Radioactive tracers were used in order to study the dragging of sands in a section of the Amacuzac River, in its youth stage at present. This stage is characterized by its great transportation capacity of sands, pebbles and limes. This experiment was carried out during the months of October to December 1975 and 400 mCi of Chrome-51 were used, placed in 0.5 kg sand, an amount arbitrarily established. The quantitative analysis were based on the Acumulated Diagrams of Transportation, obtaining an intermediate displacement about 91 m. of the material of at a transportation rate of 7.5m/day. The latter value was estimated, assuming 15m3/sec. as the minimum liquid vaste to produce the dragging of sands. The radioactive balance method gave us the opportunity to estimate in 10 cm., the mobile thickness of the sands. Thus, the total transported solid volume during the experiment was approximately 1000+-400tons. (author)
Morales-Casique, Eric; Guinzberg-Belmont, Jacobo; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián
An approach is presented to investigate the regional evolution of groundwater in the basin of the Amacuzac River in Central Mexico. The approach is based on groundwater flow cross-sectional modeling in combination with major ion chemistry and geochemical modeling, complemented with principal component and cluster analyses. The hydrogeologic units composing the basin, which combine aquifers and aquitards both in granular, fractured and karstic rocks, were represented in sections parallel to the regional groundwater flow. Steady-state cross-section numerical simulations aided in the conceptualization of the groundwater flow system through the basin and permitted estimation of bulk hydraulic conductivity values, recharge rates and residence times. Forty-five water locations (springs, groundwater wells and rivers) were sampled throughout the basin for chemical analysis of major ions. The modeled gravity-driven groundwater flow system satisfactorily reproduced field observations, whereas the main geochemical processes of groundwater in the basin are associated to the order and reactions in which the igneous and sedimentary rocks are encountered along the groundwater flow. Recharge water in the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary aquifers increases the concentration of HCO3 -, Mg2+ and Ca2+ from dissolution of plagioclase and olivine. Deeper groundwater flow encounters carbonate rocks, under closed CO2 conditions, and dissolves calcite and dolomite. When groundwater encounters gypsum lenses in the shallow Balsas Group or the deeper Huitzuco anhydrite, gypsum dissolution produces proportional increased concentration of Ca2+ and SO4 2-; two samples reflected the influence of hydrothermal fluids and probably halite dissolution. These geochemical trends are consistent with the principal component and cluster analyses.
California Department of Resources — The Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area encompasses the known occupied range of the Pacific fisher in the Sierra Nevada. This consists of an elevational band...
M. Greco; Mirauda, D.; G. Squicciarino; Telesca, V.
The paper deals some important aspects concerning the study of desertification phenomenon that has significantly interested all European countries of the Mediterranean basin in the last decades. The territorial sensibility, qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the risk related to the desertification processes has been valued as grade of susceptibility to the phenomenon in the study area, with respect to the hydraulic and hydrologic conditioning factors. The methodological approach followed...
Bari seashore was place, in the past, of uncontrolled waste disposal. The importance of such situation became evident when Bari Municipal Administration attempted the recovery of Torre Quetta beach. Sampling and analysis in the area showed the presence of quantities of asbestos residues probably coming from Fibronit, an asbestos-cement industry in Bari closed since 1985 and, at present, polluted site of national relevance
The concentration of the elements K, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, Al, As, Ba, Ce, Cr, Fe, Nb, Rb, Sc, Sm, Zn, Co, Cs, U, Sb, Se, Th, Eu and Hf in ground water samples from the eastern phosphate and the southern volcanic area of Syria were investigated using INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and γ-spectroscopy. The concentrations of first and second group elements are higher in the phosphate area than in the volcanic area. The concentration of Fe, Co, Cr, Sc, Eu and Sm are higher in some samples from the southern volcanic area, this can be explained by the occurrence of these elements in surrounding rocks and the solubility of their compounds. The results are compared with drinking water limits from different countries. (authors)
Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Bonini, C.; Casula, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Riguzzi, F.
The Messina Straits, southern Italy, unfortunately became famous after the occurrence of the great earthquake of December 28, 1908, Ms = 7.5, that caused thousands of deaths and severe destruction over a wide area along the Sicilian and Calabrian coasts. After that time many geophysical and geological studies were performed to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the 1908 earthquake, the seismic risk and the geological evolution of this region in the framework of Mediterranean geodynamics. In 1970, a geodetic network was set up across the Straits and was repeatedly measured with terrestrial techniques until 1980, showing a northward displacement of the Sicilian sites with respect to the Calabrian ones, between 1970 and 1971. In 1987, the old terrestrial network was surveyed again for the first time by the GPS technique, improving the accuracy of the coordinate determinations. Finally, in 1994, a wider network was established and surveyed again to collect additional GPS observations from a larger area across the Straits. In this paper, an analysis of the results obtained from the two GPS surveys with respect to those achieved by the terrestrial surveys (from 1970 to 1980) is given. This analysis shows there has not been significant crustal horizontal deformation across the Straits in the last 15 years. Although this crustal tectonic 'quiescence' corresponds to a low seismic activity level in the Straits area, terrestrial and GPS geodetic results would agree with Straits geophysical models excluding any aseismic deformations acting perpendicular to the Straits axis.
Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F
A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and coverage that outlines the area underlain by coals in the lower Blackhawk Formation, southern Wasatch Plateau coal assessment area. The...
Ventouzi, Chrisanthi; Papazachos, Constantinos; Papaioannou, Christos; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis
The study of the anelastic attenuation structure plays a very important role for seismic wave propagation and provides not only valuable constraints for the Earth's interior (temperature, relative viscosity, slab dehydration and melt transport) but also significant information for the simulation of strong ground motions. In order to investigate the attenuation structure of the broader Southern Aegean subduction area, acceleration spectra of intermediate depth earthquakes produced from data provided by two local networks which operated in the area were used. More specifically, we employed data from approximately 400 intermediate-depth earthquakes, as these were recorded from the EGELADOS seismic monitoring project which consisted of 65 land stations and 24 OBS recorders and operated during 2005-2007, as well as data from the earlier installed CYCNET local network, which operated during 2002-2005. A frequency-independent path attenuation operator t* was computed for both P and S arrivals for each waveform, using amplitude spectra generated by the recorded data of the aforementioned networks. Initially, estimated P and S traveltimes were examined and modeled as a function of epicentral distance for different groups of focal depths, using data from the CYCNET network in order to obtain the expected arrival information when original arrival times were not available. Two approaches to assess the spectral-decay were adopted for t* determination. Initially, an automated approach was used, where t* was automatically calculated from the slope of the acceleration spectrum, assuming an ω2 source model for frequencies above the corner frequency, fc. Estimation of t* was performed in the frequency band of 0.2 to 25 Hz, using only spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 3 for a frequency range of at least 4Hz for P-waves and 1Hz for S-waves, respectively. In the second approach, the selection of the linearly-decaying part of the spectra where t* was calculated, was
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and point coverage of 627 data points used in the assessment of coal in the southern Piceance Basin study area. Information in this file...
... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Southern Oahu ports. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on or...
Roberta Infascelli; Salvatore Faugno; Stefania Pindozzi; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia
Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European D...
Haugeberg, Glenn; Hansen, Inger Johanne W.; Skarpaas, Tone; Noraas, Sølvi; Kjelland, Vivian
Background: Despite Southern Norway is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis there is a lack of data on Lyme arthritis (LA). In the literature controversies exist if acute LA can develop into chronic arthritis. Our objective was to identify and characterize patients with LA in Southern Norway and explore disease course after antibiotic treatment.Methods: Patients aged 20 years or older with arthritis and a positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi infection (IgG and/or IgM) suspected of havin...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.
The troposphere is subject to continuous inputs, production and removal processes of ozone and its precursors from natural processes and human activities acting together within a very complex system. In order to assess the behaviour of background ozone in the Mediterranean area, a description of trends, seasonal and diurnal behaviours of free tropospheric ozone is provided. In the Mediterranean area and southern Europe the background tropospheric ozone concentration appears significantly affected by three main air mass transport processes: (i) transport of polluted air masses on regional and long-range scales, (ii) downward transport of stratospheric air masses, and (iii) transport of mineral dust from the Sahara desert. In this review of the literature of the last two decades, we present an overview of these phenomena, mainly monitored at high baseline mountain stations representative of background atmospheric conditions. - How background ozone is influenced by vertical and horizontal transport processes in the southern Europe and the Mediterranean area.
Sparrenbom, Charlotte J.; Bennike, Ole; Fredh, Daniel; Randsalu-Wendrup, Linda; Zwartz, Dan; Ljung, Karl; Björck, Svante; Lambeck, Kurt
In this paper we present new relative sea-level data from southern Greenland, a key area for understanding the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) response to climate change. Within fourteen lakes and marine lagoons from the inner part of Bredefjord (Nordre Sermilik) in southern Greenland, isolations revealed by stratigraphic and palaeoecological analyses are dated and relative sea levels reconstructed. Due to coastal emergence caused by the GIS retreat within the area, the relative sea-level fell rapidly in the early Holocene between at least c. 9600 and c. 7300 cal. yrs BP attaining a rate of 2 cm per year between 9600 and 8000 cal. yrs BP. Spatial variability in relative sea-level changes is show for southern Greenland from a comparison with the Nanortalik and the Qaqortoq areas. The regression occurred about 2000 years later in the inner Bredefjord area, compared to the Nanortalik area, and about 1000 years later compared to the Qaqortoq area. This is a consequence of earlier deglaciation in areas located at the outer coast. Between c. 8000 cal. yrs BP and the present day, relative sea level was lower than today. The lowest relative sea level in the Inner Bredefjord area of between -5.4 and -15 m a.h.a.t. (above highest astronomical tide) was reached between 7000 and 1000 cal. yrs BP. The neoglacial readvance together with the collapse of the Laurentide peripheral bulge is probably responsible for the transgression in the Inner Bredefjord area, as has been indicated from the nearby sites Qaqortoq and Nanortalik. Our relative sea-level reconstructions showing spatial variability within southern Greenland have implications for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling and the understanding of the GIS ice sheet dynamics. The early Holocene regression is consistent with the recession of the southern sector of the GIS from the shelf edge at c. 22 000 cal. yrs BP, reaching inland of the present day outer coast by c. 12 000 cal. yrs BP, and its present margin by c. 10 500
Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Salyapongse, Sirot; Sardsud, Apsorn
A Lower Devonian (Emsian) tentaculite fauna including Nowakia acuaria [Richer, R., 1854. Thüringische Tentaculiten. Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. 6, 275-290] occurs in black shale in the basal part of a siliciclastic sequence exposed north of Satun, southern peninsular Thailand. Similar tentaculite beds with Nowakia have been reported from several areas in the Fang, Sri Sawat, and Trang areas of Thailand, the Langkawi Islands and the Mahang-Baling areas of Malaysia. The depositional environments in which the tentaculite-bearing black shale accumulated extended from modern northern Thailand to northwestern Malaysia during the Early Devonian (Emsian).
G. Colangelo; V. Lapenna; L. Telesca
Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy) installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with lo...
G. Colangelo; Lapenna, V.; Telesca, L.
Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy) installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with local seismicity. To...
Orlando Fernández Aquino; Vânia Maria de Oliveira Vieira; Marilene Ribeiro Resende; Maria Célia Borges
The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of r...
Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite fur...
Dudensing, Rebekka M.; Barkley, David L.
The concept of regional competitiveness is increasingly popular among academics and policymakers as indicated by reports that rank or grade regional economies. Competitiveness in these studies generally is measured by growth rates in population, employment, and per capita income. This paper explores the relationships between New Economy development policies (innovation, entrepreneurship, and human capital development) and changes in competitiveness outcomes for Southern metropolitan areas. Ou...
Leth, J.O.; Novak, B.
Following the proposal of the offshore Anholt wind-farm project with an energy capacity of 400 megawatt in the Kattegat, southern Scandinavia, an evaluation of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface of the area is required. As a first step to map the seabed geology the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey which, together with cone penetration tests and data from boreholes, lead to a greater understanding of the geological architecture and development of the 144 km2 survey area. (original)
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundaries of the Statistical Reporting Area in the Southern Ocean 1 Figure 1 to Subpart G of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... in the Southern Ocean EC01JY91.072...
Sun, Xiaoyi; Tang, Qing; Xu, Yong; DANG, Lijuan
The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western Chinaâ€™s agricultural structure adjustment, and itâ€™s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area. This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention. On this basis, the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agr...
R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson
An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain.
Full Text Available The feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis have been studied in several areas in South America. In Brazil, the studies are concentrated on the species’ feeding habits in fresh water ecosystems. Different authors reported the use of marine waters by L. longicaudis, although fresh water ecosystems were found to be the main environment providing food for this species. In the Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim in Southern Brazil, the marine environment proved to be the main feeding habitat for L. longicaudis. Fish and crustaceans are the main prey groups. Four fish families were identified and the Scianidae represents 85% of the prey. Intensive use of the coastal areas and lack of knowledge on the otters’ use of these environments can compromise its conservation in Santa Catarina coastal habitats.
Reserves of livestock breeding development in the mostly polluted southern areas of Gomel region are determined. Because of cut on cows' dryness, calves losses due to forced slaughter and culling, efficiency growth of feeds usage in the branch there is a possibility of decreasing the prime cost of animal breeding produce in husbandries of Hoyninki, Narovliani and Bragin regions, correspondingly, at 23,5%, 19,4 and 19,3%. Costs of losses in 2008 in these regions made 13,8 billion rubles
Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs
AN YanFen; HAN ZhuJun; WAN JingLin
The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province.In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFTSolve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples.The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau.The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma.The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east.The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma.As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the eastern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma).It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.
Full Text Available Due to its significant importance in the history of the occupation of Southern Brazil, the mixed rain forest, particularly in the Planalto Norte Catarinense, was subjected to intense exploitation as well as the replacement of its original vegetation cover by pasture and agricultural areas. Nowadays, it suffers another great impact which is the homogeneous reforestation with species of Pinus. The present situation is characterized by the need for restoration of the local landscape’s connectivity, which means restoring degraded riverine areas by repairing the connectivity between original fragments and areas to be restored. This study investigated the role of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved adjacent riverine fragments and the efficiency of nucleation procedures in the restoration of degraded riverine areas in Pinus taeda L. producing farms. Samples of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved fragments were collected and techniques of soil transposition and artificial perches were applied in the open degraded areas. The riverine areas demonstrated the potential to initiate the secondary succession process, allowing the formation of initial succession stages. The use of nucleation procedures showed the possibility of accelerating the succession process and indicated the importance of establishing linkage points between open areas and conserved remnants.
Lucinda L Douglass
Full Text Available An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided.
Driraa, Z.; Kmiha-Megdichea, S.; Sahnounb, H.; Hammamic, A.; Allouched, N.; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadia, H.
The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal ar...
Full Text Available The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external noise, related to anthropic activities and meteoclimatic parameters, and pick out the anomalies from the residual series. Finally we show the preliminary results of the correlation between the anomalies in the time patterns of self-potential data and the earthquakes which occurred in the area.
Coronato, Andrea; Ercolano, Bettina; Corbella, Hugo; Tiberi, Pedro
We describe the Pleistocene evolution of the landscape in the Laguna Potrok Aike area in southern Patagonia, Argentina, based on a geomorphological survey. Basaltic eruptions generated tablelands and scoria cones between the Late Miocene and Middle Pleistocene, and phreatomagmatic eruptions produced maars during Middle and Late Pleistocene time. The first glaciations during the Early Pleistocene generated a gently undulating to flat landscape that was affected by cryogenic processes; they are documented but not dated. Outwash surfaces indicate that the Greatest Patagonian Glaciation was multi-phased. The eruption that produced Potrok Aike maar truncated terrace levels dating to a Middle Pleistocene glaciation. The abundance of maars dating to this time may be linked to large amounts of water associated with meltwater streams and permafrost. The landscape in the Potrok Aike area has changed little since the Middle Pleistocene and only minor modifications of landforms have occurred due to cryogenesis, moderate fluvial incision, mass wasting and eolian activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A phlebotomine sand fly was noticed in the second floor of an old building in a highly urbanized area of southern Italy. A short-term entomological survey was carried out in the subsequent weeks to this event, allowing the collection of additional phlebotomine sand flies that were later identified as Phlebotomus papatasi. We assessed the genetic variability among P. papatasi sequences obtained in this study and those available from Italy using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA fragment (from cytochrome b gene to NADH1 and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 as genetic markers. Results From 9 June to 19 July, eight males and seven females (two blood-fed of P. papatasi were collected in the old town of Bari (southern Italy. The insects were found near the bed and in the bathroom and potential blood sources (e.g., pigeons and dogs for them were common in the neighbourhood. Again, five females of P. papatasi collected in Valenzano, another urban area in the province of Bari, were also identified and included in the genetic study. The mtDNA sequences (945 bp obtained from Bari and Valenzano were identical except for a single transition (T ↔ C at the 793 nucleotide residue. Pairwise comparison of the last 440 bp of the mtDNA fragment analyzed herein with other sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation ranging from 0.2 to 1.3%. Three ITS2 sequence types were detected within specimens collected in Valenzano, one of them identical to that from Bari. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 sequences of P. papatasi from Italy revealed a nucleotide variation up to 1.8%. Conclusions This study reports the occurrence of P. papatasi in an urban area of southern Italy and shows a low nucleotide difference among ITS2 and mtDNA sequences of this species available from Italy. The presence of P. papatasi in urban areas might represent a risk for human health, particularly for the potential transmission of sandfly fever viruses.
Ben-David, Ram; Eyal, Yehuda; Zilberman, Ezra; Bowman, Dan
The geomorphic evolution of Makhtesh Ramon, a feather-shaped erosional valley, and the Nahal Neqarot drainage system to the south occurred largely in response to tectonic activity along the Dead Sea Rift and its western shoulder. Remnants of Miocene clastic sediments (Hazeva Formation) deposited on an erosional peneplain that formed over this area during the Oligocene epoch provide a datum plane for reconstructing subsequent fluvial evolution. These clastic remnants are presently located on the shoulders of Makhtesh Ramon at various elevations. The peneplain truncating the Makhtesh Ramon block has been tilted 0.7% northeastward since the Pliocene epoch (post-Hazeva Formation), whereas that of the Neqarot syncline, south of the Ramon, has been tilted 1.2%. The elliptical exposure of friable Lower Cretaceous sandstone, exposed in the core of the truncated Ramon structure, governed the development of a new ENE directed (riftward) drainage system through capture of streams that previously drained toward the Mediterranean Sea to the northwest. Incised fluvial gaps in the southern rim of Makhtesh Ramon and alluvial fan relicts within Makhtesh Ramon attest to original drainage into the Makhtesh from the south. Remnants of the Plio-Pleistocene Arava Conglomerate on the eastern end of the Neqarot syncline contain clasts from rocks exposed within Makhtesh Ramon, also indicating that streams flowed into the Makhtesh from the southern Neqarot block through the western gaps, then turning eastward and exiting the Makhtesh via the next (Sha'ar-Ramon) gap to the east. Further down-faulting of the Neqarot block during Mid-Late Pleistocene time led to westward retreat of the Neqarot valley and capture of the last stream flowing northward into the Ramon, leaving the modern Makhtesh Ramon isolated from the southern drainage system.
Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello
The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure
Roos, N.; Black, C.; Wade, J.; DECKER, K.
OBJECTIVE: To assess critically the results of using three different approaches to planning for the number of general surgeons in rural areas. DESIGN: Estimates of the number of general surgeons needed using a ratio approach, a and a population-needs-based approach. SETTING: Rural southern Manitoba. OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of general surgeons needed. RESULTS: The ratio approach supported the recruitment of 7.8 to 14.5 additional general surgeons to rural southern Manitoba. The repatriation ap...
Choubisa, S. L.; Jaroli, V. J.
A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with sali...
Full Text Available Between the summers of 2005 and 2007, studies have been conducted for five seasons in several marsh locations in southern Iraq. During five surveys, 317 taxa of phytoplankton belonging to six major groups were identified. These included: 204 taxa of Bacillariophyceae (represented by 13 Centrales and 191 Pennales, thus 14% and 27% respectively of all taxa recorded, 59 Chlorophyta (28%, one Cryptophyta (4%, 39 Cyanophyta (21%, 10 Euglenophyta (2% and four Pyrrophyta (4% of all the taxa recorded. The Central Marsh, Hammar Marsh and the Hawizeh Marsh had higher phytoplankton populations compared to all other studied sites. The dominant phytoplankton groups throughout the study area were the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. The dominant species were Cyclotella meneghiniana, Kirchneriella irregularis and Nitzschia palea. A progression in the richness and biodiversity of species occurred during winter. These three phytoplankton groups were dominant in waters of southern Iraq and were responsible for most of the species richness and diversity observed. Generally, sites changed from summer to winter according to the changing conditions associated with nutrients, salinity, temperature, and light intensity. These controlling factors influenced phytoplankton biomass from season to season.
Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat
To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…
In southern Uruguay there are several known occurrences of base metal sulphide mineralization within an area of Precambrian volcanic sedimentary rocks. Regional geochemical stream sediment reconnaissance surveys revealed new polymetallic anomalies in the same stratigraphic zone. Geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in one of these anomalous areas is presented.
Xiaoyi; SUN; Qing; TANG; Yong; XU; Lijuan; DANG
The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western China’s agricultural structure adjustment,and it’s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area.This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention.On this basis,the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area from the aspects of production factors and industry.This paper suggests that the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should combine the regional agricultural pattern and innovative organization structure pattern,demonstration agriculture and market-directing pattern,engineering agricultural pattern and enterprise-driven pattern.The development of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should promote the three patterns,in order to achieve the construction of ecological agriculture and agricultural structure adjustment.
Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S
Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient. PMID:26692382
Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.
The test site selected for the investigation covers nearly all the regions of active and quiescent volcanism in southern Italy, i.e. the eastern part of the island of Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and the area of Naples. The three active European volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius) are included. The investigation is in the frame of a program for the surveillance of active volcanoes by geophysical (including remote sensing thermal methods) and geochemical methods. By the multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data it is intended to study the spectral behavior of the volcanic materials as well as the major geological lineaments with special reference to those associated with the volcanic region. Secondary objectives are also the determination of the hydrographic network seasonal behavior and the relationship between the vegetation cover and the different type of soils and rocks.
Orlando Fernández Aquino
Full Text Available The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of research and publication on the investigative field of Didactics and on the dimension of its foundation, but very little on the disciplinary and professional fields and on the conditions and ways of teaching. It is noteworthy that only a transformative practice can help change the reality of the school, the quality of teacher formation, of learning and mental development of the students.
Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative δ13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.
Full Text Available This work deals with the evaluation of the structural set-up of the southern part of Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez and western part of Gulf of Suez from magnetic, gravity, and seismic data. The utilised techniques including the Least Squares separation method suggest NW, NE, and E-W trends. The trend analysis shows north 35°-45° west, north 15°-25° east and E-W which may be related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea stresses.The Euler deconvolution illustrates that the area is highly affected by these trends. Depths range from 1 km to more than 3 km below sea level and its magnetic susceptibility ranges between 1 to 3 SI units. The 2.5D magnetic modelling and analytical signal techniques confirm the depths to the magnetic sources deduced by the Euler method, whereas the depth to the basement rocks ranges between 0 km to about 3 km indicating that it is subjected to strong tectonic activities. In addition, two seismic sections (EG-31 and MP-70, compiled by the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC, were interpreted together with a geologic cross section. The studied area may be divided into several major blocks along the Gulf of Suez area. It can be concluded that the sedimentary was affected by basement tectonics as revealed by the two seismic sections.
Juan A. Rivera
Full Text Available Based on 56 rainfall stations, which cover the period 1961–2008, we analyzed the presence of trends in the drought-affected area over southern South America (SSA at different time scales. In order to define drought conditions, we used the standardized precipitation index, which was calculated on time scales of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The trends were estimated following both a linear and a non-linear approach. The non-linear approach was based on the residual of the empirical mode decomposition, a recently proposed methodology, which is robust in presence of non-stationary data. This assessment indicates the existence of reversals in the trends of the drought affected, area around the 1990s, from decreasing trends during the first period to increasing trends during the recent period. This is indicative of the existence of a low-frequency variability that modulates regional precipitation patterns at different temporal scales, and warns about possible future consequences in the social and economic sectors if trends towards an increase in the drought affected area continue.
We present first results from the Southern Cosmology Survey, a new multiwavelength survey of the southern sky coordinated with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a recently commissioned ground-based millimeter (mm)-band cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment. This article presents full analysis of archival optical multiband imaging data covering an 8 deg.2 region near right ascension 23 hr and declination -55 deg., obtained by the Blanco 4 m telescope and Mosaic-II camera in late 2005. We describe the pipeline we have developed to process this large data volume, obtain accurate photometric redshifts, and detect optical clusters. Our cluster finding process uses the combination of a matched spatial filter, photometric redshift probability distributions, and richness estimation. We present photometric redshifts, richness estimates, luminosities, and masses for eight new optically selected clusters with mass greater than 3 x 1014 M sun at redshifts out to 0.7. We also present estimates for the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signal from these clusters as specific predictions for upcoming observations by ACT, the South Pole Telescope and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment.
Full Text Available Glacial geology and till geochemistry were studied in an ore exploration project in the Palaeoproterozoic Peräpohja Schist Belt in the Tervola area of southern Finnish Lapland. The starting point for the exploration were numerous Au-Cu-rich erratics, the source rock of which was unknown. The mapping of the glacial landforms was based on aerial photo interpretation. The structure, texture, lithology and geochemistry of the till were studied using test pits. Three sieved fractions together with a heavy mineral fraction of the till were analyzed chemically. The glacial landforms of the area include cover and ground moraines, drumlins, flute ridges and Rogen moraines. The ridges of the Rogen moraine were found to be composed of three different till beds. The surficial parts of the Rogen ridges showed very short transport distance, whilst the lower till was of more distant derivation. Gold and Cu contents in the till are above their regional background level sin every analyzed fraction in the two case study areas of Petäjävaara and Vammavaara. High metal contents in till are associated with basic volcanic rocks and their contact zones with quartzite in bedrock. Metal anomalies in till are usually very sharp-contrasted and dilute quickly with increasing distance from the source rock. The most useful indicator elements in till geochemistry, in addition to Au, are Cu, Te and Co. The combination of careful studies of glacial geology and till geochemistry proved to be a powerful means in locating source rock of glacially transported ore boulders in this area. As a result of the exploration, Cu-Au mineralization was localized at Petäjävaara.
Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.
ZHOU Zhen-feng; LIU Kang; WANG Xiao-rong; HUANG Shi-hong
To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high,reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southem Jiangsu Province.
Ssegawa, Paul; Kasenene, John Massan
An inventory is presented for the medicinal plants of the Sango bay area in Southern Uganda. Fieldwork was conducted between March and August 2004, using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and participant observation as well as transect walks in wild herbal plant collection areas. One hundred and eighty-six plant species belonging to 163 genera and 58 families with medicinal values were recorded. Remedies from these plants are prepared mainly as decoctions and infusions and administered in a variety of ways. The majority (51.3%) of these plants are herbaceous, growing mainly in the wild. Grasslands provided the highest number of species for medicinal use (54.6%) followed by home gardens (25.4%) and fallow land (19.5%). A review of Ugandan and other literature indicated that 72 (38.5%) medicinal plants reported in this study have not been reported previously as having medicinal value. According to respondents, plant species including Hallea rubrostipulata (K. Schum) J-F Leroy (Rubiaceae) and Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Canellaceae) are threatened because of poor harvesting techniques and unsustainable harvesting intensities. Suggestions for future conservation programs, sustainable utilization and ethnopharmacological studies are given. PMID:17720338
Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.
Bonnell, M.L.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Pierson, M.O.; Dettman, D.H.; Farrens, G.D.
This volume contains the findings of a three year study of the Pinnipedia of the Southern California Bight area. The distribution, abundance, movements, seasonality and reproductive status of the pinnipedia of the SBC area are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.
This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area
To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...
In this work the different lithofacies characterization related to the Raigon Formation, located in the southern area of the San Jose Department, is exposed supported by surface and subsurface data. Six stratigraphical sections were constructed considering lithological borehole descriptions to the aim of making a contribution on the spatial distribution, thickness, disposition, lithofaciological variations of this Formation and its stratigraphical relationships with other units
I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is
Change in glacier extent is a good indication of climate change. Inventories for glaciated areas should therefore be made at certain intervals. For New Zealand a digitized glacial inventory including both the two main islands’ glaciers was made from aerial photographs recorded in 1978. This inventory needed an update. One Aster scene (60*60km) recorded 14. February 2002 covering the central Southern Alps of New Zealand is used for the updating. The area covered by the image contained, in ...
JIANG Changyi; BAI Kaiyin; HI Aizhi; ZHAO Xiaoning; ZHANG Hongbo
In the Sinian-Cambrian strata in the area of Kuruktag, southern Xingjiang, four layers of volcanic rocks occurred in the Early Sinian Beiyixi Formation, Late Sinian Zhamoketi Formation and Shuiquan Formation, and Early Cambrian Xishanbulake Formation, respectively. Volcanics of the Shuiquan Formation and Xishanbulake Formation are of alkali basalt series, those of the Zhamoketi Formation are of alkali basalt series and tholeiite series, and those of the Beiyixi Formation are obviously characterized by bimodal assemblage and mostly belong to alkali volcanics. Multi-element distribution patterns of the rocks show continental tumescence characters of interplate basalt.Fractional crystallization of plagioclase led to negative Eu-anomalies of some volcanics and the cumulation of olivine resulted in high MgO and low SiO2 content of some volcanic rocks. The SiO2 saturability of volcanic rocks of the Xishanbulake Formation and Shuiquan Formation is lower than that of tholeiite of the Zhamoketi Formation. Correspondingly, the abundance of incompatible elements in the first two formations is higher than those in the last formation, and the differences can be attributed to the different degrees of partial melting. The intense fractionation of REE and the obvious depletion of HREE suggest that these volcanic rocks were derived from garnet Iherzolite of the mantle in the continental lithosphere. The Ba/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/La, Ba/Th and Rb/Nb rations demonstrate that these volcanic rocks were exclusively derived from the enriched mantle, mainly the EMI type mantle.
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the records of the two Potenza seismic sequences (Southern Apennines, Italy which occurred in 1990 and 1991, in order to obtain information on the upper crustal structure in this area. The hypocentral depths are mainly concentrated below 10 km which is the supposed upper limit of the crystalline basement. The seismograms recorded at temporary arrays deployed during the two sequences clearly show on the vertical component, an intermediary phase between the P and S waves. For the investigated epicentral distances (less than 30 km the delay between this secondary phase and the direct S wave arrival is almost constant at each station, suggesting that the observed intermediary phase might be an S to P conversion at a discontinuity shallower than the hypocentral depth. This interpretation has been supported by polarisation analysis and numerical modelling results. Considering the regional geological structure, these latter have also shown that the interface generating strong converted waves could be the top of the Apulian carbonate platform overlaid with recent clay deposits and flysch sediments. 1D inversion of the travel-time data was performed in order to evaluate a local vertical upper crustal profile.
Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.
The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions. (authors)
The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) has been conducting airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of natural radioactivity in Sweden for more than 40 years. Today, the database covers about 80% of the country's land surface. This article explores the first step of putting this data into use in radioactive source search at ground level. However, in order to be able to use the airborne background measurements at ground level, SGU data must be validated against terrestrial data. In this work, we compare the SGU data with data measured by a portable backpack system. This is done for three different areas in southern Sweden. The statistical analysis shows that a linear relationship and a positive correlation exist between the air and ground data. However, this linear relationship could be revealed only when the region possessed large enough variations in areal activity. Furthermore, the activity distributions measured show good agreement to those of SGU. We conclude that the SGU database could be used for terrestrial background assessment, given that a linear transfer function is established. - Highlights: → Correlation between ground and air measurements depends on activity variability. → Linear ground-to-air relationship exist given large enough activity variability. → Ground-to-air comparisons through activity distribution functions feasible. → Airborne data can be part of a prognostic tool in search operations on ground.
Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.
The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.
From 359 study plots on coniferous forest soil in southern Finland, 232 humus and 359 mineral soil (top 5 cm) samples were taken in 1991 and analyzed for their cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, total S content (humus samples only), and extractable Al, Fe and Mn concentrations in order to assess the impact of acidic air pollution on soil acidity. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Although concentrations of S in the humus layer were 8% higher near the emission sources, it was concluded that air pollution has not resulted in a detectable increase in soil acidity. Mean values for humus layer pH (BaCl2), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation, and extractable Al concentration for the overall study area were 2.9 (0.2), 310 (50) meq kg-1, 48 (12)% of CEC, and 530 (340) mg kg-1. The respective values for the mineral soil layer were 3.3 (0.3), 56 (19) meq kg-1, 13 (8)% of CEC, and 320 (130) mg kg-1. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs
Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.
Unsaturated zone profiles ranging in depth from 8 m to 22 m were obtained by hand augering an aeolian sand cover in the southern reaches of the semi-arid Kalahari thirstland. Moisture contents were rather low (<3 wt.%); in situ moisture chloride concentrations, measured by selective ion electrode following elutriation, are generally <500 ppm. Deuterium in the moisture was measured mass spectrometrically by direct quantitative conversion to hydrogen on zinc metal of moist soil samples. A novel technique of direct equilibration was developed for oxygen-18 analysis. Neither a thermonuclear tritium peak nor a stable isotope evaporation inversion near the surface could be observed in any of the profiles. Remarkable differences both laterally and vertically are observed in most parameters measured between profiles taken a few tens of metres apart. At greater depths, these differences become less pronounced. Recharge estimates based on chloride differ markedly from those obtained from tritium. Although the stable isotope values of the underlying saturated zone are similar to moisture in the deeper sections of the unsaturated zone profiles, the markedly lower chloride concentrations point towards preferential or bypass flow as an important mechanism of ground water recharge in the area. This can be regarded as a benchmark site on account of the wealth of unsaturated zone data as well as the detailed and ongoing rainfall record. (author)
Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib
The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. PMID:26837269
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution mechanism of hydrochemical field and to promote unpredictable benefits to the living standards of local people and to the local economy in the southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Based on the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions in Pengyang County, the chemical evolution characters of groundwater in the plain area were analyzed. PHREEQC geochemical modeling software was used to perform a hydrochemical modeling for water-rock interaction and to analyze quantitatively the evolution processes and the forming mechanism of the local groundwater. Geochemical modeling results showed that along path ①, Na+ adsorption played the leading role in the precipitation process and its amount was the largest, up to 6.08 mmol/L, cation exchange was obvious on path ①, while on simulated path ② albite took up the largest amount of dissolution, reaching 9.06 mmol/L, the cation exchange was not obvious along path ②. Some conclusions were summarized according to the modeling results that along the groundwater flow path, calcite and dolomite in the whole simulation showed oversaturated status with a precipitation trend, while the fluorite and gypsum throughout the simulated path were not saturated and showed a dissolution trend. Total dissolved solids (TDS increased and water quality become worse along the flow path. Dissolution reactions of albite, CO2 and halite, exchange adsorption reaction of Na+ as well as precipitation action of sodium montmorillonite and calcite are the primary hydrogeochemical reactions which resulted in changes of hydrochemical ingredients.
Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.
Within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. During 18 recording months, 648 events were detected. Based on an already published tomography study clustering, focal mechanisms, statistics and the distribution of the microseismicity in relation to the velocity models from the tomography are analysed. The determined b value of 0.74 leads to a relatively high risk of large earthquakes compared to the moderate microseismic activity. The distribution of the seismicity indicates an asymmetric basin with a vertical strike-slip fault forming the eastern boundary of the basin, and an inclined western boundary, made up of strike-slip and normal faults. Furthermore, significant differences between the area north and south of the Bokek fault were observed. South of the Bokek fault, the western boundary is inactive while the entire seismicity occurs on the eastern boundary and below the basin-fill sediments. The largest events occurred here, and their focal mechanisms represent the northwards transform motion of the Arabian plate along the Dead Sea Transform. The vertical extension of the spatial and temporal cluster from February 2007 is interpreted as being related to the locking of the region around the Bokek fault. North of the Bokek fault similar seismic activity occurs on both boundaries most notably within the basin-fill sediments, displaying mainly small events with strike-slip mechanism and normal faulting in EW direction. Therefore, we suggest that the Bokek fault forms the border between the single transform fault and the pull-apart basin with two active border faults.
La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo
The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.
Full Text Available Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha, livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00, nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year. The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should
Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan
Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.
Eurico de Oliveira Santos
Full Text Available Rural property owners open their doors to tourism for several reasons. In part it is due to the failure in achieving agricultural profits. Thus, receiving tourists can increase income, add value to the property, and diversify economic activity. On the other hand, agritourism and rural tourism create new opportunity which does not depend exclusively on agricultural production. Furthermore, this reflects a new agrarian reality, a transition from an ‘agricultural’ to a ‘rural’ economy. The goal of this study is to identify the potential of rural properties in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to develop agritourism and rural tourism as an economic alternative. More specifically, we propose to identify the characteristics of tourism activities at several properties and evaluate the economic viability, employment opportunities and salary growth between 1997 and 2006. There has been ongoing research in this area since 2006 and new studies are being carried out, especially regarding rural tourism property turnover, although they are not the object of the current study. The results of this study infer that the southern of the state presented unfavorable outcomes regarding income and job creation on the farms that practiced agritourism and rural tourism. Current trends emphatically focus on these kinds of tourism as alternatives for developing the services sector in the Southern Half rural areas and, while there is visible potential, it is necessary to develop projects and procure the participation of the government and private sector in order to make tourism in rural areas more effective. There are many activities that can be carried out, such as promoting events and attempting to change the mentality related to living in the rural areas as well as the good use of the properties in order to create a new framework. Evolução do Turismo na Área Rural do Sul do Rio Grande do Sul - Os proprietários rurais abrem suas portas ao
Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best
Mariel Asbury Marlow
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.
Silva, JoãO. M. N.; Pereira, José M. C.; Cabral, Ana I.; Sá, Ana C. L.; Vasconcelos, Maria J. P.; Mota, Bernardo; GréGoire, Jean-Marie
The area burned in southern Africa during the 2000 dry season was mapped on a monthly basis from May to November using SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) satellite imagery at 1 km spatial resolution. Burned areas were identified with a classification tree that relied only on the near-infrared channel of VGT. The classification tree algorithm yielded very accurate results (Kappa = 0.93). However, when compared with burned area maps derived from 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery, the VGT 1 km burned area maps reveal variable accuracy, dependent on vegetation type and on the spatial pattern of the burned areas. Fire incidence was higher in the northern part of the study area, especially in Wetter Zambezian Miombo Woodland, Mosaic of Guineo-Congolian Lowland Forest and Secondary Grassland, Edaphic and Secondary Grassland on Kalahari Sand, Drier Zambezian Miombo Woodland, and Undifferentiated North-Zambezian Miombo Woodland. Fire incidence was lower in the eastern part of the study area and almost absent from the western and southern semiarid and desert regions. The most extensively burned countries were, in decreasing order, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Mozambique and Zambia. The total area burned was estimated at 959480 km2.
The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.
Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes
The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...
Under the implementation of principal functional zoning,further promotion of western development,regional migration,new countryside construction,global warming and so on,the spatial adjustment of regional industry and its structure must be enforced.The spatial adjustment and arrangement of population and economy in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia could create tremendous opportunity for its eco-environment conservation.Based on analysis on the opportunity and challenge of eco-environment conservati...
In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order ...
Briñas Garcia, Berta
Mestrado Erasmus Mundus: Mediterranean Forestry and Natural Resources Management (MEDfOR) - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Cork oak woodlands or montados are ecosystems of high conservation and socio-economic importance. The present work aimed at 1) identifying and mapping biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in main area of distribution of cork oak montado in Southern Portugal 2) assessing how the distribution of these conservation values relates with the distribution of the netw...
YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping
The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.
Full Text Available The present study examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest and vineyard areas in the last three decades in areas occupied by sandy soils in southern Oltenia. Areas with sandy soils in this zone are considered vulnerable elements of the environment as a result of deflation phenomenon that occurs after the disappearance of vegetation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the current state of sandy soils covered by forest vegetation and vineyards, these two categories of vegetation playing a vital role in their stabilization. The results obtained show that in the last three decades forest areas decreased by approx. 2700 ha (11.6% being replaced by sandy soils, while vineyards areas have diminished with 22% (1638 ha, with negative consequences of ecological, climatic and social nature
McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.
1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what
McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH
1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what
Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny
Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824
W Louis Phipps
Full Text Available Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus. We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2 and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape.
Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.
Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.
Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.
Kemp, S.J.; Wagner, D.
This report describes the results of mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a suite of mudstones from the London Clay Formation of southern and south-eastern England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing ‘Ground Movements: Shrink/Swell’ project under the Physical Hazards Programme. The first part of the report gives an introduction to the geology of the London Clay Formation and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employ...
Kemp, S.J.; Wagner, D.; Ingham, M.N.
This report describes the results of mineralogical and geochemical analysis of a suite of mudstones from the Wealden Group of southern England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing „Ground Shrinkage Hazards‟ project under the Land Use, Planning and Development Programme. The first part of the report gives an introduction to the geology of the Wealden Group and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employed (X-ray diffraction ...
This research focused on the Aksu area in the central part of the southern Tianshan. Along the 60 km wide Aksu fold-and-thrust belt, active thrusts reach the surface and offset the youngest sediments. Our research was based on the geomorphologic study that examined the advance and retreat of glaciers cut by thrusts in the Tomur area in the north of Aksu. Our fieldwork revealed that two fault scarps were clearest across three different moraines that represent the maximum of advance of glaciers during three glacial periods along the Tailan River in the Tomur area. The measured heights of the fault scarps that cut the moraines, together with the moraines-inferred age, imply a shortening rate of 1.85 mm/a on the Aksu area since late Pleistocene. This rate, similar to that of the Korla area on its east side and of the Kaping area on its west side, but lower than that of the Kashgar area farther west and of the Manas area in the northern margin of the belt, implies that the distribution of shortening across the Tianshan changed markedly along the mountain.
Ana Paula Lang Martins Madi
Full Text Available ABSTRACTMangrove forests have a simple architecture. They shelter a few number of arboreal species that grow in a saline environment subject to tidal activity. The research objective was to evaluate possible interactions between physical-chemical soil attributes and plant-leaf nutrient concentrations of different mangrove species. Different mangrove species growing in the same soil, and the same mangrove species growing in two different soil classes were evaluated as to their leaf nutrient concentration patterns. The study was carried out in mangrove areas of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in two distinct soil classes: HISTOSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic and GLEYSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic; and three different species: Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. Two subareas were delimited within each area from which soil and leaf samples were collected. Samplings from five individuals of each dominant mangrove species were taken from the soil (0-10 cm deep under each tree crown projection. The data was submitted to statistical analysis using a set of simple and multivariate analysis in order to determine possible differences among mangrove species leaf nutrient concentrations, and whether these differences might be correlated with the soil attributes or not. The results exposed that the nutritional state of the mangrove species is different and independent form the soil attributes in which they grow. Few correlations were found among leaf nutrient concentrations and soil attributes, suggesting differential selective nutrient uptake among species.RESUMENLos manglares son bosques de arquitectura simple que albergan pocas especies arbóreas, creciendo en un ambiente salino sometido a la influencia de las mareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las posibles interacciones entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del suelo y la concentración de nutrientes en hojas de diferentes especies de mangle. Se investigó si
This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.
Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly
Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.
Juan Infante Amate
Full Text Available In recent decades it has been developed a specialized literature on the study of particular features of preindustrial agricultures. This paper, in base to such research line, analyzes the case of olive orchards in southern Spain, which today represent the largest tree concentration in Europe, right in the previous moment to its great expansion (mid 18th Century. We seek to understand the geography of its spreading, its low expansion before industrialization and the why only few territories on Andalusia appeared like premature focus of specialization.
The karst region of southern China is a fragile ecological zone with widespread rocky desertification. This paper describes the rocky desertification occurring in this region in terms of both natural and anthropogenic factors. During geological time periods, the region’s changing environment governed the natural rocky desertification processes, whereas during historical and modern times, anthropogenic processes have been superimposed on these natural processes. Human activities have accelerated and exacerbated rocky desertification. The period from the beginning to the middle of the Qing dynasty was an important transitional period in which human activities began to exert a particularly strong influence on rocky desertification. Since then, the effect of anthropogenic factors has increasingly exceeded the effect of natural factors. The rocky desertification process in southern China’s karst region combines surface ecological processes (including vegetation degradation and loss, soil erosion, surface water loss, and bedrock solution) with a reduction of the land’s biological productivity, leading to degradation that produces rocky desert. Controlling rocky desertification requires comprehensive development of sustainable agriculture and economic development that provides employment alternatives to agriculture and thereby promotes the rehabilitation of rocky desertified land.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shape file and coverage of the top of the Rollins Sandstone Member. It outlines the area underlain by the coal-bearing Cameo/Fairfield coal group in the...
Ladizesky, M; Lu, Z; Oliveri, B; San Roman, N; Diaz, S; Holick, M F; Mautalen, C
The incidence of nutritional rickets in the southern part of Argentina is 8-12 times higher than in the rest of the country. Winter 25(OH)D serum levels in normal population of southern areas are lower than in central and northern areas. To elucidate these differences, we compared the photoconversion of provitamin D3 (7-DHC) to previtamin D3 in two cities: Ushuaia (latitude 55 degrees S) and Buenos Aires (34 degrees S). Ampules containing 7-DHC were exposed to sunlight one day in the middle of each month either from 10:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. or from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The percentages of photoproducts formed were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Previous studies have proved that this is a valid model to assess "in vitro" the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in human skin. Previtamin D3 + vitamin D3 formed in Ushuaia were less (p Ushuaia there is a prolonged "vitamin D winter" during which cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D is absent, leading to lower serum values of 25(OH)D and contributing to the higher incidence of rickets. PMID:7610924
Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.
SHI Jiu-xin; LE Ken-tang; YIN Bao-shu; ZHANG Ren-shun; WU De-an
A coupled 2-D numerical model for hydrodynamic-sediment transport was established and applied to simulate the tides,tidal currents and sediment movement in the submarine Radial Sandbank area of the southern Yellow Sea.With a high-resolution topography dataset used in the model,the simulation reproduced a fine-structured current field and erosion-siltation distribution.The modeled results show that,in the area of Radial Sandbanks,reversing tidal current and seabed erosion occurs within troughs while tidal current with more rotary feature and deposition occurs above sandbanks,which indicates the tidal-induced formation of the Radial Sandbanks.During a tidal period,associating with the variation of current speed,erosion alternates with siltation.The seabed deformation depends on the relative strength of erosion and siltation in a tidal period.
D. J Mcdonald
Full Text Available An analysis of the fynbos shrublands and forests of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area, southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa, is presented. Data were collected at 119 sites in mature fynbos vegetation (>10 years old and at five sites in patches of Afromontane Forest. Emphasis was placed on the fynbos shrublands and sample sites were subjectively located along a transect from south to north across the Langeberg range in the study area. This south to north orientation follows a complex gradient of changes in aspect, slope, geology, soil form and climate. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet procedures. One forest subassociation and 12 fynbos communities were identified and described. A proposed hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is presented.
Djarnia, M.R.; Fekirine, B. [CRD-Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria)
The Cambro-Ordovician reservoirs of the Hassi-Messaoud area comprise quartzitic sandstones, which rest unconformably on granitic basement and are capped by the Hercynian unconformity. Two sequence stratigraphic cycles are identified: a lower cycle of lowstand, transgressive and highstand deposits, and an upper cycle in which only lowstand deposits are preserved below the Hercynian unconformity. Petrographic and scanning electron microscope studies were conducted in two wells in the southern Hassi Messaoud area on five sandstone units. Reservoir quality is found to bear a strong relationship to clay content and mineralogy. Comparative diagenetic studies carried out within both the oil-bearing and the water-bearing parts of the reservoirs have determined that all the secondary processes occurred under freely operating diagenesis, pre-dating oil emplacement in the structure. (author)
Terminal moraines and outwash plains associated with Loopline Formation glaciogenic deposits near Kumara in the Taramakau River valley, north Westland, have long been regarded as key morphostratigraphic representations of the early phase of the Otira Glaciation, correlated with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Recently published cosmogenic dates and soil stratigraphic studies indicate that moraines and outwash plains in the Loopline type area were formed during the later phase of the Otira Glaciation at c. 25 cal kyr BP, and therefore do not equate with the early Otira Glaciation. Beryllium-10 dating of Balmoral Formation moraines at Lake Pukaki, on the eastern side of the Southern Alps, indicates an age of c. 65 kyr BP, confirming deposition during the early Otira Glaciation and correlation with MIS 4. The Balmoral moraines and proximal outwash plains at Lake Pukaki are therefore proposed as a new reference area for the early Otira Glaciation. (author).
Bogoch, Ron; Avigad, Dov; Weissbrod, Tuvia
The Roded quartz diorite of southern Israel formed by fractional crystallization of source magma probably derived from melting in a subduction zone slab. There is little evidence of either magma mixing or large-scale crustal contamination. Metamorphic xenoliths derive from either nearby country-rock or from sources at depth. Enclaves with igneous textures are mafic micro-granular enclaves with the geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline I-type plutons. The granite, wholly contained within the quartz diorite, formed in irregularly spaced "pockets" near the end of quartz diorite crystallization from a late-stage residual liquid. The granite retains certain of the I-type characteristics of the quartz diorite. The aplitic nature of the granite bodies suggests initially high nucleation rates coupled with rapid cooling, the micro-shear veinlets having formed from high pressures in a late, volatile- and H 2O-rich phase.
Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.
Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of
Principal findings of this study that are pertinent to an assessment of suitability of the hydrogeologic systems to store and contain radioactive waste in salt anticlines of adjacent areas are: water in the upper ground-water flow system discharges to the San Juan River - a major tributary of the Colorado River. Discharge of water from the upper aquifer system to streambed channels of the San Juan River and its tributaries during low-flow periods primarily is through evapotranspiration from areas on flood plains and maintenance of streamflow; the lower ground-water system does not have known recharge or discharge areas within the study area; subsurface inflow to this system comes from recharge areas located north and northeast of the study area; the upper and lower ground-water systems are separated regionally by thick salt deposits in the Blanding-Durango study area of the Paradox basin; potential exists in mountainous areas for downward leakage between the upper and lower ground-water systems, where salt deposits are thin, absent, or faulted; no brines were found in this study area with outflow to the biosphere; water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh. Water in the lower ground-water system generally is brackish or saline; and ground-water flow disruptions by contiguous faults probably are common in the upper ground-water system. These disruptions of flow are not apparent in the lower ground-water system, perhaps because available hydrologic data for the lower ground-water system are scarce. The above major findings do not preclude the potential for waste storage in salt; however, they do not allow the prediction of detailed ground-water flow rates and directions through this area. 55 references, 13 figures, 15 tables
Elasy Tom A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.
Jaeger, Audrey; Lecomte, Vincent J; Weimerskirch, Henri; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves
Stable isotopes are increasingly being used to trace wildlife movements. A fundamental prerequisite of animal isotopic tracking is a good knowledge of spatial isotopic variations in the environment. Few accessible reference maps of the isotopic landscape ("isoscapes") are available for marine predators. Here, we validate for the first time an isotopic gradient for higher trophic levels by using a unique combination of a large number of satellite-tracks and subsequent blood plasma isotopic signatures from a wide-ranging oceanic predator. The plasma δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of wandering albatrosses (n = 45) were highly and positively correlated to the Southern Ocean latitudes at which the satellite-tracked individuals foraged. The well-defined latitudinal baseline carbon isoscapes in the Southern Ocean is thus reflected in the tissue of consumers, but with a positive shift due to the cumulative effect of a slight (13)C-enrichment at each trophic level. The data allowed us to estimate the carbon isotopic position of the main oceanic fronts in the area, and thus to delineate robust isoscapes of the main foraging zones for top predators. The plasma δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were positively and linearly correlated, thus suggesting that latitudinal isoscapes also occur for δ(15)N at the base of the food web in oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean. The combination of device deployments with sampling of relevant tissues for isotopic analysis appears to be a powerful tool for investigating consumers' isoscapes at various spatio-temporal scales. PMID:21072802
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage and shapefile that defines areas that are underlain by the Osiris Tuff and Wasatch Fm. (Tert.), Pine Hollow Fm. (Tert.?), Canaan Peak Fm....
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — For each of the four Miocene sequences, polygons representing producing areas within fields were created by constructing a grid of ¼ sq. mi. cells and proximal...
Based on the survey data from the program Multidisciplinary Expedition to Nansha Islands Sea Area, the distribution of dissolved inorganic phosphate ( PO43--P ) in the sea water of Nansha Islands Sea Area is comprehensively analyzed in this paper. The results show that PO43--P concentration in the sea water of southeastern Nansha Islands Sea Area is commonly higher than that in the other sea areas; the vertical distribution of PO43--P concentration varies inconspicuously in different seasons; the concentration of PO43--P increases with water depth and changes most greatly in the layer of 50 ～ 100 m. The diurnal variation of PO43--P concentration differs in different seasons and at different observation stations. The distribution and variation of PO43--P concentration result from the physical and biological processes together.
Morales, M. S.; Carilla, J.; Grau, H. R.; Villalba, R.
Size fluctuations in endorheic lakes in northwestern Argentina (NWA) and southwestern Bolivia (SWB) are very sensitive to basin hydrological balances, and consequently, very vulnerable to deleterious effects from climatic changes. The management of these water resources and their biodiversity requires a comprehensive knowledge of their natural variability over multiple timescales. In this study, we present a multi-century reconstruction of past lake-area fluctuations in NWA and SWB. The evidence used to develop and validate this reconstruction includes satellite images and a century-long tree-ring record from P. tarapacana. Inter-annual fluctuations in lake area of nine lakes were quantified based on Landsat satellite images over the period 1975 to 2009. A regional P. tarapacana tree-ring chronology, composite from two sampling sites, was used as predictors in a regression model to reconstruct the mean annual (January-December) lake area from the nine lakes. The reconstruction model captures 62 % of the total variance in lake-area fluctuations and shows adequate levels of cross-validation. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 601 years and characterizes the occurrence of annual to multi-decadal lake area fluctuations and its main oscillation modes of variability. Our reconstruction points out that the late 20th century decrease in lake area was exceptional over the period 1407-2007; a persistent negative trend in lake area is clear in the reconstruction and consistent with glacier retreat and other climate proxies from the Altiplano and the tropical Andes. Since the mid 1970s, the Vilama-Coruto lake system recorded an accelerated decrease in area consistent with an increasing recurrence of extremely small lake-area events. Throughout the 601 years, the reconstruction provides valuable information about spatial and temporal stabilities of the relationships between changes in lake area, ENSO, and PDO, highlighting the Pacific influence over most modes
Gustavo André Colombo; Aurélio Vaz-de-Melo; Markus Taubinger; Wilma Dias Santana; Júlio Cesar DoVale
The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista an...
Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Morrice, Margaret G; Robertson, Kelly M; Möller, Luciana M
Understanding the degree of genetic exchange between subspecies and populations is vital for the appropriate management of endangered species. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have two recognized Southern Hemisphere subspecies that show differences in geographic distribution, morphology, vocalizations and genetics. During the austral summer feeding season, the Antarctic blue whale (B. m. intermedia) is found in polar waters and the pygmy blue whale (B. m. brevicauda) in temperate waters. Here, we genetically analyzed samples collected during the feeding season to report on several cases of hybridization between the two recognized blue whale Southern Hemisphere subspecies in a previously unconfirmed sympatric area off Antarctica. This means the pygmy blue whales using waters off Antarctica may migrate and then breed during the austral winter with the Antarctic subspecies. Alternatively, the subspecies may interbreed off Antarctica outside the expected austral winter breeding season. The genetically estimated recent migration rates from the pygmy to Antarctic subspecies were greater than estimates of evolutionary migration rates and previous estimates based on morphology of whaling catches. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the methods or an increase in the proportion of pygmy blue whales off Antarctica within the last four decades. Potential causes for the latter are whaling, anthropogenic climate change or a combination of these and may have led to hybridization between the subspecies. Our findings challenge the current knowledge about the breeding behaviour of the world's largest animal and provide key information that can be incorporated into management and conservation practices for this endangered species. PMID:23137299
Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J
A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed. PMID:24431582
Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 is one of the least known Brazilian marsupials with respect to its feeding habits. Since the white-eared opossum is omnivorous, it occupies several niches and may be found in urban areas as well as in forest fragments. Current analysis aimed at determining and comparing the diet of D. albiventris in two periurban areas of the municipality of Viamão, a conserved forest remnant and a degraded area resulting from agricultural activities. Captures of D. albiventris were carried out for a period of 30 months by a sampling effort of 504 trap-nights. Forty fecal samples were collected from 45 captures corresponding to 18 specimens. Diet was determined by fecal analysis. Fruit was the most representative item, at an occurrence of 77.5%, comprising six species of plants, followed by invertebrates (62.5% and vertebrates (37.5%. Didelphis albiventris displayed a frugivorous-omnivorous habit, with no difference between the sexes with respect to composition and frequency of the items consumed. Since there was a greater diversity of food items and fruits in the more conserved area, seasonal variations in the diet could be detected. Generalist species, such as D. albiventris, may have an important role in the recovery of degraded areas through the dispersal of seeds of species of initial successional stages.
Działek, J.; Biernacki, W.; Bokwa, A.
Various aspects of beliefs, behaviour and expectations of at-risk populations were analysed in four case study localities in southern Poland that were affected by flooding in 1997 and 2001. They represent localities of different sizes and are characterised by different paths of historical development. Two of them are deep-rooted communities with dense, strong family and neighbourhood ties, while the other two experienced an almost total replacement of their population due to decisions taken after World War II and still suffer from less developed social networks. Historical events also resulted in the disruption of local memories of flooding and transmission of knowledge about natural hazards. A questionnaire survey was conducted in late autumn 2006, followed by structured telephone interviews and focus group interviews in spring 2008. The results of the survey and interviews were analysed with reference to the social capacity framework and its five dimensions: knowledge, motivational, network, economic and governance capacities. Network capacities, that is resources of bonding and bridging social capital, were considered a key notion when analysing and interpreting the results. The differences in the local resources and abilities available in each of the localities to prepare a response to natural hazards were revealed. Consequently, challenges faced in the process of building and strengthening social capacity were identified as well as ways to address these challenges. It was concluded that there are general trends and tendencies that need to be considered in risk management strategies, however the different starting points of each case study community calls for different means and approaches, as well as producing somewhat different expected outcomes.
Jackes Mancke dos Santos
Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.
De Ritis, Riccardo; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Ventura, Guido; Chiappini, Massimo
The active Vulcano Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) represents the southernmost portion of a NW-SE elongated volcanic ridge that includes also Lipari and Salina islands. The ridge is affected by a regional, NW-SE to N-S striking fault system. The elaboration and analysis of data from three high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys carried out between 1999 and 2004 on Vulcano and offshore allow us to recognize high intensity magnetic anomalies related to volcanic centers/conduits or shallow intrusions. Previously unreported offshore submarine vents have been also recognized. Some of them may correspond with source areas of outcropping exotic pyroclastics on Vulcano. The spatial analysis of the recognized magnetic anomalies and volcanic structures shows that they are preferably aligned along the strikes of the main regional faults that affect the volcanic ridge. Submarine volcanic conduits revealed by the aeromagnetic survey might represent potential sources for future submarine, effusive or explosive activity.
Full Text Available Flash-flood disasters are common in the Aqaba area. It always has a significant impact on the city and causes immense damages to lives and the infrastructure (highways, roads and dwelling areas. Before the 1990s several flash-floods of medium and high magnitudes were recorded (i.e., the 1963 and 1966 floods. However, low and medium magnitude floods (6-7 and 20 year return period have been a recurrent phenomena over the last three decades. The city and the port of Aqaba are considered crucial to the Jordanian economy and cosequently the protection of the city/port from repetitive flooding is important to maintain future urban and economic development. Since the 1960s all formulated development plans for the city and the southern coast have suffered from a remarkable lack of appreciation and awareness regarding environmental hazards, where 90% of the Aqaba area is exposed to flood and sediment hazards. An intensive post-event geomorphic survey was carried out following a flash-flood that struck the Aqaba area on 6-7th May 2014 to identify the damages that occurred and to recognize the main hydrological characteristics of the flash-flood, the terrain favoring flooding, fluvial processes which initiate large gullies and finally to gain experience regarding natural hazards. Hydrological studies related to previous flooding events indicate that the Aqaba area is exposed to recurrent floods of different magnitudes, associated with high peak discharge, gully erosion, slumping and high sediment load. These caused serious damages to the properties and infrastructure, loss of life and hardship for the people of Aqaba. The resultant large gullies are considered an additional cause of instability and a sediment source which threatened the Aqaba area.
FaustoBatini; AndreaBrogi; AntonioLazzarotto; DomenicoLiotta; EnricoPandeli
This paper summarises the geological features of the Larderello-Travale and Monte Amiata areas, where the world's most ancient exploited geothermal fields are located. In both geothermal areas, three regional tectonostratigraphic elements are distinguished, from the top: (a) Late Miocene-Pliocene and Quaternary,continental to marine sediments; (b) the Ligurian and Sub-Ligurian complexes, which include remnants of the Jurassic oceanic realm and of the transitional area to the Adriatic margin, respectively; (c) the Tuscan Unit(Tuscan Nappe), composed of sedimentary rocks rang-ing in age from Late Triassic to Early Miocene. The sub-stratum of the Larderello and Monte Amiata areas isreferred to as the Tuscan Metamorphic Complex. This ismainly known through drilling of geothermal wells. This complex is composed of two metamorohic units: the upper Monticiano-Roccastrada Unit and the lower Gneiss Complex. The Monticiano-Roccastrada Unit consists of(from top to bottom): the Verrucano Group,the Phyllite-Quartzite Group and the Micaschist Group.The Gneiss Complex consists only of pre-Alpine poly-metamorphic gneiss. The Tuscan Metamorphic Complexis affected by contact metamorphism by Plio-Quater-nary granitoids and their dy ke swarms. Hydrothermal phenomena still occur in both geothermal fields. The Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields are located in the inner Northern Apennines, in an area that has been subject to extension since the ?Early-Mid-dle Miocene. Two main extensional events are well expressed in the structures of the geothermal areas. The first extensional event (?Early-Middle Miocene) deter-mined the tectonic delamination of the Ligurian Units and Tuscan Nappe. The second extensional event (LateMiocene-Present) is characterized by high-angle nor-mal faults bounding the Neogene tectonic depressions of southern Tuscany.
De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara
Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to
Yipintsoi, Tada; Lim, Apiradee; Jintapakorn, Woravut
In Thepa district, Songkhla province, Southern Thailand, parents of children being followed long term from conception for their development (N 1325), as well as health workers of the same district (N 150) were surveyed with regards to anthropometry, occupation, family size, food and leisure habits, and blood levels of lipids, sugar, creatinine and hematocrit. Differences among those of Thai or Chinese extracts (Thai-Buddhists) and those of Malay extracts (Thai-Muslims) were separately evaluated for males and females. The mean age for the group (N 1475, including 636 couples) was 31.5 +/- 7.3 (SD) and ranged from 15-66 years. There were 794 females (485 Muslims) ages 29.6 +/- 6.6 (SD). The Muslim families were larger in size averaging 2.8 +/- 1.6 children while the Buddhist's averaged 1.9 +/- 0.9. Fifty four percent of the group were engaged in rubber tapping and this often included both members of the family. Sixty eight percent of the males currently smoked Differences in measured variables between Muslims and Buddhists were minimal. The most striking however was the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among the males where the age-adjusted average was 51.3 +/- 0.72 (SE) among the Buddhists and 42.2 +/- 0.59 (SE) in the Muslims. This difference was significant even when adjusted for other related variables. Differences in the ethnic groups were also examined in terms of prevalence of risks (hypertension, BMI > or = 25%, waist-hip-ratio, fasting plasma glucose > or = 110 mg%, total cholesterol > or = 200 mg%, triglyceride > or = 150 mg% and low HDL-C). For hypertension (systolic > or = 140 or diastolic > or = 90 mmHg), female Muslims showed higher prevalence (4.5% vs 1.6%; OR 2.82 CI 1.04-7.64). For low HDL-C, male Muslim showed higher prevalence 23.6 vs 8.8%, OR 2.31 CI 1.27-4.22). Other risks showed no differences among the ethnic groups. The differences in parameters or in prevalence of risk between these two ethnic groups (minimal intermarriage) are
Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren
Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741
Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain
Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general po...
Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.
Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.
Lowland savannas occupy almost 10% of the total land area of Belize, comprising landscapes with high ecological and economical value. The most distinctive tree of the Belizean savanna, the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), is valuable not only as a timber resource, but also in forming natural habitats for the local endangered species. However, degradation by frequent fires, anthropogenic pressures and climate change often convert gallery pine forests and dense tree savannas (s...
Gustavo André Colombo
Full Text Available The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista and Yoki. A randomized block design was used with two replications. At harvest time the traits were measured, mass of grains per ear, grains yield and popping expansion. Were observed significant genetic variability for all traits. The three traits showed gains with selection. Thus, it was found that the half-sib families of popcorn have genetic potential to be exploited in breeding programs for the conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. However, future studies need to be conducted to determine which breeding strategy should provide more significant results.
Raabe, B.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plaingeologic province. This area is characterized by low relief, predominantly unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous though Tertiary age. A multiple aquifer system underlies the A/M Area and affects the definition and distribution of a contaminant plume. The water table and uppermost confined aquifer (Steed Pond Aquifer) are contaminated with elevated concentrations of trichloroethylene(TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their associated compounds. The deeper aquifers in this area have less widely spread chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.Cone penetrometer testing was selected as the method of investigation because it is minimally invasive, offers advanced technological capabilities in gathering lithologic data, and offers groundwater sampling capabilities. CPT testing utilizes a hydraulic push tool system. The probe collects real-time data that is processed by computer into soil/lithology classifications. The system can also be used to collect sediment and soil vapor samples although these features were not utilized during this project. Advantages of the CPT system include a small borehole diameter which minimizes cross-contamination of lithologic units, virtual elimination of drill cuttings and fluids that require disposal, collection of various types of undisturbed sediment and water samples and plotting of hydrostratigraphic and lithologic data while in the field.
Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem.The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.
Martínez, José Angel; García Galiano, Sandra G.; Baille, Alain
The study area of Campo de Cartagena, is located in the Segura River basin (South-East of Spain). This basin is characterized by strong climatic contrasts, frequent droughts and floods. These contrasts, in addition to the progressive increase in water demands associated with economic activities, land use and climate change, contribute to frequent water deficit situations. For these reasons, an important component in the energy and water balance is the evapotranspiration, particularly in these semi-arid areas where water deficiency is a major problem for the economic and sustainable welfare. Through interpretation of remote sensing data, applied to the Segura River Basin, indices and parameters establishing statistical relationships are identified: albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land surface emissivity and temperature (LST), and actual evapotranspiration (ET), among other variables. The proposed methodology allows the operational estimation of ET from Landsat-5 TM, for wide areas. Several corrections (radiometric and atmospheric) and cloud masks, were applied to the images. By incorporating a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and topographical attributes, the spatial distribution of instantaneous ET (at satellite overpass) was derived considering a topographical correction of shortwave net radiation. Two residual algorithms were considered for retrieving ET: (i) a single-source model, based on the direct estimation of the evaporative fraction from the analysis of NDVI-LST space, and (ii) a dual-source model, named 'revised three temperature model' (3T-R model). The results from both methods were validated with flux towers observations at satellite overpass and at daily scale (24h). The two residual methods had low requirement of input data, making easier the operational assessment and implementation of ET mapping tools over large areas. The information below a GIS environment will allow the identification of spatiotemporal patterns of water
Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo Borges; Sanches, Luciana; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Brandão, Adilson Amorim; de Souza Nogueira, José
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important ecophysiological variable because leaves are the organs responsible for gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. This variable can be calculated from primary values of leaf area assessed by destructive or non-destructive methods, which is relatively easy when crop species are investigated, but is not the case when the focus is on natural wood plants communities. In this paper, we analyze the seasonality of LAI estimated by three different methods in the Amazonia-savannah transitional forest, located 50 km north-east of Sinop city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the first method, we combine Monsi and Saekis' original method [Monsi M, Saeki T (1953) Jpn J Bot 14:22-52], which measures LAI using the Beer-Lambert extinction law, and the proposition of Goudriaan [Goudriaan J (1988) Agric For Meteorol 43:155-169] to estimate the extinction coefficient from solar height. The second method differed from the first only in the way in which the daily fraction of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (FPAR) was calculated, as proposed by Charles-Edwards and Lawn (Charles-Edwards DA, Lawn RJ (1984) Plant Cell Environ 7:247-251]. In the third method, we used a remote sensing technique [MOD15_BU-collection 4, produced and distributed by EROS Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (EDC DAAC)]. We found that the first and the second methods revealed the expected LAI dynamics, which increased during the dry-wet transition and wet season, and decreased during the wet-dry transition and dry season. From 20 randomly distributed sets in a 1.0 ha area, only 3 showed significant differences in LAI estimated from the first two methods; conversely, LAI was overestimated by the third method.
Full Text Available This work describes some interactions between lepidopteran larvae and braconid parasitoids on a group of plants at two sites. There was no significant difference in parasitoid diversity between the sites (Shannon index, p<0.05, and similarity was 62.5%, estimated through Sorensen's index. The diversity of hosts was also not different (p<0.05, but the similarity of host diversity was only 28.5%. This suggests that the parasitoids have strategies for maintaining similar reproduction rates, population densities and communities in areas with different potential hosts.
Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.
Manish Jain, Rahul Prakash, Dhriti Bapna, Rohit Jain
Full Text Available Background: Self-medications is widely practiced in both developed and developing countries. Inappropriate self-medication results in increases resistance of pathogens, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards. Objectives: Present study was conducted to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with self-medication among general population of an urban area of Sothern Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional community based study was conducted among general population in urban field practice area of Department of community medicine, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan from May 2015 to August 2015. Individuals aged 18 years and above were included as study participants using Simple random method of sampling. Results: Out of total 440 study participants, 324 (73.6% had used self-medication within last three months recall period. The practice of self-medication was more common among younger age groups, male gender and higher levels of education. Paracetamol (73.77% and other analgesics (41.98% were most commonly used drugs. Most common symptoms warranting self-medication were fever (75.31% and headache (62.04%. Conclusion: Rising prevalence of self-medication is a matter of serious concern. IEC activities should be strengthened among general population to minimize the practice of self-medication.
Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Wenbin; Li, Huilin; Wu, Lihua; Huai, Baojuan; Zhou, Ping; Jin, Shuang; Wang, Lin
Rapid shrinkage and dramatic volume loss of the glaciers on Mt. Bogda in the eastern Tianshan Mountains have resulted in water shortages in the surrounding arid regions of China. Understanding ice thickness and its variation is important to the analysis of changes in glacial volume, which are directly related to regional hydrology and water resources. Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier and Heigou Glacier No. 8 are located on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, respectively. In this paper, the spatial distribution of the ice thickness of these two glaciers and the changes in their area and volume are discussed based on a 2009 survey result and comparison to previous investigations. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier was about 82.3 m and the calculated ice volume was 385.2 × 106 m3 in 2009. It had thinned by 14 ± 8 m (0.30 ± 0.17 m a- 1) from 1962 to 2009, equivalent to an ice volume loss of 65.5 ± 37.4 × 106 m3. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 was 58.7 m and the calculated ice volume was 115.1 × 106 m3 in 2009. The tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 thinned by 13 ± 6 m (0.57 ± 0.26 m a- 1) from 1986 to 2009, which corresponds to an ice volume loss of 25.5 ± 11.8 × 106 m3. The greater thinning and retreat of Heigou Glacier No. 8 than those of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier is partially due to topographic characteristics. The difference can be attributed mainly to the greater increase in temperature on the southern slope than on the northern slope.
Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs
Ortiz, B V; Perry, C; Goovaerts, P; Vellidis, G; Sullivan, D
Identifying the spatial variability and risk areas for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) is key for site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the soil properties that influence RKN occurrence at different scales; and (ii) delineate risk areas of RKN by indicator kriging. The study site was a cotton field located in the southeastern coastal plain region of the USA. Nested semivariograms indicated that RKN samples, collected from a 50×50 m grid, exhibited a local and regional scale of variation describing small and large clusters of RKN population density. Factorial kriging decomposed RKN and soil properties variability into different spatial components. Scale dependent correlations between RKN data showed that the areas with high RKN population remained stable though the growing season. RKN data were strongly correlated with slope (SL) at local scale and with apparent soil electrical conductivity deep (EC(a-d)) at both local and regional scales, which illustrate the potential of these soil physical properties as surrogate data for RKN population. The correlation between RKN data and soil chemical properties was soil texture mediated. Indicator kriging (IK) maps developed using either RKN, the relation between RKN and soil electrical conductivity or a combination of both, depicted the probability for RKN population to exceed the threshold of 100 second stage juveniles/100 cm(3) of soil. Incorporating EC(a-d) as soft data improved predictions favoring the reduction of the number of RKN observations required to map areas at risk for high RKN population. PMID:20717481
Rahimi, E; Zaker, Sh; Farfani, M H Dehghani; Araghi, M Roghani; Vafaei, M; Goudarzi, M A
This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of cadmium in two shrimp species, namely, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon caught from the coastal areas in southern Iran. Cadmium concentration was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 91 shrimp samples after nitric acid/perchloric acid digestion. Accuracy of the analysis was checked by various methods including the use of reference material. The mean ± SD of cadmium concentrations in shrimp samples were 0.128 ± 0.144 (μg/g). The cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 0.96 μg/g of the muscle tissues of shrimp. Higher cadmium concentration in shrimp samples was found in summer (significant p cadmium in shrimp is lower than the maximum allowed levels according to International standards, although the concentration of cadmium in only one sample was more than the amount recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, no risk to the consumer arises from the cadmium contents of the shrimp caught in these areas. PMID:22301817
Full Text Available Butia catarinensis Noblick & Lorenzi is a small palm (approximately 2 m high when full-grown endemic to the southern coast of Brazil. Local farmers use the fruit and pulp for various purposes, and this extractive activity complements their income. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships between local people and B. catarinensis in its natural environment. Ethnobotanical and ethnoecological data were collected through participant observation, participatory research tools and semi-structured interviews. The density of B. catarinensis was measured in two areas, each containing twelve 10 m × 20 m plots. Interviewees recognized different varieties of the palm, its phenological stages, as well as potential pollinators and seed dispersers. Eighteen different uses for the palm were registered and three different collection practices were observed, depending on the purpose for which the fruit was used. The mean density in the two areas studied ranged from 38.6 to 7.9 adults per plot. The rate of production (per hectare can be as high as 927 kg of fruit and 190 kg of pulp. The local community can contribute to the conservation of this coastal ecosystem through extractive activities of some scale, with potential environmental, economic and socio-cultural sustainability.
Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty
Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.
Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; De Martino, Prospero; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; Bobbio, Antonella; Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Beranzoli, Laura
The monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei caldera is made up of a dense geophysical network of seismological and geodetic instruments with data acquired and processed at the Monitoring Center of INGV in Naples. As one third of the caldera is covered by the sea, a marine monitoring system has been operating since 2008 in the center of the gulf of Pozzuoli, where the sea depth is about 100 m at ~2.5 km from the coast. The main component of the monitoring system is CUMAS (Cabled Underwater Multidisciplinary Acquisition System), which consists of a sea floor module equipped with geophysical and oceanographic sensors (broad band seismometer, accelerometer, hydrophone, bottom pressure recorder and single point three component water-current meter) and status and control sensors. CUMAS is connected by cable to the top of an elastic beacon buoy equipped with the power supply and data transmission devices. The buoy consists of a float placed below sea level, surrounding and holding a steel pole that supports a turret structure above sea level. The pole, turret and float system are rigidly connected to the ballast on the sea bottom. Thus a GPS installed on the turret can record the vertical sea floor displacement related to the volcanic activity of the area. The GPS has operated since January 2012 with continuous acquisition lasting more than three years and has recorded a cumulative seafloor uplift of about 7-8 cm. The comparison of the pattern of the GPS buoy data with those of the land stations confirms a quasi-symmetrical vertical displacement field of the caldera area. Measurement of vertical sea floor displacement has also been obtained by the analysis of bottom pressure recorder data. These results, in conjunction with the analysis of seismic and hydrophone data, have encouraged us to extend the marine monitoring system with the deployment in the Gulf of Pozzuoli of three new similar systems. We also present preliminary results of the first few months of activity of
Kelson, K.I.; Hitchcock, C.S.; Baldwin, J.N. [William Lettis and Associates, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hart, J.D. [SSD Inc., Reno NV (United States); Gamble, J.C.; Lee, C.H.; Dauby, F. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)
This study assessed the Pacific Gas and Electric Company natural gas transmission system in northern California in order to identify areas where primary pipelines cross major active faults in the region. The aim of the study was to develop measures for mitigating fault-rupture hazards during earthquakes. An innovative approach was developed to account for the reduction in expected surface displacement that occurs as a result of fault creep. Recently developed data on the distribution of displacement across fault zones was used to provide potential scenarios of seismic demand on the pipelines. The study identified primary, high-hazard fault crossings and delineated the location, width, and orientation of the active fault zone at specific fault-crossing sites. Expected surface fault displacements were characterized. The geotechnical soil conditions at fault crossings were evaluated. The expected amount of surface offset was modeled to reflect the distribution of offset across the fault zone. The model was based on data from historical surface ruptures throughout the world. Complex rupture distributions were used at sites where pipelines crossed multiple active fault strands. It was concluded that complex fault zones with multiple active strands can now be incorporated within mitigation designs using the new assessment technique. Uncertainties associated with geologic complexity will also be incorporated within the design. 17 refs., 8 figs.
Geoscience study of the ''Mayak'' area with the aim of site selecting for underground depository of nuclear wastes has run into difficulties with poor exposure of the rock basement and radioactive contamination of the surface. The geological structure of this Early Paleozoic basement is too complex for extrapolations between drilling logs without surficial observation. In this context geochemical data interpretation can be especially valuable to compensate for the lack of geological information, using samples from drilling holes and sparse accessible outcrops. High indicative capacity of trace and rare elements made it possible to identify the oceanic island-arc origin of metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary formation which constitutes the bulk of the territory rock basement. Furthermore, the geochemical analysis has given some additional reasons for detailed subdivision of the formation fitness of rock suitable for underground disposal. More favorable are basic volcanics with regular distribution of chemical constituents. The authors consider less favorable tectonically deformed geological medium composed by more acid or heterogeneous rocks. Such a medium has been distinguished by presence of geochemical anomalies mostly related to subsequent intrusions or to permeable zones of tectonic dislocations
Gallego, Antonio-Roman Munoz; Lucas, Manuela De; Casado, Eva; Ferrer, Miguel
Full text: To assess and monitor the impact of wind farms on fauna is crucial if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Today there are clear evidences that the probability of raptor collision depends critically on species behaviour and weather conditions, and the topographic factors related to each windmill. In our study area EIA were not able to predict this differential risk and in these circumstances mitigating the causes of bird mortality becomes a task of major importance, especially to those wind farms located in the Strait of Gibraltar, a water crossing of 14 km at its shortest distance acting as a major migration bottleneck for Paleo-African soaring migrants. We collected all available information on raptor collision from 1992, when the first wind farm was installed, and from 2005 until present a total of 262 turbines, grouped into 20 wind farms, were surveyed in a daily basis through a surveillance program with the main goal of register the actual mortality of birds. A total of 1291 raptors of 19 species were found of which 78.5% correspond to two species, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In order to mitigate the impact on raptors, and particularly on the griffon vulture, in 2007 a program based on selective stopping of turbines was imposed, in collaboration with the environmental competent authority, on new approved projects. During 2008 there was a reduction in mortality by 48%, which remained in 2009 with a remarkably lower economic cost. An analysis of the temporal collision patterns will be presented and discussed, with special attention to those species suffering higher mortality rate, and to those who have some degree of threat. (Author)
Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento
Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.
Rubio José M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Spain, malaria cases are mostly due to migrants and travellers returning from endemic areas. The objective of this work was to describe the malaria cases diagnosed at the Severo Ochoa University Hospital (HUSO in Leganés in the south of the Madrid Region from 2005 to 2008. Methods Descriptive retrospective study performed at HUSO. Data sources are registries from the Microbiology Department and malaria cases notified to the Preventive Medicine Department. Analysed parameters were: administrative, demographical, related to the stay at the endemic country, clinical, microbiological diagnosis method, pregnancy, treatment and prophylaxis, co-infections, and days of hospital stay. Results Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with malaria were studied. Case distribution per year was 13 in 2005, 15 in 2006, 15 in 2007 and 14 in 2008. Thirty-three patients were female (57.9% and 24 male (42.1%. Mean age was 27.8 years. Most of the malaria cases were acquired in Nigeria (49.1% and Equatorial Guinea (32.7%. 29.1% of the patients were immigrants who had arrived recently, and 61.8% acquired malaria when travelling to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR. Majority of cases were diagnosed between June and September. Microscopy was positive in 39 cases (68.4% immunochromatography in 42 (73.7% and PCR in the 55 cases where performed. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 94.7% of the cases. The more frequent symptoms were fever (77.2%, followed by headache and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.3%. Nine cases needed hospital admittance, a pregnant woman, three children, four VFR and an African tourist, but all evolved favourably. Chemoprophylaxis data was known from 55 patients. It was taken correctly in one case (1.8%, in five (9.1% the prophylaxis was improper while the others 49 (89.1% cases had not followed any anti-malarial prophylaxis. Conclusions Children, pregnant women and the VFR have the highest risk to
Andrew Evans; Richard Odom; Lynn Resler; W. Mark Ford; Steve Prisley
The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species co...
Nappi, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Alessio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Bronzino, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Terranova, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Vilardo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia
In this article the implementation and potential of the Seismotectonic Information System of the Campania Region (SISCam) are described, in particular an application of this Web-based GIS system to the seismotectonic analysis of the Sannio area (Southern Apennines) is performed. WEB-GIS technologies greatly contribute to both the environmental monitoring and the disaster management of areas affected by high natural risks. Specifically the SISCam system has been developed with the aim...
Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.
Parisi, Serena; Paternoster, Michele; Kohfahl, Claus; Pekdeger, Asaf; Meyer, Hanno; Hubberten, Hans Wolfgang; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Mongelli, Giovanni
Environmental isotope techniques, hydrogeochemical analysis and hydraulic data are employed to identify the main recharge areas of the Mt. Vulture hydrogeological basin, one of the most important aquifers of southern Italy. The groundwaters are derived from seepage of rainwater, flowing from the highest to the lowest elevations through the shallow volcanic weathered host-rock fracture zones. Samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected at 48 locations with elevations ranging from 352 to 1,100 m above sea level (a.s.l.), for stable isotope (δ18O, δD) and major ion analyses. A complete dataset of available hydraulic information has been integrated with measurements carried out in the present study. Inferred recharge elevations, estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient of δ18O, range between 550 and 1,200 m a.s.l. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different recharge sources. Knowledge of the local hydrogeological setting was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study to define the recharge and discharge patterns identifying the groundwater flow pathways of the Mt. Vulture basin. The integration of all the data allowed for the tracing of the groundwater flows of the Mt. Vulture basin.
V. Del Gaudio
Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.
Full Text Available During investigation of the Jabal Eghei area in southern Libya and the production of geological maps at a scale of 1:250 000 (Tibesti sector, sheet Wadi Eghei NF 34-1 and NF 34-2, regional prospecting for mineral raw materials was performed. Radiometric survey of observed targets at the sites indicated two significant uranium mineralizations in rhyolites, and some smaller ones in granites that are in close contact with rhyolites. Rhyolites are located in the central part of the investigated region. They cut through granite rocks. The first mineralization is in the central part of the rhyolite region, which is mostly composed of silificated rhyolites. The second one was discovered near the granite-rhyolite contact zone, characterized by the presence of silicified breccia rocks. These findings were confirmed by laboratory measurements of more than seventy samples collected in the area, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of uranium in these mineralizations were found to range from approx. 50 mg kg-1 to more than 600 mg kg-1. The latter value is about 240 times above the Earth’s average. Besides uranium, these measurements have also given concentrations of thorium and potassium. Additional geochemical analysis was performed on samples taken from locations where uranium anomalies were discovered using ICP-MS technique, in which concentrations of more than forty elements were determined. Uranium mineralizations are accompained by increased contents of silver (up to 17 times, arsenic (up to 8 times, molybdenum (up to 50 times, mercury (up to 9 times, and lead (up to 14 times, in regard to the Clark’s values. These results warrant a continued investigation of this region because of potential interest in the discovery of nuclear mineral raw materials.
Bruno, V.; Mattia, M.; Palano, M.; Rossi, M.; Cannavo', F.
We have used continuously recording GPS and survey-mode GPS observations to determine a new velocity field of Southern Italy for the period 1996-2009. We have combined local, regional and global networks into a common reference frame (ITRF2005) and then rotated the estimated velocities with respect to both an Eurasian fixed and African fixed frame. Then, we have provided strain-rate values for the Eastern Sicily, where the GPS network is denser. The results highlight a different kinematic for the Calabrian Arc and Sicily. The Calabrian Arc behaves as an independent block. It has an independent motion with respect to both Eurasia and Africa. In Sicily the analysis of the geodetic velocities and strain-rate parameters shows the presence of different domains with different motions and deformation styles, besides local effects produced by the principal fault systems or volcanic activity. The deformation pattern can be considered as the result of the interaction between the main NNW-SSE regional compression and the local movements of the main faults cutting the area. The convergence along the Plio-Pleistocene nappe thrust front north of the Hyblean Plateau is active, with compressive strain-rate values of about 0.14 μstrain/yr. Part of the regional compression is localized in the Eastern sector of the Aeolian Islands, bounded at west by the Lipari-Vulcano complex, where the compressive strain-rate reaches the maximum values of about 0.65 μstrain/yr (with the principal axes mostly NW-SE oriented). A transition to extensional domains is observed in the Nebrodi-Peloritani and the Messina Straits area, showing the maximum strain-rate values along the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni and the Messina Straits fault systems. We have also calculated the movement rates along these fault systems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...
Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming
A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127 and healthy controls (n = 124. Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5% were the mothers and 130 (51.8% were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1% and 26 (21.0%, respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48% and 56 (45.2%, respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4% and 17 (13.7% of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3% were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3% had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9% used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.
Wang, Caihuan; Gu, Zhenhong; Cui, Hang; Zhu, Honghui; Fu, Shenlei; Yao, Qing
Land use type is key factor in restoring the degraded soils due to its impact on soil chemical properties and microbial community. In this study, the influences of land use type on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community and soil chemical properties were assessed in a long-run experimental station in subtropical hilly area of southern China. Soil samples were collected from forest land, orchard and vegetable field. Soil chemical properties were analyzed, and PCR-DGGE was performed to ex...
Angela Gorgoglione; Andrea Gioia; Vito Iacobellis; Alberto Ferruccio Piccinni; Ezio Ranieri
In the context of the implementation of sustainable water treatment technologies for soil pollution prevention, a methodology that try to overcome the lack of runoff quality data in Puglia (Southern Italy) is firstly tackled in this paper. It provides a tool to obtain total suspended solid (TSS) pollutographs in areas without availability of monitoring campaigns. The proposed procedure is based on the relationship between rainfall characteristics and pollutant wash-off. In particular, startin...
Gerique Zipfel, Andres
The montane and premontane rainforests of southern Ecuador constitute a hotspot of biodiversity (cf. Brehm et al. 2008; Barthlott et al. 2007, Neill 2007). The use of plant resources from these forest areas is a fundamental part of the portfolio of livelihood activities of the local population. Increasing human activity however results in biodiversity loss. The extension of pastures and fields, logging, mining and the construction of roads represent the main threats to biodiversity in souther...
, central Asia, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 1996, 108: 1004-1021.［12］Allen, M. B., Vincents, S. J., Wheeler, P. J., Late cenozoic tectonics of the Kepingtoge thrust zone: Interaction between the Tianshan and the Tarim Basin, northwest China,Tectonics, 1999, 18: 639-654.［13］Burchfiel, B. C., Brown, E. T., Deng Qidong et al., Crustal shortening on the margins of the Tianshan, Xinjiang, China, 2000, (unpublished).［14］Brown, E, T., Boarles, D. C., Barchfiel, B. C. et al., Estimation of slip rates in the southern Tianshan using cosmic ray ex-posure dates of abandoned alluvial fans, Geol, Soc. Amer. Bull., 1998, 110: 377-386.［15］Yin, A., Nie, S., Craig, P. et al., Late cenozoic tectonic evolution of the southern Chinese Tainshan, Tectonics, 1998, 17: 1-27.［16］Hubert-Ferrari, A., Suppe, J., Wang, X. et al., 18 kyr, 120 kyr and 5 Myr shortening rates along the front of the southern Tianshan Mountain (China), Geol.Soc.America, Abstracts, 1999.［17］Shi Yafeng, Zheng Benxing, Su Zhen et al., Study of Quaternary glaciation in Mts. Tomur-Hantengri area, Tianshan, Jour-nal of Glaciology and Cryopedology (in Chinese), 1984,6: 1-14.［18］Shi Yafeng, Tang Macang, Ma Yuzhen, Linkage between the second uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the ini-tiation of the Asian, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(3): 303-312.［19］Zheng Benxing, Glacial geomorphological map (1:200000)of Mt.Tomar Region, Tianshan, Annals of Glaciology, 1986, 8: 209.
This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally
Tarras-Wahlberg, N H
This paper considers technical measures and policy initiatives needed to improve environmental management in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district of southern Ecuador. In this area, gold is mined by a large number of small-scale and artisanal operators, and discharges of cyanide and metal-laden tailings have had a severe impact on the shared Ecuadorian-Peruvian Puyango river system. It is shown to be technically possible to confine mining waste and tailings at a reasonable cost. However, the complex topography of the mining district forces tailings management to be communal, where all operators are connected to one central tailings impoundment. This, in turn, implies two things: (i) that a large number of operators must agree to pool resources to bring such a facility into reality; and (ii) that miners must move away from rudimentary operations that survive on a day-to-day basis, towards bigger, mechanized and longer-term sustainable operations that are based on proven ore reserves. It is deemed unlikely that existing environmental regulations and the provision of technical solutions will be sufficient to resolve the environmental problems. Important impediments relate to the limited financial resources available to each individual miner and the problems of pooling these resources, and to the fact that the main impacts of pollution are suffered downstream of the mining district and, hence, do not affect the miners themselves. Three policy measures are therefore suggested. First, the enforcement of existing regulations must be improved, and this may be achieved by the strengthening of the central authority charged with supervision and control of mining activities. Second, local government involvement and local public participation in environmental management needs to be promoted. Third, a clear policy should be defined which promotes the reorganisation of small operations into larger units that are strong enough to sustain rational exploration and environmental
Marcel G. Hermes
Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.
Field relationships and geochemistry indicate granitoid plutons of the Dry Valleys area comprise at least three petrogenetically distinct suites. The older Dry Valleys 1a (DV1a) suite, comprising the Bonney, Catspaw, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons and hornblende-biotite orthogneisses, and Dry Valleys 1b (DV1b) suite, comprising the Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Dun, Calkin, and Suess Plutons, biotite granitoid dikes and biotite orthogneisses, were emplaced before prominent swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic dikes. Both the DV1a and DV1b suites are time transgressive, with older intrusions in each suite being emplaced during the later stages of deformation of the Koettlitz Group. Younger granitoids that postdate the majority of the Vanda dikes include: the Dry Valleys 2 (DV2) suite, comprising the Pearse and Nibelungen Plutons plus several smaller, unnamed plugs; and the Harker, Swinford, Orestes, and Brownworth Plutons with identical field relationships and enclaves but distinct chemistries. Chemical characteristics and limited Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicate plutonism before c. 500 Ma was dominated by the Cordilleran I-type DV1a suite, inferred to have developed during melting above a west-dipping subduction zone along the Antarctic Craton margin. The chemical characteristics of the DV1b suite indicate large-scale melting of a quartzo-feldspathic protolith lacking residual plagioclase, but containing refractory garnet. Potential DV1b suite source rocks include metamorphosed immature sediments, possibly underplated along the subduction zone associated with DV1a magmatism, or older granitoid orthogneisses. Major DV1b plutonism at 490 Ma marks the end of subduction-related plutonism in southern Victoria Land. Younger DV2 alkali-calcic, Caledonian I-type plutonism is inferred to have formed in response to uplift and extension between 480 and 455 Ma. Lack of DV2 suite correlatives and Vanda mafic and felsic dikes in northern Victoria Land suggests significantly
Lomeli, D.Z.; Aponte, A.G.; Yanez-Arancibia, A. [Univ. of Campeche (Mexico)] [and others
The state of Campeche, Mexico is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. At present Campeche state has two protected areas in its coastal zone: the Terminos Lagoon Area which was declared as a Protected of Flora and Fauna Zone and the Petenes Region which was declared as Special Protected Zone of Flora and Fauna. Considering ecological, socioeconomic and normative criteria along with Landsat-TM satellite images and aerial photographs analyses, overlays of thematic cartography and land surveys, it was defined the borders and ecological zonification of the two protected areas. The ecological zonification includes two zones: Nucleus Zone (restricted protected area) and Buffer Zone (conservation and multiple use area).
Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz
Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alcántara, L., Martín-Carrillo, M., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.
The red culture resource is a valuable spiritual treasure of Chinese Communist party. Through the investigation of red cultural resources in southern Shaanxi Soviet area.This article studyed the important characteristics and contents of the red cultural resources in southern Shaanxi Soviet arear——the spirit of southern Shaanxi Soviet arear. analyzed the strong spiritual motive force of the Soviet Area spirit,and the value of the times to promote the comprehensive development of the economic, social and cultural value.% 红色文化资源是中国共产党宝贵的精神财富。本文通过对陕南苏区红色文化资源概况的调查整理。研究了陕南苏区红色文化资源的重要特点和内涵——陕南苏区精神。探析了陕南苏区强大的精神动力作用，推动陕南地区经济，社会文化全面发展的时代价值。
This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.
The Southern Cross Greenstone Belt in Western Australia contains structurally controlled, hydrothermal gold deposits which are thought to have formed at or near the peak of amphibolite facies regional metamorphism during the Late Archaean. Although the geological features of deposits in the area are well documented. conflicting genetic models and ore-fluid sources have been used to explain the observed geological data. This paper presents new 40Ar/39Ar data which suggest that the thermal history of the Southern Cross area after the peak of regional metamorphism was more complex than has previously been suggested. After the main gold mineralisation event prior to ca 2620 Ma, the 40Ar/39Ar ages from amphiboles and biotites sampled from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing veins indicate that temperatures remained elevated in the region of 500 deg C for between 20 and 70 million years. These amphiboles and biotites from individual deposits yield ages that are in good agreement with one another to a high precision. implying increased cooling rates after the long period of elevated temperatures. Along the Southern Cross Greenstone Belt. however. amphibole-biotite pairs from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing quartz veins. while remaining in good agreement with one another, vary between deposits from ca 2560 Ma to ca 2440 Ma. Amphiboles from metabasalts that are associated with regional metamorphism and not hydrothermal alteration contain numerous exsolution lamellae that reduce the effective closure temperature of the amphiboles and yield geologically meaningless ages. These age relationships show that the thermal history of the area did not follow a simple cooling path and the area may have been tectonically active for a long period after the main gold mineralisation event before ca 2620 Ma. Such data may provide important constraints on subsequent genetic modelling of gold mineralisation and metamorphism. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia
Kent, R.J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.
Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and...
Dow, Rory A
Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed. PMID:27394751
WANG Donghai; LIU Chongjian; LIU Ying; WEI Fengying; ZHAO Nan; JIANG Zhina; LI Ying; CHEN Juying; WANG Yafei; SHI Xiaohui; XU Xiangde
Four successive freezing rain/heavy snowfall processes occurred in the southern part of China from 11 January to 2 February 2008 (named "0801 Southern Snow Disaster" hereafter), during which a large-scale blocking circulation lasted for a long time over the mid-high latitudes of the Euro-Asian continent. This severe event is featured with a broad spatial scale, strong intensity, long duration, and serious damage. During the event, the blocking situation in the mid-high latitudes maintained quasi-sationary, but weather systems in the lower latitudes were active. Abundant water vapor was supplied, and favorable weather conditions for ice storms were formed over the large areas across the southern part of China.The results in this paper demonstrate that the significant factors responsible for the abnormal atmospheric circulation and this severe event include: 1) the very active Arctic Oscillation (AO), which helped the permanent maintenance of the planetary-scale waves; 2) the continuous transfer of negative vorticity from the upstream region around 50°E into the blocking area, which caused the blocking situation reinforced repeatedly and sustained for a long time; and 3) the active air currents south of the Tibetan Plateau, which ensured abundant moisture supply to the southern areas of China.The 0801 Southern Snow Disaster was accompanied by extremely severe icing. In this paper, the data from Cloud-Profile Radar onboard the satellite CloudSat are used to study the dynamic and microphysical features of this event. The results show that there existed a melting layer between 2 and 4 km, and ice particles could be found above this layer and in the layer near the ground surface. Surface temperature kept between -4℃ and 0℃ with relative humidity over 90%, which provided the descending supercooled waterdrops with favorable synoptic and physical conditions to form glaze and ice at the surface via freezing, deposition and/or accretion.Causes of the event might be, as a
Sweet chestnut cultures are a major component of the vegetation in many large protected areas of the Southern Alps. Since Roman times, vast areas of Southern and Western Europe have been covered by groves and coppices of sweet chestnut trees (Castanea sativa MILL.). Having replaced the original broadleaved forest, they used to play a vital role in traditional agriculture. Chestnut cultivation was even more important in terms of producing a substitute for cereals (bread) than for the productio...
CHIME (Chemical Th-U-total Pb Isochron Method) age determinations were made on zircon and monazite grains from granitoid samples in the Negele area of southern Ethiopia. A 611±32 Ma zircon age was obtained from a syn-tectonic hornblende-biotite granite of the Alghe domain. A 453±29 Ma zircon age and a 459±16 Ma monazite age were also obtained from post-tectonic two-mica granites of the Alghe domain and the Kenticha domain, respectively. Since these ca. 450 Ma zircon and monazite ages coincide well, as significant post-tectonic granitic magmatism appears to have occurred in southern Ethiopia in early Paleozoid time. The new CHIME age results indicate at least two episodes of granitic magmatism in southern Ethiopia in the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic, with a ca. 150 Ma interval between syn- and post-tectonic granitic emplacements, and have a important geochronological constraint on the evolution of the East African Orogen. (author)
Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.
Evans, Andrew; Odom, Richard H.; Resler, Lynn M.; Ford, W. Mark; Prisley, Stephen
The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.
Vivien Midori Morikawa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil. METHODS: The fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT were performed on central nervous system (CNS samples. RESULTS: Direct immunofluorescence was negative, but the biological test was positive and rabies virus was characterized as variant 4 (from Tadarida brasiliensis. CONCLUSIONS: Reappearance of rabies in domestic animals warns of sylvatic-aerial risk of infection and the necessity of monitoring bats in historically rabies-free areas.
Francis Baril; Julien St-Laurent; Marlies Hähni; Diane Saint-Laurent
Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 m...
Pirli, M.; Voulgaris, N.; Chira, A.; Makropoulos, K.
On March 1, 2004, a moderate earthquake occurred in the vicinity of the town of Kalamata, southern Peloponnese, Greece. The Tripoli Seismic Array (TRISAR), located in the centre of Peloponnese, recorded the mainshock as well as the large number of aftershocks that followed. Only a small number of these events were located by regional seismographic networks. Analysis of the Kalamata seismic sequence and evaluation of the results is presented in this article, as an example of the efficiency of TRISAR in seismicity monitoring and location in the area of Peloponnese.
Restrepo, P.; Jorgensen, D.P.; Cannon, S.H.; Costa, J.; Laber, J.; Major, J.; Martner, B.; Purpura, J.; Werner, K.
Debris flows, also known as mudslides, are composed gravity-driven mixtures of sediment and water that travel through steep channels, over open hillslopes, and the like. Addressing this issue, US Geological Survey (USGS) and NOAA have established a debris-flow warning system that has the ability to monitor and forecast precipitation and issue timely weather hazard warning. In 2005, this joint NOAA-USGS prototype debris-flow warning system was issued in Southern California and as a result, it has provided valuable information to emergency managers in affected communities.
Hawbaker, Todd; Vanderhoof, Melanie; French, Nancy; Billmire, Michael; Beal, Yen-Ju Grace; Takacs, Josh; Bosshart, Robbert; Caldwell, Megan
Accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions depend on precise mapping of burned area extent and timing. Consequently, fire disturbance has been identified by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program as one of the 14 Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Landsat's temporal resolution and sensor characteristics make it more suitable for mapping burned area than existing burned area products from coarse resolution sensors. We have developed an automated algorithm to identify burned areas in temporally rich stacks of Landsat surface reflectance data using boosted regression trees and spatial filters. For this analysis, we quantified trends in burned area and fire emissions using the USGS Burned Area ECV data and the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity data, the latter of which is known to be incomplete. Both datasets were combined with the LANDFIRE Fuel Characteristic Classification System to assign pre-fire biomass loads, and the CONSUME model was used to estimate biomass consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Both data sets show a dramatic increase in burned area between 1984-1999 and 2000-2015, but the Burned Area ECV included more small fires and fires in non-forest ecosystems. Emission estimates were similar between the two burned area datasets, but were generally greater for the Burned Area ECV. Our results suggest that national and regional scale emission estimates could be improved by incorporating the more complete Burned Area ECV dataset.
Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.
Abou-Zeid Alaa Hammad
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown. Methods 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Results 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 6.9 % among the adult population. We estimated S. mansoni prevalence as 0.0 %. S. haematobium infection was focally distributed at the village level. The infection was associated with non preference of latrine use – if available, use of open water source for household affairs such as cleaning and also with the history of schistosomiasis treatment. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH was also reported as high at 7.8 %, and two species were identified; Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem among the adult population in Southern Kordofan. The estimated prevalence will serve as a guide in developing a Schistosomiasis Control Program and applying treatment plans.
Ana-María González Wahl
Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.
Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H
Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977
Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González-Castillo, L.; Azañón, J. M.
The presence of disused gypsum mine galleries in Candado hill (Málaga, southern Spain) has caused constructions at the western end of the hill to collapse. The mine, which closed in the 1960s, is disconnected from the surface. Therefore, the precise dimensions and position of the galleries are unknown, making it essential to undertake a thorough microgravity study to assess the collapse susceptibility of the area. On the one hand, we analyze the accuracy of the terrain correction and Bouguer anomaly calculation, varying density values. This study shows that higher density values produce more pronounced residual minima corresponding to the mine galleries. On the other hand, the approximate mine gallery positions and dimensions were derived through forward modelling, then correlated with the gravity residual anomalies produced in the hill. Altogether, these results can be presented as a collapse susceptibility map relating the areas containing mine galleries with shallow voids on the hill.
Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m-3) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m-3). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m-3). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Licko Lesce, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach. (authors)
Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo
Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.
Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.
Brito, Barbara P.; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F.; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M.
Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango–Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217
Brito, Barbara P; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M
Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1999. It is described...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage that shows areas in the Kaiparowits Plateau where geologic conditions in the Calico and A-sequences are more favorable for current underground...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1999. It is described...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1999. It is described as...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...
Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz; Jorge José Cherem; Renato Silveira Bérnils
The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe) and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga). Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnem...
Ensor, P.; Findlay, K.; Friedrichsen, G.; Hirose, K.; Komiya, H; Morse, L; Olson, P; Sekiguchi, K.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Yoshimura, I
We conducted the 27th annual IWC-SOWER (formerly IDCR) Cruise in Area III (000°-070°E) aboard the Japanese Research Vessels Shonan Maru and Shonan Maru No.2. The 65-day cruise departed Cape Town, South Africa on 4 January 2005 and returned to Fremantle, Australia on 9 March 2005. After transiting to the study area, we carried out a minke whale survey and several research experiments from 12 January to 25 February. A systematic minke whale survey was conducted in Area IIIW (000°-035°E) from 12...
José M. Venzal
Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.
Wechsler, D.J.; Smith, R.B.
Three techniques for the computation of earthquake hypocenter locations were compared through empirical results of synthetic test cases utilizing four different computer programs. The three approaches: (1) the single event method, (2) the master event method, and (3) the joint hypocenter determination method, were analyzed with respect to their application to regional (epicenter-to-station distances from 10 to 500 km) and local (epicentral distances from 0 to 70 km) seismic network recording situations. It was found that the joint hypocenter technique can significantly correct for inadequacies in assumed velocity models by simultaneous computation of station adjustments. Earthquakes located using the joint hypocenter technique are located more precisely with respect to each other. The joint epicenter location technique was then applied to relocations of epicenters in southern Utah below 40/sup 0/N latitude with the intent of resolving some spatial relationships of epicenter occurrence on this regional scale. Earthquakes in Utah occur in a diffuse zone 150 km to 200 km wide that coincides with the physiographic boundary of the Colorado Plateau. Swarm activity is prevalent where the zone changes from a north-south to a southwest orientation, but except for a cluster northwest of Cedar City, the only major alignments of epicenters are north-south.
Across Belize, organisations are working towards effective management and control of protected conservation areas. There is a drive to look after and enhance biodiversity and cultural heritage, whilst also managing forest and other resources in a sustainable way. To effectively plan and manage this, organisations need to know what different land cover types and resources they are working with, and therefore need accurate up-to-date mapping of each area. The Toledo Institute for Environment an...
Full Text Available The north-eastern coast of Sicily is characterized by deep, steep bottoms, not easily exploitable by trawl fishery. In this area few fishermen use bottom traps to catch shrimps and Norway lobsters. Our studies were aimed at identifying the species’ composition, abundance and biomass of crustaceans exploitable by bottom traps in this area. Monthly samples over one year were obtained from two lines of 30 baited traps each, at depths between 100 and 500 m. One line was placed in an area usually exploited by this fishery; the other line was used in the unexploited deepest bottoms. Trapped specimens were counted and weighed. ANOVA test, post hoc multiple comparisons and Student’s t test were applied on abundance and biomass data, for testing differences between areas, among seasons and species. During 22 fishing days, 23 species characteristic of the bathyal mud assemblage were caught, 8 of which were not considered commercial. Plesionika edwardsii was the most important species, recorded in the whole bathymetric range investigated; Nephrops norvegicus was significantly higher in terms of biomass in the unexploited area. The discard, of slight importance, was mostly represented by the crab Liocarcinus depurator. Spring season yielded the best catches in both areas, showing the highest values for both abundance and biomass
Klepeis Neil E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas
Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y
This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon file of the outcrop and area underlain by the Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) east of 112 degrees of longitude in the...
Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz
Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.
Full Text Available The Val d Agri area is well-known for oil exploration. An old 500 m deep exploration well in the northern part of this area has been used for long-term hydrogeochemical investigations. The well is characterized by a discharge of about 500 L/min of thermal water (27.8°C and a simultaneous methane gas emission of about 200 L/min. Gas analyses gave evidence that the methane come from a multiple deep reservoir. Continuous records of gas emission showed some anomalous variations occurred during the past three years. The gas flux anomalies were in a distinctive coincidence with self-potential anomalies of one station close to the hydrogeochemical station. The present paper describes the interpretation of these anomalies in relation to the geodynamic activity in the area.
The demand for water resources in the area south of the Dead Sea due to continued development, especially at the Arab Potash Company (APC) for production and domestic purposes necessitates that water quality in the area be monitored and evaluated based on the local geology and hydrogeology. The objective of this paper is to monitor seasonal fluctuations of groundwater and to determine how fluctuation in the water levels will affect the groundwater quality. Groundwater levels were found to be influenced by rainfall and pumping of water from the wells for domestic and industrial use. Twenty water samples were collected from different wells and analyzed for major chemical constituents both in pre- and post-seasons to determine the quality variation. Chemical constituents are significantly increased after post-season recharge. According to the overall assessment of the area, water quality was found to be useful for drinking, irrigation and industry.
@@ An Experience Exchange Meeting of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province during May 18～21,2004. This meeting was of great importance to the overall promotion of agricultural standardization demonstration area work, more than 100 representatives from quality & technology supervision bureaus of 15 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and some cities independently listed city in the state plan, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Water Resources, All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives, State Forestry Administration, State Grain Administration, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration etc.
Yahya Farhan; Ali Anbar
Flash-flood disasters are common in the Aqaba area. It always has a significant impact on the city and causes immense damages to lives and the infrastructure (highways, roads and dwelling areas). Before the 1990s several flash-floods of medium and high magnitudes were recorded (i.e., the 1963 and 1966 floods). However, low and medium magnitude floods (6-7 and 20 year return period) have been a recurrent phenomena over the last three decades. The city and the port of Aqaba are considered cruci...
Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)
The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.
The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels
Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.
Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.
Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.
Full Text Available This paper presents whole water column data for nitrate N, O isotopic composition for the Kerguelen Plateau area and the basin extending east of the island, aiming at understanding the N-cycling in this naturally iron fertilized area that is characterized by large re-current phytoplankton blooms. The KEOPS 2 expedition (October–November 2011 took place in spring season and complements knowledge gathered during an earlier summer expedition to the same area (KEOPS 1, February–March 2005. As noted by others a remarkable condition of the system is the moderate consumption of nitrate over the season (nitrate remains > 20 μM while silicic acid becomes depleted, suggesting significant recycling of nitrogen. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the upper water column do mimic this condition, with surprising overlap of spring and summer regressions of δ18ONO3 vs. δ15NNO3 isotopic compositions. These regressions obey rather closely the 18ϵ/15ϵ discrimination expected for nitrate uptake (18ϵ/15ϵ = 1, but regression slopes as large as 1.6 were observed for the mixed layer above the Kerguelen Plateau. A preliminary mass balance calculation for the early bloom period points toward significant nitrification occurring in the mixed layer and which could account for up to 80 % of nitrate uptake above the Kerguelen Plateau. A further finding concerns deep ocean low δ18ONO3 values (< 2‰ underlying high chlorophyll waters at the Polar Front Zone and which cannot be explained by remineralisation and nitrification of the local particulate nitrogen flux, which is too small in magnitude. However, the studied area is characterised by a complex recirculation pattern that would keep deep waters in the area and could impose a seasonally integrated signature of surface water processes on the deep waters.
Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.
Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km
Huerta José M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be
Uranium mineralization in Baixingtu area has typical features of epigenetic-reduction by oil and gas because the ore is with high content of hydrocarbon and rich inclusion, but the wall rocks are of low contents of organic carbon and organic sulfur. The role of oil and gas played in sandstone type uranium mineralization is summarized as following model: oil-gas and hydrothermal solution go into sandstone bodies of Yaojia formation along deep faults, some CH4 in oil and gas reduces and precipitates uranium directly, some CH4 joins the TSR reaction in the solution and produces H2S. The H2S reduces and precipitates uranium, and forms uranium mineralization. Therefore faults and oil-gas reduction are two major mineralization controlling factors in this area. (authors)
D. J. Mcdonald
Full Text Available The fynbos shrubland communities of the southeastern Langeberg. Cape Province were analysed after sampling 97 quadrats in the Bergfontein, Rooiwaterspruit (Garcia's Forest Reserve and Phesantefontein areas. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet (BB procedures. One Afromontane forest community and 16 fynbos communities are recognized and described. A hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is proposed.
Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be key players in the atmospheric processes. They are emitted both from natural and non-biogenic sources. Although the biogenic sources are generally dominant compared with the anthropogenic sources in some circumstances the anthropogenic emissions can dominate e.g. in densely populated areas or during pollution plumes. VOCs are ambient trace gases including a vast group of compounds. Some of the VOCs are very reactive, participating in atmospher...
PENG, Shaoyun; Gu, Zhujun; XIU, Ping
Assessing the effects of vegetation on water and soil conversation is the key basis for research and management of ecological restoration on water-eroded areas. In this study, the runoff depth, soil loss and corresponding precipitation of five plots planted respectively with Pueraria lobata, Lespedeza bicolor Turcz, Manglietia yuyuanensis Law, Paspalum natatu Fliigge, Paspalum wettsteinii Hackel and one control plot were observed monthly from 2003 to 2010 in Hetian town of Changting County, F...
Full Text Available A major threat to marine ecosystems is the establishment and proliferation of invasive alien species. This study addresses gaps in our knowledge regarding marine alien invertebrate species in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve (KBR and adjacent Betty’s Bay Marine Protected Area (MPA in the Western Cape of South Africa, together a potentially important area for south-coast marine conservation. Understanding the distribution and geographical expansion of these species is critical for conservation planning. A quantitative systematic survey of the intertidal rocky shore region was undertaken. The mytilid Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata were the only alien species recorded along the coastline, which included the MPA. The abundance of M. galloprovincialis was significantly higher outside the MPA, and the abundance of W. subtorquata was significantly higher inside the MPA. With only two alien species recorded, the Betty’s Bay MPA and its surroundings support relatively few marine alien species with regards to rocky shore invertebrate biodiversity. Conservation implications: It is important that the Betty’s Bay MPA and its adjacent coastline maintain its current status as an area with relatively few marine alien species. The conservation implications on management require routine surveys of this region to detect early introductions of any additional species.
Full Text Available The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7 and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control, mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4 and Hemarthria altissima (T5. However, the great differences between the
The impact of land cover/land use on groundwater can be critical. Land cover / land use maps give an early warning for planners and developers to protect groundwater resources from depletion and preserve its sustain ability. These land cover / land use maps can be used for the planning of groundwater development to prevent the deterioration of the aquifer. The Research Institute for Groundwater of Egypt (RIGW) has carried out hydrogeological studies in 1990 to evaluate the potentiality of groundwater in Luxor area in southern Egypt close to the Nile valley. The region is characterized by a rapid and continuous increase in land reclamation and development on the fringes which surround the already heavily cultivated land within the Nile valley. This presented a need for continuous monitoring and information updating over a vast region in a short time and at a reasonable cost. This study illustrates how remote sensing techniques can be effectively used for monitoring changes in land cover / land use in an effort to aid groundwater management. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in 1984 and 2000 were processed and analyzed over the study area to produce land cover/land use maps. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique is used for Landsat TM images of to quantify areas which are covered by vegetation. Results indicated significant increase in cultivated areas. Remote sensing results are compared with iso-piezo metric maps and iso-salinity maps that were produced in 1984 and 2000. Comparison of these maps indicates groundwater depletion and salinity increase from 1984 to 2000. We relate this to the increase of the area being cultivated
Costa, G M; Droste, A
The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms. PMID:23295507
Alberico, I.; Petrosino, P.; Lirer, L.
The possible emplacement of pyroclastic fall and flow products from Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvio represents a threat for the population living in Napoli city. For this area, the volcanic hazard was always partially investigated to define the hazard related to the Campi Flegrei or to the Somma-Vesuvio activity one at a time. A new volcanic hazard and risk assessment, at the municipality scale, as a vital tool for decision-making about territorial management and future planning, is presented here. In order to assess the hazard related to the explosive activity of both sources, we integrated the results of field studies and numerical simulations, to evaluate the future possibility for Napoli to be hit by the products of an explosive eruption. This is defined for the Somma Vesuvio central volcano through the sum of "field frequency" based on the thickness and distribution of past deposits (Lirer et al., 2001), and for the Campi Flegrei volcanic field by suitably processing simulated events based on numerical modelling (Alberico et al., 2002; Costa et al., 2009). Aiming at volcanic risk assessment, the hazard areas were joined with the exposure map, considered for our purposes as the economical value of artefacts exposed to hazard. We defined four risk classes, and argued that the medium and low-very low risk classes have the largest extent in Napoli municipality, whereas only few zones located in the eastern part of the city and in the westernmost coastal area show a high risk, owing to the correspondence of high economical value and high hazard.
L. Parras-Alcántara; Martín-Carrillo, M.; B. Lozano-García
The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chrom...
L. Parras-Alcántara; Martín-Carrillo, M.; B. Lozano-García
The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O....
Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.
The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.
Full Text Available The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC, but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC to olive grove (OG and vineyards (V. A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years of LUC (AC by OG and V and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O., in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr, an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011. This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively. With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs, the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.
Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P 1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties. PMID:25863957
Hydrogeochemical investigations of natural and contaminated subsurface waters were conducted between 1992-94 in an area where liquid radioactive waste (RAW) was impounded in a small lake, and subsequently leaked into an underlying water bearing horizon. The waste was discharged from the radiochemical plant of the Mayak Amalgamated Industry near Chelyabinsk, Russia. The underlying water-bearing horizon in fissured metavolcanic rocks was penetrated by uncased observation wells in order to log the hydrogeochemistry. Logging was carried out using a specially designed hydrogeochemical probe, which contained 8 channels to measure continuously the temperature, pressure, electric conductivity, pH, Eh, the dissolved O2 concentration, and the activities of Na, and NO3 in the wells. The logging technique enabled the natural hydrogeochemical setting to be characterized and permitted delineation of bodies of contaminated waters of different origins using measurements of pH, pNa and pNO3. The technique also permitted an evaluation of variations in the chemical composition of the RAW solutions due to radiolytic processes and to chemical interactions with the geologic medium. A conceptual model is proposed for the chemical evolution of the migrating contaminated subsurface waters in the area investigated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Mulcahy, P.; Chen, C.; Kay, S. M.; Brown, L. D.; Alvarado, P. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.
The SOUTHERN PUNA Seismic Experiment in the Central Andes between 25° - 28°S and 70° - 65°W recorded data in a 74-instrument array from Dec 07 to Nov 09 with the purpose of evaluating the structure and seismic character of the mantle and crust at the southern end of the Puna-Antiplano Plateau. Hypocenter locations for local and regional mantle earthquakes from 16 months of continuous recording confirm the persistence of the backarc teleseismic Antofalla Gap in intermediate depth mantle seismicity between 25.5° and 27.5°S consistent with the interpretation of a hot mantle wedge under this region. The best located Wadati Benioff Zone events agree with the subducting Nazca Plate contours of Cahill and Isacks (1992) north of 27°S, but show a more abrupt southward shallowing of contours in agreement with the Anderson et al. (2007) contours outlining the projected path of the already subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge. Another prominent feature in the data is the concentration of hypocenters in the Pipanaco nest to the south of the Antofalla Gap between 27° and 29°S. New PUNA results together with available HCMT solutions indicate NW oriented normal and strike-slip faulting in three general clusters within this nest at ~130km, 150km and 180km depth. Hypocenter locations and fault solutions for the Pipanaco Nest suggest flexure associated with steepening of the subducting slab consistent with the revised Wadati Benioff Zone contours. In an area of little to no crustal seismicity in global catalogs over the same time period, hundreds of well-located crustal earthquakes at depths less than 15km were recorded by the PUNA array. Among these earthquakes are three distinct clusters near relatively young volcanic centers. One cluster defines a nest northeast of the Ojos del Salado. Thirteen new focal mechanisms were calculated showing mainly strike slip and thrust faulting solutions on the plateau and an east-west compressional direction consistent with the only previous
Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora
In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European
Full Text Available The association between cancer incidence and the residence near polluting facilities in an industrial area nearby Taranto has been investigated. Age, sex and occupational exposure were controlled as confounding variables in a case-control study (658 cases, 2092 controls. High risks were evidenced close to the steel mill (OR: 3.54, coke plant (OR: 4.80, mineral deposit (OR: 3.33 and shipbuilding (OR: 4.29 for pleural neoplasm, and to the steel mill (OR: 1.65 and shipbuilding (OR: 1.79 for lung cancer. After adjustment for occupational exposure, increasing trends of risk were observed both for lung and bladder cancers. Cancer risks were evidenced near industrial sites and the introduction of "occupational exposure" as a confounder modified significantly the risks with respect to distance from the source of pollution, particularly for pleural, lung and bladder cancers.
Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137Cs concentration is decreasing. 90Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90Sr washing out. The role of 137Cs and 90Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes
Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão
The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.