approximately 71.3 ppb, and AOT40 was 29.0 ppm.h. All genotypes showed foliar injury, but ozone-sensitive genotypes exhibited much more injury than ozone-tolerant ones. Compared with control, EDU significantly alleviated foliar injury, increased photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll a fluorescence, Vcmax and Jmax, and seed and pod weights in ozone-sensitive genotypes but not in ozone-tolerant genotypes. EDU did not significantly affect antioxidant contents in any of the genotypes. Therefore, EDU effectively protected sensitive genotypes from ambient ozone damage, while protection on ozone-tolerant genotypes was limited. EDU can be regarded as a useful tool in risk assessment of ambient ozone on food security. - Highlights: • The average O3 concentration (9–17 h) was 71 ppb from June to August in Beijing. • Four genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selected. • EDU effectively protected sensitive genotypes from ambient O3 damage. • The protection of EDU on O3-tolerant genotypes was limited. • EDU can be regarded as a useful tool in risk assessment of ambient O3 on vegetation. - EDU protects sensitive snap bean genotypes from ambient O3

  5. Highly sensitive and selective bioluminescence based ozone probes and their applications to detect ambient ozone.

    Nam, Younseok; Kim, Beom Seok; Shin, Injae

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective and sensitive bioluminescence based probes, which respond to ozone but not to other ROS, have been developed. These probes were used to determine ozone concentrations in environmental samples. PMID:26567538

  6. Which metric of ambient ozone to predict daily mortality?

    Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with daily cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the daily variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on daily deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between daily hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and daily mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (daily mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in daily ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than daily average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.

  7. Constraining ozone-precursor responsiveness using ambient measurements

    This study develops probabilistic estimates of ozone (O3) sensitivities to precursoremissions by incorporating uncertainties in photochemical modeling and evaluating modelperformance based on ground-level observations of O3 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).Uncertainties in model form...

  8. International Comparison CCQM-P28: Ozone at Ambient Level

    VIALLON Jole; MOUSSAY Philippe; ESLER Michael; WIELGOSZ Robert; BREMSER Wolfram; Novk, Ji?; VOKOUN Miroslav; BOTHA Angelique; VAN RENSBURG Mellisa Janse; Zellweger, Christoph; GOLDTHORP Sandra; BOROWIAK ANNETTE; LAGLER FRIEDRICH; Walden, Jari; MALGERI Ettore

    2006-01-01

    We report a pilot study organized within the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM), in which the ozone reference standards of 23 institutes have been compared to one common reference, the BIPM ozone reference standard, in a series of bilateral comparisons carried out between July 2003 and February 2005. The BIPM, which maintains as its reference standard a standard reference photometer (SRP) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, United States),...

  9. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

  10. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  11. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  12. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania.

    Yuska, D E; Skelly, J M; Ferdinand, J A; Stevenson, R E; Savage, J E; Mulik, J D; Hines, A

    2003-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture. PMID:12804829

  13. Ambient ozone and bacterium Streptococcus: A link between cellulitis and pharyngitis

    Giuseppe Valacchi; Eugeniusz Porada; Rowe, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ambient air pollution, as many publications indicate, may have associations with skin condition. The aim of this study has been to examine such common relations for cellulitis and pharyngitis. The hypothesis is that ambient ground-level ozone may help bacteria to penetrate skin or throat. Material and Methods: We used the emergency department (ED) visits data in Edmonton, Canada for the period from 1992 (April) to 2002 (March). We retrieved all the diagnosed ED visits for cellulit...

  14. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers. PMID:15092277

  15. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  16. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO3) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO3). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO3 caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  17. Impact of Climate Change on Ambient Ozone Level and Mortality in Southeastern United States

    Montserrat Fuentes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, and a health surveillance database. We first modeled present-day relationships between observed maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentrations and meteorology measured during the year 2000. Future ozone concentrations for the period 2041 to 2050 were then projected using calibrated climate model output data from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Daily community-level mortality counts for the period 1987 to 2000 were obtained from the National Mortality, Morbidity and Air Pollution Study. Controlling for temperature, dew-point temperature, and seasonality, relative risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient ozone during the summer months were estimated using a multi-site time series design. We estimated an increase of 0.43 ppb (95% PI: 0.140.75 in average ozone concentration during the 2040s compared to 2000 due to climate change alone. This corresponds to a 0.01% increase in mortality rate and 45.2 (95% PI: 3.2687.1 premature deaths in the study communities attributable to the increase in future ozone level.

  18. Response of different-aged black cherry trees to ambient ozone exposure

    Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Pennyslvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and exposure to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective exposure to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.

  19. Modeling the effects of reformulated gasoline usages on ambient concentrations of ozone and five air toxics

    The use of reformulated gasolines to reduce motor-vehicle-related hydrocarbon emissions has been mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for nine severely polluted urban areas. Using a version of the Urban Airshed Model that includes explicit representation of five motor-vehicle-related air toxics, the effects of reformulated gasoline usage on ambient ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated. Simulations were conducted for two urban areas. Baltimore-Washington and Houston, for the year 1995. Additional simulation were conducted for Baltimore-Washington including winter and 1999 scenarios. In the Baltimore-Washington areas, the 1995 Federal reformulated gasoline scenario produce reductions of 1.1 percent in simulated peak ozone and 2.7 percent in the areal extent of simulated ozone exceedances. Simulated ozone reductions were much smaller in Houston. In the reformulated gasoline simulations, secondary formulation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was reduced, and decreases in ambient benzene and polycyclic organic matter (POM) concentrations were simulated. Larger reductions in ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated for reformulated gasolines meeting California Phase II standards than for those meeting Federal standards. The effects of reductions in motor-vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, alone and in combination with hydrocarbon reductions, were also examined

  20. Ambient ozone and bacterium Streptococcus: A link between cellulitis and pharyngitis

    Giuseppe Valacchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ambient air pollution, as many publications indicate, may have associations with skin condition. The aim of this study has been to examine such common relations for cellulitis and pharyngitis. The hypothesis is that ambient ground-level ozone may help bacteria to penetrate skin or throat. Material and Methods: We used the emergency department (ED visits data in Edmonton, Canada for the period from 1992 (April to 2002 (March. We retrieved all the diagnosed ED visits for cellulitis and pharyngitis. Case-crossover design was used to study potential association between ozone and those visits. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The results are reported for the interquartile range (IQR = 17.9 ppb for 8 h maximum ozone. Positive and statistical significant results were obtained as follows: for lags from 0 to 3 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03–1.12, lag 2; for lags from 0 to 6 days (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.12, lag 3; for lags from 0 to 4 (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09, for lag 2 and 3. Conclusions: The findings suggest the response to exposure to ambient ground-level ozone for skin and pharyngitis considered separately and jointly.

  1. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth,{delta}{sup 13}C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Krauchi, N.; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Species specific plant responses to tropospheric ozone pollution depend on a range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as environmental factors. The effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, {delta}{sup 13} C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland were assessed during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and non-filtered air in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots. The objective was to determine if a relationship exists between measurable ozone-induced effects at the leaf level and subsequent changes in annual tree-ring growth and {delta} {sup 13} C signatures. The visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species was attributed to the ambient ozone exposures in the region. Ozone had pronounced negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and {delta}{sup 13} C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased {delta}{sup 13} C in all species, suggesting that the timing of ozone exposure and extent of leaf-level responses may be relevant in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Ambient Ozone as a Risk Factor for ED Visits for Cellulitis

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz; Eugeniusz Porada; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Eric Grafstein

    2012-01-01

    Ambient air pollution and weather conditions may affect the number of daily emergency department (ED) visits for skin bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to assess the potential relationship between the odds of an ED visit for cellulitis and the concentration of ambient ozone (O3). The data employed in the study covered ED visits for cellulitis at a Vancouver hospital in the period of January 1999 to February 2003 (1520 days, N = 9,857). A conditional logistic regression model was...

  3. Simulation of ozone depletion using ambient irradiance supplemented with UV lamps.

    Daz, S; Camilin, C; Escobar, J; Deferrari, G; Roy, S; Lacoste, K; Demers, S; Belzile, C; Ferreyra, G; Gianesella, S; Gosselin, M; Nozais, C; Pelletier, E; Schloss, I; Vernet, M

    2006-01-01

    In studies of the biological effects of UV radiation, ozone depletion can be mimicked by performing the study under ambient conditions and adding radiation with UV-B lamps. We evaluated this methodology at three different locations along a latitudinal gradient: Rimouski (Canada), Ubatuba (Brazil) and Ushuaia (Argentina). Experiments of the effect of potential ozone depletion on marine ecosystems were carried out in large outdoor enclosures (mesocosms). In all locations we simulated irradiances corresponding to 60% ozone depletion, which may produce a 130-1900% increase in 305 nm irradiance at noon, depending on site and season. Supplementation with a fixed percentage of ambient irradiance provides a better simulation of irradiance increase due to ozone depletion than supplementation with a fixed irradiance value, particularly near sunrise and sunset or under cloudy skies. Calculations performed for Ushuaia showed that, on very cloudy days, supplementation by the square-wave method may produce unrealistic irradiances. Differences between the spectra of the calculated supplementing irradiance and the lamp for a given site and date will be a function of the time of day and may become more or less pronounced according to the biological weighting function of the effect under study. PMID:17205620

  4. Short-term exposure to ambient ozone and stroke hospital admission: A case-crossover analysis.

    Montresor-López, Jessica A; Yanosky, Jeff D; Mittleman, Murray A; Sapkota, Amir; He, Xin; Hibbert, James D; Wirth, Michael D; Puett, Robin C

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone air pollution and stroke hospital admissions among adult residents of South Carolina (SC). Data on all incident stroke hospitalizations from 2002 to 2006 were obtained from the SC Office of Research and Statistics. Ozone exposure data were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hierarchical Bayesian Model. A semi-symmetric bidirectional case-crossover design was used to examine the association between ozone exposure on lag days 0-2 (0 to 2 days before admission) and stroke hospitalization. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No significant associations were observed between short-term ozone exposure and hospitalization for all stroke (e.g., lag day 0: OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.96, 1.00) or ischemic stroke (lag day 0: OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.96, 1.01). Risk of hospitalization for hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be higher among African Americans than European Americans; however, the majority of these associations did not reach statistical significance. Among adults in SC from 2002 to 2006, there was no evidence of an association between ozone exposure and risk of hospitalization for all stroke or ischemic stroke; however, African Americans may have an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:26329139

  5. On-line monitoring of ambient NMHC Ozone Precursors. The French Experience

    Locoge, N. [Departement Chimie et Environnement, Ecole des Mines de Douai, Douai (France)

    2004-07-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) with up to 10 carbon atom number form the main part of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in urban areas. They play an important role in urban air quality since among these compounds some of them like benzene and 1,3- butadiene are proven carcinogens. Moreover, NMHC play an important role in the photochemical mechanism leading to the formation of excess ozone and other oxidants in the troposphere. This paper presents the French experience in the on-line monitoring of NMHC Ozone Precursors focused on the thirty-one VOC whose concentrations are recommended for measurement in the European directive relating to ozone in ambient air (EC 2002/3/CE directive). Concerning the BTEX compounds and more precisely the benzene which is the only one reglemented compound a brief presentation of the automatic French equipment will be made. Concerning the on-line monitoring, the implementation of automated monitoring systems was made in France step by step from the development of the equipment (on-line sampling with GC-FID analysis of the C2-C9 NMHC priority list) at the 'Ecole des Mines de Douai' (EMD, France) with emphasis on sampling optimisation and calibration method to the field implementation of the automated system at urban locations in northern France with the parallel development of a routine Quality Control (QC) procedure. This work was supported supported by the LCSQA (French Central Laboratory of Air Quality Monitoring). The four-year-successful routine experiences have indicated the suitability of the system for long periods (operating ratio: 88%). Finally, although there is no legal requirements concerning the monitoring of ozone precursors, the on-line measuring equipment was extended to four of the French Air Quality Monitoring Networks in 2001 through a national programme devoted to the monitoring of ozone precursors in ambient air and initiated by the French Ministry of Environment.

  6. Ambient ozone and emergency department visits due to lower respiratory condition

    Termeh Kousha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ambient ozone (O3 exposure is associated with a variety of health conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of increased daily concentrations of ozone on emergency department (ED visits due to lower respiratory diseases (LRD, such as acute or chronic bronchitis, in Edmonton, Canada. Materials and Methods: Data concerning 10 years (1992-2002 were obtained from 5 Edmonton hospital Emergency Departments. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with the increased ozone levels were calculated employing a case-crossover technique with a time-stratified strategy to define controls. In the constructed conditional logistic regression models, adjustments were made for daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural splines. ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were reported in relation to an increase in the interquartile range (IQR = 17.9 ppb of the ground-level ozone. Results: Overall, 48 252 ED visits due to LRD were identified, of which 53% were made by males. The presentations peaked in December (12% and February (11.7% and were the lowest in August (5.6%. Positive and statistically significant results were obtained for acute bronchitis: for same day (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13, lag 0 and for lag 2, lag 3-7 and 9 days; for chronic bronchitis: for lag 6, 7, and lag 9 days (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05-1.18, lag 9. For all ED visits for LRD, lag 0, lag 1, and lag 3-9 days showed positive and statistically significant associations (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09, lag 0. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis concerning positive associations between ozone and the ED visits due to LRD.

  7. Recent Results of Ambient Ozone Monitoring in Southern Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, California

    Burley, J. D.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Cisneros, R.; Schweizer, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient ozone has been monitored in the southern Sierra Nevada and White Mountains of California as 2-week average concentrations with Ogawa passive samplers and as 1-hour average concentrations with 2B Technologies UV absorption monitors. Our summer season investigations have included: (1) an elevational transect (1,237 to 4,342 masl) consisting of 5 sites in the White Mountains (2009 -2014); (2) a west to east southern Sierra Nevada transect consisting of 9 sites at elevations between 510 and 3,490 masl (2012 and 2013); and (3) two sites at the Devils Postpile National Monument at 2,130 masl (2007 - 2014). In the White Mountains average ozone concentrations increased with elevation, reaching the highest values at White Mountain Summit. A strongly pronounced diurnal distribution of ozone was observed at the low elevation site in Bishop (OVS), with low values at night and in the early morning and highest concentrations during mid-day. High elevation sites (Crooked Creek, Barcroft Station and Summit) were characterized by flat ozone curves with similar concentrations during daytime and nighttime, typically around 50 ppb. During the 2013 summer season, two-week averages from passive samplers ranged from 32 to 60 ppb for all White Mountains sites with the highest values at the Summit and the lowest at OVS. Along the southern Sierra Nevada transect, average concentrations in summer 2013 ranged from 36.5 to 54.0 ppb with the highest value recorded at the highest elevation eastern site, Piute Pass, and the lowest at low-elevation and western Shaver Lake site. Prather, Mountain Rest and Shaver Lake sites had the most exceedances of 8 h federal health standard of 75 ppb and the California health standard of 70 ppb. The Devils Postpile site was characterized by low ozone concentrations at night and in the early morning, and late afternoon maxima. In 2007 and 2008 the ozone values measured at Devils Postpile occasionally exceeded the federal health standard, with more numerous violations of the California health standard. These results will be discussed from a perspective of other monitoring campaigns conducted by our team in the Sierra Nevada, and they will be compared to concurrent results from nearby low elevation sites. We will also discuss effects of the recent Sierra Nevada wildland fires on ozone levels and distribution.

  8. Ameliorating effect of UV-B radiation on the response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to ambient ozone concentrations

    Elevated levels of both ozone and UV-B radiation are typical for high-altitude sites. Few studies have investigated their possible interaction on plants. This study reports interactive effects of O3 and UV-B radiation in four-year-old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. The trees were cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated climatic conditions recorded on Mt Wank, an Alpine mountain in Bavaria, and were exposed for one growing season to simulated ambient or twice-ambient ozone regimes at either near ambient or near zero UV-B radiation levels. Chlorotic mottling and yellowing of current year needles became obvious under twice-ambient O3 in both species at the onset of a high ozone episode in July. Development of chlorotic mottling in relation to accumulated ozone concentrations over a threshold of 40 nL L–1 was more pronounced with near zero rather than ambient UV-B radiation levels. In Norway spruce, photosynthetic parameters at ambient CO2 concentration, measured at the end of the experiment, were reduced in trees cultivated under twice-ambient O3, irrespective of the UV-B treatment. Effects on photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency were restricted to trees exposed to near zero levels of UV-B radiation, and twice-ambient O3. The data indicate that UV-B radiation, applied together with O3, ameliorates the detrimental effects of O3. The data also demonstrate that foliar symptoms develop more rapidly in Scots pine than in Norway spruce at higher accumulated ozone concentrations. (author)

  9. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation.

    Pretzsch, Hans; Dieler, Jochen; Matyssek, Rainer; Wipfler, Philip

    2010-04-01

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO(3)) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO(3)). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO(3) caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m(3) ha(-1) yr(-1) in European beech. PMID:19713019

  10. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  11. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    S. Deb Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  12. Does ozone exposure alter growth and carbon allocation of mycorrhizal plants

    Yoshida, L.C.; Gamon, J.A. (California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Andersen, C.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Ozone is known to adversely affect plant growth. However, it is less clear how ozone affects belowground processes. This study tests the hypothesis that ozone alters growth and carbon allocation of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) plants. Two ecotypes of Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye) were exposed to mycorrhizal inoculation and episodic ozone exposures simulating atmospheric conditions in the Los Angeles Basin. Preliminary results show that effects of ozone on growth were subtle. In both ecotypes, growth of aboveground biomass was not affected by ozone while root growth was decreased. In most treatments, mycorrhizal inoculation decreased growth of leaves and stems, but had no significant effect on root growth. Three-way ANOVA tests indicated interactive effects between ecotype, mycorrhiza and ozone. Further experimental work is needed to reveal the biological processes governing these responses.

  13. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O3 treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O3, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O3. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O3-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O3 susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. - Capsule: The therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures of central of the Iberian peninsula present a great sensitivity to ozone, as derived from growth- and biomass-related variables

  14. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. P Appendix P to Part 50Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National...

  16. Radial diffusive sampler for the determination of 8-h ambient ozone concentrations

    The 8-h ozone radial diffusive sampler was evaluated according to the CEN protocol for the validation of diffusive samplers. All the parameters regarding the sampler characteristics were found to be consistent with the requirements of this protocol apart from the blank value, which must be evaluated and subtracted at each sampling. The nominal uptake rate was determined in laboratory conditions. However, the uptake rate depends on the mass uptake, temperature, humidity and on the combination of temperature and humidity. Based on laboratory experiments, an empirical model has been established which improved the agreement between the radial sampler and the reference method. This improvement was observed under several different meteorological and emission conditions of sampling. By using the model equation of uptake rate, the data quality objective of 30% for the expanded uncertainty included in the O3 European Directive, is easily attained. Therefore, the sampler represents an appropriate indicative method. - A passive sampler has been fully validated for monitoring 8-h ozone concentrations in ambient air

  17. Radial diffusive sampler for the determination of 8-h ambient ozone concentrations

    Plaisance, H. [Laboratoire Central de Surveillance de la Qualite de l' Air - Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Chimie et Environnement, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, B.P. 838, 59508 Douai (France); Gerboles, M. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)]. E-mail: michel.gerboles@jrc.it; Piechocki, A. [Laboratoire Central de Surveillance de la Qualite de l' Air - Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Chimie et Environnement, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, B.P. 838, 59508 Douai (France); Detimmerman, F. [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Saeger, E. de [European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The 8-h ozone radial diffusive sampler was evaluated according to the CEN protocol for the validation of diffusive samplers. All the parameters regarding the sampler characteristics were found to be consistent with the requirements of this protocol apart from the blank value, which must be evaluated and subtracted at each sampling. The nominal uptake rate was determined in laboratory conditions. However, the uptake rate depends on the mass uptake, temperature, humidity and on the combination of temperature and humidity. Based on laboratory experiments, an empirical model has been established which improved the agreement between the radial sampler and the reference method. This improvement was observed under several different meteorological and emission conditions of sampling. By using the model equation of uptake rate, the data quality objective of 30% for the expanded uncertainty included in the O{sub 3} European Directive, is easily attained. Therefore, the sampler represents an appropriate indicative method. - A passive sampler has been fully validated for monitoring 8-h ozone concentrations in ambient air.

  18. Ambient ozone phytotoxic potential over the Czech forests as assessed by AOT40

    Hunova I

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambient ozone (O3 represents one of the most prominent air pollution pro­blems in Europe. We present an analysis on O3 with respect to its phytotoxic potential over Czech forests between 1994 and 2008. The phytotoxic potential is estimated based on the exposure index AOT40 for forests calculated from real-time monitoring data at 24 rural sites. Our results indicate high phytotoxic potential for most of the Czech Republic (CR with considerable inter-annual and spatial variability. The highest AOT40 values were 38-39 ppm·h. The cri­tical level for forest protection (5 ppm·h was usually exceeded early in the growing season, generally in May. In years with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, the critical level was exceeded by 5-7 folds as compared to years with non-conducive conditions; nevertheless, all sites consi­stently exceeded the critical level since 1994. In the extremely hot and dry year 2003, the critical level for forests was exceeded over 31 % of the Czech forested area. More research is needed to translate these exceedances into forest injury in the CR.

  19. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O3) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa-1 O3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O3 exposure

  20. Quantifying the effects of ozone on plant reproductive growth and development

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful air pollutant that can negatively impact plant growth and development. Current ozone concentrations negatively impact forest productivity and crop yields, and future ozone concentrations will increase if current emission rates continue. However, the specific effects o...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... day is greater than the level of the ambient standard. 2.2 Primary and Secondary...

  2. The role of elevated ozone on growth, yield and seed quality amongst six cultivars of mung bean.

    Chaudhary, Nivedita; Agrawal, S B

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) can be deleterious to plants by decreasing crop yield and quality. Present study was conducted on six cultivars of mung bean (HUM-1, HUM-2, HUM-6, HUM-23, HUM-24 and HUM-26) grown under ambient O3 (NFC) and elevated O3 levels (ambient+10 ppb; NFC+) in open top chambers (OTCs) for two consecutive years. Ozone monitoring data showed high mean ambient concentration of O3 at the experimental site, which was above the threshold value of 40 ppb. Ozone exposure induced symptoms of foliar injury and also depicted accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which led to increased membrane damage vis-a-vis solute leakage. Root/shoot allometric coefficient (k), yield and seed quality showed negative response to O3. Differential response of mung bean cultivars against elevated O3 was assessed by comparing the levels of antioxidants, metabolites, growth, total biomass and yield. Cultivar HUM-1 showed maximum sensitivity towards O3 as compared to other cultivars. Findings of present study emphasized the possibility of selection of suitable O3 resistant cultivars for the areas experiencing high concentrations of O3. PMID:25450946

  3. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O3]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O3] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O3] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: → Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. → We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. → High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. → Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  4. Effective interface passivation of a Ge/HfO2 gate stack using ozone pre-gate treatment and ozone ambient annealing

    The physical and electrical properties of a Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack are investigated. A thin interfacial GeO2 layer (∼1 nm) is formed between Ge and HfO2 by dual ozone treatments, which passivates the Ge/high-k interface. Capacitors on p-type Ge substrates show very promising capacitance-voltage (C—V) characteristics by using in situ pre-gate ozone passivation and ozone ambient annealing after high-k deposition, indicating efficient passivation of the Ge/HfO2 interface. It is shown that the mid-gap interface state density atthe Ge/GeO2 interface is 6.4 × 1011 cm−2 · eV−1. In addition, the gate leakage current density of the Ge/GeO2/HfO2/Al gate stack passivated by the dual ozone treatments is reduced by about three orders of magnitude compared to that of a Ge/HfO2/Al gate stack without interface passivation. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Is the growth of temperate forest trees enhanced along an ambient nitrogen deposition gradient?

    Bedison, James E; McNeil, Brenden E

    2009-07-01

    The extent to which atmospheric N deposition is enhancing primary production and CO2 sequestration along the ambient N deposition gradients found within many regional temperate forest ecosystems remains unknown. We used tree diameter measurements from 1984 and 2004, allometric equations, and estimates of wet N deposition from 32 permanent plots located along an ambient N deposition gradient in the Adirondack Park, New York, U.S.A., to determine the effects of N deposition on the basal area and woody biomass increments (BAI and WBI, respectively) of individual stems from all the major tree species. Nitrogen deposition had either a neutral or positive effect on BAI and WBI, with the positive effects especially apparent within the smaller size classes of several species. The nature of these growth responses suggests that other co-varying factors (e.g., temperature, tropospheric ozone, soil acidification) may be partially counteracting the species-dependent fertilization effect of N deposition that was suggested by recent foliar N data across this gradient. Nevertheless, in documenting a fertilization effect from chronic, low-level, ambient rates of N deposition, this study underscores the need for more research on how N deposition is affecting rates of primary production, CO2 sequestration, and even vegetation dynamics in many forests worldwide. PMID:19694123

  6. Ambient Ozone Concentrations and the Risk of Perforated and Nonperforated Appendicitis: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study

    Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Tanyingoh, Divine; Dixon, Elijah; Johnson, Markey; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Myers, Robert P.; Bertazzon, Stefania; Saini, Vineet; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis. Objectives: We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Methods: We based this time-stratified case-crossover study on 35,811 patients hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004 to 2008 in 12 Ca...

  7. Foliar response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) clones to ambient ozone exposure in central Pennsylvania.

    Lee, J C; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Zhang, J W; Savage, J E

    1999-06-01

    During late summer of 1996 and 1997 we examined ozone-induced foliar injury in a plantation of 111 black cherry trees (ramets) comprising 15 clones originating from wild ortets growing in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania, and the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. The experimental plantation was a clonal seed orchard in Centre County, Pennsylvania, started in 1971 using ortet buds grafted onto seedling rootstocks of mixed origin. Clones differed significantly in severity of foliar injury symptoms (F=31.83, p50% leaf area affected than other clones during both years. In contrast, clone R-14, which is from the same area in northcentral Pennsylvania as R-12, exhibited significantly less injury (LAA<6%). Although ambient O(3) concentrations were similar in both years, foliar injury was significantly greater (15.7%) in 1996 than in 1997 (9.9%). This is probably explained by lower stomatal conductance in 1997 caused by drier and hotter weather patterns in June and July of that year. Despite very different weather patterns and overall levels of injury in 1996 and 1997, mean clonal injury was significantly correlated between both years of assessment (r=0.92, p<0.001). Within tree crowns, foliage in lower and inner crown positions was significantly more injured than foliage in upper and exterior crown positions. There was no evidence of geographically based population differences in sensitivity to foliar O(3) injury. On the contrary, results demonstrate that wild genotypes of proximal geographic origin may differ greatly in sensitivity. PMID:15093074

  8. An automated monitoring system for VOC ozone precursors in ambient air: development, implementation and data analysis

    Badol, C.; Borbon, A.; Locoge, N.; Leonardis, T.; Galloo, J.C. [Departement Chimie et Environnement, Ecole des Mines de Douai, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 838, 59508, Douai Cedex (France)

    2004-04-01

    An automated system for the monitoring of volatile organic compound (VOC) ozone precursors in ambient air is described. The measuring technique consists of subambient preconcentration on a cooled trap followed by thermal desorption and GC/FID analysis. First, the technical development, which permits detection limits below 0.05 ppbv to be reached, proceeded in two steps: (1) the determination of optimum sampling parameters (trap composition and conditioning, outlet split, desorption temperature); (2) the development of a reliable calibration method based on a highly accurate standard. Then, a 4-year field application of the hourly measuring chain was carried out at two urban sites. On the one hand, quality control procedures provided the best VOC identification (peak assignment) and quantification (reproducibility, blank system control). On the other hand, the success and performances of the routine experience (88% of the measurements covered more than 40 target compounds) indicated the high quality and suitability of the instrumentation which is actually applied in several French air quality monitoring networks. Finally, an example of data analysis is presented. Data handling identified important organic compound sources other than vehicle exhaust. (orig.)

  9. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  10. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P→5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Ambient Ozone Level and Mortality in Southeastern United States

    Montserrat Fuentes; Chang, Howard H.; Jingwen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing interest in quantifying the health impacts of climate change. This paper examines the risks of future ozone levels on non-accidental mortality across 19 urban communities in Southeastern United States. We present a modeling framework that integrates data from climate model outputs, historical meteorology and ozone observations, and a health surveillance database. We first modeled present-day relationships between observed maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentrations an...

  12. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  13. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  14. A STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL WAYS IN WHICH OZONE COULD REDUCE ROOT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF SOYBEAN

    The possible mechanisms by which the ozone reduces root growth and nodulation of soybean were investigated. Ozone did not appreciably penetrate the plant growth substrates nor did it oxidize soil organic matter to form compounds inhibitory to Rhizobium. When ozone was excluded fr...

  15. Ambient volatile organic compounds and their effect on ozone production in Wuhan, central China.

    Lyu, X P; Chen, N; Guo, H; Zhang, W H; Wang, N; Wang, Y; Liu, M

    2016-01-15

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were continuously measured from February 2013 to October 2014 at an urban site in Wuhan. The characteristics and sources of VOCs and their effect on ozone (O3) formation were studied for the first time. The total VOC levels in Wuhan were relatively low, and of all VOCs, ethane (5.2 0.2 ppbv) was the species with the highest levels. Six sources, i.e., vehicular exhausts, coal burning, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage, the petrochemical industry, solvent usage in dry cleaning/degreasing, and solvent usage in coating/paints were identified, and their contributions to the total VOCs were 27.8 0.9%, 21.8 0.8%, 19.8 0.9%, 14.4 0.9%, 8.5 0.5%, and 7.7 0.4%, respectively. Model simulation of a photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (PBM-MCM) indicated that the contribution to O3 formation of the above sources was 23.4 1.3%, 22.2 1.2%, 23.1 1.7%, 11.8 0.9%, 5.2 0.4%, and 14.2 1.1%, respectively. LPG and solvent usage in coating/paints were the sources that showed higher contributions to O3 formation, compared to their contributions to VOCs. The relative incremental reactivity (RIR) analysis revealed that the O3 formation in Wuhan was generally VOC-limited, and ethene and toluene were the primary species contributing to O3 production, accounting for 34.3% and 31.5% of the total RIR-weighted concentration, respectively. In addition, the contribution of CO to the O3 formation was remarkable. The C4 alkanes and alkenes from the LPG usage also significantly contributed to the O3 formation. The results can assist local governments in formulating and implementing control strategies for photochemical pollution. PMID:26410695

  16. Ozone

    1978-02-01

    A joint report published by the U.K., the U.S., and France has recommended that further research is needed to quantify the damage to the ozone layer caused by propellants and certain fertilizers. However, the report described the effects of supersonic air flights on the ozone layers as ''neglilgible'', stating that a fleet of up to 35 Concorde aircraft would account for a small fraction of 1% of ozone destruction. Meanwhile, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has compelled manufacturers of aerosol hairspray, deodorant, or antiperspirant that use chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases as a propellant to carry the health warning that it may harm public health and the environment by reducing ozone in the upper atmosphere. This public health warning is the beginning of a program adopted by U.S. agencies to ban CFC aerosols from interstate commerce by Apr. 1979.

  17. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON THE GROWTH PROCESSES OF MAIZE SEEDS

    Shevchenko A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the yield of crops is a global challenge substantiated by the scientists from all over the world. To achieve this goal, there are various ways, one of which is the ozonation of seeds before sowing. This method inhibits harmful microflora, which could be formed on the seed during the period of storage, and excites the chemical processes within the seed that can accelerate the process of growth. But despite the positive effect of ozone-air mixture of seeds and a variety of conducting research there is still no reliable data on the technological parameters of ozone effects on seed crops (e.g., corn. In this regard, we have conducted experimental studies to determine the effective parameters of the ozonation of corn seeds, such as the concentration of ozone in the ozone-air mixture, exposure time and binning after treatment. The influence of these parameters was assessed by changes in growth performance of seed, such as germination, germination and growth of strength. Just at the end of the pilot study we carried out a statistical analysis of the data, which allowed us to estimate the degree of influence of each independent parameter (ozone concentration, exposure time, binning after treatment for each dependent parameter (germination energy, germination, growth force. The data obtained is presented in the article

  18. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  19. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates at Purchase Knob, a high elevation site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased with increased foliar stipple. Sensitive plants had lower photosynthetic rates for all leaves, except the very youngest and oldest when compared to tolerant plants. Stomatal conductance decreased with increasing leaf age, but no ozone-sensitivity differences were found. Lower leaves had less starch than upper ones, while leaves on sensitive plants had less than those on tolerant plants. These results show that ambient levels of ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can adversely affect gas exchange, water use efficiency and leaf starch content in sensitive coneflower plants. Persistence of sensitive genotypes in the Park may be due to physiological recovery in low ozone years. - Highlights: ► Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared. ► Net photosynthesis decreased with increased foliar stipple and leaf age. ► Sensitive plants with visible stipple had lower photosynthetic rates when compared to tolerant plants. ► Stomatal conductance did not differ between sensitivity types. ► Sensitive plants had lower leaf starch content than tolerant plants. - Ambient ozone may cause declines in gas exchange and starch in ozone-sensitive genotypes of cutleaf coneflower.

  20. COMBINED OZONE AND ACTIVE OXYGEN TREATMENT OF TOMATOES AND BANANAS DELAYS RIPENING AND REDUCES QUALITY DETERIORATION AND MICROBIAL GROWTH

    Green bananas and mature tomatoes were subjected to a combination of ozone and active oxygen or ambient air (control) treatment at 10 'C for up to 25 days. Visual observation revealed that bananas stored in the active oxygen and ozone chamber remained greener than those stored in the control chambe...

  1. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer [Forest Botany, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Stich, Susanne [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard [Section of Forest Genetics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Scherb, Hagen [Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bahnweg, Guenther, E-mail: bahnweg@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  2. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  3. Health effects of tropospheric ozone: Review of recent research findings and their implications to ambient air quality standards

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator proposed (on August 3, 1992) to retain the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) on the basis of data assembled in a draft Criteria Document (1986) and its Addendum (1988) which, together with a draft Staff Paper (1988), received public comment and review comments by the EPA's Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). This paper summarizes and discusses research findings presented since 1988 which, based on the author's experience as a Chairman of CASAC, are most relevant to the promulgation of a primary (health based) NAAQS for O3. These newer findings include substantial evidence from controlled chamber exposure studies and field studies in natural settings that the current NAAQS contains no margin of safety against short-term effects that the EPA has considered to be adverse. They also include evidence from epidemiologic studies that current ambient exposures are associated with reduced baseline lung function, exacerbation of asthma and premature mortality, as well as evidence from chronic animal exposure studies at concentrations within current ambient peak levels that indicate progressive and persistent lung function and structural abnormalities. The current NAAQS, if retained, may therefore also be inadequate to protect the public from effects resulting from chronic exposure to O3. 96 refs

  4. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    The hypothesis was tested that O3-induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O3 regime (elevated O3), as released through a free-air canopy O3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O3. As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O3-induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ? We model O3-induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ? Elevated O3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ? Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ? O3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  5. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  6. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    In field O3-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O3-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O3-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

  7. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  8. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    2012-05-21

    ... Ross Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202, (214) 665- 7242. Joshua A. Tapp, Chief, Air... Columbia EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: April 30, 2012. Lisa...

  9. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    2013-06-06

    ... pollution may contribute significantly to air pollution that exceeds the NAAQS in those states. The CAA... statement requirements? K. What are the ambient monitoring requirements? L. How can states qualify for a 1... FR 16436. \\2\\ For a detailed explanation of the calculation of the 3-year 8-hour average, see 40...

  10. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    Gimeno, Benjamn; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Torre Llorente, Daniel de la; Elvira, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone (O3) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O3 levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O3-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of ...

  11. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Akhtar, Nahid [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Izuta, Takeshi, E-mail: izuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To clarify the effects of O{sub 3} on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O{sub 3} at 60 and 100 nl l{sup -1} (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O{sub 3}. Although there was no significant effect of O{sub 3} on stomatal diffusive conductance to H{sub 2}O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O{sub 3.} The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O{sub 3} was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O{sub 3} may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. - The exposure to ambient levels of ozone decreases growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat.

  12. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  13. Growth and premature leaf fall in American aspen as bioindications for ozone.

    Keller, T

    1988-01-01

    Several clones of the American aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) differing in ozone sensitivity were fumigated continuously for 105 days with different ozone concentrations, producing different ozone doses. The suitability of the clones as possible replacements for tobacco as bioindicators in forested areas was tested. The life span of leaves of the ozone-sensitive clones was distinctly reduced by ozone. The difference to controls was significant even in the relatively clean air at Birmensdorf. Growth was diminished, too, but the decrease in height was much less pronounced than that in weight. In sensitive clones an after-effect was detectable, since the weight of new shoots (grown from reserves) decreased with increasing ozone stress in the previous year. Since the tolerant clone grew less, it is-at first sight-of decreased economic interest from the point of view of rapid productivity. In the long run, however, it might be economically interesting because it may be able to maintain productivity (although at a lower level) due to better competitive strength. PMID:15092605

  14. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1 yr-1) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O3). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive

  15. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, growth, and nutrient concentrations of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    Thomas, V.F.D. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vera.thomas@iap.ch; Braun, S. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Flueckiger, W. [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstr. 25/27, 4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    Beech seedlings were grown under different nitrogen fertilisation regimes (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) for three years and were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O{sub 3}). Nitrogen fertilisation increased leaf necroses, aphid infestations, and nutrient ratios in the leaves (N:P and N:K), as a result of decreased phosphorus and potassium concentrations. For plant growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, a positive nitrogen effect was found, but only for fertilisations of up to 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The highest nitrogen load, however, reduced leaf area, leaf water content, growth, biomass accumulation, and starch concentrations, whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations were enhanced. The ozone fumigation resulted in reduced leaf area, leaf water content, shoot growth, root biomass accumulation, and decreased starch, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, increasing the N:P and N:K ratios. A combined effect of the two pollutants was detected for the leaf area and the shoot elongation, where ozone fumigation amplified the nitrogen effects. - The effects of nitrogen and ozone on growth, carbohydrate concentrations, and nutrients are mainly additive.

  16. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    Singh, Shalini [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, S.B., E-mail: sbagrawal56@gmail.co [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-08-15

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O{sub 3} under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant{sup -1}) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O{sub 3}. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O{sub 3}. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O{sub 3} under natural field conditions.

  17. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O3 under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant-1) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O3. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O3. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O3 under natural field conditions.

  18. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    Schaub, M. [Graduate Ecology Program, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]. E-mail: jms34@psu.edu; Zhang, J.W. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ferdinand, J.A. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, J.E. [Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stevenson, R.E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Davis, D.D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, K.C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential ({psi}{sub L}) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g{sub wv}) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P{sub n}), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g{sub wv} and P{sub n} demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone.

  19. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψL) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  20. Did the Ambient Ozone Affect Stem Increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Territories under Regional Pollution Load? Step III of Lithuanian Studies

    Algirdas Augustaitis; Ingrida Augustaitiene; Gintautas Cinga; Juozapas Mazeika; Romualdas Deltuvas; Romualdas Juknys; Adomas Vitas

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks...

  1. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms

    Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

  2. Growth response of two varieties of slash-pine seedlings to chronic ozone exposures

    Hogsett, W.E.; Plocher, M.; Wildman, V.; Tingey, D.T.; Bennett, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two geographical varieties of Pinus elliottii (Engelm.) seedlings, elliottii and densa, were exposed continuously to two daily peak exposure profiles of ozone having 7-h seasonal means of 0.104 and 0.076 ppm and charcoal-filtered air over a 112-day period. The profiles represented a daily rise and decline of hourly ozone concentration. They were constructed with a daily hourly maximum, which for one profile (0.126 micro l/l) exceeded the current ozone standard daily; the standard was not exceeded for the other profile (0.094 micro l/l). Destructive harvests at 7-day intervals over the exposure period were employed to assess visible injury and to construct growth curves for stem diameter, plant height, top and root dry weight, and needle number and length.

  3. Indirect prediction of surface ozone concentration by plant growth responses in East Asia using mini-open top chambers.

    Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Miwa, Makoto; Yonekura, Tetsushi; Aihara, Keiji; Umponstira, Chanin; Le, Vo Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Viet, Phanm Hung; Wei, Ma

    2013-03-01

    We developed small and mobile open top chambers (mini-OTC) measuring 0.6 m (W) × 0.6 m (D) × 1.2 m (H) with an air duct of 0.6 m (W) × 0.23 m (D) × 1.2 m (H). The air duct can be filled with activated charcoal to blow charcoal filtered air (CF) into the chamber, as opposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF). Ozone sensitive radish Raphanus sativus cv. Red Chime and rosette pakchoi Brassica campestris var. rosularis cv. ATU171 were exposed to NF and CF in mini-OTCs at different locations in East Asia. A total of 29 exposure experiments were conducted at nine locations, Shanghai, China, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Lampang, Phitsanulok and Pathumtani, Thailand, and Hiratsuka, Kisai, Abiko and Akagi, Japan. Although no significant relationships between the mean concentrations of ambient O(3) during the experimental period and the growth responses were observed for either species, multiple linear regression analysis suggested a good relationship between the biomass responses in each species and the O(3) concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The cumulative daily mean O(3) (ppb/day) could be indirectly predicted by NF/CF based on the dry weight ratio of biomass, mean air temperature, and relative air humidity. PMID:22752963

  4. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  5. Ambient formaldehyde and its contributing factor to ozone and OH radical in a rural area

    Xiaoyan, Wang; Huixiang, Wang; Shaoli, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as correlative pollutants was measured from 1 to 31 July in 2007 at Mazhuang, a rural site located in the east of China. Gaseous HCHO was scrubbed from the air with an acidic 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, which leaded to the reaction of HCHO with DNPH and produced a stable product, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone, followed by online analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with Ultraviolet detector. During the observation period, mixing ratios of HCHO ranged from 0.2 ppbv to 6.2 ppbv, with an average of 1.5 0.67 ppbv. HCHO shows an evident diurnal variation, the maximum appeared during 12:00-14:00. The average concentration diurnal variations of measured HCHO, ozone (O 3), Methylhydroperoxides (MHP, CH 3OOH), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and meteorological parameters were compared. The similar variations of HCHO, O 3 and radiation imply that photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons might be the major source for HCHO. Based on the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) coefficient of HCHO, the calculation shows that HCHO contributes about 20% to total observed O 3 during the study period. In order to compare the contributions of O 3, HCHO and HONO to OH radical, photolysis rate parameters ( J-values) of the three compounds were calculated by the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) Radiation Model (4.4 version). Based on the comparison, this study reaches the conclusion that O 3 is the dominant source of OH radical at Mazhuang. This study also uses P(HCHO)/P(O 3) which represents the ratio of contrbutions of HCHO and O 3 to OH radical, to discuss the action of HCHO in OH radical soucers. The result shows that P(HCHO)/P(O 3) is 12.5% on average, with the maximum of 21.0% at 13:00 P.M. and minimum of 7.5% before 9:00 A.M. and after 17:00 P.M..Therefore HCHO is also an important source of OH radical and cannot be ignored.

  6. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  7. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions.

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Zhang, J W; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D; Steiner, K C

    2005-02-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (psi(L)) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g(wv)) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P(n)), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g(wv) and P(n) demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. PMID:15519730

  8. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  9. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  10. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    Anderson, P.D. [USDA Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab., Rhinelander, WI (United States); Houpis, J.L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Helms, J.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science Policy and Management

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  11. Effect of ozone and sulphur dioxide singly and in combination on plant growth

    Tingey, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    Plants were exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) singly or in combination to examine the effects of gas mixtures on plant growth. Chronic exposures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to these mixtures resulted in growth reductions from the mix treatment equal to the additive effect of the single gases. Chronic exposures of alfalfa (Medicago sativus) resulted in growth reductions from the mixed treatment that were less than the additive effects of the single gases. Single acute exposures of radish (Raphanus sativus) to O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ resulted in growth reductions in the mix treatment no different from the effects of the individual gases. None of the gas mixtures caused a greater growth reduction than would be expected from the additive effects of the single gases. This is in contrast with foliar injury, where gas mixtures frequently cause more foliar injury than the sum of the individual pollutants.

  12. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10-4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  13. Growth response of two varieties of slash pine seedlings to chronic ozone exposures

    Hogsett, W.E.; Plocher, M.; Wildman, V.; Tingey D.T.; Bennett, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two geographical varieties of Pinus elliottii seedlings, elliottii and densa, were exposed continuously to two daily peak exposure profiles of ozone having 7 h (0900-1600) seasonal means of 0.104 and 0.076 p.p.m. or to charcoal-filtered air over a 112 d period. The profiles represented a daily rise and decline of hourly O/sub 3/ concentration. They were constructed with a daily hourly maxiumm which for one profile (0.126 ..mu..l/litre) exceeded the current O/sub 3/ standard daily; the standard was not exceeded for the other profile (0.094 ..mu..l/litre). Destructive harvests at 7 d intervals, over the exposure period were employed to assess visible injury and to construct growth curves for stem diameter plant height, top and root dry weight and needle number and length. The visible injury was slight, yet all the growth parameters decreased significantly with time and ozone concentration; root growth was the most severely impacted. The observed growth response and visible injury of the two varieties were similar. Seed germination was not affected by O/sub 3/ exposure. 22 references.

  14. ACUTE EFFECTS OF OZONE ON HEART RATE AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE UNANESTHETIZED, UNRESTRAINED RAT MAINTAINED AT DIFFERENT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES

    The present studies were conducted to investigate the concentration-response characteristics of acute ozone (O3) exposure on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function of the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat, and to examine the modulating effects produced by changes in ambi...

  15. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  16. Ideas and perspectives: Southwestern tropical Atlantic coral growth response to atmospheric circulation changes induced by ozone depletion in Antarctica

    Evangelista, Heitor; Wainer, Ilana; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Corrège, Thierry; Cordeiro, Renato C.; Lamounier, Saulo; Godiva, Daniely; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Le Cornec, Florence; Turcq, Bruno; Lazareth, Claire E.; Hu, Ching-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recent Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation, predominantly driven by stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica, has caused changes in climate across the extratropics. Here, we present evidence that the Brazilian coast (southwestern Atlantic) may have been impacted from both wind and sea-surface temperature changes derived from this process. Skeleton analysis of massive coral species living in shallow waters off Brazil are very sensitive to air-sea interactions, and seem to record this impact. Growth rates of Brazilian corals show a trend reversal that fits the ozone depletion evolution, confirming that ozone impacts are far reaching and potentially affect coastal ecosystems in tropical environments.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on growth of cucumber

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, Maryland, on growth and flavonoid content in four cultivars of Cucumis sativus L. (Ashley, Poinsett, Marketmore, and Salad Bush cucumber) was examined during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Plants were grown from seed in UV exclusion chambers consisting of UV-transmitting Plexiglas, lined with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or cellulose acetate to transmit UV-A and UV-B. Despite previously determined differences in sensitivity to supplemental UV-B radiation, all four cultivars responded similarly to UV-B exclusion treatment. After 19–21 days, the four cultivars grown in the absence of solar UV-B (polyester) had an average of 34, 55, and 40% greater biomass of leaves, stems, and roots, respectively, 27% greater stem height, and 35% greater leaf area than those grown under ambient UV-B (cellulose acetate). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 14 and 22% average increase, respectively, in biomass of leaves and stems, and a 22 and 19% average increase, respectively, in stem elongation and leaf area over those grown under polyester. These findings demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of cucumber not only to present levels of UV-B but also to UV-A and suggest that even small changes in ozone depletion may have important biological consequences for certain plant species. (author)

  18. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ? 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  19. Growth, radiation use efficiency, and canopy reflectance of wheat and corn grown under elevated ozone and carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Estimates of increases in future agricultural production in response to increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere are often based on the beneficial physiological effect of CO2 enrichment on plant growth, especially in Ca plants. However, these estimates fail to consider the negative impact of ozone (O3) air pollution on crop production. Increases in tropospheric concentrations of both gases, CO2 and O3, have been observed over the past century, and both are predicted to continue to increase at even higher rates in the near future to levels when they may have a significant impact on agricultural production. Field studies with wheat (Friticum aestivum L.) in 1991 and 1992, and corn (Zea mays L.) in 1991 were conducted using open-top chambers to mimic atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (~ 500 μL-1 CO2) and Oa (- 40 nL L-1 O3 above ambient air [O3] during 7 h day- 1, 5 days week-1) that are predicted to occur at the Earth's surface during the first half of the 21st century. Wheat and corn (C3 vs. C4) produced clearly different responses to CO2 enrichment, but similar responses to O3 exposure. In wheat, O3 exposure led to reduced grain yield, biomass, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, phytomass production per unit of energy received); in both years; but reduction in accumulated absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (AAPAR) was observed only in 1991. Conversely, CO2 enrichment produced greater grain yield, dry biomass, and RUE. With CO2 enrichment, the Oa-induced stress to wheat plants was apparently ameliorated since responses were equivalent to the control group (low O3 and ambient CO2) for all variables. In contrast, corn demonstrated no benefit to CO2 enrichment for measured variables, and corn grain yield was the only parameter negatively influenced by O3 exposure that is attributed to O3-induced damage during the flowering process. Additionally, no treatment differences were observed for leaf area index (LAI) as determined nondestructively using the LICOR LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. Also, treatment differences for normalized difference vegetation index (ND) were only observed for wheat plants from the high-Oa and ambient CO2 treatment, at some growing stages. Otherwise, ND data were not helpful for identifying damage due to O3 fumigation or benefits due to CO2 enrichment. Significant interactive effects of CO2 vs. O3 were observed only for wheat grain yield in 1991 (p < 0.10), indicated that the detrimental effect of Oa air pollution was more than overcome under the CO2-enriched environment. (author)

  20. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  1. Forming High Ozone Concentration in the Ambient Air of Southern Taiwan under the Effects of Western Pacific Subtropical High

    Kuo-Cheng Lo; Chung-Hsuang Hung

    2015-01-01

    Due to the distinct geographical and meteorological conditions of Taiwan, air pollutants concentrations in the ambient air of it may vary with seasons. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the formation of high O3 concentration in the ambient air of Southern Taiwan during summers. A high O3 concentration case occurring between June 28 and July 2, 2013, was modeled and analyzed with WRF-Chem meteorological and air quality model. During the investigated period, a typical western Pacific...

  2. Linking changes in ozone to changes in emissions and meteorology

    Estimation of trends in ozone air quality is a complex problem because of the strong influence of meteorology on ozone and its precursors. In this paper we present a physically-consistent methodology to link changes in ozone to changes in precursor emissions in the presence of meteorological fluctuations. Time series ozone concentrations (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) measured from 1985 to 1993 in the Los Angeles Air Basin are first separated into different time scales using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter. Linear regression analysis is performed on meteorological variables and ozone and its precursors on each time scale. The downward trend in the daily hourly maxima of O3 is about twice that in the daily hourly mean O3. The results demonstrate that emission control programs implemented over Southern California were very effective in improving ambient ozone levels during a period of robust economic growth. (Author)

  3. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  4. Vertical and Horizontal Measurements of Ambient Ozone over a Gas and Oil Production Area using a UAV Platform

    Jensen, A.; Gowing, I.; Martin, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 wintertime Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS13), an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, coupled with an on-board UV ozone monitor, flew several spatial profiles near the location (Horse Pool) of other concentrated measurements by other co-investigators. The airframe, part of the Utah Water Research Laboratory's (UWRL) AggieAir UAV program, consisted of a custom-built, battery-operated plane with and 2.4 m (8 ft) wing span and a 12.7 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.5 cm payload bay with a carrying capacity of approximately 2.0 kg. With the current power system, the fully-loaded AggieAir UAV can fly for approximately 45 minutes at a nominal airspeed of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). The system can be operated either in manual control or be flown autonomously following preprogrammed waypoints via a built in GPS system. The AggieAir UAV systems were primarily designed for photographic and telemetry tracking projects. For the UBOS13 flights, a 2B Technologies Model 205 Ozone (O3) monitor was modified for minimal weight optimization, wrapped with lightweight insulation and secured into the UAV payload bay. Additionally, HOBO Model H08-001-02 shielded temperature/datalogger was secured to the exterior of the UAV from parallel thermal profile determination. During the study period, three demonstration flight profiles were obtained on February 17 and 18, 2013: two vertical 'curtain' profiles and a pair of 'stacked' horizontal profiles. As recorded by numerous ground-based monitoring sites, the ozone during the UAV test periods was characterized by initial trends of daytime O3 maximums over 130 ppb, followed by a meteorological front partially ventilating the Basin on the evening of Feb. 17th leading to decreased O3 minimums around 40 ppb. However, the ground level O3 rebuilt quickly to ground level maximums approaching 100 ppb. The vertical 'curtain' flown on the evening of Feb. 17th only reached a maximum elevation of about 2160 m ASL (600 m AGL) due to encountering upper level excessive winds as the low pressure front approached. However the flight was still able to capture a temperature profile indicating a well-mixed atmosphere below about 300 m AGL, sealed by a definitive inversion layer extending to the top of the measurement profile. The measured O3 profile went from about 140 ppb near the ground to around 60 ppb at the start of the inversion layer, and then remained essentially constant until the top of the elevation profile. The vertical profile late in the morning of the following day (after the front had passed), showed nearly straight vertical profiles of temperature (≈2°C) and ozone (35-50 ppb) up to approximately 2400 m ASL (820 m AGL). The stacked horizontal profiles (1650 and 1750 m ASL) flown immediately after the vertical flight of Feb. 17th showed some differences on the horizontal scale, but it was unclear if these differences were associated with terrain differences (topography dropped rapidly to the south) or locational differences in precursor sources. The UAV measured ozone compared favorably to nearby co-investigators (NOAA/ESRL CSD TOPAZ Lidar and CU/INSTAAR tethered balloon).

  5. Growth and antioxidant status of broilers fed supplemental lysine and pyridoxine under high ambient temperature

    Khakpour Irani, Farzaneh; DANESHYAR, Mohsen; Najafi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Three levels of lysine (90, 100 and 110% of Ross requirement) and of pyridoxine (3, 6 and 9 mg kg-1) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment to investigate the growth and blood antioxidant ability of broilers under high ambient temperature. None of the dietary supplements affected the weight gain during the starter and grower periods. Although no significant differences were detected between the treatments during the entire period, high lysine level fed birds had a lower weight gain. At any...

  6. How do increasing background concentrations of tropospheric ozone affect peatland plant growth and carbon gas exchange?

    Williamson, Jennifer L.; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Jones, Timothy; Freeman, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that plants originating from upland peat bogs are sensitive to increasing background concentrations of ozone. Peatland mesocosms from an upland peat bog in North Wales, UK were exposed to eight levels of elevated background ozone in solardomes for 4 months from May to August, with 24 h mean ozone concentrations ranging from 16 to 94 ppb and cumulative AOT024hr ranging from 45.98 ppm h to 259.63 ppm h. Our results show that plant senescence increased with increasing exposure to ozone, although there was no significant effect of increasing ozone on plant biomass. Assessments of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from the mesocosms suggests that there was no change in carbon dioxide fluxes over the 4 month exposure period but that methane fluxes increased as cumulative ozone exposure increased to a maximum AOT 024hr of approximately 120 ppm h and then decreased as cumulative ozone exposure increased further.

  7. Epitaxial growth of silver nanoislands on the surface of silicon nanowires in ambient air

    We study the epitaxial growth of Ag nanoislands on the surface of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) in ambient air by annealing SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching using Ag particles as the catalysts. We demonstrate that the nucleation of Ag on the surface of SiNWs is realized either by the direct decomposition of AgmO or by the reaction between AgmO and Si depending on the annealing temperature; AgmO is an adspecies with a lower effective detachment barrier, commonly introduced in oxygen-induced Ag surface migration systems. Along with the formation of Ag nanoislands, a thin layer of SiOx is formed on the outside surface of Ag nanoislands. The ambient-air epitaxial growth of Ag islands on the surface of SiNWs offers great flexibility in designing ideal metal contacts and Schottky barrier formation, and studying the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of the Si/Ag system. We also believe that SiNWs decorated by Ag nanoislands have many potential applications in plasmonic photovoltaic cells, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection and electronic devices

  8. Ozone Impacts on forest Growth: A Sensitivity Analysis for Norway spruce

    Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Ozone is one of the most important damaging air pollutants for forests in Austria. The mean atmospheric ozone concentration varies between 22.5 and 51.5 ppb (parts per billion) depending on altitude. Based on the emissions of the precursor substances (nitrous oxides and volatile hydrocarbons), the concentrations increase around 0.2 ppb per year and exceed the threshold for effects on plants. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis is sensible to ozone load. This corresponds to a reduction of the potentially possible CO2 fixation and can be regarded as a proof of the damage potential of ozone. The defence capacity vis-à-vis increased ozone increases with increasing elevation. At higher elevations the higher natural stress potential is accompanied by a higher defence potential against ozone damage. Based on these findings the following working hypotheses were formulated: (i) Under the acceptance that ozone uptake leads to a reduction of volume increment, model calculations on volume increment should exhibit a systematic bias versus the ozone dose. (ii) For locations unencumbered by ozone, the model should underestimate, for strongly burdened locations it should overestimate volume increment. (iii) Error patterns should change with increasing elevation, due to the increasing defence potential. Results demonstrated that at elevations above 800 m a.s.l. no ozone effect was detectable via trends in errors versus ozone dose. At elevations below 800 m, a significant trend in errors from plots with low ozone doses to plots with high ozone doses was evident. Although the model used in this study includes no explicit ozone reactions, we can be confident at the 95 % level that Norway spruce trees growing below 800 m a.s.l. react to an increase in ozone dose with a reduction in volume increment. It is, however, important to emphasize that the evidence for increment reduction is qualitative evidence but does not allow the quantification of the ozone induced reduction in volume increment. A quantification of the reduction in volume increment requires the statistical validation of the dose-response relations on the basis of additional data series from sites with different ozone loads, elevations and site conditions.

  9. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM. In addition, the authors have been and are involved with several international standardization organizations including the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The associated standardization activities involve fracture toughness, strength, elastic modulus, and the machining of advanced ceramics.

  10. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in open-top chambers

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) was grown in open-top chambers under three carbon dioxide (ambient and seasonal mean concentrations of 550 and 680 μmol mol-1 CO2) and two ozone concentrations (ambient and an 8 h day -1 seasonal mean of 50 nmol mol-1 O3) between emergence and final harvest. Periodic non-destructive measurements were made and destructive harvests were carried out at three key developmental stages (24, 49 and 101 days after emergence) to establish effects on growth and tuber yield. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 reduced above-ground dry weight at final harvest by 8.4% (P2 and O3 for any of the growth and yield variables examined. Non-destructive analyses revealed no significant effect of elevated CO2 on plant height, leaf number or green leaf area ratio. However, destructive harvests at tuber initiation and 500 deg Cd after emergence showed that above-ground dry weight (8 and 7% respectively) and tuber yield (88 and 44%) were significantly increased (P-1 CO2 treatment. Responses to 550 and 680 μmol mol-1 CO2 were not significantly different for most parameters examined, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to the beneficial influence of CO2 enrichment. Significant effects on the above-ground dry weight and tuber yield were no longer apparent at final harvest, although tuber numbers were increased (P2, particularly in the smaller size categories. The results show that the O3 treatment imposed was insufficient to reduce tuber yields and that, although elevated CO2 enhanced crop growth during the early stages of the season, this beneficial effect was not sustained to maturity. (Author)

  11. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L−1). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O3) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O3 has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O3 decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. • The variability in stomatal response may be due to inherent differences

  12. Study of ozone gas formed in the industrial radiation process with cobalt-60 and its impact on the environment; Estudo sobre o gas ozonio formado no processo de irradiacao industrial com cobalto-60 e seu impacto no meio ambiente

    Uzueli, Daniel Henrique

    2013-07-01

    The radiation processing is present in various products such as foods, medical disposable, electrical cables, gems, among others. This process aims to improve the properties, sterilize or sanitize irradiated products. In industrial irradiators facilities, electromagnetic radiation (gamma and X-rays) or electrons before they interact with the products in processing, there are a layer of air. To interact with this air layer, it causes radiolytic effects on the molecules present in the ambient atmosphere, and the main interaction are with the oxygen molecules that have their bonds broken, separating them into two highly reactive atoms that recombine with the other molecule of oxygen to form ozone gas. In this work it was studied the formation, decay and dispersion of ozone in industrial gamma irradiators facilities that use cobalt-60 as a source of radiation. The monitoring of ozone concentration was performed by optical absorption method in a commercial monitor. (author)

  13. Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature

    Nikolov, Penko, E-mail: penmail@mail.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kumar, Narendra [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Abo/Turku (Finland); Sarker, Dipak K. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Pishev, Dimitar [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rakovsky, Slavcho [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-12-15

    Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO{sub 2} sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm{sup -1}) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag{sup +}, instead of Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, or K{sup +} ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

  14. Ozone Nonattainment Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and have been...

  15. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. - Early-season O3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  16. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  17. Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms

    We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O3. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO2 did not amend the detrimental effects of O3 on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO2 alone had only minor effects. An O3-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O3 responses and CO2 amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment

  18. Influences of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in growth responses of lowland hay meadow mesocosms

    Raemoe, Kaisa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kaisa.koivisto@helsinki.fi; Kanerva, Teri [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Nikula, Suvi [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Ojanperae, Katinka [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    We studied the effects of relatively low levels of O{sub 3} (40-50 ppb) and CO{sub 2}-enrichment (+ 100 ppm) on a northern European lowland hay meadow during the summers 2002-2004 using open-top chambers (OTCs) and ground-planted mesocosms. Ozone reduced the aboveground biomass of the community (up to 40%), and four out of seven species (Campanula rotundifolia, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium medium, Vicia cracca) showed either significant growth reduction and/or visible injuries under elevated O{sub 3}. However, the reductions in aboveground biomass were not reflected as changes in the dominance of different functional groups or in the total community root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not amend the detrimental effects of O{sub 3} on aboveground biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} alone had only minor effects. An O{sub 3}-induced reduction in the aboveground biomass and N pool of the community are likely to have important consequences in the nutrient cycling of the ecosystem. - Species- and parameter-specific differences found in O{sub 3} responses and CO{sub 2} amelioration in wild plants under competitive environment.

  19. The Effects of Ambient Ions on the Growth of Gold Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by laser (Nd:YAG, ? = 1064 nm) ablation of a gold target immersed in various aqueous electrolyte solutions (7 mM of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and NaI) as well as in deionized water. The surface plasmon absorption and EDX of AuNPs so produced as well as their TEM images were analyzed to investigate the effects of ambient ions on the growth and aggregation of NPs. The size of AuNPs was reduced by laser ablation in the presence of chloride and bromide ions while it increased drastically when AuNPs were formed in iodide solution. Interestingly, triangular nanoplates were synthesized only in iodide solution. Surface chemistry on AuNPs in various electrolyte solutions was explored to elucidate the role of ions on the size and stability of AuNPs

  20. Radiation utilization efficiency and the growth of soybeans exposed to ozone: a comparative analysis

    Effects of ozone (O3) on field-planted soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Davis’) were examined using a simple crop-growth model that resolves the rate of increase in crop dry weight into the total amount of radiation intercepted by a crop canopy and the efficiency of conversion of this energy into dry matter (ϵ, termed utilization efficiency). The objectives were : (1) to examine the effects of O3 on light interception and ϵ, and compare these results with a similar study by Unsworth et al. to determine whether the effects of O3 are consistent from year to year, and (2) to determine whether ϵ is more sensitive to O3 during reproductive than vegetative growth and whether allocation of aboveground biomass to seed is affected by O3. Five O3 concentrations (seasonal means of 30, 52, 57, 76 and 99 ppb) were maintained in open-top chambers over the growing season. All treatments were irrigated. Leaf, stem and pod weights and leaf area were measured weekly throughout the season. Total incident solar radiation and total radiation transmission through the canopy were measured with tube solarimeters and electronic integrating devices. Increased O3 concentrations were accompanied by depressed leaf area expansion and earlier leaf senescence, but did not affect total light interception over the entire season. Utilization efficiency (ϵ) was reduced in high O3 treatments and was the most important factor in the reduction of yield; ϵ for the whole season declined from 0.89 g MJ−1 in the 30-ppb treatment to a low of 0.68 g MJ−1 in the 99-ppb treatment. Efficiencies were higher during reproductive than vegetative growth, but were not more sensitive to O3. Seed yield decreased from 450 g m−2 in the 30-ppb treatment to 320 g m−2 in the 99-ppb treatment. Fractional allocation of aboveground dry weight to seed was not affected by O3. Reduced ϵ values with increasing O3 concentrations were consistent with an earlier study by Unsworth et al. however, ϵ values for the vegetative phase of growth in this study were lower at all O3 concentrations. Lower ϵ values were attributed to canopy light saturation because of higher incident radiation and water stress caused by a shallow rooting zone during a hot, dry growing season. (author)

  1. Evaluation and calibration of Aeroqual series 500 portable gas sensors for accurate measurement of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    Lin, C.; Gillespie, J.; Schuder, M. D.; Duberstein, W.; Beverland, I. J.; Heal, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-power, and relatively low-cost, gas sensors have potential to improve understanding of intra-urban air pollution variation by enabling data capture over wider networks than is possible with 'traditional' reference analysers. We evaluated an Aeroqual Ltd. Series 500 semiconducting metal oxide O3 and an electrochemical NO2 sensor against UK national network reference analysers for more than 2 months at an urban background site in central Edinburgh. Hourly-average Aeroqual O3 sensor observations were highly correlated (R2 = 0.91) and of similar magnitude to observations from the UV-absorption reference O3 analyser. The Aeroqual NO2 sensor observations correlated poorly with the reference chemiluminescence NO2 analyser (R2 = 0.02), but the deviations between Aeroqual and reference analyser values ([NO2]Aeroq - [NO2]ref) were highly significantly correlated with concurrent Aeroqual O3 sensor observations [O3]Aeroq. This permitted effective linear calibration of the [NO2]Aeroq data, evaluated using 'hold out' subsets of the data (R2 ? 0.85). These field observations under temperate environmental conditions suggest that the Aeroqual Series 500 NO2 and O3 monitors have good potential to be useful ambient air monitoring instruments in urban environments provided that the O3 and NO2 gas sensors are calibrated against reference analysers and deployed in parallel.

  2. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O{sub 3} decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. • The variability in stomatal response may be due to inherent differences.

  3. Growth of adult Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under free-air ozone fumigation.

    Wipfler, P; Seifert, T; Heerdt, C; Werner, H; Pretzsch, H

    2005-11-01

    This study attempted to detect the impact of ozone on adult trees of Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimental mixed stand in Southern Bavaria, Germany. The aim was to examine whether there is a decrease in growth when trees are exposed to higher than atmospheric concentrations of ozone. This exposure was put into effect using a free-air fumigation system at tree crown level. Growth analysis was carried out on a group of 47 spruce and 36 beech trees, where radial stem increment at breast height - a sensitive index for stress - was measured. The ozone monitoring system allowed values to be obtained for the accumulated ozone exposure (SUM00) of each individual tree, so that their radial increment over three years could be correlated with the corresponding ozone exposure for the same time period. Correlation and regression analysis were then carried out to test the influence of ozone on diameter increment. In both spruce and beech, the initial stem diameter was the most influential factor on radial increment in the following year. A linear model was applied, including the diameter of the preceding year and the ozone exposure of the current year as predicting factors. For spruce trees, a significant negative influence of ozone exposure was found. In contrast, no significant ozone effect on diameter increment of beech was detected. The effect of ozone stress on a large spruce tree can lead to a decrease in potential radial increment of 22 %. The results are discussed in relation to other stress factors such as drought and lack of light. PMID:16388464

  4. Effects of salinity and ozone, individually and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties

    Plants exposed to ozone, under high salinity conditions, further decline in growth. - The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ozone and salinity, singly and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties. Chickpea plants were grown in non-saline and saline conditions, with and without a repeated exposure to ozone. Salinity at a concentration of 30 mM NaCl caused a substantial reduction in plant height, number of leaves and the dry weights of the leaves, stems and roots. Biomass allocation to the leaves increased, predominantly at the expense of the roots. Ozone at a concentration of 85 nmol mol-1 for 6 h per day for 25 days reduced plant height and dry weights but had no effect on leaf number. The results show substantial effects of salinity and ozone on chickpea growth and ion concentrations. When ozonated plants are grown in the presence of salinity, further reductions in growth occur

  5. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    Ribas, Angela [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.ribas@creaf.uab.es; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: josep.penuelas@uab.es; Elvira, Susana [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, Benjamin S. [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb{sub v} of O{sub 3} (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of {delta}{sup 13}C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in {delta}{sup 15}N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, {delta}{sup 15}N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O{sub 3} concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species.

  6. Effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were placed in open-top field chambers constructed on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1680 m) to evaluate the effect of ozone and acid cloud deposition on seedling growth and metabolism. Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and an approximate 50% reduction in ambient ozone, (2) ambient ozone with clouds excluded, and (3) exposure to clouds and ambient ozone (control). No differences were detected between chamber treatments for diameter growth, total chlorophyll, chl a and b, chl a/b ratio, and carotenoids. No enhancement of photosynthesis and respiration was seen in exclusion chambers for current and previous year's growth of native seedlings during the growing season. Photosynthesis of Phyton-grown seedlings was consistently higher in exclusion chambers compared to control chambers over the course of the growing season, although differences were not statistically significant. After one growing season, neither pollutant had significant effects on seedling growth and metabolism.

  7. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  8. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMAs), Korea

    Kim, H.-K.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Kim, J.-H.; Ban, S.-J.; Park, J.-H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant functional type (PFT) distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and particulate matter (PM) simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs). This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Pennsylvania State Meso-scale Model (MM5)/the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN)/the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)/the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from a performance check of CTM predictions, we consecutively assessed the effects of PFT area deviations on the MEGAN BVOC and CTM O3 predictions, and we further considered the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT data sets considered were (1) the Korean PFT, developed with Korea-specific vegetation database; (2) the CDP PFT, adopted from the community data portal (CDP) of US National Center for Atmospheric Research in the United States (NCAR); (3) MODIS PFT, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Although the CMAQ performance check reveals that all of the three different PFT data sets are applicable choices for regulatory modeling practice, noticeable primary data (i.e., PFT and Leaf Area Index (LAI)) was observed to be missing in many geographic locations. Based on the assessed effect of such missing data on CMAQ O3 predictions, we found that this missing data can cause spatially increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, it must be resolved in the near future to obtain more accurate biogenic emission and chemistry transport modeling results. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BTs) are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NTs), shrub (SB), and herbaceous plants (HBs) to the total BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BTs and terpene from NTs were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. A geographically weighted regression analysis with locally compensated ridge (LCR-GWR) with the different PFT data (?O3 vs. ?PFTs) suggests that addition of BT, SB, and NT areas can contribute to O3 increase, whereas addition of an HB area contributes to O3 decrease in the domain. Assessment results of the simulated spatial and temporal changes of O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios reveal that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 13 ppb. The simulated maximum 1 h O3 inter-deviations between different PFT scenarios have an asymmetric diurnal distribution pattern (low in the early morning, rising during the day, peaking at 05:00 p.m., and decreasing during the night) in the study domain. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of different PFT distribution data requires much caution when modeling (or forecasting) O3 air quality in complicated urban atmospheric conditions in terms of whether uncertainties in O3 prediction results are expected to be mild or severe.

  9. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the isoprene and O3 prediction results, we explored the PFT area-loss artifact that occurs due to geographical disparity between the PFT and leaf area index distributions, and can cause increased bias in CMAQ O3. Thus, the PFT-loss artifact must be a source of limitation in the MEGAN biogenic emission modeling and the CTM O3 simulation results. Time changes of CMAQ O3 distributions with the different PFT scenarios suggest that hourly and local impacts from the different PFT distributions on occasional inter-deviations of O3 are quite noticeable, reaching up to 10 ppb. Exponentially diverging hourly BVOC emissions and O3 concentrations with increasing ambient temperature suggest that the use of representative PFT distributions becomes more critical for O3 air quality modeling (or forecasting in support of air quality decision-making and human health studies.

  10. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarw village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops. PMID:21776257

  11. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  12. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology

    2008-02-15

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO{sub 2} on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO{sub 2} for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO{sub 2} doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO{sub 2}. It was concluded that exogenous NO{sub 2} additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Growth and antioxidant status of broilers fed supplemental lysine and pyridoxine under high ambient temperature.

    Khakpour Irani, Farzaneh; Daneshyar, Mohsen; Najafi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Three levels of lysine (90, 100 and 110% of Ross requirement) and of pyridoxine (3, 6 and 9 mg kg(-1)) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment to investigate the growth and blood antioxidant ability of broilers under high ambient temperature. None of the dietary supplements affected the weight gain during the starter and grower periods. Although no significant differences were detected between the treatments during the entire period, high lysine level fed birds had a lower weight gain. At any levels of pyridoxine, high lysine fed birds were lighter than others. Neither the lysine nor pyridoxine changed the feed intake or feed conversion ratio during the starter, grower and entire period. However there was no significant difference between the treatments for blood malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, medium lysine fed birds had lower blood MDA than other ones. No significant effects on blood triglyceride, total protein and blood superoxide dismutase activity were indicated with addition of any lysine or pyridoxine level. Medium lysine fed birds had decreased blood glutathione peroxidase activity compared to the birds of other treatments. It was concluded that providing the proposed dietary lysine requirement of Ross strain during heat stress ensuring the best body weight gain and body antioxidant ability. Higher lysine level causes the retarded weight gain due to higher excretion of arginine from the body and consequently higher lipid peroxidation. PMID:26261713

  14. Use of AIRS, OMI, MLS, and TES Data in Assessing Forest Ecosystem Exposure to Ozone

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level ozone at high levels poses health threats to exposed flora and fauna, including negative impacts to human health. While concern is common regarding depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, portions of the urban and rural United States periodically have high ambient levels of tropospheric ozone on the ground. Ozone pollution can cause a variety of impacts to susceptible vegetation (e.g., Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine species in the southwestern United States), such as stunted growth, alteration of growth form, needle or leaf chlorosis, and impaired ability to withstand drought-induced water stress. In addition, Southern Californian forests with high ozone exposures have been recently subject to multiyear droughts that have led to extensive forest overstory mortality from insect outbreaks and increased incidence of wildfires. Residual forests in these impacted areas may be more vulnerable to high ozone exposures and to other forest threats than ever before. NASA sensors collect a wealth of atmospheric data that have been used recently for mapping and monitoring regional tropospheric ozone levels. AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) data could be used to assess forest ecosystem exposure to ozone. Such NASA data hold promise for providing better or at least complementary synoptic information on ground-level ozone levels that Federal agency partners can use to assess forest health trends and to mitigate the threats as needed in compliance with Federal laws and mandates. NASA data products on ozone concentrations may be able to aid applications of DSTs (decision support tools) adopted by the USDA FS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) and by the NPS (National Park Service), such as the Ozone Calculator, in which ground ozone estimates are employed to assess ozone impacts to forested vegetation.

  15. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) grown in open-top chambers

    Lawson, T.; Craigon, J.; Black, C.R.; Colls, J.J.; Tulloch, A.-M.; Landon, G. [Nottingham Univ., School of Biosciences, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) was grown in open-top chambers under three carbon dioxide (ambient and seasonal mean concentrations of 550 and 680 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2}) and two ozone concentrations (ambient and an 8 h day {sup -1} seasonal mean of 50 nmol mol{sup -1} O{sub 3}) between emergence and final harvest. Periodic non-destructive measurements were made and destructive harvests were carried out at three key developmental stages (24, 49 and 101 days after emergence) to establish effects on growth and tuber yield. Season-long exposure to elevated O{sub 3} reduced above-ground dry weight at final harvest by 8.4% (P<0.05), but did not affect tuber yields. There was no significant interaction between CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} for any of the growth and yield variables examined. Non-destructive analyses revealed no significant effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on plant height, leaf number or green leaf area ratio. However, destructive harvests at tuber initiation and 500 deg Cd after emergence showed that above-ground dry weight (8 and 7% respectively) and tuber yield (88 and 44%) were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} treatment. Responses to 550 and 680 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were not significantly different for most parameters examined, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to the beneficial influence of CO{sub 2} enrichment. Significant effects on the above-ground dry weight and tuber yield were no longer apparent at final harvest, although tuber numbers were increased (P<0.05) under elevated CO{sub 2}, particularly in the smaller size categories. The results show that the O{sub 3} treatment imposed was insufficient to reduce tuber yields and that, although elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced crop growth during the early stages of the season, this beneficial effect was not sustained to maturity. (Author)

  16. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies

    Atkinson, R W; Butland, B K; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Heal, M R; Stedman, J R; Carslaw, N; Jarvis, D; Heaviside, C; Vardoulakis, S; Walton, H; Anderson, H R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While there is good evidence for associations between short-term exposure to ozone and a range of adverse health outcomes, the evidence from narrative reviews for long-term exposure is suggestive of associations with respiratory mortality only. We conducted a systematic, quantitative evaluation of the evidence from cohort studies, reporting associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. Methods Cohort studies published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in EMBASE and MEDLINE to September 2015 and PubMed to October 2015 and cited in reviews/key publications were identified via search strings using terms relating to study design, pollutant and health outcome. Study details and estimate information were extracted and used to calculate standardised effect estimates expressed as HRs per 10 ppb increment in long-term ozone concentrations. Results 14 publications from 8 cohorts presented results for ozone and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We found no evidence of associations between long-term annual O3 concentrations and the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, or lung cancer. 4 cohorts assessed ozone concentrations measured during the warm season. Summary HRs for cardiovascular and respiratory causes of death derived from 3 cohorts were 1.01 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.02) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 10 ppb, respectively. Conclusions Our quantitative review revealed a paucity of independent studies regarding the associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. The potential impact of climate change and increasing anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors on ozone levels worldwide suggests further studies of the long-term effects of exposure to high ozone levels are warranted. PMID:26908518

  17. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  18. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329) Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Anoop Singh; Agrawal, S. B.; Dheeraj Rathore

    2003-01-01

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was ...

  19. Growth of lithium silicate crystals inside porous silicon film and their exploitation for ozone detection

    Silicon dioxide was formed by oxidizing porous silicon film and annealed, in a next step, at 920 deg. C with lithium nitrate embedded in its structure. These operations have produced the two lithium silicates, Li2Si2O5 and Li2SiO3, as it has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction measurements. At relative high temperature (230 deg. C), the experimental ionic conductivity of this achieved sample has doubled in presence of ozone flow. A comparison with other samples, prepared with varieties of metallic nitrates and by following the same experimental procedures as for the former one, has proved that the sample prepared with zirconium was also good for ozone detection

  20. Clone and soil effects on the growth of young Norway spruce during 14 months exposure to ozone plus acid mist.

    Payer, H D; Pfirrmann, T; Kloos, M; Blank, L W

    1990-01-01

    Five clones of 3-year old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), planted in a soil from the Bavarian Forest (pH 4.4) or a soil from the Calcareous Bavarian Alps (pH 6.9), were exposed for two successive vegetation periods, in closed environmental chambers, to a pollution treatment consisting of acidic mist (pH 3.0) plus ozone levels of 100 microg m(-3) with episodes of 130-360 microg m(-3); control trees were exposed to mist of pH 5.6 and ozone levels of 50 microg m(-3). Climatic and pollution protocols followed the diurnal and seasonal pattern characteristic for the Inner Bavarian Forest in Southern Germany, an area affected by the new-type forest decline. Biometric parameters were strongly related to clone and soil. Pollution treatment had a limited effect on only a few growth parameters. The stem diameter growth increment of two clones was reduced by pollution treatment in both soils, a third clone was affected in the acidic soil only. Two other clones were not affected at all. Stem volume increment of three clones, calculated as D(2)H, was reduced by pollution treatment in the neutral soil, a fourth clone was affected in the acidic soil only. Bud break was either delayed (two clones) or accelerated (two other clones) by treatment. Depending on soil and clone, needle yellowing was observed in previous years' needles in both treatment and control trees exposed to increased light intensities. The 'spotted' yellowing was not identical to symptoms found in forest decline areas and was most likely a consequence of nutrient deficiencies during the vegetation period preceding the experiment. The results of this experiment are discussed with regard to field observations and forest productivity. The complex pattern of growth responses resulting from interactions between air pollution, soil and genetic factors is considered to reflect different susceptibilities of trees to air pollutants. PMID:15092281

  1. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  2. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012–2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 – induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. - Highlights: • The response of Acer truncatum Bunge to drought and ozone was investigated. • Drought could mitigate the foliage injury and leaf photosynthetic pigments. • The O3-induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced by drought. - Drought didn't protect Shantung maple from O3 effects but rather cause more reductions in biomass

  3. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    Feder, W A

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different grow...

  4. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O3 and three N levels. Increased O3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O3-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: → Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. → The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. → Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O3-induced increase in senescence biomass. → Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O3-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  5. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    S. Chatani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ, and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  6. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and physiology of maize at ambient and low temperature regimes

    Chen, Xiaoying; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai; Tian, Chunjie; Liu, Shengqun; Xu, Hongwen; Zhu, Xiancan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a...... mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM...

  7. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  8. Ozone measurement systems: associated instrumentation and calibration

    Bellido, J

    2006-01-01

    The harmful effects produced by ozone have lead to a vast regulation to define and establish the quality goals of ambient air, based on common methods and criteria. The surveillance nets of atmospheric pollution are worldwide extended systems and the applied technology for the ozone measurement is nowadays quite standardized. The aim of this paper is to give a general view of the most common systems used in the ozone measurement in ambient air from a practical point of view. The used instrume...

  9. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air...

  10. Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: Effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance.

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Rajabiesterabadi, Hamid; Kordrostami, Sara

    2016-02-01

    An 8-week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of ambient copper (Cu) on growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus. Fish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06ppm Cu, and their food intake and growth performance were fortnightly recorded. Also, serum cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sodium (Na) levels were determined after 2 and 8 weeks exposure to ambient Cu. At the end of trial, serum total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-globulin ratio (A:G) levels, whole body proximate composition and stress tolerance of the fish were measured. Results showed that Cu exposure resulted in a significant suppression in food intake after 2 weeks, which was eliminated after 4 weeks in 0.02ppm groups and after 6 weeks in 0.04 and 0.06ppm groups. Cu exposure brought about an inferior growth that recovered in line with the experiment progression, following a dose-dependent manner. Cu-exposed fish showed a dose-dependent increase in serum cortisol, glucose and ALT as well as decrease in serum Na, after 2 weeks. These parameters showed a full recovery in 0.02ppm group and a partial recovery in 0.04 and 0.06ppm groups, at the 8th week. Significant suppression in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and A:G levels and whole body dry matter, lipid and protein levels as well as stress resistance was observed in 0.04 and 0.06ppm groups. It is concluded that Cu exposure could adversely affect growth performance, physiological characteristics and stress resistance of Caspian roach, which might affect its ecological features. PMID:24105068

  11. Effect of phosphorus nutrition on growth and physiology of cotton under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide

    Phosphorous deficiency in soil limits crop growth and productivity in the majority of arable lands worldwide and may moderate the growth enhancement effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. To evaluate the interactive effect of these two factors on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum...

  12. Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: ozone at ambient level, comparison with DMDM, July 2015

    Viallon, J.; Moussay, P.; Wielgosz, R.; Bebic, J.; Norris, J. E.; Guenther, F.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), via a transfer standard maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S.X.; Wang, Y. X.; B. Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obt...

  14. Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris

    Elevated ozone (O3) and limiting soil nitrogen (N) availability both negatively affect crop performance. However, little is known about how the combination of elevated O3 and limiting N affect crop growth and metabolism. In this study, we grew tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) in ambient and elevated O...

  15. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    Lee, E.H. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  16. Biaxial Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Aluminum Alloy 5083-H116 Under Ambient Laboratory and Saltwater Environments

    Perel, V. Y.; Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    Crack growth of aluminum alloy 5083 was investigated when subjected to the in-plane biaxial tension-tension fatigue with stress ratio of 0.5 under ambient laboratory and saltwater environments. Cruciform specimens with a center hole, containing a notch and precrack at 45 to the specimen's arms, were tested in a biaxial fatigue test machine. Two biaxiality ratios, ? = 1 and ? = 1.5, were studied. For ? = 1, crack propagated along a straight line collinearly with the precrack, while for ? = 1.5 case, the crack path was curved and non-collinear with the precrack. Uniaxial fatigue tests were also conducted. Crack growth rates were faster under the biaxiality fatigue in comparison to uniaxial fatigue at a given crack driving force (? K I or ? G) in both environments. Further, an increase in biaxiality ratio increased the crack growth rate, i.e., faster for ? = 1.5 case than ? = 1 case. Both biaxial fatigue and saltwater environment showed detrimental effects on the fatigue crack growth resistance of 5083, and its combination is highly detrimental when compared to uniaxial fatigue.

  17. Quantitative constraints on the 17O-excess (?17O) signature of surface ozone: Ambient measurements from 50N to 50S using the nitrite-coated filter technique

    Vicars, William C.; Savarino, Jol

    2014-06-01

    The unique and distinctive 17O-excess (?17O) of ozone (O3) provides a conservative tracer for oxidative processes in both modern and paleo-atmospheres and has acted as the primary driver of theoretical and experimental research into non-mass-dependent fractionation (NMDF) for over three decades. However, due to the inherent complexity of extracting O3 from ambient air, the existing observational dataset for tropospheric O3 isotopic composition remains quite small. Recent analytical developments have provided a robust and reliable means for determining ?17O(O3)trans., the transferrable ?17O signature of ozone in the troposphere (Vicars et al., 2012). We have employed this new methodology in a systematic investigation of the spatial and seasonal features of ?17O(O3)trans. in two separate field campaigns: a weekly sampling effort at our laboratory in Grenoble, France (45N) throughout 2012 (n = 47) and a four-week campaign onboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern along a latitudinal transect from 50S to 50N in the Atlantic Ocean (n = 30). The bulk 17O-excess of ozone, denoted ?17O(O3)bulk, exhibited mean (1?) values of 26.2 1.3 (?17O(O3)trans. = 39.3 2.0) and 25.9 1.1 (?17O(O3)trans. = 38.8 1.6) for the Grenoble and R/V Polarstern collections, respectively. This range of values is in excellent quantitative agreement with the two previous studies of ozone triple-isotope composition, which have yielded mean (1?) ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.4 9.0 (n = 89). However, the magnitude of variability detected in the present study is much smaller than that formerly reported. In fact, the standard deviation of ?17O(O3)bulk in each new dataset is lower than the uncertainty previously estimated for the filter technique (1.7), indicating a low level of natural spatial and temporal variation in the 17O-excess of surface ozone. For instance, no clear temporal pattern in ?17O(O3) is evident in the annual record from Grenoble despite dramatic seasonal variations in ozone and atmospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) concentrations. However, a small but statistically significant difference is distinguishable in the R/V Polarstern record when comparing samples collected in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, which possessed average ?17O(O3)bulk values of 25.2 1.0 and 26.5 0.7, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of the tropospheric ozone budget and the use of oxygen isotope ratios of secondary atmospheric species to derive information regarding oxidation pathways from modern and paleo-atmospheres.

  18. Long-term prediction of fish growth under varying ambient temperature using a multiscale dynamic model

    Radde Nicole

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feed composition has a large impact on the growth of animals, particularly marine fish. We have developed a quantitative dynamic model that can predict the growth and body composition of marine fish for a given feed composition over a timespan of several months. The model takes into consideration the effects of environmental factors, particularly temperature, on growth, and it incorporates detailed kinetics describing the main metabolic processes (protein, lipid, and central metabolism known to play major roles in growth and body composition. Results For validation, we compared our model's predictions with the results of several experimental studies. We showed that the model gives reliable predictions of growth, nutrient utilization (including amino acid retention, and body composition over a timespan of several months, longer than most of the previously developed predictive models. Conclusion We demonstrate that, despite the difficulties involved, multiscale models in biology can yield reasonable and useful results. The model predictions are reliable over several timescales and in the presence of strong temperature fluctuations, which are crucial factors for modeling marine organism growth. The model provides important improvements over existing models.

  19. Interaction of ambient gas and meniscus surface during growth of edge-defined film-fed growth polycrystalline silicon samples

    Pivac, B.; Borghesi, A.; Sassella, A.; Ottolini, L.; Kalejs, J.

    1991-09-01

    We studied interaction of molten silicon at the meniscus surface with CO and CO2 gas added to an inert argon atmosphere during the growth of edge-defined film-fed growth polycrystalline silicon nonagons. Both gases caused a significant increase in carbon content of the nonagons. However, most carbon remained trapped in the layer close to the surface and made a SiC-like contribution to the infrared spectrum. In addition, CO2 gas caused enhanced surface oxidation (with respect to CO gas).

  20. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    Sanz, J., E-mail: j.sanz@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, V., E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muntifering, R., E-mail: muntirb@auburn.ed [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gonzalez-Fernandez, I., E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, B.S., E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, S., E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, R., E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.e [Ecotoxicity of Atmospheric Pollutants, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O{sub 3} and three N levels. Increased O{sub 3} exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O{sub 3}-induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O{sub 3}-induced increase in senescence biomass. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O{sub 3} limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O{sub 3}-sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  1. Short-term UV-B radiation and ozone exposure effects on aromatic secondary metabolite accumulation and shoot growth of flavonoid-deficient Arabidopsis mutants

    The presence of UV-absorptive substances in the epidermal cells of leaves is thought to protect mesophyll tissues from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation. We examined the influence of short-term UV-B exposures on UV-absorptive (330 nm) sinapates and flavonols, and on shoot growth of the Arabidopsis wild type ecotype Landsberg erecta and two mutants. 114 deficient in chalcone synthase, and 115, deficient in chalcone/flavonone isomerase. Sequential ozone exposures were used to determine the effects of oxidative stress The levels of sinapates and flavonols on a leaf fresh weight basis increased substantially in the wild type and sinapates increased in the 114 mutant in vegetative vegetative/reproductive transitional and reproductive stage plants in response to short-term (48h) UV-B radiation. When UV-B was discontinued the levels generally decreased lo pre-exposure levels after 48 h in vegetative/reproductive but not in reproductive plants. Exposure to ozone before or alter UV-B treatment did not consistently affect the levels of these UV-absorptive compounds. Dry matter accumulation was less affected by UV-B at the vegetative and reproductive stages than at the vegetative/reproductive stage. At the vegetative/reproductive stage, shoot growth of all 3 genotypes was retarded by UV-B. Growth was not retarded by short-term ozone exposure alone but when exposure to ozone followed UV-B exposure, growth was reduced in all genotypes. Leaf cupping appeared on 115 plants exposed to UV-B

  2. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations alter LAI through changes in phenology and leaf growth

    Leaves are critical for harvesting light energy, taking up carbon dioxide (CO2) and transpiring water for cooling. Changes in leaf growth, expansion or development can integrate across the plant canopy and growing season to significantly impact productivity, yield and plant-atmosphere fluxes. Althou...

  3. Multi-morphological growth of nano-structured In2Se3 by ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution syntheses

    In2Se3 nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized by a new, facile, ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution chemical route using indium(III) chloride and selenium powder as precursors. The growing morphology, crystallization, chemical stoichiometry and light absorption property of the In2Se3 products synthesized were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, FESEM, XRD, EDX and UV–vis–NIR measurements. Multi-morphological growth of the nano-structured In2Se3 in triethylene glycol based solution syntheses with changed assisting agents and reaction styles was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Multimorphological growth of In2Se3 was demonstrated based on solution chemistry. • A new, facile, low cost and fast air pressure TEG based solution process was used. • Nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized. • Morphology, crystallization, stoichiometry and light absorption was characterized. • Solution growth of β-In2Se3 nanosheets was firstly reported by this submission

  4. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  5. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    T. Petäjä

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  6. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  7. Foliar injury, leaf gas exchange and biomass responses of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) half-sibling families to ozone exposure.

    Kouterick, K B; Skelly, J M; Fredericksen, T S; Steiner, K C; Kolb, T E; Ferdinand, J A

    2000-01-01

    Open pollinated families of black cherry seedlings were studied to determine genotypic differences in foliar ozone injury and leaf gas exchange in 1994 and growth response following three growing seasons. An O(3)-sensitive half-sibling family (R-12) and an O(3)-tolerant half-sibling family (MO-7) planted in natural soil were studied along with generic nursery stock (NS) seedlings. Ozone exposure treatments were provided through open top chambers and consisted of 50, 75, and 97% of ambient ozone, and open plots from May 9 to August 26, 1994. Ambient ozone concentrations reached an hourly peak of 88 ppb with 7-hour averages ranging from 39 to 46 ppb. Seedlings in the 50 and 75% of ambient chambers were never exposed to greater than 80 ppb O(3). Visible foliar ozone injury (stipple) was significantly higher for R-12 seedlings than MO-7 seedlings and increased with increasing ozone exposures. For the chamber treatments averaged over all families, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rates, but there was a significant decrease in root biomass, and a significant decrease in root/shoot ratio between the 50 and 97% of ambient chambers. Stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rates were significantly different between families with R-12 seedlings generally greater than MO-7 seedlings. The R-12 seedlings had a 7.5 mmol m(-2) increase in ozone uptake compared to MO-7, and at the same cumulative O(3) exposure R-12 exhibited 40.9% stippled leaf area, whereas MO-7 had 9.2% stippled leaf area. Significant differences were observed in stem volume growth and total final biomass between the open-top chambers and open plots. Although R-12 had the most severe foliar ozone injury, this family had significantly greater stem volume growth and total final biomass than MO-7 and NS seedlings. Root:shoot ratio was not significantly different between MO-7 and R-12 seedlings. PMID:15093015

  8. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM2.5 and O3. • Estimated associations between PM2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  9. A review of the literature on the effects of ambient air pollution on fetal growth

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of air pollution on low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants, preterm delivery (PTD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was conducted. Twelve epidemiologic investigations that addressed the impact of air pollution on four pregnancy outcomes were identified. Results were analyzed separately for each perinatal outcome because of differences in pathogenic mechanisms. Effects of air pollution were apparent on PTD and IUGR, but not on LBW. Most of the associations reported were rather small. The estimation of summary effects was not meaningful because of the heterogeneity of the effect estimates arising from differences in the measurements of outcome, exposure, and confounders and the small number of studies per outcome (four studies for PTD and six for IUGR). Current scientific knowledge on the impact of air pollution on fetal growth is still limited; thus, several issues should be examined further

  10. Control of ambient pH on growth and stable isotopes in phytoplanktonic calcifying algae

    Hermoso, Michaël.

    2015-08-01

    The present work examines the relationship between pH-induced changes in growth and stable isotopic composition of coccolith calcite in two coccolithophore species with a geological perspective. These species (Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus pelagicus) with differing physiologies and vital effects possess a growth optimum corresponding to average pH of surface seawater in the geological period during their first known occurrence. The "ancestral" C. pelagicus has much wider pH tolerance in terms of growth rates than the more recently evolved G. oceanica. Diminished growth rates are explained by the challenge of proton translocation into the extracellular environment at low pH and enhanced aqueous CO2 limitation at high pH. Reducing the cell dynamics in this way leads to a lower degree of oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in G. oceanica. In contrast, the slower growing species C. pelagicus, which typically precipitates near-equilibrium calcite, does not show any modulation of oxygen isotope signals with changing pH. Overall, carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are best explained by the degree of utilization of the internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool and the dynamics of isotopic reequilibration inside the cell. Thus, the "carbonate ion effect" may not apply to coccolithophores. This difference with foraminifera can be traced to different modes of DIC incorporation into these two distinct biomineralizing organisms. From a geological perspective, these findings have implications for refining the use of oxygen isotopes to infer more reliable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from fossil carbonates and contribute to a better understanding of how climate-relevant parameters are recorded in the sedimentary archive.

  11. A chamberless field exposure system for ozone enrichment of short vegetation

    Erbs, M. [University of Hohenheim, Department of Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), August-von-Hartmann-Strasse 3, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: erbs@uni-hohenheim.de; Fangmeier, A. [University of Hohenheim, Department of Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), August-von-Hartmann-Strasse 3, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Only few studies have been conducted as yet which focus on the effects of rising tropospheric ozone levels on semi-natural vegetation under free-air conditions. A new technical approach was used to examine the response of calcareous grassland to ozone employing a chamberless fumigation system. Four different ozone regimes were applied (1-, 1.33-, 1.66- and 2-fold ambient air levels) with five replicates each. Ozone enrichment was carried out on circular plots of 2 m in diameter by a computer controlled exposure system. Transparent windscreens encircling each plot accelerated the mixing of ambient air and ozone released. Thus, the use of blowers could be avoided. The exposure system presented here is regarded as an appropriate technique for free-air trace gas enrichment on short vegetation avoiding microclimatic alterations known to affect plant growth and pollutant uptake. Furthermore, the chosen technical set-up was rather cost-effective. Hence, it enabled the establishment of a larger number of replications providing the basis for results of higher statistical power. - Capsule: The set-up and the performance of an advanced chamberless exposure system applying different ozone treatments and a high number of replicates are presented.

  12. A chamberless field exposure system for ozone enrichment of short vegetation

    Only few studies have been conducted as yet which focus on the effects of rising tropospheric ozone levels on semi-natural vegetation under free-air conditions. A new technical approach was used to examine the response of calcareous grassland to ozone employing a chamberless fumigation system. Four different ozone regimes were applied (1-, 1.33-, 1.66- and 2-fold ambient air levels) with five replicates each. Ozone enrichment was carried out on circular plots of 2 m in diameter by a computer controlled exposure system. Transparent windscreens encircling each plot accelerated the mixing of ambient air and ozone released. Thus, the use of blowers could be avoided. The exposure system presented here is regarded as an appropriate technique for free-air trace gas enrichment on short vegetation avoiding microclimatic alterations known to affect plant growth and pollutant uptake. Furthermore, the chosen technical set-up was rather cost-effective. Hence, it enabled the establishment of a larger number of replications providing the basis for results of higher statistical power. - Capsule: The set-up and the performance of an advanced chamberless exposure system applying different ozone treatments and a high number of replicates are presented

  13. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  14. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  15. On the influence of the ambient environment on the fatigue crack growth process in steels

    A comparison of the crack opening and fatigue crack growth characteristics of three tempered martensitic steels; a modified 4135, 2 1/4Cr 1Mo and a modified 9Cr 1Mo; in air and in vacuum (3 x 105torr) has been carried out. In vacuum, roughness-induced closure is responsible for closure in the near-threshold region and the level of closure is independent of ΔΚ. The presence of oxygen in the environment (50% relative humidity) can increase the overall closure level by as much as 50% in the case of 4135 and 2 1/4Cr 1Mo steels, but does not contribute significantly to closure in the case of the 9Cr 1Mo steel. Roughness-induced closure increases increasing the tempering temperature, but the extent of the environmental effect on closure in a given alloy is a lot less dependent on the tempering temperature. Rewelding is not responsible for the high threshold levels found in vacuum. Oxide film rupture and as well as hydrogen embrittlement increase the crack growth rate in air compared to the observed in vacuum. (Author)

  16. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    S. Chatani; Amann, M; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A; A. Mishra; SHARMA, S.; Wang, S.X.; Wang, Y. X; Zhao, B.

    2014-01-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simul...

  17. In situ laser ablation plasma diagnostics in the film growth regime: Effects of ambient background gases

    The propagation of the laser-induced plasma formed by KrF irradiation of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 has been characterized in background pressures of oxygen and argon typically used for thin film growth. The ion current transmitted through the background gases was recorded along the normal to the irradiated pellet as a function of distance in order to measure the decreasing velocity and magnitude of the expanding plasma current due to collisional slowing and attenuation of the laser plume. The integrated ion charge delivered to a substrate at low pressures can be described by elastic scattering giving a general integral cross sections of σe[O2] = 3.2 x 10-16 cm2 and σe[Ar] = 2.7 x 10-16 cm2. At higher pressures, inelastic scattering leads to increased recombination and reactive conversion of ions indicated by increased fluorescence of all the species, which becomes dominated by fluorescence of YO and BaO. Spatially resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the luminous boundary to the plasma follows a weak shock front which coincides with the ion flux propagation. The ion transmission is found to drop exponentially with distance and background pressure, in agreement with a simple scattering model which yields general scattering cross sections for ion-argon σi-Ar = 2.1 x 10-16 cm2 and ion-oxygen σi-O2 = 2.3 x 10-16 cm2 interactions in background pressures up to 300 mTorr. The general features of the plume deceleration are described in terms of a drag force model. 9 refs., 5 figs

  18. Regional assessment of ozone sensitive tree species using bioindicator plants.

    Coulston, John W; Smith, Gretchen C; Smith, William D

    2003-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document direct foliar injury irrespective of direct measure of ozone uptake. We used bioindicator and field plot data from the USDA Forest Service to identify tree species likely to exhibit regional-scale ozone impacts. Approximately 24% of sampled sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 15% of sampled loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and 12% of sampled black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees were in the highest risk category. Sweetgum and loblolly pine trees were at risk on the coastal plain of Maryland, Virginia and Delaware. Black cherry trees were at risk on the Allegheny Plateau (Pennsylvania), in the Allegheny Mountains (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland) as well as coastal plain areas of Maryland and Virginia. Our findings indicate a need for more in-depth study of actual impacts on growth and reproduction of these three species. PMID:12691526

  19. Use of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Italy: Verification of the effects of ambient ozone on crop plants and trees and investigation of EDU's mode of action

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Contran, Nicla [Department of Biotechnology and Biology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, Milan (Italy); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States); Ferrara, Anna M. [IPLA, Corso Casale 476, I-10128 Turin (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Twenty-four experiments where EDU was used to protect plants from ozone (O{sub 3}) in Italy are reviewed. Doses of 150 and 450 ppm EDU at 2-3 week intervals were successfully applied to alleviate O{sub 3}-caused visible injury and growth reductions in crop and forest species respectively. EDU was mainly applied as soil drench to crops and by stem injection or infusion into trees. Visible injury was delayed and reduced but not completely. In investigations on mode of action, EDU was quickly (<2 h) uptaken and translocated to the leaf apoplast where it persisted long (>8 days), as it cannot move via phloem. EDU did not enter cells, suggesting it does not directly affect cell metabolism. EDU delayed senescence, did not affect photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen content, and stimulated antioxidant responses to O{sub 3} exposure. Preliminary results suggest developing an effective soil application method for forest trees is warranted. - EDU was successful as a tool in determining ozone effects on vegetation in Italy, but while progress was made, its mode of action remains unresolved.

  20. N-fixation in legumes - An assessment of the potential threat posed by ozone pollution.

    Hewitt, D K L; Mills, G; Hayes, F; Norris, D; Coyle, M; Wilkinson, S; Davies, W

    2016-01-01

    The growth, development and functioning of legumes are often significantly affected by exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution. However, surprisingly little is known about how leguminous Nitrogen (N) fixation responds to ozone, with a scarcity of studies addressing this question in detail. In the last decade, ozone impacts on N-fixation in soybean, cowpea, mung bean, peanut and clover have been shown for concentrations which are now commonly recorded in ambient air or are likely to occur in the near future. We provide a synthesis of the existing literature addressing this issue, and also explore the effects that may occur on an agroecosystem scale by predicting reductions in Trifolium (clovers) root nodule biomass in United Kingdom (UK) pasture based on ozone concentration data for a "high" (2006) and "average" ozone year (2008). Median 8% and 5% reductions in clover root nodule biomass in pasture across the UK were predicted for 2006 and 2008 respectively. Seasonal exposure to elevated ozone, or short-term acute concentrations >100ppb, are sufficient to reduce N-fixation and/or impact nodulation, in a range of globally-important legumes. However, an increasing global burden of CO2, the use of artificial fertiliser, and reactive N-pollution may partially mitigate impacts of ozone on N-fixation. PMID:26385644

  1. Slow fatigue crack growth in aluminium and magnesium cast alloys in ambient air and in a vacuum; Langsames Ermuedungsrisswachstum in Aluminium- und Magnesiumgusslegierungen in Raumluft und in Vakuum

    Fuchs, U.; Mayer, H.; Tschegg, S.; Zettl, B. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik; Lipowsky, Hj.; Stich, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Papakyriacou, M. [ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of ambient air on near threshold fatigue crack growth in the magnesium cast alloys AZ91 hp, AM60 hp and AS21 hp and in the aluminium cast alloy AlSi9Cu3 has been investigated. Fatigue crack growth properties at a cycling frequency of 20 kHz in ambient air and in a vacuum are significantly different. In a vacuum, the threshold stress intensity amplitude of the aluminium alloy is 30% higher than in ambient air, and the threshold values of the magnesium alloys in a vacuum are up to 85% higher than in ambient air. Moisture of ambient air is responsible for accelerated crack growth at growth rates below 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/cycle (AlSi9Cu3) and 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/cycle (magnesium alloys), respectively. In ambient air a minimum crack growth rate of 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/cycle was observed, whereas far lower minimum growth rates were found in a vacuum. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit dem Einfluss des Umgebungsmediums Raumluft auf das sehr langsame Ermuedungsrisswachstum in den druckgegossenen Magnesiumlegierungen AZ91 hp, AM60 hp und AS21 hp und in der druckgegossenen Aluminiumlegierung AlSi9Cu3. Die bei einer Beanspruchungsfrequenz von 20 kHz gemessenen Rissausbreitungskurven in Raumluft und Vakuum unterscheiden sich im Schwellwertbereich deutlich. Der Schwellwert der Aluminiumlegierung liegt in Vakuum 30% hoeher als in Raumluft, und die Schwellwerte der Magnesiumlegierungen liegen bis zu 85% hoeher. Die in der Raumluft enthaltene Luftfeuchtigkeit ist massgeblich fuer die Beschleunigung des Risswachstums, wobei ein Einfluss bei AlSi9Cu3 bis zu Risswachstumsgeschwindigkeiten von 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/Lastspiel und bei den Magnesiumlegierungen bis zu 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/Lastspiel gefunden wird. In Raumluft wachsen Ermuedungsrisse mit einer Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit von mindestens 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/Lastspiel, waehrend in Vakuum auch wesentlich niedrigere Wachstumsraten gefunden wurden. (orig.)

  2. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how elevated carbon dioxide concentration and elevated ozone concentration altered leaf area index development in a clos...

  3. Adjustments of net photosynthesis in Solanum tuberosum in response to reciprocal changes in ambient and elevated growth CO{sub 2} partial pressures

    Sicher, R.C.; Bunce, J.A. [USDA Agricultural Res. Service, Climate Stress Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Single leaf photosynthetic rates and various leaf components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were studied 1-3 days after reciprocally transferring plants between the ambient and elevated growth CO{sub 2} treatments. Plants were raised from individual tuber sections in controlled environment chambers at either ambient (36 Pa) or elevated (72 Pa) CO{sub 2}. One half of the plants in each growth CO{sub 2} treatment were transferred to the opposite CO{sub 2} treatment 34 days after sowing (DAS). Net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) rates and various leaf components were then measured 34, 35 and 37 DAS at both 36 and 72 Pa CO{sub 2}. Three-day means of single leaf P{sub n} rates, leaf starch, glucose, initial and total Rubisco activity, Rubisco protein, chlorophyll (a+b), chlorophyll (a/b), {alpha}-amino N, and nitrate levers differed significantly in the continuous ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} treatments. Acclimation of single leaf P{sub n} rates was partially to completely reversed 3 days after elevated CO{sub 2}-grown plants were shifted to ambient CO{sub 2} whereas there was little evidence of photosynthetic acclimation 3 days after ambient CO{sub 2}-grown plants were shifted to elevated CO{sub 2}. In a four-way comparison of the 36, 72, 36 to 72 (shifted up) and 72 to 36 (shifted down) Pa CO{sub 2} treatments 37 DAS, leaf starch soluble carbohydrates, Rubisco protein and nitrate were the only photosynthetic factors that differed significantly. Simple and multiple regression analyses suggested that negative changes of P{sub n} in response to growth CO{sub 2} treatment were most closely correlated with increased leaf starch levels. (au)

  4. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ► Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ► Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ► Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ► The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  5. A chamberless field exposure system for ozone enrichment of short vegetation.

    Erbs, M; Fangmeier, A

    2005-01-01

    Only few studies have been conducted as yet which focus on the effects of rising tropospheric ozone levels on semi-natural vegetation under free-air conditions. A new technical approach was used to examine the response of calcareous grassland to ozone employing a chamberless fumigation system. Four different ozone regimes were applied (1-, 1.33-, 1.66- and 2-fold ambient air levels) with five replicates each. Ozone enrichment was carried out on circular plots of 2 m in diameter by a computer controlled exposure system. Transparent windscreens encircling each plot accelerated the mixing of ambient air and ozone released. Thus, the use of blowers could be avoided. The exposure system presented here is regarded as an appropriate technique for free-air trace gas enrichment on short vegetation avoiding microclimatic alterations known to affect plant growth and pollutant uptake. Furthermore, the chosen technical set-up was rather cost-effective. Hence, it enabled the establishment of a larger number of replications providing the basis for results of higher statistical power. PMID:15327860

  6. Vertical profiles reveal impact of ozone and temperature on carbon assimilation of Betula pendula and Populus tremula.

    Mäenpää, Maarit; Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Rousi, Matti; Oksanen, Elina

    2011-08-01

    Rising temperature and tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations are likely to affect carbon assimilation processes and thus the carbon sink strength of trees. In this study, we investigated the joint action of elevated ozone and temperature on silver birch (Betula pendula) and European aspen (Populus tremula) saplings in field conditions by combining free-air ozone exposure (1.2 × ambient) and infrared heaters (ambient +1.2 °C). At leaf level measurements, elevated ozone decreased leaf net photosynthesis (P(n)), while the response to elevated temperature was dependent on leaf position within the foliage. This indicates that leaf position has to be taken into account when leaf level data are collected and applied. The ozone effect on P(n) was partly compensated for at elevated temperature, showing an interactive effect of the treatments. In addition, the ratio of photosynthesis to stomatal conductance (P(n)/g(s) ratio) was decreased by ozone, which suggests decreasing water use efficiency. At the plant level, the increasing leaf area at elevated temperature resulted in a considerable increase in photosynthesis and growth in both species. PMID:21856655

  7. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  8. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  9. Ozone measurement systems: associated instrumentation and calibration

    J. Bellido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects produced by ozone have lead to a vast regulation to define and establish the quality goals of ambient air, based on common methods and criteria. The surveillance nets of atmospheric pollution are worldwide extended systems and the applied technology for the ozone measurement is nowadays quite standardized. The aim of this paper is to give a general view of the most common systems used in the ozone measurement in ambient air from a practical point of view. The used instrumentation and the usual calibration methods will be described.

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J.; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  11. Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality

    Wilson, Ander; Rappold, Ana G.; Neas, Lucas M.; Reich, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of ambient ozone levels and temperatures which, in turn, may impact public health. Much research has focused on the effect of short-term ozone exposures on mortality and morbidity while controlling for temperature as a confounder, but less is known about the joint effects of ozone and temperature. The extent of the health effects of changing ozone levels and temperatures will depend on whether these effects are additive or synergistic. In t...

  12. Ozone threat

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  13. Effects of ozone on the sporulation, germination, and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea

    Krause, C.R.; Weidensaul, T.C.

    1978-02-01

    Studies were initiated to determine if Botrytis cinerea conidia remain viable when grown in vivo and in vitro in the presence of ambient ozone levels and whether ozonized conidia retain pathogenicity. Experimental materials and methods used are described.

  14. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  15. The effects of feed restriction and ambient temperature on growth and ascites mortality of broilers reared at high altitude.

    Ozkan, S; Takma, C; Yahav, S; Sögüt, B; Türkmut, L; Erturun, H; Cahaner, A

    2010-05-01

    The development of ascites was investigated in broilers at low versus high altitudes, cold versus normal ambient temperatures (AT), and 3 feeding regimens. One-day-old chicks obtained at sea level were reared at high altitude (highA; 1,720 m; n = 576) with 2 AT treatments, low AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/cold) and normal AT from 3 wk onward at highA (highA/norm), or at sea level (normal AT from 3 wk onward at low altitude, lowA/norm; n = 540). Under highA/cold, AT ranged between 16 to 17 degrees C in the fourth week, 17 to 19 degrees C in the fifth week, and 19 to 21 degrees C thereafter. Under highA/norm and lowA/norm, AT was 24 degrees C in the fourth week and ranged between 22 to 24 degrees C thereafter. Broilers in each condition were divided into 3 groups: feed restriction (FR) from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d, and ad libitum (AL). Ascites mortality and related parameters were recorded. Low mortality (0.4%) occurred under lowA/norm conditions. Under highA/norm, mortality was lower in females (8.6%) than in males (13.8%) and was not affected by the feeding regimen. The highA/cold treatment resulted in higher mortality but only in males; it was 44.2% among highA/cold AL-fed males and only about 26% under the FR regimens, suggesting that FR helped some males to better acclimatize to the highA/cold environment and avoid ascites. However, mortality was only 13.3% in AL-fed males at highA/norm and FR did not further reduce the incidence of ascites under these conditions. Thus, avoiding low AT in the poultry house by slight heating was more effective than FR in reducing ascites mortality at highA. Compared with FR from 7 to 14 d, FR from 7 to 21 d did not further reduce mortality and reduced growth. At 47 d, the majority of surviving broilers at highA had high levels of hematocrit and right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio (>0.29), but they were healthy and reached approximately the same BW as their counterparts at low altitude. This finding may suggest that in broilers reared at highA from day of hatch, the elevation in hematocrit and in right ventricle:total ventricle weight ratio happens gradually and therefore is not necessarily indicative of ascites development. PMID:20371850

  16. Theoretical modelling of Staphylococcus aureus growth in a cooked meat product kept at ambient temperature using temperature profiles of selected Mexican cities Modelagem teórica de crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus em um produto à base de carne cozida deixada à temperatura ambiente, usando perfis de temperatura de cidades do México

    Rosa Baeza; Cristina Rossler; Diana Mielnicki; María Clara Zamora; Jorge Chirife

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to predict the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in a pasteurized meat product kept at ambient temperatures for several hours. For this purpose, the temperature profiles of some cities of Mexico were combined with literature data on the kinetics of S. aureus growth. As shown by theoretical predictions, if the food is kept at ambient temperature, the average daily temperature may not give accurate predictions.Um modelo teórico é utilizado para prever o crescimento de ...

  17. Changes in southern Piedmont grassland community structure and nutritive quality with future climate scenarios of elevated tropospheric ozone and altered rainfall patterns.

    Gilliland, N J; Chappelka, A H; Muntifering, R B; Ditchkoff, S S

    2016-01-01

    Forage species common to the southern USA Piedmont region, Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens, were established in a model pasture system to test the future climate change scenario of increasing ozone exposure in combination with varying rainfall amounts on community structure and nutritive quality. Forages were exposed to two levels of ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice ambient (2×) concentrations] with three levels of precipitation (average or ±20% of average) in modified open-top chambers (OTCs) from June to September 2009. Dry matter (DM) yield did not differ over the growing season between forage types, except in primary growth grasses where DM yield was higher in 2× than NF treatment. Primary growth clover decreased in nutritive quality in 2× ozone because of increased concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). Re-growth clover exhibited the largest decrease in nutritive quality, whereas grasses were not adversely affected in 2× ozone. Re-growth grasses responded positively to 2× ozone exposure, as indicated in increased relative food value (RFV) and percentage crude protein (CP) than NF-exposed re-growth grasses. Effects of precipitation were not significant over the growing season for primary or re-growth forage, except in primary growth grasses where DM yield was higher in chambers with above average (+20%) precipitation. Total canopy cover was significantly higher over the growing season in chambers receiving above average precipitation, but no significant effects were observed with ozone. Results indicate shifts in plant community structure and functioning related to mammalian herbivore herbivory in future climate change scenarios. PMID:25727344

  18. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 3. Most of the evidence comes from studies of ambient particles concentrations. However, in Europe and elsewhere, the air pollution profile has gradually changed toward a more pronounced photochemical component. Ozone is one of the most toxic components of the photochemical air pollution mixture. Indeed, the biological basis for these observations has not been elucidated. In the present review, the role of ozone as chemical molecule will be firstly considered. Secondly, pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the atmospheric ozone level and cardiovascular pathology will be examined. Thirdly, the literature relating hospitalization frequency, morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular causes and ozone concentration will be studied. The correlation between ozone level and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction will be eventually discussed.

  19. Three days after a single exposure to ozone, the mechanism of airway hyperreactivity is dependent on substance P and nerve growth factor

    Verhein, Kirsten C.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Moulton, Bart C; Jacoby, Isabella W.; Jacoby, David B.; Fryer, Allison D.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone causes persistent airway hyperreactivity in humans and animals. One day after ozone exposure, airway hyperreactivity is mediated by release of eosinophil major basic protein that inhibits neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors, resulting in increased acetylcholine release and increased smooth muscle contraction in guinea pigs. Three days after ozone, IL-1β, not eosinophils, mediates ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, but the mechanism at this time point is largely unknown. IL-1β increases ...

  20. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

  1. Chemical Characterization of Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter in Rural Areas of Arizona Impacted by Significant Population Growth

    Characterization of PMc is critical to the understanding of recently observed adverse health effects (e.g., asthma, reduced cardiac variability, etc) from coarse particles in ambient air. PMc mass an (PMc, particles between PM2.5 and PM10) in a rural area of increasing populati...

  2. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NOx, which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  3. Ozone modeling

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NOx concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NOx coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NOx ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  4. Interactive effects of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and physiology of black cherry, green ash, and yellow-poplar seedlings.

    Loats, K V; Rebbeck, J

    1999-08-01

    Potted seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) (BC), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (GA), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) (YP) were exposed to one of the four treatments: (1) charcoal-filtered air (CF) at ambient CO(2) (control); (2) twice ambient O(3) (2 x O(3)); (3) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus CF air (2 x CO(2)); or (4) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus twice ambient O(3) (2 x CO(2) + 2 x O(3)). The treatments were duplicated in eight continuously stirred tank reactors for 10 weeks. Gas exchange was measured during the last 3 weeks of treatment and all seedlings were destructively harvested after 10 weeks. Significant interactive effects of O(3) and CO(2) on the gas exchange of all three species were limited. The effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3), singly and combined, on light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were inconsistent across species. In all three species, elevated O(3) had no effect on g(s). Elevated CO(2) significantly increased A(max) in GA and YP foliage, and decreased g(s) in YP foliage. Maximum carbon exchange rates and quantum efficiencies derived from light-response curves increased, while compensation irradiance and dark respiration decreased in all three species when exposed to 2 x CO(2). Elevated O(3) affected few of these parameters but any change that was observed was opposite to that from exposure to 2 x CO(2)-air. Interactive effects of CO(2) and O(3) on light-response parameters were limited. Carboxylation efficiencies, derived from CO(2)-response curves (A/C(i) curves) decreased only in YP foliage exposed to 2 x CO(2)-air. In general, growth was significantly stimulated by 2 x CO(2) in all three species; though there were few significant growth responses following exposure to 2 x O(3) or the combination of 2 x CO(2) plus 2 x O(3). Results indicate that responses to interacting stressors such as O(3) and CO(2) are species specific. PMID:15093051

  5. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations

    Fares, Silvano; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Gentner, Drew R.; McKay, Megan; Loreto, Francesco; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2010-09-01

    The Citrus genus includes a large number of species and varieties widely cultivated in the Central Valley of California and in many other countries having similar Mediterranean climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed by reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with oxides of nitrogen (NO x). Citrus trees may improve air quality in the orchard environment by taking up ozone through stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms, but they may ultimately be detrimental to regional air quality by emitting biogenic VOC (BVOC) that oxidize to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol downwind of the site of emission. BVOC also play a key role in removing ozone through gas-phase chemical reactions in the intercellular spaces of the leaves and in ambient air outside the plants. Ozone is known to oxidize leaf tissues after entering stomata, resulting in decreased carbon assimilation and crop yield. To characterize ozone deposition and BVOC emissions for lemon ( Citrus limon), mandarin ( Citrus reticulata), and orange ( Citrus sinensis), we designed branch enclosures that allowed direct measurement of fluxes under different physiological conditions in a controlled greenhouse environment. Average ozone uptake was up to 11 nmol s -1 m -2 of leaf. At low concentrations of ozone (40 ppb), measured ozone deposition was higher than expected ozone deposition modeled on the basis of stomatal aperture and ozone concentration. Our results were in better agreement with modeled values when we included non-stomatal ozone loss by reaction with gas-phase BVOC emitted from the citrus plants. At high ozone concentrations (160 ppb), the measured ozone deposition was lower than modeled, and we speculate that this indicates ozone accumulation in the leaf mesophyll.

  6. Ozone production and emission precursors during SHARP 2009

    Cazorla, M.; Brune, W. H.; Ren, X.; Jobson, B. T.; Lefer, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Rates of ozone production were measured directly during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) with a new Penn State instrument. The set of data contains low ozone production days and high ozone production days that developed under different meteorological conditions. Among the data collected, there are three verified episodes of high ozone in Houston. The large amount of VOCs combined with NOx emissions from point and mobile sources intensify the production of ozone in this urban center. Interesting correlations between measured ozone production and ambient nitrogen oxides have been found and will be presented. In addition, relationships between known organic radical precursors and measured ozone production will be analyzed. This discussion will be performed within the context of the specific meteorological conditions that favored the accumulation of ozone in Houston in the month of May, 2009.

  7. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  8. Enhancement of allergic lung sensitization in mice by ozone inhalation

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.; Gershwin, L.J.

    1988-07-01

    Inhaled ozone was found to exert an enhancing effect for allergic lung sensitization when mice contracted an aerosolized allergen. The animals were exposed to ozone concentrations of 0.24, 0.16, 0.13, and 0.10 ppm. After 4 days of continuous ozone exposure, the mice had allergen contact from an aerosolized solution of ovalbumin. The animals were then maintained in ambient air for several days before the cycle of ozone and aerosolized allergen was repeated over four allergen contact cycles. Mice were rested in ambient air for a week after the last allergen contact, and they were then tested for allergic sensitization by the intravenous injection of 2 mg of ovalbumin to induce anaphylactic shock in allergic individuals. The control groups of mice were maintained in ambient air throughout the experiment, but they experienced identical allergen contact with the ozone-exposed mice. The phenomenon of allergic enhancement from ozone inhalation was detected at 0.24, 0.16, and 0.13 ppm of ozone. The enhancing effect disappeared at 0.10 ppm of ozone. The study indicated a potential for increasing the number of allergically sensitized individuals when various allergens are inhaled during periods of high ozone exposure with the consequent adverse changes on respiratory membranes. The significance to human health of the allergic enhancement phenomenon by ozone needs investigation.

  9. [Preliminary study on suitability of ozone sterilization in traditional Chinese medicine and its preparation].

    Hu, Yan-jun; Wang, Ya-qi; Wu, Zhen-feng; Lan, Ji-ping; Zhang, Li-guo; Yang, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Microbial contamination, growth and reproduction have a great influence on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its preparation. TCM may be polluted by microbial in the production process due to ambient air, facilities and appliances and operating personnel, which affects the quality and efficacy of the final product. The GMP certification inspection standard of TCM manufacturing enterprises clearly established: "Sterilization methods of Chinese herbal medicine, intermediate products, finished products should follow the principle whether or not to change its quality", "TCM powder that used as medicine directly should follow the principle whether to do microbiological examinations". So it's particularly important for product quality, corporate energy consumption and its efficiency to choose the scientific and effective sterilization techniques and methods. Ozone is a kind of safe, environmentally friendly, efficient and no residue emerging sterilization technology. It has been widely applied in various fields of medical and health care and production and living. This paper mainly analyzed the ozone sterilization technology of TCM, aiming to explore the principle of ozone sterilization, the advantages, application status and existing problems and so on. The management regulations and implementation rules of ozone sterilization were summarized to make sterilization of Chinese medicine in the production, management, quality control and other aspects standardized, reasonable and scientific, and to provide the theoretical reference of the ozone sterilization technology for TCM and its preparation. PMID:26790281

  10. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  11. Increased Growth Factors Play a Role in Wound Healing Promoted by Noninvasive Oxygen-Ozone Therapy in Diabetic Patients with Foot Ulcers

    Jing Zhang; Meiping Guan; Cuihua Xie; Xiangrong Luo; Qian Zhang; Yaoming Xue

    2014-01-01

    Management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is a great challenge for clinicians. Although the oxygen-ozone treatment improves the diabetic outcome, there are few clinical trials to verify the efficacy and illuminate the underlying mechanisms of oxygen-ozone treatment on DFUs. In the present study, a total of 50 type 2 diabetic patients complicated with DFUs, Wagner stage 2~4, were randomized into control group treated by standard therapy only and ozone group treated by standard therapy plus oxy...

  12. Diel trends in stomatal response to ozone and water deficit: a unique relationship of midday values to growth and allometry in Pima cotton?

    Grantz, D A; Paudel, R; Vu, H-B; Shrestha, A; Grulke, N

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to ozone (O3 ) and water deficit (WD) are commonly observed, although less is known about their interaction. Stomatal conductance (gs ) is both an impact of these stressors and a protective response to them. Stomatal closure reduces inward flux of O3 and outward flux of water. Stomatal measurements are generally obtained at midday when gas exchange is maximal, but these may not be adequate surrogates for stomatal responses observed at other times of day, nor for non-stomatal responses. Here, we find in Pima cotton that stomatal responses to O3 observed at midday do not reflect responses at other times. Stomata were more responsive to O3 and WD near midday, despite being at quasi-steady state, than during periods of active opening or closing in morning or evening. Stomatal responsivity to O3 was not coincident with maximum gas exchange or with periods of active regulation, but coincident with plant sensitivity to O3 previously determined in this cultivar. Responses of pigmentation and shoot productivity were more closely related to stomatal responses at midday than to responses at other times of day under well-watered (WW) conditions, reflecting higher stomatal responsivity, sensitivity to O3 , and magnitude of midday gs . Under WD conditions, shoot responses were more closely related to early morning gs. Root responses were more closely related to early morning gs under both WW and WD. Responses of stomata to O3 at midday were not good surrogates for stomatal responses early or late in the day, and may not adequately predicting O3 flux under WD or when maximum ambient concentrations do not occur near midday. PMID:26031549

  13. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.; Vergne, P.; Sifakis, N.; Sanz, M.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J.; Kambezidis, H.; He, S.; Garrec, J.P.; Calatayud, V.

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic......-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing...... gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Dsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences...

  14. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Heerdt, Christian [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Rennenberg, Heinz [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haberer, Kristine [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: kristine.haberer@biologie.uni-freiburg.de

    2008-07-15

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O{sub 3}), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years.

  15. US EPA Region 9 8-Hour Ozone Designated Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of Nonattainment Areas for 2008 NAAQS 8 Hour Ozone. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality...

  16. US EPA Region 9 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS Designations

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Esri polygon shapefile of 1-hour ozone designated areas in US EPA Region 9. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality...

  17. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Rozema, Jelte [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Boelen, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Blokker, Peter [Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions.

  18. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  19. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  20. SEASON-LONG ELEVATION OF OZONE CONCENTRATION TO PROJECTED 2050 LEVELS UNDER FULLY OPEN-AIR CONDITIONS SUBSTANTIALLY DECREASES THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN

    -Mean surface ozone concentration is predicted to increase 25% by 2050. Previous chamber studies of crops report large yield losses due to elevation of tropospheric ozone, and have been the basis for projecting economic loss. -This is the first study with a food crop (soybean) using Free-Air gas Con...

  1. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concent...

  2. Det ambiente

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  3. Multi-morphological growth of nano-structured In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution syntheses

    Li, Tongfei; Wang, Jian; Lai, Junyun; Zheng, Xuerong; Liu, Weiyan; Ji, Junna [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Jin, Zhengguo, E-mail: zhgjin@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized by a new, facile, ambient pressure triethylene glycol based solution chemical route using indium(III) chloride and selenium powder as precursors. The growing morphology, crystallization, chemical stoichiometry and light absorption property of the In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} products synthesized were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, FESEM, XRD, EDX and UV–vis–NIR measurements. Multi-morphological growth of the nano-structured In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in triethylene glycol based solution syntheses with changed assisting agents and reaction styles was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Multimorphological growth of In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} was demonstrated based on solution chemistry. • A new, facile, low cost and fast air pressure TEG based solution process was used. • Nanoparticles, flower-like shaped and sheet-shaped nanocrystals were synthesized. • Morphology, crystallization, stoichiometry and light absorption was characterized. • Solution growth of β-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanosheets was firstly reported by this submission.

  4. Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation

    F. A, Lage Filho; L. R. F, Carvalho; M. L. A, Lopes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and [...] ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h) and contact time (min) were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

  5. Ozonation of sediments from an urban lake: an exploratory investigation

    F. A Lage Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory investigation was conducted on the effects of application of ozone on the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants and the reduction of settleable solids in urban lake sediments. Homogenized sediment samples were treated in a batch reactor with an external recirculation loop and ozone feed from a Venturi injector. The ozone generating system was fed with ambient air with small footprint and operational simplicity. Ozone mass application (g/h and contact time (min were varied over wide ranges during testing. The effects of the ozone mass applied per unit time and the contact time on contaminant removal efficiencies were analyzed and a trade - off between the costs of ozonation and of solids treatment and disposal was proposed. The minimum ozone mass application required for total contaminant removal apparently depended on the type of organic contaminant present. An apparent influence of inorganic contaminant speciation on the removal efficiency was found and discussed.

  6. Ozone transport from stratosphere to troposphere

    7Be produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with oxygen and nitrogen, predominantly in the stratosphere, has been used to identify and measure stratospheric ozone at the ground level. Simultaneous measurements at Whiteface Mountain, New York, in July 1975 show that the maximum 7Be concentrations are accompanied by increased ozone concentrations. Peaks in 7Be concentrations occurred on July 5-6, 11-12, 16-17, 23, and 27. Ozone peaks were observed on July 7-9, 11, 18, 24, and 27. Isentropic trajectory calculations also showed that the trajectories reaching Whiteface Mountain on July 11-12, 15-16, 23, and 27 had stratospheric origin. One-day delay in ozone peaks on July 7-9, 18, and 24 is attributed to increased tropospheric ozone production. The observed relationship between 7Be and ozone is used to deduce an upper limit of 37 ppb stratospheric ozone at Whiteface Mountain during July 1975. Thus, even during midsummer months, when stratospheric-tropospheric mass exchange is not at a maximum, stratospheric ozone may contribute substantially to the national ambient air quality standard of 80 ppb

  7. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  8. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 1. Interactive effects on photosynthesis, growth, and copper accumulation.

    Connan, Solène; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-07-01

    The effect of copper enrichment and salinity on growth, photosynthesis and copper accumulation of two temperate brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, was investigated in laboratory experiments. A significant negative impact of reduced salinity on photosynthetic activity and growth was observed for both species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, photosynthesis of A. nodosum was entirely inhibited and growth ceased at a salinity of 15. Increased copper concentration negatively affected photosynthetic activity of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus resulting in chlorosis and reduced seaweed growth; 5 mg L⁻¹ copper caused an inhibition of the photosynthesis and the degradation of seaweed tips. Under reduced salinity, copper toxicity was enhanced and caused an earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. After exposure to copper and different salinities for 15 days, copper contents of seaweeds were closely related to copper concentration in the water; seaweed copper contents reached their maximum after 1 day of exposure; contents only increased again when additional, free copper was added to the water. At high water copper concentrations or low salinity, or a combination of both, copper content of A. nodosum decreased. By contrast, copper content of F. vesiculosus increased, suggesting that different binding sites or uptake mechanisms exist in the two species. The results suggest that when using brown seaweeds in biomonitoring in situ, any change in the environment will directly and significantly affect algal physiology and thus their metal binding capacity; the assessment of the physiological status of the algae in combination with the analysis of thallus metal content will enhance the reliability of the biomonitoring process. PMID:21549661

  9. Det Ambiente

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  10. The Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For…

  11. The Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Jones, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For

  12. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature

    Four sugarcane cultivars were grown for three months in sunlit greenhouses under [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720(doubled) ppm and at temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area, stem juice, plant biomass, leaf CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of PEP ...

  13. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator

  14. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  15. Ozone tolerance of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    Larix decidua has been classified as a tree species ''highly sensitive'' to ozone. However, in Austria its main distribution is at altitudes where the recommended limits for ozone concentrations for sensitive plants are strongly exceeded for long periods. Long-term fumigation of twigs of a mature larch tree with ambient or double ambient air ozone concentrations did not cause any visible damage or negative influence on the gas exchange. However very high exposure of 1200 ppb ozone led to acute damage in long shoot needles with high gas exchange rates in the sun, but led only to small damages on shaded long shoots. Needles on short shoots neither developed visible damages nor were their capabilities for photosynthesis and stomatal regulation reduced, nor did they exhibit signs of premature senescence. According to the results of this investigation, European larch should be classified as ''intermediate'' or even as ''less sensitive'' to ozone. (orig.)

  16. Effects of ambient background gases on YBCO plume propagation under film growth conditions: Spectroscopic, ion probe, and fast photographic studies

    The formation, composition, and propagation of KrF laser-produced plasmas from Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x have been studied with emphasis on topics relevant to film growth by pulsed-laser deposition. Spatially and temporally resolved, high-resolution optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, fast ion probes, and fast photography [obtained with a gated, image-intensified CCD array detector (ICCD)] are employed to investigate both emitting and non-emitting species in the laser plume as well as the overall shape and propagation of the laser plasma in background gases of oxygen and xenon. Transient optical absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the composition of the plume of ejected material from the dense layer near the target surface to distances of several centimeters. Optical absorption persists long after the decay of plasma fluorescence, indicating a slower component to plume transport. The absorption of YO formed by YBCO ablation in vacuum and by-yttrium ablation in oxygen is presented. Fast electric ion probes are utilized to measure velocities and total collected charge of the positive ions in the expanding YBCO laser plasma from near-threshold, vacuum conditions into the high fluence, background gas conditions utilized for thin-film growth. The exponential attenuation of the positive ion flux transmitted through 50--300 mTorr background oxygen is measured and used to define an attenuation coefficient. The showing of the laser plasma and formation of shock structures due to gas collisions is studied by ion probe measurements and fast ICCD photography. A comparison between shock wave propagation and drag models is presented to describe the arrival time and shape of the ion probe current waveform with distance. 11 refs, 11 figs

  17. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn brown egg type cross

    Bordas Andr

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  18. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    To assess the effects of tropospheric O3 on rice cultivated in Bangladesh, four Bangladeshi cultivars (BR11, BR14, BR28 and BR29) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O3 at 60 and 100 nl l-1 (10:00-17:00) from 1 July to 28 November 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the four cultivars were significantly reduced by the exposure to O3. The exposure to O3 significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate of the 12th and flag leaves of the four cultivars. The sensitivity to O3 of growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates was not significantly different among the four cultivars. The present study suggests that the sensitivity to O3 of yield of the four Bangladeshi rice cultivars is greater than that of American rice cultivars and is similar to that of Japanese rice cultivars and that O3 may detrimentally affect rice production in Bangladesh. - Bangladeshi cultivars of rice are sensitive to O3 below 100 ppb.

  19. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on total column ozone growth at Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°E), India

    Jana, P. K.; Saha, D. K.; Sarkar, D.

    2013-02-01

    A critical analysis has been made on the contribution of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs, halons, WMO (World Meteorological Organization) minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour to the variation of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at the station in Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°E), India from 1992 to 2003. With the implementation of Montreal Protocol, though the concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4 and CH3CCl3 had decreased, the concentrations of CFC-12, HCFCs, halons, WMO minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour had increased, as a result of which TCO had risen from 1992 to 2003 at the above station. The nature of yearly variations of concentrations of the above ozone depleting substances and GHGs as well as ozone has been presented. Possible explanations for build-up of TCO have also been offered.

  20. Second year effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Potted native and phyton-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed for a second growing season to ozone and/or acid deposition in open-top field chambers on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1,680 m). Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient ozone (COE), (2) ozone with clouds excluded (CE), and (3) exposure to clouds and ozone, as control chambers (CO), and (4) open plots (AA). No differences were detected among treatments for biomass accumulation or for chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phyton seedlings in AA and CO treatments maintained high photosynthetic rates through October, whereas rates in CE and COE decreased, suggesting that dormancy and winter hardiness were delayed in AA and CO, possibly making seedlings susceptible to early frosts. Respiration of both seedling types was higher for AA and CO throughout most of the growing season, which could lead to depletion of carbohydrates, and eventually to a reduction in growth and vigor of the seedlings over time due to air pollution.

  1. In situ laser ablation plasma diagnostics in the film growth regime-effects of ambient background gases

    This paper reports on the propagation of the laser-induced plasma formed by KrF irradiation of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 characterized in background pressures of oxygen and argon typically used for thin film growth. The ion current transmitted through the background gases was recorded along the normal to the irradiated pellet as a function of distance in order to measure the decreasing velocity and magnitude of the expanding plasma current due to collisional slowing and attenuation of the laser plume. The integrated ion charge delivered to a substrate at low pressures can be described by elastic scattering giving a general integral cross sections of σc [O2] = 3.2 x 10-16 cm2 and σc [Ar] = 2.7 x 10-16 cm2. At higher pressures, inelastic scattering leads to increased recombination and reactive conversion of ions indicated by increased fluorescence of all the species, which becomes dominated by fluorescence of YO and BaO. Spatially resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the luminous boundary to the plasma follows a weak shock front which coincides with the ion flux propagation. The ion transmission is found to drop exponentially with distance and background pressure, in agreement with a simple scattering model which yields general scattering cross sections for ion-argon σi-Ar = 2.1 x 10-16 cm2 and ion-oxygen σi-O2 = 2.3 x 10-16 cm2 interactions in background pressures up to 300 mTorr. The general features of the plume deceleration are described in terms of a drag force model alloys

  2. Ozone influence on native vegetation in the Jizerske hory Mts. of the Czech Republic: results based on ozone exposure and ozone-induced visible symptoms.

    H?nov, Iva; Matoukov, Leona; Srn?nsk, Radek; Koelkov, Klra

    2011-12-01

    Ozone levels in the Jizerske hory Mts. measured at 13 sites by diffusive samplers during the 2006 and 2007 vegetation seasons are presented. A significant ozone gradient (5.4 ppb in 2006 and 4.0 ppb in 2007) per 100 m difference in altitude between 370 and 1,100 m a.s.l. was recorded. High-resolution maps of phytotoxic potential were developed. The AOT40 threshold (5 ppm h) was exceeded over the entire area with the highest levels exceeding this threshold by 12 times in the upper portions of the mountains. Ozone visible injury was evaluated at four of the monitoring sites on seven native plant and tree species. Four species showed ozone-like symptoms, two of which (Rubus idaeus and Fagus sylvatica) were confirmed as ozone-induced. Our results indicate that ambient ozone is likely to have a much lower impact on the Jizerske hory Mts. vegetation than expected, considering the measured ambient ozone exposures and favourable environmental conditions for ozone uptake. PMID:21374050

  3. Ozone reaction with interior building materials: Influence of diurnal ozone variation, temperature and humidity

    Rim, Donghyun; Gall, Elliott T.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Indoor ozone chemistry affects human exposure to ozone and reaction products that also may adversely affect health and comfort. Reactive uptake of ozone has been characterized for many building materials; however, scant information is available on how diurnal variation of ambient ozone influences ozone reaction with indoor surfaces. The primary objective of this study is to investigate ozone-surface reactions in response to a diurnally varying ozone exposure for three common building materials: ceiling tile, painted drywall, and carpet tile. A secondary objective is to examine the effects of air temperature and humidity. A third goal is to explore how conditioning of materials in an occupied office building might influence subsequent ozone-surface reactions. Experiments were performed at bench-scale with inlet ozone concentrations varied to simulate daytime (ozone elevated) and nighttime (ozone-free in these experiments) periods. To simulate office conditions, experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22 °C and 28 °C) and three relative humidity values (25%, 50%, 75%). Effects of indoor surface exposures were examined by placing material samples in an occupied office and repeating bench-scale characterization after exposure periods of 1 and 2 months. Deposition velocities were observed to be highest during the initial hour of ozone exposure with slow decrease in the subsequent hours of simulated daytime conditions. Daily-average ozone reaction probabilities for fresh materials are in the respective ranges of (1.7-2.7) × 10-5, (2.8-4.7) × 10-5, and (3.0-4.5) × 10-5 for ceiling tile, painted drywall, and carpet tile. The reaction probability decreases by 7%-47% across the three test materials after two 8-h periods of ozone exposure. Measurements with the samples from an occupied office reveal that deposition velocity can decrease or increase with time. Influence of temperature and humidity on ozone-surface reactivity was not strong.

  4. Influence of ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on the plant growth and physiological properties in two contrasting populations of Hippophae rhamnoides

    Two contrasting sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) populations from low and high altitude regions were employed to investigate the effects of prevailing and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant growth and physiological properties under a UVB-enhanced/exclusion system. The experimental design included three UV-B regimes, including excluded (-UVB), near-ambient (NA) and enhanced UV-B (+UVB) radiation. Compared with the control (-UVB), NA caused the formation of smaller but thicker plant leaves in both sea buckthorn populations, paralleled with significant increments of carotenoids and UV-absorbing compounds as well as improved water economy. NA also induced more biomass partition from shoot to root, but CO2 assimilation rate (A), photosynthetic area and biomass accumulation were unaffected. The low-altitude population seemed sensitive to +uvB, as indicated by the decreases in total biomass, A and ascorbic acid content (Asa, an antioxidant) compared with NA. However, little +UVB effect occurred on the high-altitude population, and we suggest that the higher tolerance of this population could be associated with its specific morphological and physiological characteristics, such as small but thick leaves and high-level of Asa content, as well as its greater physiological modification in response to NA, e.g., increases in protective compounds (carotenoids and UV-absorbing compounds) and improvement in water economy, in comparison to the low-altitude population, which form an effective adaptation strategy to enhanced UV-B stress

  5. The Pal pathway required for ambient pH adaptation regulates growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of Beauveria bassiana in a pH-dependent manner.

    Zhu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-05-01

    The Pal/Rim pathway essential for fungal adaptation to ambient pH has been unexplored in Beauveria bassiana, a classic fungal entomopathogen. Here, we show the characterized Pal pathway comprising transcription factor PacC and upstream six Pal partners (PalA/B/C/F/H/I) in B. bassiana. Their coding genes were all transcribed most abundantly in standard wild-type culture under the alkaline condition of pH 9. Deletion of pacC or each pal gene resulted in a significant delay of culture acidification in a minimal broth (initial pH = 7.3). This delay concurred with altered accumulation levels of intra/extracellular organic acids and drastically depressed expression of some enzyme genes required for the syntheses of oxalic and lactic acids. Our deletion mutants except ΔpalI showed growth defects and maximal sensitivity to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, or sorbitol at pH 9, an alkaline condition leading to fragmented vacuoles in their hyphal cells exposed to osmotic stress. In these mutants, conidiation was significantly facilitated at pH 3 more than at pH 7 but suppressed slightly at pH 9. Mild virulence defects also occurred in the absence of pacC or any pal gene. These changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Taken together, PacC and Pal partners regulate the growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of B. bassiana in a pH-dependent manner, highlighting their vitality for the fungal pH response. PMID:26754817

  6. Growth, nitrogen uptake, and metabolism in two semiarid shrubs grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations: effects of nitrogen supply and source.

    Causin, Humberto Fabio; Tremmel, David C; Rufty, Thomas W; Reynolds, James F

    2004-04-01

    The effect of differences in nitrogen (N) availability and source on growth and nitrogen metabolism at different atmospheric CO(2) concentrations in Prosopis glandulosa and Prosopis flexuosa (native to semiarid regions of North and South America, respectively) was examined. Total biomass, allocation, N uptake, and metabolites (e.g., free NO(3)(-), soluble proteins, organic acids) were measured in seedlings grown in controlled environment chambers for 48 d at ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) CO(2) and fertilized with high (8.0 mmol/L) or low (0.8 mmol/L) N (N(level)), supplied at either 1 : 1 or 3 : 1 NO(3)(-) : NH(4)(+) ratios (N(source)). Responses to elevated CO(2) depended on both N(level) and N(source), with the largest effects evident at high N(level). A high NO(3)(-) : NH(4)(+) ratio stimulated growth responses to elevated CO(2) in both species when N was limiting and increased the responses of P. flexuosa at high N(level). Significant differences in N uptake and metabolites were found between species. Seedlings of both species are highly responsive to N availability and will benefit from increases in CO(2), provided that a high proportion of NO(3)- to NH(4)-N is present in the soil solution. This enhancement, in combination with responses that increase N acquisition and increases in water use efficiency typically found at elevated CO(2), may indicate that these semiarid species will be better able to cope with both nutrient and water deficits as CO(2) levels rise. PMID:21653412

  7. Ambient intelligence

    Weber, W; Aarts, E

    2005-01-01

    Addresses ambient intelligence used to support human contacts and accompany an individual''s path through the complicated modern world, from applications that are imminent, since they use essentially existing technologies, to ambitious ideas whose realization is still far away, due to major unsolved technical challenges.

  8. Ambient intelligence

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  9. A versatile low-pressure ozone source

    A low-pressure source for pure ozone has been developed and successfully tested in the growth of oxide superconductor thin films. Ozone is selectively adsorbed on silica gel at a temperature of -77 degree C from an O3/O2 gas mixture stream containing 8 wt% O3, produced by a commercial ozone generator. Since only O3 is trapped, no further purification steps are required. Ozone/gel loading factors below 10% (wt/wt) ensure the safe storage of O3 over prolonged periods. Pure O3 is extracted from the silica gel trap, in which the O3 vapor pressure is maintained at around 10 mTorr, by applying a dynamic vacuum. Films of Ba2YCu3O7-? with Tc above 86 K have been grown in situ by molecular beam epitaxy techniques using this ozone source

  10. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Lemoine, R.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGE II ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is related to...

  11. EFFECT OF AN OZONE INJURY RETARDANT CHEMICAL ON ISOZYME PROFILES FROM ALFALFA CALLUS IN VITRO

    Plant ozone injury retardant (EDU or ethylenediurea) at 1.0 ppm inhibited growth of callus of alfalfa cultivars Williamsburg (ozone-sensitive) and MSB-CW5An2(ozone-insensitive) germplasm of Medicago sative. The presence of EDU(0.1 ppm) in growth medium increased the number of pro...

  12. Quantifying the impact of current and future tropospheric ozone on tree biomass, growth, physiology and biochemistry: A quantitative meta-analysis

    The northern hemisphere temperate and boreal forests currently provide an important carbon sink; however, current tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O3]) and [O3] projected for later this century are toxic to trees and have the potential to reduce the carbon sink strength of these forests. This met...

  13. TOWARDS RELIABLE AND COST-EFFECTIVE OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION USING THE HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    Accurate assessment of chronic human exposure to atmospheric criteria pollutants, such as ozone, is critical for understanding human health risks associated with living in environments with elevated ambient pollutant concentrations. In this study, we analyzed a data set from a...

  14. Observations of Ozone Formation in Power Plant Plumes and Implications for Ozone Control Strategies

    Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J. S.; Parrish, D. D.; Huey, L. G.; Sueper, D. T.; Frost, G. J.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Hübler, G.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2001-04-01

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural U.S. coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO2) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modulate ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future U.S. ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    The question of air quality in polluted regions represents one of the issues of geochemistry with direct implications for human well-being. Human health and well-being, along with the well-being of plants, animals, and agricultural crops, are dependent on the quality of air we breathe. Since the start of the industrial era, air quality has become a matter of major importance, especially in large cities or urbanized regions with heavy automobile traffic and industrial activity.Concern over air quality existed as far back as the 1600s. Originally, polluted air in cities resulted from the burning of wood or coal, largely as a source of heat. The industrial revolution in England saw a great increase in the use of coal in rapidly growing cities, both for industrial use and domestic heating. London suffered from devastating pollution events during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with thousands of excess deaths attributed to air pollution (Brimblecombe, 1987). With increasing use of coal, other instances also occurred in continental Europe and the USA. These events were caused by directly emitted pollutants (primary pollutants), including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. They were especially acute in cities with northerly locations during fall and winter when sunlight is at a minimum. These original pollution events gave rise to the term "smog" (a combination of smoke and fog). Events of this type have become much less severe since the 1950s in Western Europe and the US, as natural gas replaced coal as the primary source of home heating, industrial smokestacks were designed to emit at higher altitudes (where dispersion is more rapid), and industries were required to install pollution control equipment.Beginning in the 1950s, a new type of pollution, photochemical smog, became a major concern. Photochemical smog consists of ozone (O3) and other closely related species ("secondary pollutants") that are produced photochemically from directly emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in global background ozone can make the effects of local pollution events everywhere more acute, and can also cause ecological damage in remote locations that are otherwise unaffected by urban pollution. Ozone at the global scale is also related to greenhouse warming.This chapter provides an overview of photochemical smog at the urban and regional scale, focused primarily on ozone and including a summary of information about particulates. It includes the following topics: dynamics and extent of pollution events; health and ecological impacts; relation between ozone and precursor emissions, including hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx); sources, composition, and fundamental properties of particulates; chemistry of ozone and related species; methods of interpretation based on ambient measurements; and the connection between air pollution events and the chemistry of the global troposphere. Because there are many similarities between the photochemistry of ozone during pollution events and the chemistry of the troposphere in general, this chapter will include some information about global tropospheric chemistry and the links between urban-scale and global-scale events. Additional treatment of the global troposphere is found in Volume 4 of this work. The chemistry of ozone formation discussed here is also related to topics discussed in greater detail elsewhere in this volume (see Chapters 9.10 and 9.12) and in Volume 4.

  16. Ozone oxidation methods for aluminum oxide formation: Application to low-voltage organic transistors

    S. Gupta; Hannah, S.; Watson, C. P.; Šutta, P.; Pedersen, R.H.; Gadegaard, N.; Gleskova, H.

    2015-01-01

    Four atmospheric pressure ozone oxidation methods were used to produce ultra-thin layers of aluminum oxide for organic thin-film transistors. They are UV/ozone oxidation in ambient (UV-AA) and dry (UV-DA) air, UV/ozone oxidation combined with high-voltage discharge-generated ozone in dry air (UV+O3-DA), and discharge-generated ozone in dry air (O3-DA). The lack of the high-energy UV photons during the O3-DA oxidation led to low relative permittivity and high leakage current density of the AlO...

  17. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O3-specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O3, injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O3-specific symptoms, but only in species for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ≥ 50 W m−2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure deficit and global radiation. In the model with all factors, Species was most important, and when Species was omitted, stomatal conductance was the most important determinant for leaf injury to occur, whereas mean relative growth rate was less important. With no plant-related factors included, air vapour pressure deficit and AOT40 were of highest importance. Only in eight species was a positive relationship found between these two factors during the five days before the onset of injury, indicating increasing protection from ozone with increasing air vapour pressure deficit in some but not all species. These data show that across a range of grassland species, leaf injury caused by elevated levels of ozone is most likely to occur in species with high stomatal conductance and that protection from ozone during dry periods is species-specific and depends on a reduction in stomatal conductance due to a decrease in soil moisture potential. Protection under increased vapour pressure deficit can occur in some but not all species, depending on the relationship between stomatal conductance and air vapour pressure deficit. (author)

  18. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2008. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2008

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2008, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (au)

  19. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2010. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2010

    2011-06-15

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2010, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (Author)

  20. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2009. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2009

    2010-03-15

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2009, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (Author)

  1. Crescimento e qualidade de mudas de pinhão-manso produzidas em ambiente protegido Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings produced in greenhouse

    Janaina Paulino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao recente Programa de Produção de Biocombustíveis do Brasil, o interesse comercial tem crescido em relação à produção de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.. Informações sobre esta cultura ainda são escassas, o que remete a necessidade de mais pesquisas que possam estabelecer condições de adaptabilidade desta cultura em diferentes condições. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para estudar o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de pinhão-manso, produzidas em ambiente protegido; as mudas foram monitoradas até o momento de serem transplantadas para o campo. Foi analisada a influência dos tipos e volumes de recipientes, juntamente com diferentes substratos e formas de adubação; o consumo de água também foi analisado durante o experimento. De acordo com os resultados, as melhores taxas de crescimento e qualidade de mudas até a condição de transplantio, foram obtidas com a combinação do substrato comercial, maior tubete e adubo de liberação lenta.There has been an increasing interest in the commercial production of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. due to the recent Brazilian Program of Biofuel Production. Information on this crop is still scarce and more research is necessary to set the grounds of crop adaptability in different local conditions. An experiment was set up on this issue under greenhouse environment. Growth and quality of physic nut seedlings was monitored up to transplanting time. The influence of types and volumes of seedling containers was analysed along with different substrates and fertilization strategies. The water use was also detailed in the trial. Results showed the best achievements of growth rate and seedling quality, at appropriate transplanting time, were reached from the combination of the commercial substrate, largest containers and fertilizers of slow nutrient liberation.

  2. Antarctic Ozone Hole, 2000

    2002-01-01

    Each spring the ozone layer over Antarctica nearly disappears, forming a 'hole' over the entire continent. The hole is created by the interaction of some man-made chemicals-freon, for example-with Antarctica's unique weather patterns and extremely cold temperatures. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun, thereby protecting living things. Since the ozone hole was discovered many of the chemicals that destroy ozone have been banned, but they will remain in the atmosphere for decades. In 2000, the ozone hole grew quicker than usual and exceptionally large. By the first week in September the hole was the largest ever-11.4 million square miles. The top image shows the average total column ozone values over Antarctica for September 2000. (Total column ozone is the amount of ozone from the ground to the top of the atmosphere. A relatively typical measurement of 300 Dobson Units is equivalent to a layer of ozone 0.12 inches thick on the Earth's surface. Levels below 220 Dobson Units are considered to be significant ozone depletion.) The record-breaking hole is likely the result of lower than average ozone levels during the Antarctic fall and winter, and exceptionally cold temperatures. In October, however (bottom image), the hole shrank dramatically, much more quickly than usual. By the end of October, the hole was only one-third of it's previous size. In a typical year, the ozone hole does not collapse until the end of November. NASA scientists were surprised by this early shrinking and speculate it is related to the region's weather. Global ozone levels are measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). For more information about ozone, read the Earth Observatory's ozone fact sheet, view global ozone data and see these ozone images. Images by Greg Shirah, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  3. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  4. Antarctic ozone depletion

    Antarctic ozone depletion is most severe during the southern hemisphere spring, when the local reduction in the column amount may be as much as 50 percent. The extent to which this ozone poor air contributes to the observed global ozone loss is a matter of debate, but there is some evidence that fragments of the 'ozone hole' can reach lower latitudes following its breakup in summer. Satellite data show the seasonal evolution of the ozone hole. A new dimension has been added to Antarctic ozone depletion with the advent of large volcanic eruptions such as that from Mount Pinatubo in 1991. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. The Antarctic ozone hole

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  6. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    The amount of stratospheric ozone and the reduction of the ozone layer vary according to seasons and latitudes. At present total and vertical ozone is monitored over all Austria. The mean monthly ozone levels between 1994 and 2000 are presented. Data on stratospheric ozone and UV-B radiation are published daily on the home page http: www.lebesministerium.at. The use of ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is provided. Besides, the national measures taken to reduce their use. Figs. 2, Tables 2. (nevyjel)

  7. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Lemoine, R.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of oz...

  8. Ambient intelligence

    Basten, Twan; de Groot, Harmke

    2007-01-01

    ""This book is truly an eye-opener as it is the first book that relates the dream scenarios of Ambient Intelligence quantitatively to the technical challenges and requirements of the huge distributed and interoperable embedded systems needed to implement AmI systems in the real world. This book is strongly recommended to a wide spectrum of engineers interested to embark in this rapidly emerging and fascinating technology."" (From the foreword by Hugo De Man, Professor K.U. Leuven and Senior Research Fellow IMEC)

  9. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II. Effects, modeling and control

    This was the sixth International Specialty Conference on ozone for the Air ampersand Waste Management Association since 1978 and the first to be held in the Southeast. Of the preceding five conferences, three were held in Houston, one in New England, and one in Los Angeles. The changing location continues to support the understanding that tropospheric ozone is a nationwide problem, requiring understanding and participation by representatives of all regions. Yet, questions such as the following continue to be raised over all aspects of the nation's efforts to control ozone. Are the existing primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone the appropriate targets for the ozone control strategy, or should they be modified to more effectively accommodate new health or ecological effects information, or better fit statistical analyses of ozone modeling data? Are the modeling tools presently available adequate to predict ozone concentrations for future precursor emission trends? What ozones attainment strategy will be the best means of meeting the ozone standard? To best answer these and other questions there needs to be a continued sharing of information among researchers working on these and other questions. While answers to these questions will often be qualitative and location specific, they will help focus future research programs and assist in developing future regulatory strategies

  10. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on total column zone growth at Srinagar (34N, 74.8), India

    P K Jana; D K Saha; D Sarkar

    2013-02-01

    A critical analysis has been made on the contribution of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH2Cl, CH3Br, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs, halons, WMO (World Meteorological Organization) minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour to the variation of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at the station in Srinagar (34N, 74.8E), India from 1992 to 2003. With the implementation of Montreal Protocol, though the concentrations of CFC-11, CFC-113, CH3Cl, CH3Br, CCl4 and CH3CCl3 had decreased, the concentrations of CFC-12, HCFCs, halons, WMO minor constituents, CH4, N2O and water vapour had increased, as a result of which TCO had risen from 1992 to 2003 at the above station. The nature of yearly variations of concentrations of the above ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases as well as ozone has been presented. Possible explanations for build-up of TCO have also been offered.

  11. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2015-09-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two Asian sites have increased by 1 to 3% per year since 2000, an increase thought to contribute to positive trends in the ozone levels observed at North America’s West Coast. However, model estimates of the Asian contribution to North American ozone levels are not well-constrained by observations. Here we interpret Aura satellite measurements of tropospheric concentrations of ozone and its precursor NO2, along with its largest natural source, stratospheric ozone, using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model. We show that tropospheric ozone concentrations over China have increased by about 7% between 2005 and 2010 in response to two factors: a rise in Chinese emissions by about 21% and increased downward transport of stratospheric ozone. Furthermore, we find that transport from China of ozone and its precursors has offset about 43% of the 0.42 DU reduction in free-tropospheric ozone over the western United States that was expected between 2005 and 2010 as a result of emissions reductions associated with federal, state and local air quality policies. We conclude that global efforts may be required to address regional air quality and climate change.

  12. A Near ambient pressure XPS study of Au oxidation

    Klyushin, A.; T. Rocha; Hävecker, M.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Schlögl, R.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a gold foil under ozone oxidation was examined by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our in-situ observations show that a surface oxide phase is formed during the exposure to ozone; however this phase decomposes in vacuum and even in the presence of ozone at temperatures higher than 300°C. Assuming an oxide overlayer completely covering the Au surface, the thickness of the oxide phase was estimated to be betw...

  13. Ozone Layer Observations

    McPeters, Richard; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been monitoring the ozone layer from space using optical remote sensing techniques since 1970. With concern over catalytic destruction of ozone (mid-1970s) and the development of the Antarctic ozone hole (mid-1980s), long term ozone monitoring has become the primary focus of NASA's series of ozone measuring instruments. A series of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) instruments has produced a nearly continuous record of global ozone from 1979 to the present. These instruments infer ozone by measuring sunlight backscattered from the atmosphere in the ultraviolet through differential absorption. These measurements have documented a 15 Dobson Unit drop in global average ozone since 1980, and the declines in ozone in the antarctic each October have been far more dramatic. Instruments that measure the ozone vertical distribution, the SBUV and SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) instruments for example, show that the largest changes are occurring in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The goal of ozone measurement in the next decades will be to document the predicted recovery of the ozone layer as CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) levels decline. This will require a continuation of global measurements of total column ozone on a global basis, but using data from successor instruments to TOMS. Hyperspectral instruments capable of measuring in the UV will be needed for this purpose. Establishing the relative roles of chemistry and dynamics will require instruments to measure ozone in the troposphere and in the stratosphere with good vertical resolution. Instruments that can measure other chemicals important to ozone formation and destruction will also be needed.

  14. Ozone and Daily Mortality in Shanghai, China

    Zhang, Yunhui; Huang, Wei; London, Stephanie J.; Song, Guixiang; Chen, Guohai; Jiang, Lili; Zhao, Naiqing; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2006-01-01

    Background Controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient ozone and mortality worldwide. In mainland China, the largest developing country, there has been no prior study investigating the acute effect of O3 on death risk. Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China’s large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O3 on mortality outcomes in the country. Objectives...

  15. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  16. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E

    2003-07-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O{sub 3}; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O{sub 3}; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O{sub 3}) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

  17. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ozone air pollution on the agricultural sector are an important environmental challenge facing policy makers. Most studies of the economic impact of air pollution on agriculture have found that a 25% reduction in ambient ozone would provide benefits of at least $1-2 billion annually in the United States. This paper extends existing research by estimating the benefits of a reduction in emissions from a major source of ozone formation: motor-vehicle emissions. An agricultural pro...

  18. Ozone Trends Across the United States over a Period of Decreasing NOx and VOC Emissions

    In this work, we evaluate ambient ozone trends at urban, suburban, and rural monitoring sites across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions (19982013). We find that decreasing ozone trends generally occur in the summer, in less urbanized areas,...

  19. Ozone Trends Across the United States over a Period of Decreasing NOx and VOC Emissions

    In this work, we evaluate ambient ozone trends at urban, suburban, and rural monitoring sites across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions (1998–2013). We find that decreasing ozone trends generally occur in the summer, in less urbanized areas,...

  20. OZONE UPTAKE OF DIFFERENT-SIZED BLACK CHERRY TREES IN HIGH- AND LOW-LIGHT ENVIRONMENTS

    Ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry trees located in both high and low light environments were calculated from measurements of ambient ozone concentration and stomatal conductance. he objective of the study was to determine how tree size and light conditions may di...

  1. Formation and emissions of carbonyls during and following gas-phase ozonation of indoor materials

    Poppendieck, D.G.; Hubbard, H.F.; Weschler, Charles J.; Corsi, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than typical urban ambient concentrations are necessary for gas-phase ozonation of buildings, either for deodorization or for disinfection of biological agents. However, there is currently no published literature on the interaction...

  2. Estrs oxidativo en un modelo de ratn quemado tratado con Aloe b, ozono y factor de crecimiento epidrmico Oxidative stress in a model of burnt mouse treated with Aloe b, ozone and epidermal growth factor

    Teresita Montero Gonzlez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad por quemadura estimula la respuesta inflamatoria sistmica y el dao mltiple de rganos, su expresin morfolgica. Con el propsito de identificar el comportamiento del estrs oxidativo mediante el malondialdehdo, la superxido dismutasa y la catalasa y su modificacin con el empleo del tratamiento sistmico con Aloe b, ozono o factor de crecimiento epidrmico, se elabor un modelo de quemadura seca de un rea de 11 %, en ratones hembras, balb/c de 20 2 g (n= 24. Se aplic eutanasia en diferentes tiempos, se estudiaron los rganos con evaluacin cualitativa en grados de intensidad y las variables bioqumicas se obtuvieron del rin y del hgado. La prueba G se emple para conocer la dependencia entre las variables y la prueba t se us al comparar porcentajes. El anlisis de varianza bifactorial y la prueba de rango mltiple de Duncan se emple en las variables del estrs oxidativo estudiadas. Se siguieron las normas ticas en el trabajo con los animales. Existi dependencia entre los diferentes grupos y la vitalidad (G= 268,83*** superior en los grupos tratados. Los grupos no tratados tuvieron mayor intensidad del dao mltiple de rganos y peor respuesta del estrs oxidativo. Los grupos con mejor evolucin fueron el tratado con ozono y el tratado con factor de crecimiento epidrmico. El tratamiento inmediatamente despus de la quemadura con ozono y factor de crecimiento epidrmico result favorable para la evolucin y supervivencia de los animales.Burn disease stimulates systemic inflammatory response and its morphologic expression that is multiple organ failure. With the objective of identifying the behaviour of oxidative stress through malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and its change by using the systemic treatment based on Aloe b, ozone or epidermal growth factor, a dry burn model of a 11 % area in balb/c female mice of 20 2 g (n= 24 was designed. Eutanasia was applied at different moments, organs were studied with qualitative evaluation of intensity degrees, and biochemical variables were analyzed from the kidney and the liver of mice. Test G served to find out dependence among variables and Test t was used to compare percentages. Bifactoral variance analysis and Duncans multiple range test were used in the studied oxidative stress variables. Ethical standards on work with animals were complied with. Dependence was observed among the various groups and survival rate (G= 268,83*** was higher in the treated groups. Untreated groups showed more intensive multiple organ damage and worse oxidative stress response. The groups treated with ozone and epidermal growth factor showed better recovery. The treatment with ozone and epidermal growth factor immediately after burning favored recovery and survival of balb/c mice.

  3. The origin of ozone

    V. Grewe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Highest atmospheric ozone production rates can be found at around 30 km in the tropical stratosphere, leading to ozone mixing ratios of about 10 ppmv. Those stratospheric air masses are then transported to extra-tropical latitudes via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. This is considered the main mechanism to generate mid- and high latitude ozone. By applying the climate-chemistry models E39/C and MAECHAM4/CHEM, this view is investigated in more detail. The origin of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere is analysed, by incorporating a diagnostics ('marked ozone origin tracers' into the models, which allows to identify the origin of ozone. In most regions the simulated local ozone concentration is dominated by local ozone production, i.e. less than 50% of the ozone at higher latitudes of the stratosphere is produced in the tropics, which conflicts with the idea that the tropics are the global source for stratospheric ozone. Although episodic stratospheric intrusions occur basically everywhere, the main ozone stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange is connected to exchange processes at the sub-tropical jet-stream. The simulated tropospheric influx of ozone amounts to 420 Tg per year, and originates in the Northern Hemisphere from the extra-tropical stratosphere, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere a re-circulation of tropical tropospheric ozone contributes most to the influx of ozone into the troposphere. In the model E39/C, the upper troposphere of both hemispheres is clearly dominated by tropical tropospheric ozone (40%–50% except for northern summer hemisphere, where the tropospheric contribution (from the tropics as well as from the Northern Hemisphere does not exceed 20%.

  4. An assessment of ground-level ozone concentrations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. A first air quality assessment was prepared as part of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board application, in order to evaluate the emissions and potential impacts associated with the development. The Pembina Institute raised several issues with respect to potential future changes in ambient ozone levels as a result of the Aurora Mine operations. In response to these concerns, another more rigorous assessment was conducted to predict future ground-level ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area. This report includes: (1) ambient air quality guidelines for ozone, (2) emissions inventory for dispersion modelling, (3) dispersion modelling methodology, and (4) predicted ambient ozone concentrations. Ground level ozone (O3) concentrations result from anthropogenically produced ozone, and from naturally occurring ozone. Ozone is not directly emitted to the atmosphere from industrial sources, but is formed as a result of chemical reactions between NOx and VOCs, which are emitted from industrial sources within the Athabasca oil sands region. NOx and VOC emissions associated with the Aurora Mine operation are predicted to increase hourly average ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area by only 0.001 ppm. 17 refs., 18 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Earth's ozone layer

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Minor effects of long-term ozone exposure on boreal peatland species Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum papillosum

    Mrsky, SK; Haapala, JK; Rinnan, Riikka; Saarnio, S; Silvola, J; Martikainen, PJ; Holopainen, T

    2011-01-01

    into the soil of an open-air experimental field for four growing seasons. The open-air ozone exposure field consists of eight circular plots of which four were fumigated with elevated ozone concentration (doubled ambient) and four were ambient controls. The results showed that E. vaginatum and S...

  7. Influence of Global Atmospheric Change on the Feeding Behavior and Growth Performance of a Mammalian Herbivore, Microtus ochrogaster

    Habeck, Christopher W.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Global atmospheric change is influencing the quality of plants as a resource for herbivores. We investigated the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the phytochemistry of two forbs, Solidago canadensis and Taraxacum officinale, and the subsequent feeding behavior and growth performance of weanling prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) feeding on those plants. Plants for the chemical analyses and feeding trials were harvested from the understory of control (ambient air), ...

  8. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest...... to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures....

  9. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  10. Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield

    The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO2), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO2 (ECO2) and decreased under combination of ECO2 with elevated O3 (ECO2 + EO3), ambient O3 (ACO2 + AO3) and elevated O3 (EO3). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO2 and ECO2 + EO3 and reduced under EO3 and ACO2 + AO3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO2 is not enough to counteract O3 impact, but elevated CO2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O3 level. -- Highlights: ► Elevated CO2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ► Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ► Elevated CO2 reduced negative effects of elevated O3 by reducing oxidative stress. ► Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO2 + O3 compared to ambient CO2 + O3. -- Predicted levels of CO2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO2 against ambient ozone

  11. Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O3 (COE), (2) O3 with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O3, as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O3. Respiration (Rd) generally was not affected by treatments; however, Rd in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O3 may be causing higher Rd

  12. Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O{sub 3} (COE), (2) O{sub 3} with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O{sub 3}, as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O{sub 3}. Respiration (R{sub d}) generally was not affected by treatments; however, R{sub d} in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O{sub 3} may be causing higher R{sub d}.

  13. Use of ozone to reduce molds in a cheese ripening room

    Serra, Rita; Abrunhosa, Luís; Kozakiewicz, Z.; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Cheese ripening rooms have an unusual environment, an environment that encourages mold growth. Ozone has been applied in various ways in the food industry. One useful advantage of ozone is that it inactivates molds. In this study, a cheese ripening room was ozonated, and the effectiveness of this treatment was evaluated both in air and on surfaces through sampling on a weekly basis over a 3-month period. The results obtained indicate that ozone treatment reduced the viable airborne mold load ...

  14. Ozone trends: A review

    Staehelin, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Appenzeller, C.; Eberhard, J.

    2001-05-01

    Ozone plays a very important role in our atmosphere because it protects any living organisms at the Earth's surface against the harmful solar UVB and UVC radiation. In the stratosphere, ozone plays a critical role in the energy budget because it absorbs both solar UV and terrestrial IR radiation. Further, ozone in the tropopause acts as a strong greenhouse gas, and increasing ozone trends at these altitudes contribute to climate change. This review contains a short description of the various techniques that provided atmospheric ozone measurements valuable for long-term trend analysis. The anthropogenic emissions of substances that deplete ozone (chlorine- and bromine-containing volatile gases) have increased from the 1950s until the second half of the 1980s. The most severe consequence of the anthropogenic release of ozone-depleting substances is the "Antarctic ozone hole." Long-term observations indicate that stratospheric ozone depletion in the southern winter-spring season over Antarctica started in the late 1970s, leading to a strong decrease in October total ozone means. Present values are only approximately half of those observed prior to 1970. In the Arctic, large ozone depletion was observed in winter and spring in some recent years. Satellite and ground-based measurements show no significant trends in the tropics but significant long-term decreasing trends in the northern and southern midlatitudes (of the order of 2-4% per decade in the period from 1970 to 1996 and an acceleration in trends in the 1980s). Ozone at northern midlatitudes decreased by -7.4±2% per decade at 40 km above mean sea level, while ozone loss was small at 30 km. Large trends were found in the lower stratosphere, -5.1±1.8% at 20 km and -7.3±4.6% at 15 km, where the bulk of the ozone resides. The possibility of a reduction in the observed trends has been discussed recently, but it is very hard to distinguish this from the natural variability. As a consequence of the Montreal Protocol process, the emissions of ozone-depleting substances have decreased since the late 1980s. Chlorine is no longer increasing in the stratosphere, although the total bromine amount is still increasing. Considering anthropogenic emissions of substances that deplete ozone, the turnaround in stratospheric ozone trends is expected to take place in the coming years. However, anthropogenic climate change could have a large influence on the future evolution of the Earth's ozone shield.

  15. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to...

  16. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based on ozone concentration with others based on ozone flux models.

  17. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  18. Ozone chemistry in aqueous solution : ozone decomposition and stabilisation

    Eriksson, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Ozone is used in many applications in the industry as an oxidising agent for example for bleaching and sterilisation. The decomposition of ozone in aqueous solutions is complex, and is affected by many properties such as, pH, temperature and substances present in the water. Additives can either accelerate the decomposition rate of ozone or have a stabilising effect of the ozone decay. By controlling the decomposition of ozone it is possible to increase the oxidative capacity of ozone. In this...

  19. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain (P broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  20. INFLUENCE OF OZONE ON PENTOBARBITAL PHARMACOKINETICS IN MICE

    It had been shown that 3 to 5 hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mecha...

  1. Semiconductor Sensors Application for Definition of Factor of Ozone Heterogeneous Destruction on Teflon Surface

    Nataliya V. Finogenova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we present the results of our research, which was carried out by means of semiconductor sensor techniques (SCS, which allowed evaluating heterogeneous death-rate of ozone (γ Teflon surface. When ozone concentration is near to Ambient Air Standard value, γ is assessed to be equal to 6,57*10-7. High technique response provide possibility to determine ozone contents in the air media and the percentage of ozone, decomposed on the communication surfaces and on the surfaces of installation in the low concentration range (1–100 ppb.

  2. Performances of diffusion tubes for the measurement of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in ambient air; Performances des tubes a diffusion pour la mesure de l'ozone, du dioxyde d'azote et du dioxyde de soufre dans l'air ambiant

    Garcia-Fouque, S.; Plansance, H.; Houdret, J.L.; Mathe, F.; Galloo, J.C.; Guillermo, R. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, 59 (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement

    1999-09-01

    Diffusion tube is a simple device of measurement often used, in particular by networks of air quality monitoring, to analyse the spatial distribution of a pollutant on a city. It constitutes a good complement to the continuous monitoring with monitors. This article presents methods using diffusion tubes for the measurements of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in ambient air. Performances of these tubes: detection limit, accuracy, repeatability, and estimation of the error of measures are evaluated and discussed. With the long sampling times (in our study two weeks for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, and one week for O{sub 3}), these samplers present sufficiently low detection limits (DL < 5 {mu}g.m{sup -3}) to perform measurements of these three pollutants in ambient air. These methods give good repeatability (RSD{sub mean} {approx_equal} 5 %) for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, and medium for SO{sub 2} (RSD{sub mean} {approx_equal} 12 %). Then diffusion tubes are validated on site by comparing their measures to those of the continuous monitors (techniques of reference). The good linearity has been checked between the tubes responses and the contents measured by monitors, the corresponding correlation coefficients are close to 0.9 for the three pollutants. The analysis of measure differences obtained between these two techniques has allowed to estimate errors of measures of diffusion tubes ({+-} 5 {mu}g.m{sup -3} for NO{sub 2}, {+-} 6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for SO{sub 2} and {+-} 15 {mu}g.m{sup -3} for O{sub 3}). It seems us important to take into consideration these errors for interpretation of map air pollution levels obtained with diffusion tubes. (authors)

  3. Air-quality criteria for ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Volume 5

    1986-08-01

    Selected scientific information through early 1986 is presented and evaluated relative to the health and welfare effects associated with exposure to ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Data on health and welfare effects are emphasized; additional information is provided for understanding the oxidant pollution problem, for evaluating the reliability of effects data, and for assessing effects data relative to concentrations occurring in ambient air. Information is also presented on exposure-related topics: sources, measurment, and concentrations of oxidant precursors; formation and transport of ozone and other photochemical oxidants; properties, chemistry, and measurement of ozone and other photochemical oxidants; and the concentrations of ozone and other photochemical oxidants typically found in ambient air. The specific areas addressed by chapters on health and welfare effects are the toxicological appraisal of effects of ozone and other oxidants; effects observed in controlled human exposures; effects observed in field and epidemiological studies; and effects on vegetation, natural and agroecosystems, and nonbiological materials.

  4. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  5. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    Ozone (O3) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O3 monitoring and foliar O3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  6. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  7. Ozone exposure of field-grown winter wheat affects soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere

    A 2-year open-top chamber experiment with field-grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Astron) was conducted to examine the effects of ozone on plant growth and selected groups of soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere. From May through June in each year, plants were exposed to two levels of O3: non-filtered (NF) ambient air or NF+ 40 ppb O3 (NF+). During O3 exposure, soil sampling was performed at two dates according to different plant growth stages. O3 exposure reduced above- and below-ground plant biomass in the first year, but had little effect in the second year. The individual density of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites decreased significantly in the rhizosphere of plants exposed to NF+ in both years. Differences were highest around anthesis, i.e. when plants are physiologically most active. The results suggest that elevated O3 concentrations may influence the dynamic of decomposition processes and the turnover of nutrients. - Ozone reduced the individual densities of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites in the rhizosphere of winter wheat indirectly via the plant-soil-system.

  8. Ozone exposure of field-grown winter wheat affects soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere

    Schrader, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.schrader@vti.bund.d [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Biodiversity, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute (vTI), Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Biodiversity, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    A 2-year open-top chamber experiment with field-grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Astron) was conducted to examine the effects of ozone on plant growth and selected groups of soil mesofauna in the rhizosphere. From May through June in each year, plants were exposed to two levels of O{sub 3}: non-filtered (NF) ambient air or NF+ 40 ppb O{sub 3} (NF+). During O{sub 3} exposure, soil sampling was performed at two dates according to different plant growth stages. O{sub 3} exposure reduced above- and below-ground plant biomass in the first year, but had little effect in the second year. The individual density of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites decreased significantly in the rhizosphere of plants exposed to NF+ in both years. Differences were highest around anthesis, i.e. when plants are physiologically most active. The results suggest that elevated O{sub 3} concentrations may influence the dynamic of decomposition processes and the turnover of nutrients. - Ozone reduced the individual densities of enchytraeids, collembolans and soil mites in the rhizosphere of winter wheat indirectly via the plant-soil-system.

  9. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  10. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O3 on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O3, 100 ppb O3, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O3, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O3 exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O3 can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O3, and that not only O3, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O3 may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  11. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  12. The pollution by ozone

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  13. Saving Our Ozone Shield.

    Lacoste, Beatrice

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the introduction and continued use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as related to stratospheric ozone depletion. Presents the characteristics of CFCs conducive to the chemical reaction with ozone, the history of CFC use and detection of related environmental problems, health hazards, and alternatives to CFC use. (MCO)

  14. Sensitivity analysis of ground level ozone in India using WRF-CMAQ models

    Sharma, Sumit; Chatani, Satoru; Mahtta, Richa; Goel, Anju; Kumar, Atul

    2016-04-01

    Ground level ozone is emerging as a pollutant of concern in India. Limited surface monitoring data reveals that ozone concentrations are well above the prescribed national standards. This study aims to simulate the regional and urban scale ozone concentrations in India using WRF-CMAQ models. Sector-specific emission inventories are prepared for the ozone precursor species at a finer resolution (36 × 36 km2) than used in previous studies. Meteorological fields developed using the WRF model are fed into the CMAQ model along with the precursor emissions to simulate ozone concentrations at a regional scale. The model is validated using observed ozone dataset. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to understand the effect of different precursor species and sources on prevailing ozone concentrations in India. The results show that NOx sensitive conditions prevail in India and control of NOx will result in more reduction in ozone than VOCs. However, further growth in the transport and power sector and decreasing VOC emissions from the residential sector may increase the sensitivity of VOCs towards ozone in the future. At the urban scale, presence of high NOx emissions form VOC limited conditions and reduction of NOx results in increase in ozone concentrations. However, this will help in improving regional scale ozone pollution in the downwind regions. A non-linear response has been observed while assessing the sectoral sensitivities of ozone formation. Transport sector is found to have the maximum potential for reducing ozone concentrations in India.

  15. Ozone-induced signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Ahlfors, Reetta

    2008-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is one of the most common air pollutants in industrialized countries, and an increasing problem in rapidly industrialising and developing countries in Asia, Africa and South America. Elevated concentrations of tropospheric O3 can lead to decrease in photosynthesis rate and therefore affect the normal metabolism, growth and seed production. Acute and high O3 episodes can lead to extensive damage leading to dead tissue in plants. Thus, O3 derived growth defects can lead ...

  16. Observing trends in total ozone and extreme ozone events

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-05-01

    The ozone layer in the stratosphere has been recovering since the 1989 Montreal Protocol reduced the use of ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Fitzka et al. observed trends in total ozone levels and the vertical distribution of ozone at Hoher Sonnblick, a mountain in Austria, from 1994 to 2011.

  17. The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans*

    Background: The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. Howev...

  18. Antarctic ozone hole compared with arctic ozone behaviour

    Data, characterizing the formation of an ozone hole in the Antarctic Continent are discussed. The ozone hole is a reduction of the total content of ozone in the atmosphere from 300 Dobson units (D.u.) during the International geophysical year (1957-1958) to 120 D.u. in September-October, 1987. In 1988 the content of ozone in the region of the ozone hole grew notably: up to 210 D.u. Any phenomenon, similar to the ozone hole, was not observed in the Arctic Region. The main factors, facilitating the formation of an ozone hole, include low temperatures, polar stratospheric clouds and solar radiation

  19. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (< 34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures. PMID:12713930

  20. Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri

    Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

    2014-09-01

    Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

  1. The Hole in the Ozone Layer.

    Hamers, Jeanne S.; Jacob, Anthony T.

    This document contains information on the hole in the ozone layer. Topics discussed include properties of ozone, ozone in the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion on life, regulation of substances that deplete the ozone layer, alternatives to CFCs and Halons, and the future of the ozone layer.…

  2. Ozone as an air pollutant

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  3. Impacts of uncertainty in AVOC emissions on the summer RO x budget and ozone production rate in the three most rapidly-developing economic growth regions of China

    Wang, Feng; An, Junling; Li, Ying; Tang, Yujia; Lin, Jian; Qu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Jing

    2014-11-01

    High levels of uncertainty in non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions in China could lead to significant variation in the budget of the sum of hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy (HO2, RO2) radicals (RO x = OH + HO2 + RO2) and the ozone production rate [P(O3)], but few studies have investigated this possibility, particularly with three-dimensional air quality models. We added diagnostic variables into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of the uncertainty in anthropogenic NMVOC (AVOC) emissions on the RO x budget and P(O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta of China. The WRF-Chem simulations were compared with satellite and ground observations, and previous observation-based model studies. Results indicated that 68% increases (decreases) in AVOC emissions produced 4%-280% increases (2%-80% decreases) in the concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 in the three regions, and resulted in 35%-48% enhancements (26%-39% reductions) in the primary RO x production and ˜ 65% decreases (68%-73% increases) of the P(O3) in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. For the three cities, the two largest contributors to the RO x production rate were the reaction of O1D + H2O and photolysis of HCHO, ALD2, and others; the reaction of OH + NO2 (71%-85%) was the major RO x sink; and the major contributor to P(O3) was the reaction of HO2 + NO (˜ 65%). Our results showed that AVOC emissions in 2006 from Zhang et al. (2009) have been underestimated by ˜ 68% in suburban areas and by > 68% in urban areas, implying that daily and hourly concentrations of secondary organic aerosols and inorganic aerosols could be substantially underestimated, and cloud condensation nuclei could be underestimated, whereas local and regional radiation was overestimated.

  4. Yield and nutritive quality of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) exposed to ground-level ozone

    Ground-level ozone decreased the nutritive quality of select warm-season forages for ruminant herbivores. - Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata cv. Interstate 76) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium cv. Aldous) were raised from seed in a glasshouse, transplanted into 5.7-l pots and placed into open-top chambers (OTC) on 6 June 1999. Following a 7-day adjustment period, each of six OTCs (duplicate OTCs per treatment) was ventilated with either air that had been carbon-filtered (CF) to remove ambient ozone (O3); non-filtered (NF), representative of ambient air; or enriched to twice-ambient O3 concentration (2X). Primary-growth forage was harvested on days 7, 32, 46, 59 and 72 following the start of fumigation, and regrowth forage from the first primary-growth harvest was harvested on days 36, 54 and 72 following the start of fumigation. Dry matter (DM) yield of either forage species did not differ among treatments except in the final regrowth period when yield of sericea lespedeza was greater for the NF than 2X O3 treatment. In vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and concentrations of crude protein (CP), soluble phenolics (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) in primary-growth sericea lespedeza did not differ between treatments, but NF primary-growth forage had higher concentration of protein-precipitating tannins (PPT) than did 2X primary-growth forage. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in NF and 2X than in CF primary-growth sericea lespedeza. Similarly, concentrations of NDF and ADL were higher, and IVDMD was lower for NF and 2X than for CF regrowth sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of ADF and ADL were lower, whereas IVDMD, in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) and concentrations of CP and SP were greater, in CF than in NF and 2X primary-growth little bluestem. Percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD and concentrations of CP and SP in NF primary-growth little bluestem were greater than those in forage exposed to 2X O3 treatment. No significant differences were observed among treatments in percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD, or concentrations of cell wall constituents or SP in little bluestem regrowth. Nutritive quality of little bluestem was decreased by 3 levels can drive alterations in forage quality of select warm-season forages sufficient to have nutritional and economic implications for their utilization by ruminant herbivores

  5. The effect of reciprocal treatments with ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation on photosynthesis and growth of perennial grass Elymus athericus

    The impact on plant growth of the simultaneously changing factors of the global climate, rising tropospheric O3 concentrations and increasing UV-B radiation fluxes, has been tested in a combined glasshouse and growth chamber experiment. The saltmarsh grass species Elymus athericus was sequentially fumigated for two weeks with O3 and for another two weeks irradiated with UV-B (vv). Exposure to elevated UV-B did not negatively affect photosynthesis or plant growth. Fumigation with O3 had a depressing effect on net photosynthesis, the number and biomass of flowers, the number of leaves and the number of shoots. O3-induced damage only was observed in plants which had been fumigated during the last two weeks of the experiment. Since interactive responses were not observed, results suggest different primary target sites for O3 and UV-B within the plant

  6. Ozone lidar monitoring

    An ozone lidar system was installed at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (36 deg. N, 140 deg. E) in March, 1988 and observation of ozone profiles commenced from August 1988. The lidar system consists of XeCl, XeF and KrF excimer lasers, 2 m and 56 cm telescope optics and data processing systems. Since the Ozone Lidar Monitoring Program of the Center for the Environmental Research started in October 1990, frequent measurements (more than 50 times per year) have been made. After checking the statistical and systematic errors, the ozone profiles were archived. Comparisons between the lidar data and SAGE II satellite data were done for mutual validation and gave good results. Seventy four vertical profiles of ozone archived for the period from August 1990 through December 1991 are presented in this report. The seasonal and altitudinal variations of stratospheric ozone distribution can be explained by generally understood transport and photochemical reaction processes. Longer term monitoring is required to detect trends in the vertical profile of ozone

  7. Light environment alters ozone uptake per net photosynthetic rate in black cherry trees.

    Fredericksen, T S; Kolb, T E; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Joyce, B J; Savage, J E

    1996-05-01

    Foliar ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were compared within a deciduous forest and adjacent openings in north-central Pennsylvania during one growing season. Study trees included open-grown seedlings and saplings, forest understory seedlings and saplings, and sunlit and shaded portions of mature canopy tree crowns. Instantaneous ozone uptake rates were highest in high-light environments primarily because of higher stomatal conductances. Low ozone uptake rates of seedlings and saplings in the forest understory could be attributed partially to lower average ambient ozone concentrations compared to the canopy and open environments. Among the tree size and light combinations tested, ozone uptake rates were highest in open-grown seedlings and lowest in forest-grown seedlings. Despite lower ozone uptake rates of foliage in shaded environments, ozone uptake per net photosynthesis of foliage in shaded environments was significantly higher than that of foliage in sunlit environments because of weaker coupling between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in shaded environments. The potential for greater ozone injury in shaded environments as a result of greater ozone uptake per net photosynthesis is consistent with previous reports of greater ozone injury in shaded foliage than in sunlit foliage. PMID:14871717

  8. Aspects of UV-absorption spectroscopy on ozone in effluents of plasma jets operated in air

    Cold plasmas operating under atmospheric conditions have been in the focus of scientific attention not only due to their use in plasma medicine. Many of these plasma sources most notably produce ozone. This work presents a detailed ozone analysis on an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet operated in ambient air using ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. A special focus is placed on the question whether other species are involved, or is the absorption signal due to ozone. For this, the wavelength dependence of the optical depth was measured and compared with the theoretical optical depth including the cross section of ozone. The results show that in the case of a MHz frequency driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet the absorption signal in the UV range is solely due to ozone. Furthermore, this finding is verified by spectroscopic measurements in the IR spectral range. Additional space-resolved ozone density measurements are performed in the effluent of this jet with small oxygen admixtures by means of UV absorption spectroscopy. A funnel-shaped spatial ozone profile is found for all investigated oxygen admixtures. The highest ozone density develops on the effluent axis and in close vicinity to the jet nozzle. The maximal detected value is 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 for an oxygen admixture of 1%. In order to compare the results with non-space-resolved ozone detection methods the ozone net production rate is calculated.

  9. Varietal screening of ozone sensitivity in Mediterranean durum wheat (Triticum durum, Desf.)

    Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Alonso, Roco; Bermejo, Victoria; Gonzlez-Fernndez, Ignacio; Faoro, Franco; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the ozone (O3) sensitivity of five cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) during the 2013 growing season. Two levels of ozone were applied during daylight hours: +50% and -50% of ambient ozone concentration respectively in O3-enriched OTC and charcoal-filtered OTC. Results suggest that the significant differences observed in agronomic parameters, were more cultivar-dependent rather than ozone-dependent. Two cultivars showed a significant reduction of aboveground biomass due to ozone (-19.7% and -25%), however only one of them showed also a significant reduction in grain yield (-16%). Stomatal conductance was significantly reduced by ozone fumigation up to -33% in the afternoon measuring cycle. No significant effects on chlorophyll fluorescence were found, nor correlation was observed between ozone-like symptoms severity (leaf chlorotic/necrotic spots) and yield reduction, suggesting that these parameters cannot be indicative of ozone sensitivity/tolerance. These results may be useful for the selection of durum wheat genotypes more adapted for the cultivation in geographical areas where tropospheric ozone is particularly high, but also for the future definition of consistent dose-response relationships to be used in the ozone risk assessment evaluation for the Mediterranean countries.

  10. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ; VLADA VELJKOVIĆ; SRDJAN PEJANOVIĆ

    2008-01-01

    The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone abs...

  11. DEVELOPMENTS IN OZONATION OF WATERS

    Ensar OĞUZ; ÇELİK, Zeynep

    2001-01-01

    Ozone, has been used in both industrial and synthetic chemistry. From this point of view, ozone-organic chemistry related papaers have been published by many researcher. Forthermore; its role in air and water pollution problems is more important today. As a result of ozone researches, it is clear that ozone is to be the brightest expection for future in industrial, domestic, and driking water treatment. Ozone, a high grade oxidation matter, has been used for removing the pollutants and toxic ...

  12. The ozone; L'ozone

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    In this booklet, the ministry of the national development and environment presents the emergency actions decided by the authorities, in the case of ozone pollution. These measure concern the road traffic. Recommendations are also proposed for the public. (A.L.B.)

  13. Ozone - plant surface reactions an important ozone loss term?

    Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Canaval, Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billions dollar per year. Plant injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: How much ozone enters the plant through open stomata and how much ozone is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? Until now surface losses are estimated from measured total ozone deposition fluxes and calculated stomatal conductance values. While stomatal conductance of CO2 and H2O is well understood and extensively used in describing plant atmosphere gas exchange, stomatal conductance of ozone is not well known. Here we use different Nicotiana tabacum varieties and find that surface reactions of ozone with diterpenoids synthesized by glandular trichomes reduce ozone flux through open stomata. Our measurements reveal that fast ozone loss at the plant surface is accompanied with prompt release of oxygenated volatile compounds. In the ozone fumigation experiments of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties the release of specific volatile oxy-VOCs allowed to identify the semi volatile precursor compounds at the plant surface. Ozone fumigation experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), two common species in the Northern Hemisphere, show also a significant ozone loss at the plant surface for Picea abies. Fluid dynamic calculations of ozone transport in the diffusive leaf boundary layer reveal a vertical but no horizontal ozone gradient thus reducing ozone fluxes through the pores in case of efficient ozone scavenging plant surfaces. We explain this efficient ozone protection mechanism by the porous surface architecture of plants in combination with unsaturated semi-volatile compounds deposited at the plant surface. These results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as oxygenated VOC source, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the plant's ozone tolerance

  14. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  15. Artificial ozone holes

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  16. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    2010-01-19

    ... ``judgment, cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public... the air quality criteria and standards for O 3 in September 2000 with a call for information (65 FR... of O 3 -related adverse health effects that range from decreased lung function and...

  17. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  18. Teale California Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  19. Changes in growth and 14CO2 fixation of Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris induced by UV-B radiation

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. A field experiment was concluded to study the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth parameters, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation) and biochemical characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants grown under ambient UV-B radiation were compared with those grown without UV-B by excluding ambient UV-B radiation. To exclude solar ambient UV-B radiation, the sunlight was filtered through a polyester film that selectively absorbed UV-B. For ambient UV-B effects, plants were grown under polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters that transmitted the complete light spectrum. The results indicated increased shoot length, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, leaf area ratio and specific leaf weight in plants of both the crops grown without UV-B compared with those grown under ambient UV-B. Similarly, the rate of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, nitrates reductase (NR) enzyme activity and sugar content. The effect of UV-B exclusion was clearer in common bean compared with that in barley. We conclude that monocot species may be less sensitive to increased solar UV-B due to ozone depletion than with dicots

  20. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    Fontes Belchor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 μg/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 μg of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  1. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  2. Ozone health effects

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  3. Ozone: Concentration variabilities in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    This paper reports seasonal and diurnal variations in the ambient air concentrations of ozone in Varanasi city, India for the years 1989 and 1990. Different monitoring zones were established in the city on the basis of pollution sources, traffic densities, and structure of built-up areas. At most of the monitoring stations, two-hourly ozone concentrations frequently exceeded 60 ?g m-3 during summer months. However, the zone dominated by residential colonies, offices, and cultivated land showed maximum O3 concentrations less than 60 ?g m-3. Higher concentrations of ozone were mainly recorded in warmer months between 11 am to 4 pm. The highest concentration of 160 ?g m-3 O3 was recorded in the month of April at Zone I which was mainly due to emissions from heavy-duty automobiles. Monthly average ozone concentrations were significantly correlated with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. The frequency distribution of 2-h mean ozone concentrations was close to the logarithmic normal. Maximum 2-h mean O3 concentrations in some areas of Varanasi city were above the limit that has been shown to cause significant vegetation damage. The temporal variation in ozone concentrations was mainly due to the variations in meteorological conditions

  4. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  5. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas; Ozon: den hemmelige drivhusgassen

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-07-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected.

  6. High-latitude ozone loss outside the Antarctic ozone hole

    Data taken during the 1987 Antarctic Airborne Ozone Experiment based in Punta Arenas, Chile, are used to show that from mid-August until the end of the mission in late September there was a high latitude ozone loss outside the Antarctic ozone hole. Therefore, not only is the geographic extent of the ozone loss larger than that generally identified as chemically perturbed, but ozone is lost earlier in the year than previously reported. These results, when compared with long-term temporal trends of column ozone, indicate a possible anthropogenic component for this loss. 30 refs., 4 figs

  7. Stratospheric ozone depletion

    Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2006-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation creates an ozone layer in the atmosphere which in turn completely absorbs the most energetic fraction of this radiation. This process both warms the air, creating the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km altitude, and protects the biological activities at the Earth's surface from this damaging radiation. In the last half-century, the chemical mechanisms operating within the ozone layer have been shown to include very efficient catalytic chain reactions involving the c...

  8. Crescimento de Aegla platensis Schmitt em ambiente natural (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae The growth of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Aeglidae in natural habitat

    Alessandra Anglica de Pdua Bueno

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustaceans of the genus Aegla Leach, 1820 are found in streams, rivers and lakes from Franca, So Paulo, Brazil (2060'S, 4740'W, to Ilha Madre de Dios, Chile (5001'10"S, 7518'45"W in South America. The growth and cheliped asymmetry of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 were analyzed. The animals were collected from July 1997 to September 1998 at Arroio do Mineiro, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2946'S, 5053"W. The sex, length, width of the carapace and the total weight of the crab were registered. And after that, the animals were returned to the stream. In the statistical analysis von Bertalanffy's model was used. The growth curves in length (mm of males and females are described, respectively, by the following equations: L1 = 17.39 [1 - e -0041(t + 3913] and L1 = 19.12 [1 - e -0.0033 (t + 50.38]. The equations that describe the growth in weight (g of males and females, respectively, are: Wt = 2.48 [1 - e -0.0041(t + 3913]3.04 and Wt - 3.38 [1 - e - 0033(t + 50.38]3.05 Among 36,5% males had larger left chelae and 52% of females had chelae of the same size.

  9. The Effect of Air Pollution on Ozone Layer Thickness in Troposphere over the State of Kuwait

    H. O. Al Jeran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Troposphere ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to Ultra Violet (UV radiation. United States environmental protection agency and European community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal protocol in 1987. Problem statement: This research deled with data analysis of ozone layer thickness obtained from Abu-Dhabi station and detailed measurement of air pollution levels in Kuwait. Approach: The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been correlated with the measured pollution levels in the State of Kuwait. The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade had been evaluated. Other factor that strongly affects the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere is local pollution levels of primary pollutants such as total hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides. Results: The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels presented in detail reflecting negative relation of both non-methane hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations in ambient air. Conclusion: Ozone layer thickness in stratosphere had been measured for five years (1999-2004 reflecting minimum thickness in the month of December and maximum in the month of June. The ozone thickness related to the ground level concentration of non-methane hydrocarbon and can be used as an indicator of the health of ozone layer thickness in the stratosphere.

  10. Ozone depletion calculations

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  11. The ozone backlash

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  12. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  13. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Study on ozone treatment of soil for agricultural application of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Nagatomo, Takuya; Abiru, Tomoya; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ebihara, Kenji; Nagahama, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, application of plasma technologies to the agricultural field has attracted much interest because residual pesticides and excessive nitrogen oxides contained in plants, soil, and groundwater have become a serious issue worldwide. Since almost all of the atmospheric discharge plasma generates ozone, the effects of ozone are among the key factors for their agricultural applications. We have proposed the use of ozone generated using surface barrier discharge plasma for soil disinfection or sterilization. In this work, the ozone consumption coefficient and diffusion coefficient in soil were measured by the ultraviolet absorption method. The pH(H2O) and amount of nitrogen nutrient in soil after ozone diffusion treatment were studied and plant growth was observed simultaneously. The effect of ozone treatment on the amount of DNA in soil was also investigated and compared with that determined from the obtained ozone consumption coefficient.

  15. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially of a...... surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  16. Efeito da densidade de estocagem na homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu em ambiente confinado Stocking density effect on growth homogeneity of juvenile pirarucu in confined environments

    Bruno Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da densidade de estocagem sobre a homogeneidade do crescimento de juvenis de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas em tanques-rede de pequeno volume. Foram usados 12 tanques-rede de 1 m em um viveiro de 120 m perfazendo trs tratamentos (15, 20 e 25 peixes/m com quatro repeties. Os peixes foram estocados com peso mdio inicial de 10,10,3 g e distribudos homogeneamente (p>0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os coeficientes de variao do crescimento e do fator de condio no apresentaram diferenas significativas (p>0,05 ao contrrio do consumo e da converso alimentar aparente (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the stocking density over fish growth homogeneity of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas juveniles in small volumes cages. Twelve 1 m netcages were used in a 120 m earth pond consisting of three treatments (15, 20 and 25 fish/m with four repetitions each. Fish were stocked with an initial mean weight of 10.10.3 g and homogeneous distributed (p>0.05 between treatments. Coefficient of variation for growth and condition factor did not present significant (p>0.05 differences, contrary to consumption and apparent feed conversion (p<0.05. Consumption was inversely proportional to the increment of density, indicating that stockings densities increases are favorable to a better feed use. There were not any observed behavior differences between treatments. Juveniles pirarucu growth was not influenced by the stocking density or intraspecifics interactions.

  17. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  18. Crecimiento de plntulas de esttice (Limonium sinuatum) y viola (Viola cornuta) en ambientes contrastantes / Growth of statice (Limonium sinuatum) and viola (Viola cornuta) seedlings in contrasting environments

    Oscar Javier, Ayala-Garay; Jos Alfredo, Carrillo-Salazar; Evelia, Hernndez-Garca; Elizabeth, Daz-Martnez; Manuel, Livera-Muoz; Gustavo, Almaguer-Vargas.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En produccin rstica de ornamentales se requiere conocer el efecto medioambiental en la emergencia y crecimiento de plntulas para optimizar el proceso de produccin. El objetivo de esta investigacin fue estudiar el efecto de tres condiciones de produccin: un tnel cubierto por polietileno, malla [...] -sombra de 50 % de transmisin de radiacin solar y a la intemperie, en el crecimiento de plntulas de esttice y viola, durante el invierno en el Valle de Mxico. Se midieron la temperatura del aire, porcentaje de emergencia (E%), rea foliar por planta (AF) y biomasa seca por planta (PS) a los 10,18, 24, 31 y 35 das despus de siembra (dds) en esttice, y 21, 28, 35, 43 y 52 dds en viola; se calcularon las tasas absoluta de crecimiento (TAC), relativa de crecimiento (TRC) y de asimilacin neta (TAN). En tnel de polietileno y malla-sombra se tuvieron valores de E % ms altos: 95 y 93 % para esttice y 97 y 95 % para viola, respectivamente. En ambas especies existieron dos cinticas sigmoidales de crecimiento en PS: la cintica de crecimiento en el tnel de polietileno fue la mayor (P Abstract in english In order to grow ornamental plants in non-controlled environments, the effect of temperature on seedling emergence and growth must be known in order to optimize plant production. The aim of this research was to compare the growth of statice and viola seedlings, during the winter in the Valley of Mex [...] ico, under three production conditions: a polyethylene-covered tunnel, shade netting that cuts light transmission by 50 %, and in the open. We measured air temperature (0C), emergence percentage (E%), leaf area (LA) per plant and dry weight biomass (DWB) per plant at 10, 18, 24, 31 and 35 days after planting (dap) in statice seedlings, and at 21, 28, 35, 43 and 52 dap in viola seedlings. In addition, the absolute growth rate (AGR), the relative growth rate (RGR) and the net assimilation rate (NAR) were calculated. Compared to the outdoor treatment (control), The polyethylene tunnel and shade netting produced higher E% values: 95 and 93 % for statice and 97 and 95 % for viola, respectively. Two different sigmoid curves of dry matter accumulation were observed in both species. The polythene tunnel produced higher DWB than the other conditions (P

  19. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    Mark A. Delucchi; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The detrimental effects of ambient ozone on crops, even at relatively low concentrations, are well-established (Thompson et al., 1976; Heck and Brandt, 1977; Heck et al., 1982; Environmental Protection Agency, 1984; California Air Resources Board, 1987; Olszyk et al., 1988a, 1988b; Heagle et al., 1986; McCool et al., 1986, Ashmore, 1991). Ozone enters plant leaves through the stomatal openings in the leaf surface and then produces byproducts that reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis (CARB...

  20. Nitrative stress, oxidative stress and plasma endothelin levels after inhalation of particulate matter and ozone

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Blais, Erica; Saravanamuthu, Anushuyadevi; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Mukherjee, Ballari; Bjarnason, Stephen; Guénette, Josée; Goegan, Patrick; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Background While exposure to ambient air contaminants is clearly associated with adverse health outcomes, disentangling mechanisms of pollutant interactions remains a challenge. Objectives We aimed at characterizing free radical pathways and the endothelinergic system in rats after inhalation of urban particulate matter, ozone, and a combination of particles plus ozone to gain insight into pollutant-specific toxicity mechanisms and any effect modification due to air pollutant mixtures. Method...

  1. Temporal Variations in Concentrations of Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide at Osijek, Croatia

    Elvira Kovač-Andrić; Tatjana Radanović; Iva Topalović; Berislav Marković; Nikola Sakač

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide variations and their correlation with meteorological parameters in Osijek (Eastern Croatia) during the summer seasons of 2002, 2007, and 2012. The measured data are discussed in relation to the EU guidelines (Directive 2002/3/EC, Directive 2008/50/EC). In order to characterize ambient air with respect to ozone photochemical pollution we calculated three photochemical pollution indicators. These indic...

  2. A Ten-Year Investigation on Ozone and It Precursors at Kemaman, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Marzuki Ismail; Samsuri Abdullah; Fong Si Yuen; Nurul Adyani Ghazali

    2016-01-01

    10 years of continuous monitoring data (2000-2010) from Air Quality Division, Malaysian Department of Environment are used to investigate the relationships between ambient levels of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a function of NOx, in Kemaman, Malaysia, wherewith the dominant sources of ozone precursors are industrial activities and road traffic. In addition, variation of oxidant OX (O3 and NO2) concentration with NOx was also examined. The analyses established a ...

  3. Continuous laser irradiation under ambient conditions: A simple way for the space-selective growth of gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith

    Highlights: → Visible continuous laser direct-write gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith. → The presence of the additive (Na2CO3) is not necessary to the growth of gold nanoparticles. → A simple heat treatment leads to precipitation of gold nanoparticles inside the silica matrices with, or without, the additive. → The local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism. -- Abstract: Thanks to the potential and various applications of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, their syntheses constitute an interesting subject in material research. In this work, we demonstrate the achievement of gold nanocrystals growth through a visible and continuous laser irradiation. The in situ and direct space-selective generation of metallic nanoparticles is localized under the surface within transparent silica monoliths. For that purpose, the porous silica monoliths are prepared using a sol-gel route and post-doped with gold precursors before the irradiation. The presence of Au nanoparticles inside the irradiated areas was evidenced using absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The comparison between the results obtained after a laser irradiation and by a simple heat-treatment reveals that the local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism.

  4. Low soil temperature reduces the positive effects of high nutrient supply on the growth and biomass of white birch seedlings in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing at a rate of 1.9 ?mol per mol per year as a result of both natural and human-induced emissions. This study investigated the effects of soil temperature and nutrient supply on the growth responses of white birch in relation to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Birch seedlings were grown under 2 different CO2 regimes and 3 different nutrient and soil regimes for a period of 4 months. The study showed that there were significant 3-factor interactive effects on root collar diameter (RCD); stem biomass; and leaf mass ratio. Lower soil temperatures reduced RCD at high nutrient supply ratios. Stem biomass was also reduced at intermediate and high nutrient supply regimes with elevated CO2 ratios. The effect of soil temperature was negligible in low nutrient supply regimes. It was concluded that growth and biomass was higher with higher nutrient supplies at all soil temperatures. Results of the study suggested that low soil temperatures reduced the positive effect of high nutrient supply on biomass production. 68 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation. PMID:26059777

  6. Impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer

    Zadorozhny, Alexander

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the ozonosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the role of the greenhouse gases CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O in the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular in its recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2 , essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weakness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification begins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard the expected recovery of the ozone layer here. The mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the polar ozone by means of modification of sulphate aerosol distribution in the atmosphere has been revealed and investigated, too. Numerical experiments show that enhancement of the surface area density of sulphate aerosol in the stratosphere caused by the growth of the greenhouse gases will reduce significantly the ozone depletion during the Antarctic ozone hole.

  7. Ozone risk for crops and pastures in present and future climates

    Fuhrer, Jürg

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is the most important regional-scale air pollutant causing risks for vegetation and human health in many parts of the world. Ozone impacts on yield and quality of crops and pastures depend on precursor emissions, atmospheric transport and leaf uptake and on the plant’s biochemical defence capacity, all of which are influenced by changing climatic conditions, increasing atmospheric CO2 and altered emission patterns. In this article, recent findings about ozone effects under current conditions and trends in regional ozone levels and in climatic factors affecting the plant’s sensitivity to ozone are reviewed in order to assess implications of these developments for future regional ozone risks. Based on pessimistic IPCC emission scenarios for many cropland regions elevated mean ozone levels in surface air are projected for 2050 and beyond as a result of both increasing emissions and positive effects of climate change on ozone formation and higher cumulative ozone exposure during an extended growing season resulting from increasing length and frequency of ozone episodes. At the same time, crop sensitivity may decline in areas where warming is accompanied by drying, such as southern and central Europe, in contrast to areas at higher latitudes where rapid warming is projected to occur in the absence of declining air and soil moisture. In regions with rapid industrialisation and population growth and with little regulatory action, ozone risks are projected to increase most dramatically, thus causing negative impacts major staple crops such as rice and wheat and, consequently, on food security. Crop improvement may be a way to increase crop cross-tolerance to co-occurring stresses from heat, drought and ozone. However, the review reveals that besides uncertainties in climate projections, parameters in models for ozone risk assessment are also uncertain and model improvements are necessary to better define specific targets for crop improvements, to identify regions most at risk from ozone in a future climate and to set robust effect-based ozone standards.

  8. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, which in concert with clima...

  9. Crecimiento inicial de Palo de Rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke en distintos ambientes de fertilidad Growth of initial Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in different environnement of fertility

    Wilmer Herrera Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de requerimientos nutricionales son de gran importancia para identificar aquellos más importantes en el desarrollo fisiológico y crecimiento de plántulas. Con el objetivo de evaluar las exigencias nutricionales y los efectos de la omisión de macronutrientes en el crecimiento de plántulas de Aniba rosaeodora; se realizó un experimento en el vivero del INPA-Amazonas-Brasil teniendo como substrato un suelo Podozolico Rojo de baja disponibilidad de nutrientes. Se utilizaron 8 tratamientos bajo la técnica del nutriente faltante: Control (Suelo con macronutrientes, Suelo natural, y la omisión de un macronutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S. Se evaluaron las siguientes características: tasa de crecimiento relativo (TCR, Tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, peso de la materia seca de la parte aérea (MSPA y de las raíces (MSR, contenido de nutrientes en las hojas, concluyendo que el N, Mg y Ca, demostraron ser limitantes al crecimiento en suelo con pequeña disponibilidad; Las plántulas de A. rosaeodora presentaron un bajo requerimiento nutricional para el P, K y S. La omisión de Ca y N perjudica TCR de la especie. Los elementos más importantes para la MSPA fueron el Ca y el Mg; actuando el Mg más en el área foliar; por otro lado la omisión de azufre favorece la absorción de macronutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.Studies of nutritional requirements are of great importance for identifying the most important nutrients in physiologic development and seedling growth. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at INPA to evaluate the mineral nutritional demands and the effects of macronutrient omission in the plant growth of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. The following treatments were used: Complete (fertilization with N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, Standard (nature soil, Complete without N, Complete without P, Complete without K, Complete without Ca, Complete without Mg, and Complete without S. An Ultisoil with low nutrient availability was used as a substratum. The following characteristics were evaluated, relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, plant height, diameter, dry matter production of the aerial part (DMPAP and amount of nutrient in the dry matter of leaves. We concluded from the results that: low availability of N, Ca and Mg constraints the growth of the Aniba rosaeodora plants. Seedlings of A. rosaeodora required little P, K and S. The omission of Ca and N harmed the RGR of the species. The most important elements for DMPAP were Ca and Mg; the Mg acting more in the leaf area; on the other hand, the omission of sulfur favored the macronutrient absorption (N, P, K, Ca, Mg.

  10. Effects of elevated ozone on CO2 uptake and leaf structure in sugar maple under two light environments

    The interactive effects of ozone and light on leaf structure, carbon dioxide uptake and short-term carbon allocation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings were examined using gas exchange measurements and 14C-macroautoradiographic techniques. Two-year-old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated from budbreak for 5 months with ambient or 3 × ambient ozone in open-top chambers, receiving either 35% (high light) or 15% (low light) of full sunlight. Ozone accelerated leaf senescence, and reduced net photosynthesis, 14CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance, with the effects being most pronounced under low light. The proportion of intercellular space increased in leaves of seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, possibly enhancing the susceptibility of mesophyll cells to ozone by increasing the cumulative dose per mesophyll cell. Indeed, damage to spongy mesophyll cells in the elevated ozone × low light treatment was especially frequent. 14C macroautoradioraphy revealed heterogeneous uptake of 14CO2 in well defined areole regions, suggesting patchy stomatal behaviour in all treatments. However, in seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, the highest 14CO2 uptake occurred along larger veins, while interveinal regions exhibited little or no uptake. Although visible symptoms of ozone injury were not apparent in these seedlings, the cellular damage, reduced photosynthetic rates and reduced whole-leaf chlorophyll levels corroborate the visual scaling of whole-plant senescence, suggesting that the ozone × low light treatment accelerated senescence or senescence-like injury in sugar maple. (author)

  11. Recovery of the Ozone Layer: The Ozone Depleting Gas Index

    Hofmann, David J.; Montzka, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer, through absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation, protects all biological systems on Earth. In response to concerns over the depletion of the global ozone layer, the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 mandates that NASA and NOAA monitor stratospheric ozone and ozone-depleting substances. This information is critical for assessing whether the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, an international treaty that entered into force in 1989 to protect the ozone layer, is having its intended effect of mitigating increases in harmful ultraviolet radiation. To provide the information necessary to satisfy this congressional mandate, both NASA and NOAA have instituted and maintained global monitoring programs to keep track of ozone-depleting gases as well as ozone itself. While data collected for the past 30 years have been used extensively in international assessments of ozone layer depletion science, the language of scientists often eludes the average citizen who has a considerable interest in the health of Earth's protective ultraviolet radiation shield. Are the ozone-destroying chemicals declining in the atmosphere? When will these chemicals decline to pre-ozone hole levels so that the Antarctic ozone hole might disappear? Will this timing be different in the stratosphere above midlatitudes?

  12. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  13. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA.

    Davis, Donald D; Orendovici, Teodora

    2006-10-01

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001>1995>1994>1993>2003>2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. PMID:16458398

  14. Chemical Loss of Ozone in the Arctic Polar Vortex in the Winter of 1991-1992

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Proffitt, M. H.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Dye, J. E.; Wilson, J. C.; Elkins, J. W.; Anderson, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorine monoxide, bromine monoxide, and ozone are extrapolated globally, with the use of meteorological tracers, to infer the loss rates for ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II (AASE II) in the winter of 1991-1992. The analysis indicates removal of 15 to 20 percent of ambient ozone because of elevated concentrations of chlorine monoxide and bromine monoxide. Observations during AASE II define rates of removal of chlorine monoxide attributable to reaction with nitrogen dioxide (produced by photolysis of nitric acid) and to production of hydrochloric acid. Ozone loss ceased in March as concentrations of chlorine monoxide declined. Ozone losses could approach 50 percent if regeneration of nitrogen dioxide were inhibited by irreversible removal of nitrogen oxides (denitrification), as presently observed in the Antarctic, or without denitrification if inorganic chlorine concentrations were to double.

  15. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global...

  16. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ'

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental tran...

  17. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  18. Wood formation is altered in poplar under ozone and/or elevated carbon dioxide

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Francoise; Tozo, Koffi; Priault, Pierrick; Banvoy, Jacques; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Maillard, Pascale; Gross, Patrick; Dizengremel, Pierre; PERRE, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    The industrial development led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide but also resulted in an increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations. Ozone has been suggested to cause the greatest amount of damage to vegetation as compared to other gaseous pollutants. On the opposite, elevated carbon dioxide is usually observed to enhance tree photosynthesis and growth. We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and/or ozone on wood formation in young poplars....

  19. Ozone layer - climate change interactions. Influence on UV levels and UV related effects

    Kelfkens G; Bregman A; Gruijl FR de; van der Leun JC; Piquet A; van Oijen T; Gieskes WWC; van Loveren H; Velders GJM; Martens P; Slaper H; NOP; LPI; LLO

    2002-01-01

    Ozone in the atmosphere serves as a partially protective filter against the most harmful part of the solar UV-spectrum. Decreases in ozone lead to increases in ambient UV with a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and food chains. Human health effects include the incidence of skin cancer, cataracts and an impairment of the immune system. Ozone depletion has been observed over the past decades, and is most likely caused by man made emissions of h...

  20. Ozone production at NSLS

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10/sup 12/ and 10/sup 15/ eV/sup . /cm/sup -3 . /sec/sup -1/. The measured ozone half-life was 37+-2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69+-0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 5 x 10/sup -19/cm/sup 3//eV. The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppm ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures are discussed

  1. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  2. Impact of ozone on the water relations of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.)

    Reiner, Susann.

    1996-01-01

    During the field seasons 1993 and 1994, five-year-old field-grown ash trees as well as potted two-year-old saplings and one-year-old seedlings of ash (Fraxinu. g exccl. 5ior L. ) were exposed to ozone episodes in open-top chambers. The plants received either charcoal-filtered air (CF) or charcoal-filtered air to which 150 ppb of ozone were added (CF+03). Plants in unchambered plots, receiving ambient air (Ambient), were included into the investigation for comparison. Half of the two-year-old ...

  3. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C.J.; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, Jérome; O. R. Cooper; J. S. Holloway; M. Lin; Marchbanks, R.D.; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S.P.; A. M. Weickmann; Williams, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport from the Los Angeles Basi...

  4. The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality

    Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew,; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. Methods We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in 228 presumed fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morph...

  5. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  6. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  7. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Bester, Kai; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and...... pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest pH for...... each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required to...

  8. Ambient Interstellar Pressure and Superbubble Evolution

    Oey, M S

    2004-01-01

    High ambient interstellar pressure is suggested as a possible factor to explain the ubiquitous observed growth-rate discrepancy for supernova-driven superbubbles and stellar wind bubbles. Pressures of P/k ~ 1e5 cm-3 K are plausible for regions with high star formation rates, and these values are intermediate between the estimated Galactic mid-plane pressure and those observed in starburst galaxies. High-pressure components also are commonly seen in Galactic ISM localizations. We demonstrate the sensitivity of shell growth to the ambient pressure, and suggest that superbubbles ultimately might serve as ISM barometers.

  9. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  10. Estimate of initial isoprene contribution to ozone formation potential in Beijing, China

    Xie, Xin; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Zhong-Ming

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of tropospheric ozone formation. Isoprene contributions to ozone formation by using ambient mixing ratios are generally underestimated because of rapid chemical losses. In this study, ambient mixing ratios of major VOC species were continuously measured at Peking university (PKU) and YUFA, urban and sub-urban sites in Beijing, the city that will host 2008 Olympic Games. The observed mixing ratios of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and isoprene were used to derive the mixing ratios of initial isoprene, which means the ambient isoprene level before it undergoes any photochemical reaction with OH radicals. The average mixing ratios of initial isoprene were 3.31.6 and 2.91.5 ppbv at PKU and YUFA sites, respectively. The percentages of initial isoprene in total initial VOCs were 10.8% at PKU site and 11.4% at YUFA site, in reasonable agreement with the isoprene contribution in total VOC emissions as derived from source inventories. Maximum increment reactivity (MIR) was used to evaluate the ozone formation potential (OFP) for major VOC species. The OFP for initial isoprene accounted for 23% of the total OFPs for all measured species, compared to 11% using ambient mixing ratios of isoprene at PKU site. Similarly, at YUFA site, the ambient measured isoprene and initial isoprene contributed 10% and 22%, respectively, to the OFPs for total measured VOCs. It seems that isoprene has similar contribution to ozone formation at both sites in Beijing city.

  11. Interactive effects of ozone and low UV-B radiation on antioxidants in spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    To study the role of low UV-B radiation in modulating the response of antioxidants to ozone, 4-year-old pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings potted in natural soil, were exposed in phytochambers to fluctuating ozone concentrations between 9 and 113 nl 1−1 according to field data recorded at Mt Wank (1175 m above sea level, Bavaria, Germany) and two-times ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation was either added at a biologically effective level of ca 1.2 kJ m−2 day−1 , which is close to that found in March at Mt Wank, or was excluded by filters (<0.08 kJ m−2 day−1). After one growth phase current-year needles were collected and analysed for antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD, EC 1.15.1.1; catalase, CAT, EC 1.11.1.6; guaiacol peroxidase, POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and soluble antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione). CAT, POD, ascorbate and glutathione, but not SOD, were increased in needles of both species in response to twice ambient O3 levels. UV-B radiation in the presence of ambient O3 caused an increase in total SOD activity in spruce but had no effects on antioxidants in pine. Twice ambient O3 levels together with low UV-B radiation counteracted the O3-induced increases in ascorbate and CAT in pine but not in spruce. Under these conditions spruce needles showed the highest antioxidative protection and revealed no indication of lipid peroxidation. Pine needles exposed to UV-B and elevated O3 levels showed elevated lipid peroxidation and a 5-fold increase in dehydroascorbate, suggesting that this species was less protected and suffered higher oxidative stress than spruce. (author)

  12. U.S. census unit population exposures to ambient air pollutants

    Hao Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress has been made recently in estimating ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and ozone for U.S. CGUs. Methods We converted 2001-2006 gridded data, generated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA for CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN, to census block group (BG based on spatial proximities between BG and its four nearest grids. We used a bottom-up (fine to coarse strategy to generate population exposure estimates for larger CGUs by aggregating BG estimates weighted by population distribution. Results The BG daily estimates were comparable to monitoring data. On average, the estimates deviated by 2 ?g/m3 (for PM2.5 and 3 ppb (for ozone from their corresponding observed values. Population exposures to ambient PM2.5 and ozone varied greatly across the U.S. In 2006, estimates for daily potential population exposure to ambient PM2.5 in west coast states, the northwest and a few areas in the east and estimates for daily potential population exposure to ambient ozone in most of California and a few areas in the east/southeast exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for at least 7 days. Conclusions These estimates may be useful in assessing health impacts through linkage studies and in communicating with the public and policy makers for potential intervention.

  13. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005 (winter and 2006 (summer. Statistical analysis showed that there are significant statistical differences between cohorts obtained from natural environment and those obtained in hatchery. The Tukey's test showed differences between CN2003 and CH2003 and also between CN2005 and CH2005, while there were no significant differences between CN2006 and CH2006. These differences indicate that the cohorts of natural environment seeds grew faster than those of hatchery. Inter annual comparison showed significant statistical differences. These results are discussed in terms of the cultivation temperature and the heterozygosity for the growing population.

  14. Weekly and Decadal Changes in NOx Emissions and Tropospheric Ozone

    Marr, L. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Variations in air pollutant emissions and ambient concentrations on both weekly and decadal time scales can be used to test our understanding of atmospheric responses to changes in anthropogenic forcing. Combining records of fuel sales and on-road measurements of vehicle activity and emissions, we have estimated motor vehicle emissions by hour and day of week, separately for gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles. Between 1990 and 2000, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor vehicles in California decreased by more than 30%. However, NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks actually increased by over 40%, offsetting some of the reductions in light-duty vehicle emissions. During the past two decades, the occurrence of higher ozone levels on weekends, a phenomenon known as the weekend effect, has become more widespread in California. The effect impacted 11% of surface observation sites in 1980-84 and 38% in 1995-1999. Results of chemical transport modeling show that the primary cause of the weekend ozone effect is the large decrease in NOx emissions due to a ~75% reduction in diesel truck traffic on weekends. Areas where ozone formation is VOC-sensitive therefore can experience higher ozone concentrations on weekends. Long-term (decadal) changes in anthropogenic emissions have produced a shift towards greater VOC-sensitivity, and the weekend ozone effect has grown more prevalent because diesel trucks now account for over 50% of total motor vehicle NOx emissions.

  15. DEVELOPMENTS IN OZONATION OF WATERS

    Ensar OĞUZ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, has been used in both industrial and synthetic chemistry. From this point of view, ozone-organic chemistry related papaers have been published by many researcher. Forthermore; its role in air and water pollution problems is more important today. As a result of ozone researches, it is clear that ozone is to be the brightest expection for future in industrial, domestic, and driking water treatment. Ozone, a high grade oxidation matter, has been used for removing the pollutants and toxic materials from waste waters.

  16. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  17. Uso de subprodutos de carvo vegetal na formao do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' em ambiente protegido / The use of byproducts of vegetal charcoal on growth of 'Rangpur' lime rootstock under screen house

    Marcelo, Zanetti; Jairo Osvaldo, Cazetta; Dirceu de, Mattos Jnior; Srgio Alves de, Carvalho.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fino de carvo no substrato e da aplicao de extrato pirolenhoso no substrato e na planta sobre o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck) cultivados em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido n [...] o delineamento em blocos casualisados, com anlise em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 3, sendo: 3 propores de fino de carvo (0, 100 e 200 cm dm-3) em mistura com substrato comercial, 2 concentraes de extrato pirolenhoso (0 e 20 cm dm-3) misturadas no substrato (240 cm por dm de substrato) e 3 concentraes de extrato pirolenhoso (0, 5 e 10 cm dm-3) pulverizadas na parte area, em 4 repeties. Aos 150 e 180 dias aps o plantio foram realizadas avaliaes do desenvolvimento das plantas. As misturas de fino de carvo e substrato comercial contendo fino de carvo na proporo de 100 cm dm-3 no influram no desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' , porm, na proporo de 200 cm dm-3 prejudica o desenvolvimento dos mesmos. O umedecimento pr-plantio do substrato com soluo diluda (20 cm dm-3) de extrato pirolenhoso ou pulverizao da parte area das plantas com solues a 5 e 10 cm dm-3 provoca reduo do desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' . Abstract in english The effect of finely grounded charcoal and pyroligneous acid (PA) in mixture with a commercial growing media and PA sprayed on leaves on growth of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) seedlings under screen house was studied. Treatments consisted in a combination of 3 levels of charcoal (0, 100 and [...] 200 cm dm-3) mixture on the commercial growing media, 2 rates of PA mixtured (0 and 20 cm dm-3) to a growing media (240 cm per dm of growing media), and 3 rates of PA (0, 5 and 10 cm dm-3) sprayed on the leaves, with 4 replications. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, and analyzed as a factorial 3 x 2 x 3. Growth of seedlings was evaluated at 150 and 180 days after planting. The presence of charcoal at 100 cm dm-3 in the media did not influence on growth of seedlings. However, the mixture with 200 cm dm-3 of charcoal reduced production of total dry mass and high of the plants. The addition of PA (solution 20 cm dm-3) to the media reduced plant growth, and sprayed (solutions 5 and 10 cm dm-3) on the leaves reduced seedlings diameter.

  18. 13C/12C ratios as indicators of plant physiological response to ozone and simulated acid rain

    This paper summarizes work performed to assess the effects of ozone and acid rain on growth, gas exchange and water use efficiency of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). The results suggest that stem diameter, leaf area and leaf biomass are significantly reduced by exposure to elevated ozone concentrations but that acid rain has no effect on any of the growth measurements. 3 refs, 2 figs

  19. Outdoor and indoor ozone level: A potential impact on human health

    Valuntaitė Vaida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Air pollution outside and inside is still one of the most sensitive issues. The aim of this study was to assess the ozone level in ambient air and working premises in terms of its possible influence on human health. Methods. The study was based on the results obtained in Lithuanian conditions. Continuous ozone measurement data from the rural monitoring station in Preila over the period 1995-2011 were analyzed. More than 180,000 hourly values were examined according to the requirements in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The World Health Organization (WHO and European Union indicators the Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb (SOMO 35, the maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration of ozone higher than 100 and 120 μg/m3 were estimated. Indoor ozone concentrations in copying and welding rooms were evaluated. The ozone concentration was measured with the ozone analyzer O341M. Results. The frequency distribution of ozone hourly concentrations at the Preila station showed that less than 1% of the data were higher than 120 μg/m3 and 6% of them higher than 100 μg/m3, that could have the adverse effect on human health, during 1995-2011. The investigations made in working premises showed that near a copying machine the ozone concentration can reach 330 μg/m3, however in the room, i.e. 0.5 m from the machine, the average ozone concentration during automatic copying was 165 μg/m³ and during manual copying it was 50 μg/m³. Measurements in a welding room showed that the ozone concentration was in the range of 380-1,850 μg/m3 at the distance of 25 cm from the electrode and at the distance of 1 m from the source the ozone concentration decreased 2.5 times. Conclusion. The danger of the ambient ozone level to human health practically was not observed in Lithuanian conditions. However, almost 6% of the data exceed the new WHO guideline of 100 μg/m3 during the measurement time. Indoor ozone during welding reached a higher level than during copying that can cause human health problems.

  20. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  1. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  2. Ozone: apocalypse or misinformation

    This paper debates about the origin of the destruction of ozone layer in the stratosphere. Chlorofluorocarbons don't seem to be the single responsible agent but chloric acid from volcanic eruptions, chlorinated compounds of oceans or biomass combustion are another major sources. 13 refs., 3 figs

  3. Ozone decomposing filter

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  4. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Groo, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Mller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  5. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  6. GEMS stratospheric ozone evaluation

    Lefever, K.; Daerden, F.; Chabrillat, S.; Flentje, H.; Stein, O.; Moinat, P.; Huijnen, V.; Flemming, J.; Schulz, M.; Gems Grg Team

    2009-04-01

    The EU FP6 Integrated Project "Global Earth-system (atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data" (GEMS, http://gems.ecmwf.int/) aims at developing the world's first operational chemical weather system, providing daily analyzes and forecasts for trace atmospheric constituents which are important for climate, air quality and UV radiation. It concerns simulations from the lower troposphere up to the stratosphere, on the global as well as on the regional scale. The present poster presents the evaluation of stratospheric ozone simulations in the GEMS system during the chosen test year 2003. 4D stratospheric ozone fields produced by several development phases of the GEMS system will be assessed. These comprise the standalone CTMs driven by offline meteorological data, forecasts by the coupled GEMS GRG system for global reactive gases and the GEMS GRG reanalyzes, resulting from the assimilation of ozone from SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, GOME and SBUV. To evaluate the performance of each individual run, we compare the ozone fields with both an independent assimilation system (BASCOE) and independent satellite data (TOMS, POAM and HALOE). We present the standardized evaluation routines we developed to this end and the methods we applied to optimally assess the differences between the chemical models and the observational data.

  7. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  8. Ozone stress and antioxidant substances in Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea leaves

    Ozone-sensitive (NC-S clone) and resistant plants (NC-R clone) of Trifolium repens and Centaurea jacea were exposed to moderate ozone concentrations in ambient air. The aim of this study was the investigation of the relation between ozone-sensitivity and leaf concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity). NC-R clone showed the highest concentrations of antioxidants with 50-70% more ascorbic acid than NC-S. NC-R had about 5 times more ascorbic acid in the young leaves and 9 times more in the old leaves than Centaurea. In a fumigation experiment with acute ozone stress (100 nl L-1) the antioxidant levels changed profoundly. The ozone-injured leaves of NC-S had 6-8 times more total phenolics than uninjured leaves. Generally older leaves had lower antioxidant concentrations and were more prone to ozone injury than younger leaves. Ascorbic acid concentrations were closer related to the appearance of visible ozone injury than the other antioxidative parameters. - Low leaf ascorbic acid levels are a main cause for visible ozone injuries in Trifolium and Centaurea

  9. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  10. Response of native plants of northeastern United States and southern Spain to ozone exposures; determining exposure/response relationships

    Numerous plants species confirmed sensitive to ambient ozone in eastern United States, and southeastern Spain. - Tropospheric ozone has been identified as the most important regional scale air pollutant across much of eastern United States of America and many areas of Mediterranean climes in southern Europe. Recent field surveys in the northeastern USA and in southeastern Spain have revealed many additional plant species that exhibit symptoms typical of ozone-induced injuries. Objectives of this study were to confirm ozone as the cause of the observed foliar symptoms, determine ozone induced exposure/response relationships, and identify possible bio-indicator species. Thirteen native species of northeastern USA and 27 native species of southeastern Spain were selected for study. Plant species were exposed to ozone within 16 CSTR chambers in a greenhouse during the summer seasons of 2000 and 2001; ozone exposures of 30, 60, 90, and 120 ppb were delivered for 7 h/day, 5 days/week. Results have confirmed that with few exceptions, symptoms observed in the field were induced by exposures to ambient ozone. Species differed significantly in terms of the exposures required for the initiation of visible symptoms and subsequent injury progression

  11. Non-Thermal Plasma Ozone Generation

    S. Pekrek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews ozone properties, ozone applications and the mechanism of ozone production in non-thermal plasma. An analysis is made of the influence of a reduced electric field and discharge space temperature on ozone production. The phenomenon of discharge poisoning is also explained. Finally, a modern ozone production system based on dielectric barrier electrical discharge is described.

  12. Non-Thermal Plasma Ozone Generation

    S. Pekárek

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews ozone properties, ozone applications and the mechanism of ozone production in non-thermal plasma. An analysis is made of the influence of a reduced electric field and discharge space temperature on ozone production. The phenomenon of discharge poisoning is also explained. Finally, a modern ozone production system based on dielectric barrier electrical discharge is described.

  13. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole: 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    Tropospheric ozone measurements over Antarctica aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft are summarized. As part of the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, the aircraft flew 13 missions covering a latitude of 53 degree-90 degree S, at altitudes to 13 km. Ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred parts per billion by volume (ppbv) were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets or patches of upper atmospheric air. These pockets were observed both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. At times, and as a result of these pockets, the ozone levels at the flight altitude of the aircraft, as averaged beneath the boundaries of the stratospheric ozone hole, were 2-3 times higher than background tropospheric values. The data suggest that the ozone-rich air seldom penetrated below about 9-km altitude. Background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed during the experiment. During the early flights (August 28 through September 2), encounters with ozone-rich air were limited and background tropospheric ozone (at the flight altitude) appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For many of the later flights, and as the hole deepened, the reverse was noted, in that ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole and, as noted earlier, average ozone at the flight altitude was frequently higher than background values

  14. El ambiente social

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el ttulo de Ambiente Social se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecolgico (fsico-bitico. As mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la nocin de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significacin a la experiencia ambiental, ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensin de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediacin de las dimensiones psicolgica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolticos y econmicos con el nimo de planificacin, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  15. Modelling of long-term anthropogenic changes in stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer

    Complete text of publication follows. A numerical two-dimensional interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and by ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2050. The mechanisms of the impact of each of the pollutants on stratospheric temperature have been analysed, their relative contributions to the predicted temperature change have been estimated. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gases on the dynamics of recovery of the Earth's ozone layer after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere, have been studied in details. The contributions of different pollutions to the predicted ozone changes have been estimated. The results of the calculations show that the basic mechanism by which greenhouse gases influence the ozone layer is stratospheric cooling accompanied by a weakness in the efficiency of the catalytic cycles of ozone destruction due to temperature dependencies of the photochemical gas-phase reactions. Modification of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) caused by anthropogenic growth of the greenhouse gases is important only for the polar ozone. An essential influence of the greenhouse gases on the ozone by a modification of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol is revealed. The aerosol changes caused by the greenhouse gases modify the distribution of the ozone-active gaseous chlorine, bromine and nitrogen components by means of heterogeneous reactions on the aerosol surface, resulting in a significant decrease in springtime polar ozone depletion of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  16. Efecto de dos ambientes lumínicos en el crecimiento inicial y calidad de plantas de Crescentia cujete Effect of two light environments on the initial growth and quality of Crescentia cujete

    Margarito Piña

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae es una especie nativa de porte pequeño, raíces profundas y arquitectura, flores y frutos ornamentales que la hacen adecuada para la arborización urbana, además de sus usos en la medicina tradicional y elaboración de artesanía. La planta se adapta bien a condiciones semi-áridas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos ambientes lumínicos (luz y sombra en el crecimiento inicial y calidad de la planta. La intensidad promedio máxima en horas del día fue de 1170 µmol·m-2·s-1 en el tratamiento de luz, y de 280 µmol·m-2·s-1 en el tratamiento de sombra. Las plántulas con dos pares de hojas verdaderas se colocaron en recipientes y se llevaron a los dos ambientes de luminosidad. A los seis meses, las plantas bajo sombra fueron más altas y con menor diámetro de tallo, con hojas más grandes y mayor contenido de clorofila. La acumulación total de biomasa seca no difirió entre tratamientos, pero la distribución de fotoasimilados fue mayor hacia el componente foliar en las condiciones de sombra y hacia las raíces en la mayor intensidad lumínica. La relación biomasa foliar/biomasa radical bajo sombra duplicó el promedio obtenido en el tratamiento de luz. Aunque en ambos ambientes lumínicos los parámetros de calidad de planta expresados en los índices de esbeltez y calidad de Dickson fueron aceptables, las plantas que crecieron a 1170 µmol· m-2·s-1 fueron de mayor calidad. La especie desarrolló plasticidad morfológica y fisiológica que le permitió adaptarse a las iradiancias evaluadas.Crescentia cujete is a small, deep rooted native plant whose architecture, flowers and ornamental fruit makes it suitable for urban tree, in addition to its use in traditional medicine and handicrafts. The plant is well adapted to semi-arid conditions The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two light environments (light and shade on the initial growth and quality of C. cujete plants. The mean maximum ligth intensity at midday was 1170 µmol·m-2·s-1 in the lighted treatment and 280 µmol·m-2·s-1 under the shade. Seedlings with two pairs of true leaves were transplanted into containers and placed under the two environments. Six months later, shade plants were taller and with less stem diameter, with larger leaves and higher chlorophyll content. Total accumulation of biomass did not differ between treatments, but the assimilated distribution was higher toward the leaf component under shade conditions and higher toward the roots under the lighted treatment. The leaf to root biomass ratio under shade doubled the average obtained under light. Although in both environments the quality indexes were acceptable, the plants that grew at 1170 µmol. m-2.s-1 showed higher quality. This species developed morphological and physiological plasticity that allowed it to adapt to both light environments.

  17. Options to accelerate ozone recovery: ozone and climate benefits

    J. S. Daniel; Fleming, E. L; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G.J.M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and N2O are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact on ozone depletion that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS and N2O emissions were halted...

  18. Ozone production in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    W. L. Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Ozone pollution was found to be more severe in Tianjin than in Shanghai during the summer, either based on the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive VOC mixture in the Tianjin region. It is found that industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominate. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  19. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    L. Ran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  20. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  1. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration levels in urban environments

    E Stathopoulou; G Mihalakakou; M Santamouris; H S Bagiorgas

    2008-06-01

    The in?uence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3)concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study.Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three experimental stations while ozone concentration values were measured at three of the above-mentioned stations and for a period of two years (1996 1997).The linear correlation between ozone concentration and air temperature values as well as the temporal variation of temperature and ozone concentration,for the above-mentioned experimental stations, were calculated and analysed.Moreover,a neural network approach was used for investigating the impact of temperature on the ozone concentration values over the greater Athens area.The neural network model used ambient air temperature as one of its input parameters and it was found that temperature is a predominant parameter,affecting considerably the ozone concentration values.

  2. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone

  3. A network of autonomous surface ozone monitors in Antarctica: technical description and first results

    Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Brough, N.; Frey, M. M.; Jones, A. E.; Maxfield, D. J.; Roscoe, H. K.; Rose, M. C.; Wolff, E. W.

    2011-04-01

    A suite of 10 autonomous ozone monitoring units, each powered using renewable energy, was developed and built to study surface ozone in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (2007-2009). The monitoring systems were deployed in a network around the Weddell Sea sector of coastal Antarctica with a transect up onto the Antarctic Plateau. The aim was to measure for a full year, thus gaining a much-improved broader view of boundary layer ozone seasonality at different locations as well as of factors affecting the budget of surface ozone in Antarctica. Ozone mixing ratios were measured based on UV photometry using a modified version of the commercial 2B Technologies Inc. Model 202 instrument. All but one of the autonomous units measured successfully within its predefined duty cycle throughout the year, with some differences in performance dependent on power availability and ambient temperature. Mean data recovery after removal of outliers was on average 70% (range 44-83%) and precision varied between 1.5 and 8 ppbv, thus was sufficiently good to resolve year-round the main ozone features of scientific interest. We conclude that, with adequate power, and noting a minor communication problem, our units would be able to operate successfully at ambient temperatures down to -60 °C. Systems such as the one described in this paper, or derivatives of it, could therefore be deployed either as local or regional networks elsewhere in the Arctic or Antarctic. Here we present technical information and first results from the experiment.

  4. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season

  5. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O{sub 3} in the 2001 season.

  6. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NOx concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NOx in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NOx) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality (mostly in October). The truck pathway tends to cause a much wider fluctuation in degradation or improvement of ozone air quality: percentage changes in peak ozone concentrations are approximately -0.01% to 0.04% for the assumed 9% market penetration, and approximately -0.03% to 0.1% for the 20% market penetration. Moreover, the 20% on-site pathway occasionally results in a decrease of about -0.1% of baseline ozone pollution. Compared to the current ambient pollution level, all three hydrogen pathways are unlikely to cause a serious ozone problem for market penetration levels of HFCVs in the 9-20% range. (Author)

  7. Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water

    Hongve, Dag; Lund, Vidar; kesson, Gunvor; Becher, Georg

    Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the content of high-molecular-weight substances was reduced while a nearly corresponding amount of low-molecular-weight compounds was produced. The produced substances have acidic properties, are uncoloured and do not absorb UV light at 254 nm. Ozonation also led to higher BOD values. The formed low-molecular-weight compounds were consumed by microorganisms. In the original humic water sample the microbial degradation affected only high-molecular-weight compounds. The higher content of biodegradable organic compounds in ozonated drinking water is probably responsible for accelerated growth of bacteria and production of sludge in the distribution systems of a Norwegian waterwork. The obtained colour reduction seems to be temporary, since the colour of ozonated water increases under the influence of microorganisms.

  8. 77 FR 24399 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    2012-04-24

    ... nonattainment designations. Therefore, the Atlanta Area's original attainment date was June 15, 2007. See 69 FR... extension of the attainment date for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS for the Atlanta Area. See 75 FR 73969. As a... FR 23857, April 30, 2004).\\1\\ Ambient air quality monitoring data for the 3-year period must meet...

  9. Diesel Exhaust Modulates Ozone-induced Lung Function Decrements in Healthy Human Volunteers

    The potential effects of combinations of dilute whole diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (03), each a common component of ambient airborne pollutant mixtures, on lung function were examined. Healthy young human volunteers were exposed for 2 hr to pollutants while exercising (~50 L/min...

  10. Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans

    Exposure to single pollutants such as ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. It is unclear, however, if simultaneous exposure to multiple air pollutants (e.g. PM and ozone or nitrogen dioxide), a more real world scenario, results in non-additiv...

  11. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    ... used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. Once released into the air ... and other countries stop producing ozone-depleting substances, natural ozone production should return the ozone layer to ...

  12. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    ... Health Risks Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that the ...

  13. Ozonation followed by ultraviolet irradiation provides effective bacteria inactivation in a freshwater recirculating system

    Recirculating aquaculture systems may require an internal disinfection process to control population growth of pathogens and heterotrophic bacteria. Ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are two technologies that have been used to treat relatively large aquaculture flows, including flows withi...

  14. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  15. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    Ozone (O3) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O3, depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  16. Extrapolating future Arctic ozone losses

    Knudsen, B. M.; Harris, N. R. P.; S. B. Andersen; Christiansen, B.; N. Larsen; Rex, M.; B. Naujokat

    2004-01-01

    Future increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases and water vapour may cool the stratosphere further and increase the amount of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Future Arctic PSC areas have been extrapolated from the highly significant trends 1958-2001. Using a tight correlation between PSC area and the total vortex ozone depletion and taking the decreasing amounts of ozone depleting substances into account we make empirical estimates of future ozone. The result...

  17. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  18. Effect of Acute Ozone Induced Airway Inflammation on Human Sympathetic Nerve Traffic: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study

    Tank, Jens; Biller, Heike; Heusser, Karsten; Holz, Olaf; Diedrich, André; Framke, Theodor; Koch, Armin; Grosshennig, Anika; Koch, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Jordan, Jens; Hohlfeld, Jens M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ozone concentrations in ambient air are related to cardiopulmonary perturbations in the aging population. Increased central sympathetic nerve activity induced by local airway inflammation may be one possible mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate this issue further, we performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, including 14 healthy subjects (3 females, age 22–47 years), who underwent a 3 h exposure with intermittent exercise to either ozone (250 ppb) or...

  19. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate ...

  20. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  1. Influence of minerals supply on the 'acute yellowing' syndrome as well as on growth increment, pigment balance, photosynthesis, frost hardiness, and sensitivity to ozone in Picea abies (L. ) Karst. Einfluss der Mineralstoffversorgung auf das Krankheitsbild 'akute Vergilbung', sowie auf Zuwachs, Pigmenthaushalt, Photosynthese, Frostresistenz und Empfindlichkeit gegenueber Ozon bei Picea abies (L. ) Karst

    Hoepker, K.A.

    1989-07-19

    In this work the relevance of soil, soil-water balance (drought, waterlogging), tropospheric factors (air pollutants), and biotic factors (microorganisms) for the triggering of yellowing symptoms, biomass development, photosynthesis, the pigment balance, and frost hardiness in spruce was investigated. For this purpose a planting experiment was carried out where healthy tree-nursery material of different origin was planted in containers containing original soil from a yellowed spruce stand in the Bavarian Forest. Collaterally, the influence of minerals supply on ozone sensitivity in spruce was investigated in an ozone fumigation experiment. The influence of enhanced minerals supply on the 'acute yellowing' syndrome was additionally investigated in already ailing spruce material removed from its site. (MG).

  2. Effect of short term ozone variations on human ultraviolet radiation exposure

    With recent media reports on the ozone losses or 'hole' over Antarctica, the public, particularly in Australia has become more aware of the relationship between stratospheric ozone losses and increases in terrestrial UV irradiances. Measurements over a 4 day period during April 1999 in Toowoomba (27.5 deg S, 151 .9 deg E, altitude 693m) indicated that the clear sky erythemal UV exposures could increase by 14% with a 4.6% decrease in atmospheric ozone levels. Similar anti-correlation trends between atmospheric ozone levels and UV exposures were also found for this location for other measurement times during 1999. Heightened ambient UV irradiance levels of the magnitude found during the April, 1999 period have been estimated to increase the UV exposure to the human nose from 7.15 MED per day to 8.34 MED per day. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  3. Effects of ozone fumigation on epiphytic macrolichens: ultrastructure, CO2 gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Scheidegger, C; Schroeter, B

    1995-01-01

    The lichen species Anaptychia ciliaris, Collema nigrescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia bitteri, Lobaria pulmonaria, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Usnea rigida s.l. were fumigated with site-relevant concentrations (for Central Europe) of ozone over 80 days (180 microg m(-3) during daytime, 80 microg m(-3) during the night). Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed a significant reduction of Fv/Fm after ozone fumigation in five of the species investigated, indicating severe stress on photosystem II due to ozone. The physiological impairment paralleled our fine structural investigations, revealing a significantly higher percentage of collapsed photobiont cells. This indicates that the effects of ambient ozone concentrations under experimental conditions included biophysical and physiological, as well as structural impairment in the lichens studied. PMID:15091548

  4. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  5. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  6. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  7. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ∼0.1 W/cm2. Interestingly, when input power is higher than ∼0.1 W/cm2, ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  8. Effects of Local Circulations, Turbulent Internal Boundary Layers, and Elevated Industrial Plumes on Coastal Ozone Pollution in the Downwind Kaohsiung Urban-Industrial Complex

    Yee-Lin Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Linyuan (LY is a coastal station located down wind of the industrial city of Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan. This station is often affected by severe ozone pollution during sea breeze events. Intensive tethered ozone soundings were per formed at this station during a 4-day ozone episode in November, 2005. Back air trajectories were also calculated to track the origins of air masses arriving at the station during the experiment. The investigation revealed complicated ozone pro files in the lower at mo sphere (be low 1300 m both day and night. At night, industrial plumes forming no-ozone air layers were frequently distributed at 400 - 800 m. Mixing layers rapidly decreased from 800 - 1100 m down to 200 - 350 m in the late morning hours when sea breezes and thermal internal boundary layers (TIBLs developed. Recirculation of polluted in land air masses over the sea, the development of TIBLs, and the late development of sea-breeze events all are likely responsible for severe ozone pollution at the LY station. Elevated industrial plumes or ozone aloft above TIBLs revealed only aminor contribution to ozone pollution via a downward mixing process. Elevated ozone levels (140 - 170 ppb were of ten trapped within transitional layers of sea-breeze circulations at 600 - 800 m and were accompanied by ambient northerly flows parallel to the coast line, suggesting that an ozone pollution core likely formed over the west coast of Taiwan on ozone-episodic days when sea-breeze circulations developed.

  9. Uso de subprodutos de carvão vegetal na formação do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' em ambiente protegido The use of byproducts of vegetal charcoal on growth of 'Rangpur' lime rootstock under screen house

    Marcelo Zanetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de fino de carvão no substrato e da aplicação de extrato pirolenhoso no substrato e na planta sobre o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck cultivados em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi desenvolvido no delineamento em blocos casualisados, com análise em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 3, sendo: 3 proporções de fino de carvão (0, 100 e 200 cm³ dm-3 em mistura com substrato comercial, 2 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0 e 20 cm³ dm-3 misturadas no substrato (240 cm³ por dm³ de substrato e 3 concentrações de extrato pirolenhoso (0, 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3 pulverizadas na parte aérea, em 4 repetições. Aos 150 e 180 dias após o plantio foram realizadas avaliações do desenvolvimento das plantas. As misturas de fino de carvão e substrato comercial contendo fino de carvão na proporção de 100 cm³ dm-3 não influíram no desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' , porém, na proporção de 200 cm³ dm-3 prejudica o desenvolvimento dos mesmos. O umedecimento pré-plantio do substrato com solução diluída (20 cm³ dm-3 de extrato pirolenhoso ou pulverização da parte aérea das plantas com soluções a 5 e 10 cm³ dm-3 provoca redução do desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' .The effect of finely grounded charcoal and pyroligneous acid (PA in mixture with a commercial growing media and PA sprayed on leaves on growth of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck seedlings under screen house was studied. Treatments consisted in a combination of 3 levels of charcoal (0, 100 and 200 cm³ dm-3 mixture on the commercial growing media, 2 rates of PA mixtured (0 and 20 cm³ dm-3 to a growing media (240 cm³ per dm³ of growing media, and 3 rates of PA (0, 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3 sprayed on the leaves, with 4 replications. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, and analyzed as a factorial 3 x 2 x 3. Growth of seedlings was evaluated at 150 and 180 days after planting. The presence of charcoal at 100 cm³ dm-3 in the media did not influence on growth of seedlings. However, the mixture with 200 cm³ dm-3 of charcoal reduced production of total dry mass and high of the plants. The addition of PA (solution 20 cm³ dm-3 to the media reduced plant growth, and sprayed (solutions 5 and 10 cm³ dm-3 on the leaves reduced seedlings diameter.

  10. Factors Affecting the Association between Ambient Concentrations and Personal Exposures to Particles and Gases

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Coull, Brent Andrew; Schwartz, Joel David; Gold, Diane R.; Suh MacIntosh, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    Results from air pollution exposure assessment studies suggest that ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μg (PM2.5)], but not ambient gases, are strong proxies of corresponding personal exposures. For particles, the strength of the personal–ambient association can differ by particle component and level of home ventilation. For gases, however, such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), the impact of home ventilation on personal–a...

  11. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness develops progressively in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    We investigated the effects of ozone and leaf senescence on steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal response to light variation. Measurements were carried out in a free-air ozone exposure experiment on a representative deciduous broadleaved tree species in Japan (Fagus crenata). Both steady-state and dynamic stomatal response to light variation varied intrinsically with season due to leaf senescence. Ozone induced the decrease in steady-state leaf gas exchange and the sluggish stomatal closure progressively. These findings suggest that ozone reduces the ability of plants to adapt to a fluctuating light environment under natural conditions, and therefore impairs plant growth and ability to control water loss. - Highlights: ? We investigated the effects of ozone and leaf senescence on stomatal response to light variation. ? Measurements were carried out in a free-air ozone exposure experiment on Siebold's beech. ? Stomatal response to light variation varied intrinsically with season due to leaf senescence. ? Steady-state stomatal conductance was reduced under elevated ozone. ? Ozone increased time for stomatal closing and reduced light-saturated photosynthesis progressively. - Ozone progressively induces a sluggishness of stomatal light response.

  12. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria sp. on Spinach

    Shreya Wani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of “gaseous” ozone in reducing numbers and re-growth of food-borne pathogens, (Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., on leafy salads was investigated using spinach. A preliminary in vivo study showed 1-log reduction in six strains of E. coli and two species of Listeria spp. on spinach exposed to 1 ppm ozone for 10 min. A range of ozone treatments were explored to deliver optimal bacterial inactivation while maintaining the visual appearance (color of produce. Exposure to a higher ozone concentration for a shorter duration (10 ppm for 2 min significantly reduced E. coli and Listeria spp. viable counts by 1-log and the pathogens did not re-grow following treatment (over a nine-day storage period. Impacts of 1 and 10 ppm ozone treatments were not significantly different. Approximately 10% of the pathogen population was resistant to ozone treatment. We hypothesized that cell age may be one of several factors responsible for variation in ozone resistance. E. coli cells from older colonies demonstrated higher ozone resistance in subsequent experiments. Overall, we speculate that gaseous ozone treatment constitutes the basis for an alternative customer-friendly method to reduce food pathogen contamination of leafy produce and is worth exploring on a pilot-scale in an industrial setting.

  13. Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen, E-mail: yuchenlin@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Chang, Cheng-Yi [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hong, P.K. Andy [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Hsueh, Han-Fang [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFOA and PFOS are degraded by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment at pH 11. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of PFOA and PFOS by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under alkaline condition is enhanced when the compounds are pretreated by 15 min of ozonation at ambient pH (4-5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFOA and PFOS removal by O{sub 3} or O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 11 was efficient relative to existing methods in terms of energy and contact time. - Abstract: The elimination of recalcitrant, ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is desirable for reducing potential human health and environmental risks. We here report the degradation of PFOA and PFOS by 85-100% via ozonation under alkaline condition being studied at environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations of 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 5 mg L{sup -1}, with enhanced removal rates by addition of hydrogen peroxide. Enhanced removal is achieved by ozonation pretreatment for 15 min at the ambient pH (i.e. 4-5), followed by elevation of pH to 11 and continued ozonation treatment for 4 h. The ozonation pretreatment resulted in increased degradation of PFOA by 56% and PFOS by 42%. The results indicated hydroxyl radical-driven degradation of PFOA and PFOS in both treatments by ozone and peroxone under alkaline conditions. Wastewaters from electronics and semiconductor fabrication plants in the Science Park of Hsinchu city, Taiwan containing PFOA and PFOS have been readily treated by ozonation under alkaline condition. Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate.

  14. Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition

    Highlights: ► PFOA and PFOS are degraded by O3 or O3/H2O2 treatment at pH 11. ► Degradation of PFOA and PFOS by O3 or O3/H2O2 under alkaline condition is enhanced when the compounds are pretreated by 15 min of ozonation at ambient pH (4–5). ► PFOA and PFOS removal by O3 or O3/H2O2 at pH 11 was efficient relative to existing methods in terms of energy and contact time. - Abstract: The elimination of recalcitrant, ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is desirable for reducing potential human health and environmental risks. We here report the degradation of PFOA and PFOS by 85–100% via ozonation under alkaline condition being studied at environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations of 50 μg L−1 to 5 mg L−1, with enhanced removal rates by addition of hydrogen peroxide. Enhanced removal is achieved by ozonation pretreatment for 15 min at the ambient pH (i.e. 4–5), followed by elevation of pH to 11 and continued ozonation treatment for 4 h. The ozonation pretreatment resulted in increased degradation of PFOA by 56% and PFOS by 42%. The results indicated hydroxyl radical-driven degradation of PFOA and PFOS in both treatments by ozone and peroxone under alkaline conditions. Wastewaters from electronics and semiconductor fabrication plants in the Science Park of Hsinchu city, Taiwan containing PFOA and PFOS have been readily treated by ozonation under alkaline condition. Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate.

  15. Ozone-Induced Type 2 Immunity in Nasal Airways. Development and Lymphoid Cell Dependence in Mice.

    Ong, Chee Bing; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Brooks, Phillip T; Brandenberger, Christina; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Nault, Rance; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation exposures to ozone commonly encountered in photochemical smog cause airway injury and inflammation. Elevated ambient ozone concentrations have been epidemiologically associated with nasal airway activation of neutrophils and eosinophils. In the present study, we elucidated the temporal onset and lymphoid cell dependency of eosinophilic rhinitis and associated epithelial changes in mice repeatedly exposed to ozone. Lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0 or 0.5 parts per million (ppm) ozone for 1, 2, 4, or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Lymphoid cell-deficient, Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice were similarly exposed for 9 weekdays. Nasal tissues were taken at 2 or 24 hours after exposure for morphometric and gene expression analyses. C57BL/6 mice exposed to ozone for 1 day had acute neutrophilic rhinitis, with airway epithelial necrosis and overexpression of mucosal Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl11 (eotaxin), Cxcl1 (KC), Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Hmox1, Il1b, Il5, Il6, Il13, and Tnf mRNA. In contrast, 9-day ozone exposure elicited type 2 immune responses in C57BL/6 mice, with mucosal mRNA overexpression of Arg1, Ccl8 (MCP-2), Ccl11, Chil4 (Ym2), Clca1 (Gob5), Il5, Il10, and Il13; increased density of mucosal eosinophils; and nasal epithelial remodeling (e.g., hyperplasia/hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, hyalinosis, and increased YM1/YM2 proteins). Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice exposed to ozone for 9 days, however, had no nasal pathology or overexpression of transcripts related to type 2 immunity. These results provide a plausible paradigm for the activation of eosinophilic inflammation and type 2 immunity found in the nasal airways of nonatopic individuals subjected to episodic exposures to high ambient ozone. PMID:26203683

  16. Ozone generation in positive and negative corona discharge fed by humid oxygen and carbon dioxide

    The effect of humidity on ozone generation of positive and negative corona discharges fed by O2 and CO2 has been studied in the humidity range of 100-20 000 ppm. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure of 100 kPa. The increase in humidity of CO2 conspicuously suppressed the ozone generation in negative corona discharge at all values of the input energy densities into the discharge. The effect was less pronounced in oxygen. In contrast to decrease of ozone concentration observed in negative corona discharge, the presence of water both in O2 and CO2 acts catalytically. The ozone concentration has been found to increase remarkably (approximately 10 times) in oxygen, if the humidity was increased from 100 to 20 000 ppm. The dependence of ozone concentration on the gas humidity exhibited an extreme. The increase observed at humidity up to approximately 5000 ppm was followed by the marginal reduction in ozone concentration. Anyway, the values of this were considerably higher than those found in dry CO2. The effect of humidity on ozone concentration will be discussed in relation to plasma chemical processes in studied discharges and their macroscopic parameters.

  17. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  18. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  19. Phytotoxic and competitive effects of tall fescue on Ladino clover as modified by ozone and/or Rhizoctonia solani

    Kochhar, M.

    1974-01-01

    An effort was made to look at the effects of fescue and/or ozone on clover decline in the grass-clover mixture. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if chemical interactions play a role in clover decline from a clover-fescue mixture, (2) if ozone affects the growth of clover, and (3) if ozone modifies plant-plant interactions between clover and fescue.

  20. Environmental auditing: An approach for characterizing tropospheric ozone risk to forests

    Hogsett, W.E.; Weber, J.E.; Tingey, D. [EPA, Corvallis, OR (United States); Herstrom, A.; Lee, E.H. [ManTech Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Laurence, J.A. [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The risk tropospheric ozone poses to forests in the United States dependents on the variation in ozone exposure across the forests and the various environmental and climate factors predominant in the region. All these factors have a spatial nature; an approach to characterization of ozone risk is presented that places ozone exposure-response functions for species as seedlings and model-simulated tree and stand responses in a spatial context using a geographical information systems (GIS). The GIS is used to aggregate factors considered important in a risk characterization: (1) estimated ozone exposures over forested regions, (2) measures of ozone effects on species` and stand growth, and (3) spatially distributed environmental, genetic, and exposure influences on species` response to ozone. The GIS-based risk characterization provides an estimation the extent and magnitude of the potential ozone impact on forests. A preliminary risk characterization demonstrating this considered only the eastern United States and only the limited empirical data quantifying the effect of ozone exposures on forest tree species as seedlings. The area-weighted response of the annual seedling biomass loss formed the basis for a sensitivity ranking: sensitive-aspen and black cherry (14%-33% biomass loss over 50% of their distribution); moderately sensitive-tulip popular, loblolly pine, eastern white pine, and sugar maple (5%-13% biomass loss); insensitive-Virginia pine and red maple (0%-1% loss). Future GIS-based risk characterizations will include process-based model simulations of the three- to 5-year growth response of individual species as large trees. The interactive nature of GIS provides a tool to explore consequences of the range of climate conditions across a species` distribution, forest management practices, changing ozone precursors, regulatory control strategies, and other factors influencing the spatial distribution of ozone over time. 43 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Assessment of ozone damage to crop and forest in Europe caused by Danish emissions

    Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Zakey, A.; Nuterman, R.; Brandt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric Ozone has a damaging effect on vegetation, where it inhibits growth and reduces yield of crop production, as well as causing visible damage to plant leaves. The reduced crop production and growth of forest trees can be assessed using species specific sensitivity factors and market prices. The damages to agriculture are severe and a treat to food security. However, anthropogenic emissions of air pollution are not causing ozone damage to vegetation locally because of redox titration of ozone in the pollution source area. The ozone damage is taking effect hundreds of kilometers further downwind, where the atmospheric content of ozone has stabilized. This means that ozone damage can have a large effect outside an emitting country's borders, while the effects inside are limited or even have reducing effects of ozone damage from other sources. As part of CEEH (Centre for energy, environment and health), we are assessing ozone damage to forest and vegetation in European countries from Danish emissions using atmospheric chemical transport simulations.

  2. Emission sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over equatorial Africa during the summer monsoon

    I. Bouarar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model LMDz_INCA is used to investigate the contribution of African and Asian emissions to tropospheric ozone over central and West Africa during the summer monsoon. The model results show that ozone in this region is most sensitive to lightning NOx and to central African biomass burning emissions. However, other emission categories also contribute significantly to regional ozone. The maximum ozone changes due to lightning NOx occur in the upper troposphere between 400 hPa and 200 hPa over West Africa and downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Biomass burning emissions mainly influence ozone in the lower and middle troposphere over central Africa, and downwind due to westward transport. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds, which can be uplifted from the lower troposphere into higher altitudes by the deep convection that occurs over West Africa during the monsoon season, dominate the ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. Convective uplift of soil NOx emissions over the Sahel region also makes a significant contribution to ozone in the upper troposphere. Concerning African anthropogenic emissions, they make a lower contribution to ozone compared to the other emission categories. The model results indicate that most ozone changes due to African emissions occur downwind, especially over the Atlantic Ocean, far from the emission regions. The influence of Asian emissions should also be taken into account in studies of the ozone budget over Africa since they make a considerable contribution to ozone concentrations above 150 hPa. Using IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report estimates of anthropogenic emissions for 2030 over Africa and Asia, the model calculations suggest largest changes in ozone due to the growth of emissions over Asia than over Africa over the next 20 years.

  3. Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) affect the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere since they react with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone, and participate in ozone formation in the presence of sufficient amounts of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products contribute to new particle formation and growth processes. While isoprene is emitted in the largest amount among BVOCs into the atmosphere, monoterpenes are also important for atmospheric chemistry. Tree species are responsible of the most BVOC emissions to the atmosphere but little is known about the contribution of shrub and long-range transport to the ambient BVOC concentrations. In the Mediterranean region monoterpene measurements are scarce and are limited in temporal and ecosystem coverage (forested areas). The present study presents long- term measurements of monoterpenes at a remote coastal site without tree vegetation under typical phrygana vegetation of Crete island in Greece. Measurements took place (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (http://finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr). Two intensive campaigns took place, one during spring (13/03-08/04/2014) and one during summer(19/06 - 04/08/2014). During each campaign diurnal cycles were measured collecting 9 samples per day(every two hours). In addition, one diurnal cycle per week has been measured since 13/10/2014. Off-line sampling took place in adsorption tubes, using stainless steel cartridges filled with Tenax TA for one hour at 200 ml/min flow rate. Samples were stored at 40C and analyzed within two days. The samples were after desorption by a Thermal Desorber were analyzed by a GC-FID system. The most abundant monoterpenes were found to be Δ3-carene and limonene.Highest concentrations were observed during autumn when a clear diurnal cycle has been seen with maximum for both Δ3-carene and limonene at late afternoon. During summer, no clear diurnal variance was observed while in spring the cycle was weaker. The results are analyzed together with new particle formation observations at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of BVOCs to the formation and growth processes of atmospheric particles in the area.

  4. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a significant change in the distribution of ozone. The occurrence of extremely low ozone (near 100% ozone depletion) has been declining significantly in favor of the occurrence of low ozone (80-90% ozone depletion). Finally the potential for continuation of this attribution method in the light of the currently available and future planned satellite remote sensing capacity will be shortly addressed.

  5. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    ... TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one ... and protect your health. For your local air quality, visit www.airnow.gov View or print guide ...

  6. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  7. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR RESIDUAL OZONE

    Eight analytical methods for the determination of residual ozone in water are evaluated. Four are iodometric methods based on the reduction of ozone by iodide ion: the iodometric method, the amperometric method, the arsenic (III) back titration method, and the N, N-diethyl-p-phen...

  8. Vista ambiental del paraiso

    Moya, Sindy

    2012-01-01

    Esta es una muestra de lo que los profesores trabajan en los proyectos en el Programa de Inmersión en Inglés. En junio de 2010 un grupo de profesores participantes trabajaron en una revista relacionada con el medio ambiente en la isla con la orientación de su tutor Randy Roy Stephens. Ellos hicieron la investigación sobre el tema mediante la lectura, entrevistando habitantes, y visitando diferentes lugares e instituciones que trabajan por el medio ambiente en la isla. Escribieron varios artíc...

  9. Ambientes de aprendizaje computacionales

    Señas, Perla

    2001-01-01

    En el marco de las aplicaciones de la tecnología computacional a la educación se destaca de manera especial el trabajo sobre Ambientes de Aprendizaje. En él convergen tópicos relevantes de las Ciencias de la Computación y de la Educación. Se puede definir un Ambiente de Aprendizaje Computacional como un entorno integrado por un conjunto no homogéneo de elementos capaces de crear o recrear situaciones a partir de las cuales el alumno puede construir conocimiento y realizar aprendizajes y meta-...

  10. Ozone in Thai Irradiation Center

    One of the impact form Co-60 irradiator unit at Thai Irradiation Center (TIC) is ozone build up. The ozone is hazardous to workers' health. The research on ozone distribution had been carried out by Health Physics Division during the year 1989 - 1991. The results showed that ozone were 0.000 - 2.240 ppm in the irradiation room, non-detectable (ND.) - 0.147 ppm in control room, non-detectable (ND.) -0.022 ppm in warehouse and non-detectable (ND.) in environment. Some of the measured values were found higher than that of the ACGIH standard, 0.100 ppm. From this results, some improvements of the ventilation system was proposed to TIC. Especially in control room where operators must commonly work, the shutting off of ventilation fan was strongly suggested. Such action resulted a significant decrease of the ozone concentrations which were quite below than the ACGIH limit

  11. Ozone impact on maize

    Bethenod, Olivier; Leitao, Luis; Castell, Jean-François; Massad, Raia Silvia; Tuzet, Andree; Le Thiec, Didier; Repellin, Anne; Bagard, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the air pollutant that currently represents one of the greatest environmental concerns in the troposphere, with particles and nitrogen oxides. Ground levels of O3have increased continuously over the three decades before 2000, at a rate of 0.5-2% per year1. Although a stagnation or slight decrease over Europe and North America was observed since 2000, O3concentration is still increasing in Asia and others world parts2. Based on dose-effect curves, Mills et al. (2007)3identified t...

  12. UV-ozone modification of plasma-polymerised acetonitrile films for enhanced cell attachment.

    Davidson, M R; Mitchell, S A; Bradley, R H

    2004-04-15

    Plasma polymerisation is of great interest for modifying the surface properties of biomedical devices in order to control, for example, protein adsorption and cell attachment. In this paper we present results for plasma-polymerised acetonitrile deposited onto silicon or polystyrene substrates. The chemistry of films deposited under a range of experimental conditions was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS provided evidence that the elemental composition of the films varied with rf power to flow rate parameter (W/F) with films produced at higher W/F being deficient in nitrogen. FTIR revealed that the plasma deposited film contained a wide range of nitrogen functional groups including amine, imine and nitrile. Oxidation of the films by exposure to radiation from a low pressure mercury vapour lamp in an air ambient increased the surface oxygen levels from 3 to 17at.% after 300 s exposure. XPS also revealed that the oxidation process proceeded via the formation of carbonyl groups at short exposure times (60s) resulted in an increase in the concentration of carboxyl groups. To assess their potential to support cell growth, polystyrene culture dishes coated with plasma deposited films and UV-ozone oxidised films were seeded with 1BR.3.N human fibroblast cells and incubated for up to 72 h. Un-oxidised plasma-polymerised acetonitrile films were found to give comparable cell attachment densities as tissue culture polystyrene. The greatest cell attachment density was found with plasma polymer films which had been UV-ozone treated for the longest time (300 s). Enhanced attachment to this surface was attributed to the high level of carboxylic groups found on this substrate. PMID:15261060

  13. Options to accelerate ozone recovery: ozone and climate benefits

    J. S. Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs and N2O are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC, globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact on ozone depletion that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS and N2O emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1–2% during the period 2030–2100 compared to a case of no additional restrictions. Direct radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower from the elimination of anthropogenic N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower from the destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC bank. Due to the potential impact of N2O on future ozone levels, we provide an approach to incorporate it into the EESC formulation, which is used extensively in ozone depletion analyses. The ability of EESC to describe total ozone changes arising from additional ODS and N2O controls is also quantified.

  14. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies. Short-term exposure of healthy humans to 0.2 ppm ozone induced a neutrophil influx in peripheral airways at 6 h post exposure, but no apparent inflammatory response in proximal airways. This response seems to be mediated at least in part by interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha}. (au) 26 refs.

  15. The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble

    Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Lamarque, Jean-Franois; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, Steven T.; Sudo, Kengo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Bergmann, Daniel; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Cionni, Irene; Doherty, Ruth M.; Eyring, Veronika; Josse, Beatrice; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David S.; Righi, Mattia; Stevenson, David S.; Strode, Sarah; Szopa, Sophie; Zeng, Guang

    2016-02-01

    Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths/year), likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from less than 0.4 million deaths/year in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths/year in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations relative to 2000 are associated with avoided premature mortality in all scenarios, particularly in 2100: between -2.39 and -1.31 million deaths/year for the four RCPs due to the reductions in emissions projected in these scenarios. The global mortality burden of PM2.5 is estimated to decrease from 1.7 million deaths/year in 2000 to between 0.95 and 1.55 million deaths/year in 2100 for the four RCPs, due to the combined effect of decreases in PM2.5 concentrations and changes in population and baseline mortality rates. Trends in future air pollution-related mortality vary regionally across scenarios, reflecting assumptions for economic growth and air pollution control specific to each RCP and region. Mortality estimates differ among chemistry-climate models due to differences in simulated pollutant concentrations, and is the greatest contributor to overall mortality uncertainty for most cases assessed here, supporting the use of model ensembles to characterize uncertainty. Increases in exposed population and baseline mortality rates of respiratory diseases magnify the impact on premature mortality of changes in future air pollutant concentrations and explain why the future global mortality burden of air pollution can exceed the current burden, even where air pollutant concentrations decrease.

  16. La radioactividad ambiental

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  17. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct c...

  18. Is the Ozone Hole over Your Classroom?

    Cordero, Eugene C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of first year university science students regarding their understanding of the ozone layer, ozone depletion, and the effect of ozone depletion on Australia. Suggests that better teaching resources for environmental issues such as ozone depletion and global warming are needed before improvements in student understanding can be…

  19. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related health effects by extensive review of the literature as well as further analyses of published data. FINDINGS: Daily inhalation intakes of indoor ozone (micrograms per day) are estimated to be between 25 a...

  20. DMAH ozone measurement net

    D. Pags

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.