WorldWideScience
1

Injectable bone substitute to preserve alveolar ridge resorption after tooth extraction: a study in dog  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a ready-to-use injectable bone substitute on the prevention of alveolar ridge resorption after tooth extraction. Maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted from 3 Beagle dogs with preservation of alveolar bone. Thereafter, distal sockets were filled with an injectable bone substitute (IBS), obtained by combining a polymer solution and granules of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic. As a control, the mesial sockets were ...

Boix, Damien; Weiss, Pierre; Gauthier, Olivier; Guicheux, Je?ro?me; Bouler, Jean-michel; Pilet, Paul; Daculsi, Guy; Grimandi, Gae?l

2006-01-01

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A roentgenographic study of alveolar bone resorption using measurable grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author had performed the measurement of the various teeth regions on 200 cases of Full-mouth roentgenogram taken with the measurable Grid to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption, aged from 20 to 60 years of Koreas, and to verify the effective result of measurable Grid as a new device which enables the observers to determine the correct length of images on the periapical standard film. The results were obtained as follows. 1. It was found that the degrees of alveolar bone resorption were different in the various teeth regions. 2. As a whole, alveolar bone resorption of anterior teeth regions was more severe than that of posterior teeth regions. 3. Alveolar bone resorption of mandibular region was more severe than that of maxillary region. 4. In sex difference, alveolar bone resorption of male is more severe than that of female, and it was increased with aging. 5. Measurable grid can be used as an adjunct of evaluation of alveolar bone resorption and of calculating the tooth length.

Lee, Min Youn; Park, Tae Won [Department of Oral Dental Roentgenology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1979-11-15

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The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

Kali?anin Biljana M.

2007-01-01

4

Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, suppresses inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus flavonoid on inflammatory bone resorption. HMF suppressed the osteoclast formation and PGE2 production induced by IL-1. In mouse calvarial organ cultures, HMF attenuated the bone resorption elicited by LPS. HMF suppressed bone resorption in the mandibular alveolar bone. HMF may protect against inflammatory bone loss such as periodontal disease. PMID:25175163

Matsumoto, Chiho; Inoue, Hiroki; Tominari, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

2015-01-01

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Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were performed subperiosteally on the premaxilla and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluations revealed that all allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone implants induced new bone formation. No inflammatory or foreign body reactions were observed.

Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

1990-01-01

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Prospective study of alveolar bone resorption after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Etude prospective de la resorption osseuse alveolaire apres radiotherapie et chimiotherapie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prospective comparative study of the alveolar bone resorption after teeth extraction was achieved in a series of 79 patients in order to analyze macroscopically the possible consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the toothless edges. After quarterly coronal and sagittal X-rays for two years, this study enhances quite a similar vertical resorption for the radiation and chemotherapy-treated patients as well as for the witness patients. The alveolar bone resorption progression also appears unaltered by anti cancerous treatments. In both cases, a resorption stabilization can be clearly seen after 6 months according to dental extractions. The vertical alveolar bone resorption is more important in incisor and canin regions. The anti cancerous treatments may not have significant disastrous consequences as fas as available bone amount is concerned, on a post prosthetic restoration.

Libersa, P. (Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire, 59 - Lille (France)); Prevost, B.; Mirabel, X.; Poissonnier, B.; Demaille, A. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)); Laude, M. (Laboratoire de craniologie humaine et comparee, 80 - Amiens (France))

1993-01-01

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Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar / Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la [...] distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación), indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática. Abstract in english The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, dis [...] traction and consolidation), indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and complications. A bibliographic review was made by database search of reference systems as MEDLINE and PubliMed using the descriptors "alveolar distraction" o "osteogenic distraction". The published bibliographic sources mainly over 5 years concluding that this technique is an excellent alternative for the bone and soft tissues formation in zones of alveolar atrophy including three stages: latency, distraction and consolidation; being a foreseeable method and with low rates of bone reabsorption compared to other techniques of increase of alveolar ridge. It has its main indication in implant therapy to provide bone volume. We must to individualize each case and to use the more appropriate method according the clinical and personal features of patient. A proper case selection and a better understand of technique are essential to achieve successful results by alveolar osteogenic distraction. In Cuba the alveolar distraction has been not much applied being necessary to expand the studies on this subject matter.

Denia, Morales Navarro.

2011-03-01

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Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática.The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, distraction and consolidation, indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and complications. A bibliographic review was made by database search of reference systems as MEDLINE and PubliMed using the descriptors "alveolar distraction" o "osteogenic distraction". The published bibliographic sources mainly over 5 years concluding that this technique is an excellent alternative for the bone and soft tissues formation in zones of alveolar atrophy including three stages: latency, distraction and consolidation; being a foreseeable method and with low rates of bone reabsorption compared to other techniques of increase of alveolar ridge. It has its main indication in implant therapy to provide bone volume. We must to individualize each case and to use the more appropriate method according the clinical and personal features of patient. A proper case selection and a better understand of technique are essential to achieve successful results by alveolar osteogenic distraction. In Cuba the alveolar distraction has been not much applied being necessary to expand the studies on this subject matter.

Denia Morales Navarro

2011-03-01

9

Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

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Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

2007-06-15

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Orthodontically induced root and alveolar bone resorption: inhibitory effect of systemic doxycycline administration in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of systemic administration of low-dose doxycycline (DC) on orthodontic root resorption. The effect on alveolar bone, the cell population involved, and the amount of tooth movement were also evaluated.Fifty-six 40-50-day-old male Wistar rats were used. Six animals served as untreated controls. Six animals were only administered DC for 7 days, by means of a mini-osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously. In 44 animals the maxillary first molar was mesialized by a fixed orthodontic appliance exerting 50 g force upon insertion. In 28 of these animals DC was administered at the time of appliance insertion and throughout the experiment. The animals were sacrificed 7, 10 or 14 days after force application and block sections processed for analysis. An area including the mesial aspect of the distopalatal root and the adjacent inter-radicular alveolar bone was histomorphometrically evaluated. The root resorption area, absolute alveolar bone area, distance between first and second molars, number of odontoclasts, osteoclasts, mononuclear cells on the root, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells on the root, bone, and in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were compared between DC-treated and non-DC-treated animals. The results revealed a significant reduction in root resorption, the number of odontoclasts, osteoclasts, mononuclear cells on the root surface, and TRAP-positive cells on the root and bone for the DC-administered group. The absolute alveolar bone area was greater, whereas the distance between the first and second molars did not differ between groups. In conclusion, systemic administration of low-dose DC in rats may have an inhibitory effect on orthodontically induced resorptive activity. PMID:15947219

Mavragani, Maria; Brudvik, Pongsri; Selvig, Knut Andreas

2005-06-01

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Are Panoramic Radiographs Reliable to Diagnose Mild Alveolar Bone Resorption?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is extremely important to assess variations between the most used radiographs in dental practice, since minimum distortion on obtained images may change diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis for the patient. For this, the distance between the enamel-cementum junction and the alveolar bone crest was measured on conventional and digitized periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs and compared among them. From a total of 1484 records, 39 sets of radiographs that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study sample were selected. The measurements were grouped according to the intensity of bone loss. Statistically significant difference was found in the averages of the measurements assessed in radiographs with absence of bone loss between conventional panoramic and periapical radiographs, between digitized panoramic and periapical radiographs and between digitized bitewing and panoramic radiographs. By analyzing the results of this work and considering the research protocol used, one can conclude that small losses in height of alveolar bone crest observed in panoramic radiographs should be cautiously evaluated, as they may be overestimated. PMID:21991470

Semenoff, Larissa; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Volpato, Evaristo Ricci; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex

2011-01-01

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Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats.

Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R

1992-01-01

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Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-...

Parashis, Andreas O.; Kalaitzakis, Charalampos J.; Tatakis, Dimitris N.; Konstantinos Tosios

2014-01-01

15

Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed no osteoinduction or osteoconduction in connection with sintered or unsintered Bio-Oss. A foreign body reaction was observed around both forms.

Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

1991-01-01

16

Single-stage implantation in the atrophic alveolar ridge of the mandible with the Norian skeletal repair system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental implants have played a part in rehabilitation of the jaws for more than 40 years, but in some cases they alone are inadequate because of extreme alveolar resorption. Correction may necessitate a two-stage procedure with additional interventions. We have made a preliminary study of the use of the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS), a carbonated calcium phosphate bone cement used to augment the alveolar ridge as a single-stage procedure, with the placement of implants. Ten edentulous patients with insufficient vertical bone in the interforaminal area were treated. After a horizontal osteotomy and crestal mobilisation of the alveolar ridge, implants were placed through the crestal part and fixed in the basal part of the mandible. Norian SRS was used to fill the gap created. The prostheses were inserted 3 months later. Forty implants were inserted. The follow up period was 60 months, and no fractures or dislocations developed. One of the implants was lost and there was one wound dehiscence, but no surgical intervention or revision was necessary. Radiographs showed good consolidation of the bony structure in all cases. We have described a reliable, single-stage procedure for augmentation and implantation in a highly atrophic alveolar crest. A 98% survival is comparable with those of other techniques. Further clinical trials are necessary to replicate these promising results. PMID:21035238

Hölzle, Frank; Bauer, Florian; Kesting, Marco R; Mücke, Thomas; Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Swaid, Sami

2011-10-01

17

Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, pycnogenol(®) , on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.?gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P.?gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P.?gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P.?gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P.?gingivalis with 1?µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P.?gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100?µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P.?gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25336411

Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Hamada, Nobushiro

2015-02-01

18

Aumento del reborde alveolar residual mediante técnica de rollo Increase of residual alveolar ridge using roll technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La pérdida dentaria, asociada a factores sistémicos, patológicos y traumáticos, promueve el proceso de reabsorción ósea de los rebordes residuales y genera problemas funcionales, como la falta de estabilidad y retención de las prótesis dentarias removibles, y disturbios estéticos y psicológicos. Estos defectos varían en dependencia de la cantidad de pérdida ósea y de tejidos blandos que hayan alcanzado. En la actualidad son descritas diversas técnicas que permiten corregir estos defectos. Una de ellas es la técnica del rollo, la cual demuestra muy buenos resultados al aumentar el tamaño del reborde alveolar y disminuir los defectos estéticos que causa sobre todo en el sector anterior. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir el caso clínico de un paciente con pérdida ósea en el sector anterior, tipo III según Seibert, rehabilitado con prótesis parcial fija y sometido a un procedimiento quirúrgico con la técnica del rollo. Se alcanzaron los objetivos planteados y proporciona una mejoría estética así como una mejora en su calidad de vida. Se demostró que con esta técnica se obtienen resultados predecibles que devuelven la estética en zonas de alta exigencia por parte de los pacientes.Tooth loss associated with systemic factors, pathological and traumatic conditions, promotes the bone resorption of residual ridges, this, creates functional problems such as lack of stability and retention of removable dentures as well as aesthetic and psychological disturbances. These defects vary depending on the amount of bone loss and soft tissue they reach. At present there are described various techniques that can correct these defects. One of these is the roll technique which shows very good results by increasing the size of the alveolar ridge and decrease aesthetic defects in the anterior area of the maxilla. The aim of this article is to describe a case of a patient with Seibert bone loss type III, rehabilitated with fixed partial denture after undergoing a surgical procedure with the roll technique achieving the stated objectives and providing aesthetic improvement to the patient and an improvement in their quality of life. It is shown that the technique can be achieved with predictable results that return aesthetics in areas of high demand from patients.

Miguel Ángel Simancas Pallares

2011-03-01

19

Aumento del reborde alveolar residual mediante técnica de rollo / Increase of residual alveolar ridge using roll technique  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pérdida dentaria, asociada a factores sistémicos, patológicos y traumáticos, promueve el proceso de reabsorción ósea de los rebordes residuales y genera problemas funcionales, como la falta de estabilidad y retención de las prótesis dentarias removibles, y disturbios estéticos y psicológicos. Est [...] os defectos varían en dependencia de la cantidad de pérdida ósea y de tejidos blandos que hayan alcanzado. En la actualidad son descritas diversas técnicas que permiten corregir estos defectos. Una de ellas es la técnica del rollo, la cual demuestra muy buenos resultados al aumentar el tamaño del reborde alveolar y disminuir los defectos estéticos que causa sobre todo en el sector anterior. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir el caso clínico de un paciente con pérdida ósea en el sector anterior, tipo III según Seibert, rehabilitado con prótesis parcial fija y sometido a un procedimiento quirúrgico con la técnica del rollo. Se alcanzaron los objetivos planteados y proporciona una mejoría estética así como una mejora en su calidad de vida. Se demostró que con esta técnica se obtienen resultados predecibles que devuelven la estética en zonas de alta exigencia por parte de los pacientes. Abstract in english Tooth loss associated with systemic factors, pathological and traumatic conditions, promotes the bone resorption of residual ridges, this, creates functional problems such as lack of stability and retention of removable dentures as well as aesthetic and psychological disturbances. These defects vary [...] depending on the amount of bone loss and soft tissue they reach. At present there are described various techniques that can correct these defects. One of these is the roll technique which shows very good results by increasing the size of the alveolar ridge and decrease aesthetic defects in the anterior area of the maxilla. The aim of this article is to describe a case of a patient with Seibert bone loss type III, rehabilitated with fixed partial denture after undergoing a surgical procedure with the roll technique achieving the stated objectives and providing aesthetic improvement to the patient and an improvement in their quality of life. It is shown that the technique can be achieved with predictable results that return aesthetics in areas of high demand from patients.

Miguel Ángel, Simancas Pallares; Alejandra del Carmen, Herrera Herrera; Luisa Leonor, Arévalo Tovar; Antonio José, Díaz Caballero; Farith Damián, González Martínez.

2011-03-01

20

Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL Induces Osteoclastogenesis of Periodontal Ligament Cells and Enhances Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-?B activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin ?1 and ?2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL) activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption. PMID:25058444

Lin, Feng-Yen; Hsiao, Fung-Ping; Huang, Chun-Yao; Shih, Chun-Ming; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Yang, Shue-Fen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Hung, Shan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Wen

2014-01-01

21

Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a correlação entre a densidade óssea alveolar inicial dos incisivos centrais superiores (DOA-IS) e a reabsorção radicular apical externa (RRAE) após 12 meses de movimentação ortodôntica em casos sem extração. MÉTODOS: quarenta e sete pacientes ortodônticos (maiores que 11 ano [...] s) foram submetidos ao exame periapical dos incisivos superiores no pré-tratamento (T1) e 12 meses após (T2). Mensurou-se a RRAE no intervalo de 12 meses, bem como a densidade óssea alveolar inicial da região apical desses dentes por meio da fotodensitometria. RESULTADOS: não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entre a DOA-IS inicial e a RRAE em T2 (r = 0,149; p = 0,157). CONCLUSÃO: a densidade alveolar avaliada pela radiografia periapical não se apresentou como fator de interferência ou preditivo para reabsorção radicular após 12 meses de tratamento ortodôntico sem extração. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic [...] patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

Paula Cabrini, Scheibel; Adilson Luiz, Ramos; Lilian Cristina Vessoni, Iwaki; Kelly Regina, Micheletti.

2014-10-01

22

Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Titanium Mesh. A Retrospective Clinical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

An adequate amount of bone all around the implant surface is essential in order to obtain long-term success of implant restoration. Several techniques have been described to augment alveolar bone volume in critical clinical situations, including guided bone regeneration, based on the use of barrier membranes to prevent ingrowth of the epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells. To achieve this goal, the use of barriers made of titanium micromesh has been advocated. A total of 13 patients were selected for alveolar ridge reconstruction treatment prior to implant placement. Each patient underwent a tridimensional bone augmentation by means of a Ti-mesh filled with intraoral autogenous bone mixed with deproteinized anorganic bovine bone in a 1:1 ratio. Implants were placed after a healing period of 6 months. Panoramic x-rays were performed after each surgical procedure and during the follow-up recalls. Software was used to measure the mesial and the distal peri-implant bone loss around each implant. The mean peri-implant bone loss was 1.743 mm on the mesial side and 1.913 mm on the distal side, from the top of the implant head to the first visible bone-implant contact, at a mean follow-up of 88 months. The use of Ti-mesh allows the regeneration of sufficient bone volume for ideal implant placement. The clinical advantages related to this technique include the possibility of correcting severe vertical atrophies associated with considerable reductions in width and the lack of major complications if soft-tissue dehiscence and mesh exposures do occur. PMID:25317209

Poli, Pier P; Beretta, Mario; Cicciù, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo

2014-01-01

23

Distracción osteogénica del reborde alveolar: revisión de la literatura / Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge: a review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno de los principales problemas para la colocación de implantes dentales es la presencia de hueso insuficiente que impide que sean de una longitud y/o de un diámetro adecuados. Dentro de los métodos que se usan para el aumento del reborde alveolar se incluye tan solo desde hace una década la aplica [...] ción de los principios de distracción osteogénica (DO). Esta técnica se basa en la separación gradual de dos fragmentos de hueso perfectamente vascularizados, entre los que se forma un callo de distracción que progresivamente se transforma en hueso maduro. Un científico clave en el desarrollo de esta técnica fue el traumatólogo ruso Ilizarov. Esta revisión bibliográfica evalúa la metodología, el funcionamiento y las posibles aplicaciones de DO en el tratamiento de los defectos del reborde alveolar. Por sus cualidades demostradas, la DO podría sustituir el uso de injertos y regeneración ósea guiada para favorecer las relaciones esqueléticas de los rebordes alveolares. Abstract in english One of the principal problems in dental implantation is the lack of sufficient bone height or width. In the case of the alveolar ridge, a very effective technique for resolving this problem is distraction osteogenesis, introduced in this context about a decade ago. This technique is based on the gra [...] dual separation of a mobile but fully vascularized bone segment from the basal bone, leading to the formation of an intervening soft callus which gradually transforms to mature bone. A key researcher in the development of this technique was the Russian traumatologist Ilizarov. The present article reviews alveolar ridge distraction procedures and their clinical application. Alveolar ridge distraction may often be preferable to bone grafting or guided bone regeneration for increasing ridge height and width prior to implantation.

Nikola, Saulacic; Pilar, Gándara Vila; Manuel, Somoza Martín; Abel, García García.

2004-10-01

24

Relationships between tooth eruption, occlusion and alveolar bone resorption: histochemical and cytological studies of bone remodeling on rat incisor alveolar bone facing the enamel after root resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The labial side of rat incisor alveolar bone facing the enamel is continuously resorbed as the result of compressive force produced by the occlusion and eruption of incisors. In order to clarify the relationship between this mechanical compressive force and the bone cells involved in bone remodeling, we examined morphological changes occurring in the alveolar bone once the compressive force was eliminated by the removal of the proliferative odontogenic base (root resection according to Berkovitz and Thomas, 1969). After root resection, the incisor migrated halfway along the socket. On the crestal part where incisor still existed, active osteoclasts were prominent on the bone surface, and flattened mononuclear cells lay close upon active osteoclasts. Sinusoidal blood vessels or capillaries were observed at short distances from the bone surface. On the basal part where socket was vacant, osteoblasts lined up on the newly formed bone, and the osteogenic cell layer lay on the osteoblasts. Between the two parts, which correspond to the reversal phase proposed by Baron (1977), osteoblastic cells with developed cell organelles increased in number and the distance between blood vessels and bone surface increased. Osteoclasts reduced their activities, and osteoblastic cells often wedged themselves between the osteoclasts and bone surface. These findings indicate that the elimination of compressive force mediated by incisors leads to the activation of osteoblastic cells and inactivation of osteoclasts, which results in a conversion from bone resorption to bone formation. Thus, osteoblastic cells may play an important role in controlling osteoclastic activity in conversion from bone resorption to bone formation, partly by a direct effect and partly by controlling the access of blood vessels to the bone surface. PMID:2078397

Irie, K; Ozawa, H

1990-12-01

25

Alveolar ridge preservation using xenogeneic collagen matrix and bone allograft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3?mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients) indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP. PMID:25328523

Parashis, Andreas O; Kalaitzakis, Charalampos J; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tosios, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

26

Alveolar ridge reconstruction with preprosthetic surgery: a precursor to site preservation following extraction of natural dentition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before dental implant therapy became a common treatment modality, oral and maxillofacial surgeons managed malcontent denture patients by performing preprosthetic surgical procedures to enhance the denture-bearing areas of the intraoral cavity. Surgical techniques used today to augment and enhance deficient ridges to receive implants follow the same biologic principles and are employed to achieve the same goal: an improved alveolar ridge form of both hard and soft tissues. The key to successful implant treatment is providing a solid bony base to stabilize the implant. Therefore, the main goal for the surgeon is to preserve the alveolar ridge and basal bone, if present. PMID:18088708

Moy, Peter K

2004-02-01

27

Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the principal problems in dental implantation is the lack of sufficient bone height or width. In the case of the alveolar ridge, a very effective technique for resolving this problem is distraction osteogenesis, introduced in this context about a decade ago. This technique is based on the gradual separation of a mobile but fully vascularized bone segment from the basal bone, leading to the formation of an intervening soft callus which gradually transforms to mature bone. A key researcher in the development of this technique was the Russian traumatologist Ilizarov. The present article reviews alveolar ridge distraction procedures and their clinical application. Alveolar ridge distraction may often be preferable to bone grafting or guided bone regeneration for increasing ridge height and width prior to implantation. PMID:15292871

Saulacic, Nikola; Gándara-Vila, Pilar; Somoza-Martín, Manuel; García-García, Abel

2004-01-01

28

Release of titanium ions from an implant surface and their effect on cytokine production related to alveolar bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although interest in peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis has recently been increasing, the mechanisms driving these diseases remain unknown. Here, the effects of titanium ions on the inflammation and bone resorption around an implant were investigated. First, the accumulated amount of Ti ions released into gingival and bone tissues from an implant exposed to sodium fluoride solution was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Next, the cellular responses in gingival and bone tissues to Ti ions and/or Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) were assessed using a rat model. More Ti ions were detected in the gingival tissues around an implant after treatment with sodium fluoride (pH 4.2) than in its absence, which suggests that the fluoride corroded the implant surface under salivary buffering capacity. The injection of Ti ions (9ppm) significantly increased the mRNA expression and protein accumulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, as well as the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand to osteoprotegerin, in rat gingival tissues exposed to P. gingivalis-LPS in a synergistic manner. In addition, the enhanced localization of toll-like receptor 4, which is an LPS receptor, was observed in gingival epithelium loaded with Ti ions (9ppm). These data suggest that Ti ions may be partly responsible for the infiltration of monocytes and osteoclast differentiation by increasing the sensitivity of gingival epithelial cells to microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, Ti ions may be involved in the deteriorating effects of peri-implant mucositis, which can develop into peri-implantitis accompanied by alveolar bone resorption. PMID:25446332

Wachi, Takanori; Shuto, Takahiro; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Matono, Yoshinari; Makihira, Seicho

2015-01-01

29

Flapless alveolar ridge preservation utilizing the "socket-plug" technique: clinical technique and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been documented that after every extraction of one or more teeth, the alveolar bone of the respective region undergoes resorption and atrophy. Therefore, ridge preservation techniques are often employed after tooth extraction to limit this phenomenon. The benefits of a flapless procedure include maintenance of the buccal keratinized gingiva, prevention of alterations to the gingival contours, and migration of the mucogingival junction that are often experienced after raising a flap. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning flapless ridge preservation techniques with the aid of collagen plugs for occlusion of the socket. The term "socket-plug" technique is introduced to describe these techniques. The basic steps of the "socket-plug" technique consist of atraumatic tooth extraction, placement of the appropriate biomaterials in the extraction site, preservation of soft tissue architecture employing a flapless technique, and placement and stabilization of the collagen plug. A case example is presented that illustrates the steps used in this technique. PMID:25506661

Kotsakis, Georgios; Chrepa, Vanessa; Marcou, Nicolas; Prasad, Hari; Hinrichs, James

2014-12-01

30

A customized distraction device for alveolar ridge augmentation and alignment of ankylosed teeth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop an extraosseous, tooth-supported miniature intraoral device that could produce prosthetically driven bone distraction of small atrophic alveolar ridge segments. Extraosseous distraction requires that the distraction device be anchored to a dental implant previously placed into the ridge according to its anatomic axis. A distractor can also correct the position of implants placed in young patients before skeletal growth is completed. Similarly, it allows the alignment of ankylosed teeth not treatable by orthodontics. The device is made of (1) an engine consisting of an orthodontic micrometric screw; (2) a joint between the implant and the engine, ie, the ball attachment/o-ring system; and (3) an anchorage system to the oral cavity provided by an orthodontic appliance and a mini-implant for possible additional support. Surgery involves an osteotomy of the atrophic alveolar ridge segment, incorporating the implant, from the basal bone; afterward the device can be applied and distraction of the segment can be carried out. Distraction was successfully performed in 3 clinical cases: 2 bone-implant segments and 1 bone-ankylosed tooth segment. All cases were clinically uneventful. This mini-device for osteogenic distraction of small atrophic ridge segments can provide for accurate and precise ridge augmentation, as is required for ideal prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:14982366

Nocini, Pier Francesco; De Santis, Daniele; Ferrari, Francesca; Bertele, Gian Paolo

2004-01-01

31

Titanium implant insertion into dog alveolar ridges augmented by allogenic material  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether titanium endosseous implants would osseointegrate in dog alveolar ridges augmented by allogenic material. In 8 dogs en bloc resection, including 2 pre-molars, was performed bilaterally in the maxilla and the mandible. After a healing period of 6 weeks allogenic, demineralized and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally. Titanium implants were installed 5.5 months later in some of the regions. Light and fluorescence microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation of the implanted allogenic material, no osteoinduction and only minimal osteoconduction, few multinuclear giant cells and a sparse inflammatory reaction. The titanium implants healed mainly by fibrous encapsulation.

Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R

1994-01-01

32

Chemical, physical, and histologic studies on four commercial apatites used for alveolar ridge augmentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. Subperiosteal alveolar ridge augmentation was performed on the maxilla of rats by implantation of granules of two dense products and of two porous products, and the tissue response was compared with the material characteristics obtained by chemical analysis and infrared spectrometry. None of the apatites caused osteoinduction or osteoconduction; fibrous encapsulation with multinuclear giant cells was observed around all four types. One of the apatites was fluorapatite and not hydroxylapatite, as claimed by the manufacturer. The tissue response to this implant material was dominated by multinuclear giant cells.

Pinholt, E M; Ruyter, I E

1992-01-01

33

The effect of therapeutic radiation on canine alveolar ridges augmented with hydroxylapatite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of radiation on hydroxylapatite (HA) implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. All bicuspids and molars were extracted from 16 dogs. After 6 weeks, nonporous HA granules were implanted subperiosteally on the alveolar ridge. Following 4 months of healing, 12 dogs (experimental group) underwent therapeutic radiation therapy (Co60, 4,000 rad [40 Gy]) to the head and neck region. Four dogs were not irradiated and served as controls. Four animals (three experimental and one control) were killed at 5,6,7, and 8 months after HA augmentation. Light microscopic evaluation showed that approximately 25% of HA granules were encased by bone while the others were surrounded by fibrous connective tissue. Dissolution of the HA was observed. Microparticles of HA were phagocytized as part of a granulomatous inflammatory reaction. This reaction decreased significantly as time elapsed after implantation. Osteoclastic activity was seen at the junction of HA and periosteum and as part of bone remodeling. Dissolution of the HA granules and the granulomatous inflammatory reaction were not significantly increased by therapeutic radiation. The radiation did not cause development of dehiscence or osteonecrosis.

Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

1992-01-01

34

Alveolar ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes: a systematic review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar bone regeneration by means of titanium meshes is a widespread procedure, however to date, only few relevant studies were reported in literature concerning this technique. Consequently, the aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the reliability of the titanium mesh as a barrier, in conjunction with horizontal and vertical ridge reconstruction for implant placement purposes. A total of 17 articles complying with the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. Three outcome variables were defined: a) horizontal and vertical bone regeneration obtained, b) complication rate, defined as the percentage of membrane exposures and c) evaluation of implant survival, success and failure rate.In regards to the vertical regeneration the mean was 4.91 mm (range: 2.56 - 8.6), while a mean of 4.36 mm (range: 3.75 - 5.65) was calculated for horizontal reconstruction.Considering the exposure rate, a mean of 16.1% was found, nevertheless, implant placement were placed in almost all of the sites. A mean success rate of 89,9%, a mean survival rate of 100% and a failure rate of 0% emerged from the data evaluation. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of the data, however the final results were comparable with those reported in case of bone regeneration obtained through other types of non-resorbable membranes. An advantage in favour of the titanium mesh was found in terms of bone loss after exposure, as implant placement was not jeopardized in almost all of the cases. It could be deduced that titanium meshes represented a reliable solution for alveolar ridge reconstruction. The clinical studies currently available in literature have shown the predictability of this technique in both lateral and vertical bone regeneration. PMID:25350597

Rasia-dal Polo, Marco; Poli, Pier-Paolo; Rancitelli, Davide; Beretta, Mario; Maiorana, Carlo

2014-11-01

35

Compressive force regulates ephrinB2 and EphB4 in osteoblasts and osteoclasts contributing to alveolar bone resorption during experimental tooth movement  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the involvement of ephrinB2 in periodontal tissue remodeling in compression areas during orthodontic tooth movement and the effects of compressive force on EphB4 and ephrinB2 expression in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Methods A rat model of experimental tooth movement was established to examine the histological changes and the localization of ephrinB2 in compressed periodontal tissues during experimental tooth movement. RAW264.7 cells and ST2 cells, used as precursor cells of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, were subjected to compressive force in vitro. The gene expression of EphB4 and ephrinB2, as well as bone-associated factors including Runx2, Sp7, NFATc1, and calcitonin receptor, were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Histological examination of the compression areas of alveolar bone from experimental rats showed that osteoclastogenic activities were promoted while osteogenic activities were inhibited. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ephrinB2 was strongly expressed in osteoclasts in these areas. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that mRNA levels of NFATc1, calcitonin receptor, and ephrinB2 were increased significantly in compressed RAW264.7 cells, and the expression of ephrinB2, EphB4, Sp7, and Runx2 was decreased significantly in compressed ST2 cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that compressive force can regulate EphB4 and ephrinB2 expression in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which might contribute to alveolar bone resorption in compression areas during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:25473648

Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Yanze; Meng, Xiuping; Shi, Ce; Li, Chen; Chen, Yuanping

2014-01-01

36

Regeneración ósea guiada para el aumento vertical del reborde alveolar Guided osseous regeneration for the vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge  

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Full Text Available Se considera como aumento óseo vertical, cualquier técnica que apunte a crear una mayor altura del reborde alveolar. A inicios de la década de los 90’s se empezó a utilizar la regeneración ósea guiada (ROG en mandíbulas atróficas, con el fin de permitir la instalación de implantes óseointegrados. Con el fin de evaluar y exponer parte de la evidencia disponible en la actualidad, con respecto a la ROG para aumento óseo vertical, se realizó la siguiente revisión bibliográfica.Any technique aimed to improve the alveolar ridge height is considered as a vertical bone augmentation procedure. In the early 90’s guided bone regeneration (GBR procedures began to be used in atrophic mandibles to allow the installation of osseointegrated dental implants. The following bibliographic review was made with the purpose of evaluating and exposing part of the available evidence at present in this field.

CE Nappe

2013-04-01

37

Regeneración ósea guiada para el aumento vertical del reborde alveolar / Guided osseous regeneration for the vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se considera como aumento óseo vertical, cualquier técnica que apunte a crear una mayor altura del reborde alveolar. A inicios de la década de los 90’s se empezó a utilizar la regeneración ósea guiada (ROG) en mandíbulas atróficas, con el fin de permitir la instalación de implantes óseointegrados. C [...] on el fin de evaluar y exponer parte de la evidencia disponible en la actualidad, con respecto a la ROG para aumento óseo vertical, se realizó la siguiente revisión bibliográfica. Abstract in english Any technique aimed to improve the alveolar ridge height is considered as a vertical bone augmentation procedure. In the early 90’s guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures began to be used in atrophic mandibles to allow the installation of osseointegrated dental implants. The following bibliograph [...] ic review was made with the purpose of evaluating and exposing part of the available evidence at present in this field.

CE, Nappe; CE, Baltodano.

2013-04-01

38

Clinical Results of Localized Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Bone Grafts Harvested from Symphysis in Comparison with Ramus  

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Full Text Available

Background and aims. Autogenous onlay bone grafting is a common procedure for alveolar ridge augmentation. It has been suggested that the amount of healed bone after this technique would be significantly less than the initial quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the various parameters influencing the outcome of ridge augmentation procedures.

Materials and methods. Thirty-two patients, 17 males and 15 females (mean age 40 ± 8.66, requiring lateral ridge augmentation in the anterior maxilla were recruited. Bone grafts obtained from either the mandibular ramus or symphysis were grafted on the recipient site and the buccolingual dimensions of the edentulous ridge before and six months after the procedure were measured and the difference between them was considered as ridge augmentation (RA. Parameters including graft thickness (GT, graft area (GA and donor site (DS were also recorded.

Results. Onlay bone grafts, taken from mandibular and symphysis areas, significantly increased the buccolingual dimension of the alveolar ridge (mean 1.98 ± 1.22 mm, p < 0.001. However, the mean RA by symphysis grafts was significantly greater than ramus grafts (2.49 mm vs. 1.48 mm. There was also a significant correlation between graft thickness, surface area and the amount of bone augmentation.

Conclusion. Symphysis area provides thicker and larger grafts, which may result in a better clinical outcome in alveolar ridge augmentation.

Reza Pourabbas

2007-06-01

39

SYSTEMIC NON-MALIGNANT OSTEOPOROSIS AND REDUCTION OF EDENTULOUS ALVEOLAR RIDGES  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic osteoporosis damages skeletal bones to different degrees. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity and correlation of the osteoporotic changes in the bone density of the skeleton and body mass index (BMI with a reduction in edentulous mandibles, and to assess possibility of reparation of layers of mandibles with increase of mineral content in jaws of patients affected by osteoporosis. Material and Methods. In this study, 99 edentulous patients with decreased bone density comprised the experimental group, and 48 edentulous patients with normal bone densities formed the control. The age of the examined patients was 69.02 ± 7,9, range 53–74 of females and 69.11 ± 7.1, range 59–76 years. Radiographs of the hands and panoramic radiographs were done for all the patients. The values of BMI, metacarpal index , density of lumbar spine (L2–L4, in the phalanx and in segments of the mandibles as well as the edentulous alveolar ridges heights were measured, assessed and calculated. Results. The lowest value of the total skeletal density was established in the osteoporotic patients on the basis of the average T-score of – 2.5 in men, and – 2.6 in women. Minimum values of the edentulous ridges heights (right/left, in mm were measured in both osteoporotic females (21.84/22.39 and males 24.90/24.96 patients. By comparison of the densities of the metacarpal bones, proximal phalanx, segments of the edentulous mandibles and based on the numerical values of the edentulous ridges heights ?2 = 3.81 was found in men and ?2 = 4.03 was found in women with normal bone densities; ? 2= 5.92 was found in men and ?2=6.25 was found in women with osteopenia; ?2= 2.63 was found in men and ?2 = 3.85 was found in women with osteoporosis, on the level of probability of 0.05. After application of calcium and calcitonin in solutions, moderate increment of density (p < 0.05; p < 0.01 was verified, compensating up to 4% of total loss of mass, minerals and solidity of denture bearing areas of osteoporotic mandibles. Conclusion. Systemic osteoporosis leads to decrease of densities of bones of mandibles and causes reduction of edentulous ridges.

Postic D. Srdjan

2014-04-01

40

Photoelastic Stress Analysis Surrounding Implant-Supported Prosthesis and Alveolar Ridge on Mandibular Overdentures  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the maximum stress around osseointegrated implants and alveolar ridge, in a mandible with left partial resection through a photoelastic mandibular model. The first group consisted of two implants: traditional model (T, implants placed in the position of both canines; fulcrum model (F, implants placed in the position of left canine CL and right lateral incisor LiR. Both models linked through a bar and clips. The second group was consisted of three implants, with implants placed in the position of both canines (CR and CL and the right lateral incisor (LiR, which composed four groups: (1 model with 3 “O” rings, (2 model 2 ERAs, bar with clips, (3 model 2 ERAs bar without clips; (4 model “O” ring bar and ERA. An axial and an oblique load of 6.8?kgf was applied on a overdenture at the 1st Pm, 2nd Pm, and 1st M. Results showed that the area around the left canine (CL was practically free of stress; the left lateral incisor (LiL developed only small tensions, and low stress in all the other cases; the right canine tooth suffered the largest concentrations of stress, mainly with the ERA retention mechanism.

Rafael Yagüe Ballester

2010-01-01

41

Efficacy of Enamel Matrix Derivative on Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis  

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Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a surgical-orthopedic technique for lengthening a bone by separating or distracting a fractured callus. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD on bone repair and regeneration after DO on a canine mandible. Ten adult beagle dogs were used in this study. Their right and left mandibles were compared as the test and control groups, respectively. The distraction was undertaken at a rate of 1 mm per day for 10 consecutive days to yield 10 mm lengthening of the mandibular corpus. The EMD was treated into the test group at the site of the lengthened bone. At 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 weeks after EMD treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD at the site of the lengthened bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography. BMD in the tested group was higher during consolidation period than in the control. The difference in the BMD of 1 and 3 weeks after EMD treatment was significant (p < 0.05. In histological findings, new bone formation in the test group was denser than the control group. These results suggest that the application of an EMD during DO is suitable method for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs.

J.M. Kim, J.H. Kim, T.S. Han, G. Kim, S.S. Kang1 and S.H. Choi*

2011-04-01

42

Anthropometric Measurements in Toothed and Toothless Maxillaries and its Consequences in Human Alveolar Bone Resorption Mediciones Antropométricas en Maxilares con y sin Dientes de Humanos y sus Consecuencias en la Reabsorción Ósea Alveolar  

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Full Text Available This study proposes to measure and compare anthropometric measurements between toothed and toothless maxillas. 26 human skulls were used with: 13 toothed and 13 toothless maxillas. The measurements were made between the distances of the alveolar ridge (AR: the anterior nasal spine (ANS, to the incisive foramen (FI and the palatine foramen, greater (FPMA and lower (FPME on both sides by two evaluators. The data obtained showed that the average of the measurements were correspondingly higher in toothed maxillas than in toothless, for all measurements in any one of the evaluators. The AR-ANS (p = 0.001, IF-AR (p = 0.006, AR-FPMA right (p = 0.001 and AR-FPMA left (p Este estudio propuso medir y comparar las medidas antropométricas entre los maxilares con y sin dientes. Fueron utilizados 26 cráneos humanos, 13 maxilares con dientes y 13 sin dientes. Las mediciones fueron realizadas a ambos lados por dos evaluadores entre las distancias del reborde alveolar (RA: a la espina nasal anterior (ENA, al canal incisivo (CI y a lo foraámenes palatinos mayor (FPMA y menor (FPME. Los datos mostraron que la media de las mediciones fueron proporcionalmente mayores en las maxilas con dientes, para todas las mediciones en cualquiera de los evaluadores. El RA-ENA (p = 0,001, AR-CI (p = 0,006, RA-APMA derecho (p = 0,001 y RA-APMA izquierdo (p <0,001 y RA-APME en ambos lados (p = 0,001, comprobando la existencia de diferencias significativas entre los dos tipos de maxila. Fue verificado que a partir de la pérdida dental ocurren irreversibles cambios anatómicos en el maxilar, que deben ser considerados en el diseño y fabricación de prótesis e implantes osteointegrados.

Jaciel Benedito de Oliveira

2012-09-01

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Anthropometric Measurements in Toothed and Toothless Maxillaries and its Consequences in Human Alveolar Bone Resorption / Mediciones Antropométricas en Maxilares con y sin Dientes de Humanos y sus Consecuencias en la Reabsorción Ósea Alveolar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio propuso medir y comparar las medidas antropométricas entre los maxilares con y sin dientes. Fueron utilizados 26 cráneos humanos, 13 maxilares con dientes y 13 sin dientes. Las mediciones fueron realizadas a ambos lados por dos evaluadores entre las distancias del reborde alveolar (RA): [...] a la espina nasal anterior (ENA), al canal incisivo (CI) y a lo foraámenes palatinos mayor (FPMA) y menor (FPME). Los datos mostraron que la media de las mediciones fueron proporcionalmente mayores en las maxilas con dientes, para todas las mediciones en cualquiera de los evaluadores. El RA-ENA (p = 0,001), AR-CI (p = 0,006), RA-APMA derecho (p = 0,001) y RA-APMA izquierdo (p Abstract in english This study proposes to measure and compare anthropometric measurements between toothed and toothless maxillas. 26 human skulls were used with: 13 toothed and 13 toothless maxillas. The measurements were made between the distances of the alveolar ridge (AR): the anterior nasal spine (ANS), to the inc [...] isive foramen (FI) and the palatine foramen, greater (FPMA) and lower (FPME) on both sides by two evaluators. The data obtained showed that the average of the measurements were correspondingly higher in toothed maxillas than in toothless, for all measurements in any one of the evaluators. The AR-ANS (p = 0.001), IF-AR (p = 0.006), AR-FPMA right (p = 0.001) and AR-FPMA left (p

Jaciel Benedito, de Oliveira; Andrelle Nayara Cavalcanti Lima de, Almeida; Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly, Lins; Adelmar Afonso de Amorim, Júnior; Zélia Albuquerque, Seixas.

1173-11-01

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Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

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Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1972-11-15

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Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP2) in bilateral alveolar ridge augmentation: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the delivery of osteoinductive factors such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) has become an alternative approach to traditional bone grafting due to their capacity to produce bone healing and new bone formation. BMP-2 has proved to possess the highest osteoinductive potential among BMPs. The case reported the clinical use of recombinant human BMP-2 for bilateral vertical alveolar ridge augmentation. In a case of 61 year-old patient with a significant bilateral vertical bony deficiency of the mandible, rhBMP-2 administered via an absorbable collagen sponge carrier (ACS) was used for bilateral alveolar ridge bone induction. Augmented sites were covered and fixed with titanium mesh. Augmented sites were reopened 6 months after surgery. Titanium membrane and retaining screws were removed and three dental implants were placed. The tissue samples for the histologic analysis were harvested. Following 3 months healing period, the submerged implants were uncovered and restored with zirconium-ceramic crowns. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), panoramix and 3D radiographic evaluation were obtained prior to and after the surgical procedure. Vertical gain of the bone was 5.5 mm on the left and 5 mm on the right side, with 6 mm width of the bone. Histologic analysis revealed formation of mature trabecular bone with signs of osteoblastic proliferation. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were in the range between 69 and 75 for all three implants. No suppuration, gingival recession or pain were present 24 months after surgery. Vertical bone augmentation using rhBMP-2 is optional treatment modality to consider when planning dental implant placement in sites where severe vertical insufficiency exists. PMID:24851636

Katanec, Davor; Grani?, Marko; Majstorovi?, Martina; Trampus, Zdenko; Panduri?, Dragana Gabri?

2014-03-01

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Alveolar ridge preservation after dental extraction and before implant placement: a literature review / Preservação do rebordo alveolar após a extração dentária e antes da colocação de implante: revisão da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Várias técnicas e materiais têm sido sugeridos para a preservação do rebordo alveolar (PRA) após a extração dentária e antes da colocação do implante. Esta revisão de literatura buscou discutir os aspectos histológicos e clínicos da cicatrização do alvéolo e do procedimento PRA após a extração dentá [...] ria e verificar se ele permite a colocação de implante dentário (com ou sem enxerto adicional). Apesar da heterogeneidade dos estudos, há evidência que os procedimentos de preservação do rebordo são eficazes na limitação da perda dimensional do rebordo pós-extração e são acompanhados por um grau diferente de regeneração óssea, com variadas quantidades de partículas residuais dos "materiais de enxerto". Abstract in english Several techniques and materials have been suggested for alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) after dental extraction and before implant placement. This literature review aimed to discuss the histological and clinical aspects of alveolar healing and the ARP procedure after dental extraction and to veri [...] fy whether it allows dental implant placement (with or without further augmentation). Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, some evidence suggests that ridge preservation procedures are efficient in limiting the postextraction dimensional loss of the ridge and are accompanied by a different degree of bone regeneration, with varied amounts of residual graft material particles.

Luis André, Mezzomo; Rosemary Sadami, Shinkai; Nikos, Mardas; Nikolaos, Donos.

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Assessment of marginal bone loss using full thickness versus partial thickness flaps for alveolar ridge splitting and immediate implant placement in the anterior maxilla.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of maintaining the periosteal attachment of the facial and palatal cortical plates on crestal bone loss that occurs at the margin of dental implants placed immediately in split anterior maxillary alveolar ridges. This was a prospective randomized comparative clinical trial. The study population included 22 patients with edentulous anterior maxillary alveolar ridges who presented for treatment during the period March 2012 to September 2013. The selected patients were divided randomly into two equal groups. All patients underwent a maxillary ridge splitting technique; a total of 43 implants were placed immediately. A full thickness mucoperiosteal flap was performed in the control group patients, while a split thickness mucosal flap was done in the study group patients. Assessments included measurements of the linear changes in the marginal bone surrounding the implants immediately postoperative and after 6 months. Measurements were taken from cross-sectional and longitudinal cone beam computed tomography images using special software. The partial thickness flap used in the study group decreased the percentage of bone loss by 9.5% for the labial bone plate, 7.9% for the palatal bone plate, and 3.5% for the mesiodistal bone plate. PMID:24973295

Mounir, M; Beheiri, G; El-Beialy, W

2014-11-01

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Evaluación radiográfica de aumentos de rebordes alveolares con injertos aloplásticos de hidroxiapatita no reabsorbible: seguimiento a nueve meses Radiographic evaluation of alveolar ridge augmentation with non resorbable hydroxyapatite alloplastic grafts: nine months follow up  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el objetivo fue determinar radiográficamente el porcentaje de estabilidad de la altura del reborde alveolar del maxilar superior e inferior en pacientes sometidos a cirugía preprotésica de aumento de reborde con implante de HA no reabsorbible. MÉTODOS: el estudio se realizó en quince pacientes, en quienes se determinaron mediciones reproducibles. Para el maxilar superior: (A desde espina nasal anterior; (B derecha-izquierda desde el borde más inferior de las fosas nasales; (C derecha- izquierda desde el borde más inferior de la órbita. Para el maxilar inferior: (E desde el borde inferior de la mandíbula y pasando por la sínfisis; (F derecha-izquierda pasando por el agujero mentoniano; (G derecha-izquierda pasando 5 mm. atrás del agujero mentoniano; (H derecha-izquierda pasando 10 mm posterior al agujero mentoniano. Todas las mediciones se realizaron en el prequirúrgico, en el posquirúrgico inmediato, y a los nueve meses. RESULTADOS: se promediaron los diferentes puntos del maxilar superior (PPMXS y se observó una pérdida de altura entre el 6,29 y un 33,6% con promedio del 17,36 %. En el maxilar inferior (PPMXI se observó una variación desde ganancia del 6,31% hasta una disminución del 18,87%, con promedio del 2,54%. CONCLUSIONES: el implante de HA permite restablecer adecuada altura del reborde alveolar. La altura del reborde alveolar obtenida inicialmente presenta un porcentaje de disminución de su altura en el maxilar superior del 17,36%, y en el maxilar inferior del 2,54 durante el seguimiento a nueve meses.INTRODUCTION: the purpose of this study was to determine radiographically the percentage of stability of alveolar ridge height in the maxilla and the mandible in patients subjected to pre prosthetic surgery of ridge augmentation with non resorbable HA implants. METHODS: the study was performed in 15 patients in whom reproducible measurements were taken. For the maxilla: (A From Anterior Nasal Spine; (B right and left from the lowest border of the nasal fossae; (C right and left from the lowest border of the orbit. For the mandible: (E from the lowest border of the mandible passing through symphysis; (F right and left passing through the mental foramen; (G right and left passing 5 mm posterior to the mental foramen; (H right and left passing 10 mm posterior to mental foramen. All measurements were performed before surgery, immediately after and, nine months after surgery. RESULTS: the different points of the maxilla were averaged (PPMXS and a height loss between 6.29% and 33.6% was observed, with an average of 17.36%. For the mandible (PPMXL variations ranging from 6.31% of augmentation to 18.8% loss were observed, with an average of 2.54%. CONCLUSIONS: HA implants allow reestablishment of adequate alveolar ridge height. The alveolar ridge height initially obtained presents a decrease percentage in height for the maxilla of 17.36% and 2.54% for the mandible after nine months follow up.

Félix Antonio Gil Cárdenas

2008-12-01

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Carcinoma de células escamosas em rebordo alveolar inferior: diagnóstico e tratamento odontológico de suporte Squamous cell carcinoma in lower alveolar ridge: diagnosis and odontologic support treatment  

OpenAIRE

O carcinoma epidermóide é a neoplasia maligna mais comum de cavidade oral e estruturas adjacentes. Apresenta maior incidência no gênero masculino, após a quarta década de vida, e tem como principais fatores etiológicos os usos crônicos de tabaco e álcool. Neste trabalho é relatado um caso de carcinoma de células escamosas do rebordo alveolar inferior, que não é uma região preferencial para esse tipo de patologia. Também é discutida a importância do cirurgião-dentista na equi...

Filipe Ivan Daniel; Rodrigo Granato; Liliane Janete Grando; Sônia Maria Lückmann Fabro

2006-01-01

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Mandibular bone resorption in patients treated with tissue-integrated prostheses and in complete-denture wearers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mandibular bone resorption was studied in patients treated with tissue-integrated prostheses (TIP) and in complete-denture wearers by distance and area measurements on cephalometric radiographs. The area measurements were performed by means of a computer. Two TIP groups with short and long periods (average chi=2.4 and 23.9 years) of edentulousness, and wearing complete dentures before fixture installtion, were followed up to over 7-8 years. Mandibular bone resorption was remarkably small behind the distally positioned fixtures in comparison with the correspondings region in complete-denture wearers. Patients with complete dentures showed a continous resorption of the mandibular alveolar ridge over 21 years, even though there were great individual variations. The bone loss was most pronounced anteriorly and during the first 2 years after extraction of the residual teeth. It is concluded that treatment with tissue-integrated prostheses seems to reduce bone resorption in the mandible, probably owing to favorable load conditions and adequate stimulation of the bone.

Sennerby, L.; Carlsson, G.E.; Bergman, B.; Warfvinge, J.

1988-01-01

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Mandibular bone resorption in patients treated with tissue-integrated prostheses and in complete-denture wearers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mandibular bone resorption was studied in patients treated with tissue-integrated prostheses (TIP) and in complete-denture wearers by distance and area measurements on cephalometric radiographs. The area measurements were performed by means of a computer. Two TIP groups with short and long periods (average ?=2.4 and 23.9 years) of edentulousness, and wearing complete dentures before fixture installation, were followed up to over 7-8 years. Mandibular bone resorption was remarkably small behind the distally positioned fixtures in comparison with the correspondings region in complete-denture wearers. Patients with complete dentures showed a continous resorption of the mandibular alveolar ridge over 21 years, even though there were great individual variations. The bone loss was most pronounced anteriorly and during the first 2 years after extraction of the residual teeth. It is concluded that treatment with tissue-integrated prostheses seems to reduce bone resorption in the mandible, probably owing to favorable load conditions and adequate stimulation of the bone

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The effect of mandibular overdenture to manage trauma to anterior maxillary residual ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residual alveolar ridge changes brought on by bone loss has always been one of the great problems related to denture prosthesis. The changes beneath denture bases has been investigated and the agreement on individual difference on the rate of bone resorption has been proven. Clinical experience and studies gave great knowledge of the prosthetic factors which influence bone resorption. It has been proved that excessive pressure, and shearing forces are the main causes of ridge changes. Very common is the problem associated with patient having only natural mandibular anterior teeth occluded with complete upper denture. The anterior maxillary region is the weakest area in the upper arch to resist stress when the lower natural anterior teeth occlude anterior to the basal support; trauma is inevitable. PMID:8299531

Gadalla, A A; Aboul-Ela, A I; el-Mahdy, M; Badawy, M S

1993-01-01

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The feasibility of demineralized bone matrix and cancellous bone chips in conjunction with an extracellular matrix membrane for alveolar ridge preservation: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was conducted to test the feasibility of demineralized bone matrix and cancellous bone chips in a reverse-phase medium carrier (DynaBlast) in concert with an extracellular matrix membrane (DynaMatrix) to provide hard and soft tissue regeneration for the purpose of a ridge preservation procedure. Nine patients requiring extraction of 30 maxillary teeth were grafted with DynaBlast and DynaMatrix. Twenty sites attained primary flap closure over the grafted area (primary healing intention group), while 10 sites were assigned randomly to the secondary healing intention group, in which primary flap closure over the membrane was not achieved. Clinical and radiographic evaluations at 6 months revealed comparable bone formation for both groups. Histologic analyses of 21 harvested soft and hard tissue core biopsies revealed absence of the remnant membrane and consistent patterns of new bone formation. The efficacy and safety of DynaBlast and DynaMatrix have been validated clinically and histologically to preserve the dimensions of the alveolar process. PMID:21365025

Kim, David M; Nevins, Myron; Camelo, Marcelo; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, Soo-Woo; Camelo, Joao Marcelo Borges; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Nevins, Marc L

2011-02-01

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Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex  

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Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

Opa?i?-Gali? Vanja

2004-01-01

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Alveolar distraction osteogenesis – Crestal widening by distraction osteogenesis  

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Full Text Available Following tooth extraction, resorption of the residual ridges occurs in both the vertical and the horizontal directions. Most of this resorption occurs within the first 6 months after tooth extraction. To correc tthis vertical/ horizontal/ dual situation, several surgical approaches have been proposed: autogenous bone grafts, guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO. In recent years, ADO has gained an ongoing popularity ,especially in view of its numerous advantages, mostimportant among them being the shortening of treatment periods and earlier dental implant placement. In cases in which there is sufficient vertical height but not enough bucco-ligual width to accommodate an implant, crestal width has to be built. Crestal widening by distraction osteogenesis is the preferred technique in suchcases. In this study a new type of crest widener, the"Laster" Crest Widening Distractor, is presented, reporting two cases where crest widening by distraction was chosen as the preferred treatment plan. Finally the main advantages and disadvantages of the new crest widening distractor are discussed, helping thus the clinician to make up his mind about this new promising device and surgical technique.

Zvi Laster

2010-04-01

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Aggressive condylar resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the clinical and radiographic findings in a patient with unilateral aggressive condylar resorption that was diagnosed as osteoarthritis. We present a comprehensive documentation of the clinical manifestations, the appearance on conventional and advanced imaging, and the histopathologic findings. We discuss the systematic approach to develop a differential diagnosis, with specific emphasis on osteoarthritis and idiopathic condylar resorption. Finally, we also discuss the factors that play a role in management of this condition. PMID:23348356

Sansare, Kaustubh; Raghav, Mamta; Mallya, Sanjay; Mundada, Nilesh; Karjodkar, Freny; Randive, Pallavi; Meshram, Deepashri; Shirsat, Pankaj

2013-01-01

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Accuracy of vertical bitewing and bisect periapical radiography techniques in anterior mandibular teeth interdental bone resorption  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone level is changed due to the balance between bone formation and resorption. Radiographic examination has an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases. This study was performed to compare the accuracy of vertical bitewing and periapical radiography in anterior mandibular teeth interdental bone resorption using grid sheet.Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients who all needed periodontal surgery on their anterior mandibular region were included. Before surgery, using grid sheet, 3 periapical radiographs and 3 vertical bitewing radiographs were taken from the anterior mandibular region, and the distance between CEJ and the crest of alveolar bone were measured on the scaled radiographs. During periodontal surgery the real amount of bone resorption was measured via Williams probe. The collected data were then analyzed by paired-t-test.Results: The mean of alveolar bone resorption on vertical bitewing radiography was 3.88 ± 1.06 and 3.97 ± 0.97 for mandibular incisors and mandibular canines respectively. On periapical radiography however, the same value was 3.80 ± 0.75 for mandibular incisors, and 3.90 ± 1.11 for mandibular canines. Applying Williams probe during surgery, the mean value of real alveolar bone resorption was found to be 3.20 ± 1.20 for mandibular incisors, and 3.18 ± 1.03 for mandibular canines.Conclusion: Based on the findings, there were significant differences between the findings on periapical and vertical bitewing radiographs with the real amount of bone resorption recorded during surgery. However, the difference between the accuracy of bite wing and periapical radiography in measuring the amount of alveolar bone resorption in anterior mandibular region was not significant.

Mohamad Shah Abouei

2009-01-01

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Tooth resorption part I - pathogenesis and case series of internal resorption  

OpenAIRE

Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. The key cells involved in tooth resorption are odontoclasts which are multinucleated cells that produce resorption lacunae. Resorption can be classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes the pathogenesis of tooth resorption and various fo...

Fernandes, Marina; Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

2013-01-01

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The efficacy of hydrothermally obtained carbonated hydroxyapatite in healing alveolar bone defects in rats with or without corticosteroid treatment  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autogenous bone grafting has been the gold standard in clinical cases when bone grafts are required for bone defects in dentistry. The study was undertaken to evaluate multilevel designed carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA obtained by hydrothermal method, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects with or without corticosteroid treatment in rats as assessed by histopathologic methods. Methods. Bone defects were created in the alveolar bone by teeth extraction in 12 rats. The animals were initially divided into two groups. The experimental group was pretreated with corticosteroids: methylprednisolone and dexamethasone, intramuscularly, while the control group was without therapy. Posterior teeth extraction had been performed after the corticosteroid therapy. The extraction defects were fulfilled with hydroxyapatite with bimodal particle sizes in the range of 50-250 ?m and the sample from postextocactional defect of the alveolar bone was analyzed pathohystologically. Results. The histopatological investigations confirmed the biologic properties of the applied material. The evident growth of new bone in the alveolar ridge was clearly noticed in both groups of rats. Carbonated HA obtained by hydrothermal method promoted bone formation in the preformed defects, confirming its efficacy for usage in bone defects. Complete resorption of the material’s particles took place after 25 weeks. Conclusion. Hydroxyapatite completely meets the clinical requirements for a bone substitute material. Due to its microstructure, complete resorption took place during the observation period of the study. Corticosteroid treatment did not significantly affect new bone formation in the region of postextractional defects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

Markovi? Dejan

2014-01-01

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A 5-year comparison of marginal bone level following immediate loading of single-tooth implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets in the maxilla  

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Purpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden). Implants were placed either in healed ridges (group I) or immediately into fresh extraction sockets (group II). Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36, and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implant. Results: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study. The mean change in marginal bone loss (MBL) after implant placement was 0.26 ± 0.161 mm for 1 year, and 0.26 ± 0.171 mm for 3 years, and 0.21 ± 0.185 mm for 5 years in extraction sockets and was 0.26 ± 0.176 mm for 1 year and 0.21 ± 0.175 mm for 3 years, and 0.19 ± 0.172 mm for 5 years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P < 0.041) compared to fresh surgical extraction sockets (P < 0.540). Significant MBL was observed on the mesial side of the implant after cementation of the provisional (P < 0.007) and after 12 months (P < 0.034) compared to the distal side which remained stable for 3 and 5 years observation period. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, responses of local bone to immediately loaded implants placed either in extraction sockets or healed ridges were similar. Functional loading technique by using prefabricated abutment placed during the surgery time seems to maintain marginal bone around implant in both healed and fresh extraction sites. PMID:24550840

Berberi, Antoine N.; Sabbagh, Joseph M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.; Noujeim, Ziad F.; Salameh, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

62

Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series  

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Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

Markus Glocker

2014-01-01

63

Tooth resorption part I - pathogenesis and case series of internal resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. The key cells involved in tooth resorption are odontoclasts which are multinucleated cells that produce resorption lacunae. Resorption can be classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes the pathogenesis of tooth resorption and various forms of internal resorption along with some clinical cases. Early diagnosis is the key factor in the successful management of resorptive lesions. PMID:23349568

Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

2013-01-01

64

Reconstruction of maxillary ridge atrophy caused by dentoalveolar trauma, using autogenous block bone graft harvested from chin: a case report  

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Full Text Available Background: Dentoalveolar trauma, especially when involving front teeth, negatively affect the patient’s life; in particular, tooth avulsion is a complex injury that affects multiple tissues, and no treatment option offers stable long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to report a case of reconstruction of atrophic anterior alveolar ridge after tooth loss, performed with autograft harvested from the chin, and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation with the use of an osseointegrated implant. Case report: A 23-years-old Caucasian girl, presented an atrophic alveolar bone in the area of tooth 11, as a result of tooth resorption 10 years after a tooth reimplantation procedure. Reconstruction was performed with autogenous bone harvested from the chin. After 6-months healing period to allow autograft incorporation, a dental implant was inserted. After further 6- months, a screw-retained implant supported metal-ceramic prosthesis was fabricated. Results The prosthetic rehabilitation was successful, and after a follow-up period of 5 years, the achieved result was stable. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the autogenous bone graft harvested from the chin, is a safe and effective option for alveolar ridge defects reconstruction, allowing a subsequent placement of a dental implant supporting a prosthetic restoration.

Francisley Ávila Souza

2014-06-01

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The influence of resilient liner and clip attachments for bar-implant-retained mandibular overdentures on opposing maxillary ridge. A 5-year randomised clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the influence of resilient liner and clip attachments for bar-implant-retained mandibular overdentures on opposing maxillary ridge after 5 years of denture wearing. Thirty edentulous male patients (mean age 62·5 years) received two implants in the anterior mandible after being allocated into two equal groups using balanced randomisation. After 3 months, implants were connected with resilient bars. New maxillary complete dentures were then constructed, and mandibular overdentures were retained to the bars with either clips (group I, GI) or silicone resilient liners (group II, GII). The prosthetic and soft tissue complications of the maxillary dentures were recorded 6 months (T6 m ), 1 year (T1), 3 years (T3) and 5 years (T5) after overdenture insertion. Traced rotational tomograms were used for measurements of maxillary alveolar bone loss. The proportional value between bone areas and areas of reference not subject to resorption was expressed as a ratio (R). Change in R immediately before (T0) and after 5 years (T5) of overdenture insertion was calculated. Maxillary denture relining times and frequency of flabby anterior maxillary ridge occurred significantly more often in GI compared with GII. The change of R in anterior part of maxilla was significantly higher than change of R in posterior part in both groups. GI showed significant resorption of anterior residual ridge compared with GII. Relining times and frequencies of flabby ridge were significantly correlated with change in R. Within the limitations of this study, resilient liner attachments for bar-implant-retained mandibular overdentures are associated with decreased resorption and flabbiness of maxillary anterior residual ridge and fewer maxillary denture relining times when compared with clip attachments. PMID:24354686

Elsyad, M A; Ashmawy, T M; Faramawy, A G

2014-01-01

66

Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. PMID:25281203

Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

2014-12-01

67

Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatom [...] ical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º) showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn

Antonio Geraldo de, Oliveira; Fabiana Guilhermina Ferreira, Castro.

2012-04-01

68

Genetic Control of Susceptibility to Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice  

OpenAIRE

Periodontal disease affects a large percentage of the human population. Resorption of the alveolar bone of the jaw is a pivotal sequela of periodontal disease, because this bone is the attachment site for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the teeth. Using a murine model in which alveolar bone loss is induced by oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with human adult periodontal disease, we provide evidence suggesting that susceptibility to such ...

Baker, Pamela J.; Dixon, Mark; Roopenian, Derry C.

2000-01-01

69

Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction  

OpenAIRE

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two male...

Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, Gs; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

2013-01-01

70

Extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare pulmonary disorder that is caused by abnormal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter from the mutation of SLC34A2 gene, leading to accumulation of microliths in the alveoli. We report the extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an elderly woman who presented with progressive dyspnea for 2 months. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse pulmonary calcification. Tissue histopathology from open lung biopsy demonstrated widespread intra-alveolar laminated calcium deposits compatible with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:25473548

Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Muangman, Nisa; Ruangchira-Urai, Ruchira

2014-03-01

71

Candidates Cell Sources to Regenerate Alveolar Bone from Oral Tissue  

OpenAIRE

Most of the cases of dental implant surgery, especially the bone defect extensively, are essential for alveolar ridge augmentation. As known as cell therapy exerts valuable effects on bone regeneration, numerous reports using various cells from body to regenerate bone have been published, including clinical reports. Mesenchymal cells that have osteogenic activity and have potential to be harvested from intra oral site might be a candidate cells to regenerate alveolar bone, even dentists have ...

Masahiro Nishimura; Kazuma Takase; Fumio Suehiro; Hiroshi Murata

2012-01-01

72

Microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

La microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar (MAP) es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por la presencia difusa y bilateral de microlitos de fosfato de calcio en el interior de los espacios alveolares. La progresión de esta enfermedad potencialmente letal, es lenta y la mayoría de los pacientes permanecen asintomáticos por años o décadas, resultando en deterioro lento de sus funciones pulmonares. El hallazgo de la radiografía de tórax en "tormenta de arena" es característico de la entidad. Reci...

Franco Javier Vallejo García; Alejandro Vallejo García; Maximiliano Parra

2007-01-01

73

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma with predominance to lower and midzone. Although, etiology and pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, the mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium-phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type II cells resulting in the accumulation and forming of microliths rich in calcium phosphate (due to impaired clearance) are conside...

Kashyap, Surender; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.

2013-01-01

74

Preeruptive intracoronal resorption observed in 13 patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The literature on preeruptive intracoronal resorption is sparse, comprising mainly reports of single patients. This study includes 13 patients with preeruptive intracoronal resorption, forwarded for consultation regarding diagnostics and etiology. The purposes were to determine which teeth are affected by the condition and describe how the defect is manifested radiographically.

Kjær, Inger; Steiniche, Kirsten

2012-01-01

75

Root Resorption in Orthodontics: Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

This article is a literature review about external root resorption and the biological and mechanical factors that predispose its appearance in orthodontic patients. Genetic, systemic and pharmacological factors, chronological and dental age, nutritional status, gender, race, habits, tooth morphology, size and number, resorptions and dental trauma previous to periapical infections, occlusal factors and spe...

María Alexandra Lozano-Chourio; Adriana Lorena Ruiz Rojas

2009-01-01

76

Management of Compromised Ridges: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Complete denture therapy is an age old form of dental treatment. Ridge atrophy poses a clinical challenge towards the fabrication of a successful prosthesis. Extreme resorption of the maxillary and mandibular denture bearing areas results in sunken appearance of cheeks, unstable and non retentive dentures with associated pain and discomfort. This article describes the step by step rehabilitation procedure of a patient with atrophic ridges using a hollow maxillary complete denture with cheek p...

Manoj, Smita Sara; Chitre, Vidya; Aras, Meena

2011-01-01

77

Resorption of roots of different dimension induced by different types of forces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Root resorption is a variable to be considered in induced tooth movement (ITM). It is related to root morphology and alveolar bone crest, and also to the types of forces exerted by mechanotherapy. This histometric study evaluated the predominance of root resorption among roots of different dimension [...] s, following ITM with different types of forces and at different time intervals. The study was conducted on 54 rats divided into three groups, according to the type of force: continuous (CF), continuous interrupted (CIF) and intermittent (IF), at periods of 5, 7 and 9 days. The percentage of resorption between mesiobuccal roots of larger dimension and intermediate roots of smaller dimension was assessed. The evaluations were performed on the AxioVision software, and the non-parametric analysis of variance for repeated measures in independent groups was further applied, consisting of a scheme of two factors, and complemented by the Dunn test at a significance level of 5%. The intermediate roots presented a higher percentage of resorption, which was gradual at the periods evaluated for the three types of forces, but mainly for CF. Comparing the intermediate roots with the mesiobuccal roots, there was a statistically significant difference (p 0.05) in individually analyzed roots.

Osmar Aparecido, Cuoghi; Carlos Alberto, Aiello; Alberto, Consolaro; Pedro Marcelo, Tondelli; Marcos Rogério de, Mendonça.

2014-06-11

78

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

Gayathri Devi, H. J.; Mohan Rao, K. N.; Prathima, K. M.; Das, Jayanth K.

2011-01-01

79

Roles of hyaluronan in bone resorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronan, an unsulfated glycosaminoglycan, while being closely linked to osteoclast function several years ago, has received little attention lately. Given recent new knowledge of hyaluronan's possible cell binding abilities, it is important to re-examine the role of this polysaccharide in bone homeostasis. Discussion Previously published data demonstrating a linkage between induction of hyaluronan synthesis and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption are reviewed. Suggestions are made involving the cell binding ability of hyaluronan and its potential to mediate osteoclast binding to bone surfaces and its potential to serve as a diffusion barrier and participate in the sealing zone required for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Summary This brief article summarizes previous studies linking HA to bone resorption and suggests roles for hyaluronan in the process of bone resorption.

Prince Charles W

2004-04-01

80

Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores comuns aos pacientes que desenvolveram reabsorção radicular externa moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren) nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico fixo na dentição permanente. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 99 pacientes que iniciaram o tratamento or [...] todôntico fixo com a técnica Edgewise. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 - 50 pacientes que concluíram o tratamento com ausência de reabsorções radiculares ou apresentando apenas irregularidades apicais (graus 0 e 1 de Malmgren), com idade média inicial de 16,79 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,21 anos; G2 - 49 pacientes que finalizaram o tratamento apresentando reabsorção radicular moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren) nos incisivos superiores, com idade média inicial de 19,92 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,98 anos. As radiografias periapicais e telerradiografias foram avaliadas, além de diversos fatores que pudessem influenciar a ocorrência de uma reabsorção severa. A análise estatística incluiu o testes qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher e teste t independente. RESULTADOS: foi demonstrada a presença de diferença significativa entre os grupos para as variáveis realização de extrações, grau de reabsorção radicular inicial, comprimento radicular, proporção coroa/raiz e da espessura da cortical óssea alveolar. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que são fatores de risco para reabsorção radicular severa nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a presença de reabsorção radicular antes do início do tratamento, a realização de extrações, o comprimento radicular reduzido, a proporção coroa/raiz diminuída e a espessura óssea alveolar fina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who unde [...] rwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.

Gracemia Vasconcelos, Picanço; Karina Maria Salvatore de, Freitas; Rodrigo Hermont, Cançado; Fabricio Pinelli, Valarelli; Paulo Roberto Barroso, Picanço; Camila Pontes, Feijão.

2013-02-01

81

The relevance of leukotrienes for bone resorption induced by mechanical loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolites are important pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. However, much still remains to be understood about the role of such mediators in bone remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs, in a model of mechanical loading-induced bone remodeling. Strain-induced tooth movement and consequently alveolar bone resorption/apposition was achieved by using a coil spring placed on molar and attached to incisors of C57BL6 (wild-type-WT), 5-LO deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)) and mice treated with 5-LO inhibitor (zileuton-ZN) or with antagonist of CysLTs receptor (montelukast-MT). The amount of bone resorption and the number of osteoclasts were determined morphometrically. The expression of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in periodontium was analyzed by qPCR. Osteoclast differentiation and TNF-? production were evaluated in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells treated with LTB4 or LTD4. Bone resorption, TRAP(+) cells and expression of Tnfa, Il10 and Runx2 were significantly diminished in 5-LO(-/-), ZN- and MT-treated mice. The expression of Rank was also reduced in 5-LO(-/-) and MT-treated mice. Accordingly, LTB4 and LTD4 in association with RANKL promoted osteoclast differentiation and increased TNF-? release in vitro. These data demonstrate that the absence of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs reduces osteoclast recruitment and differentiation, consequently diminishing bone resorption induced by mechanical loading. Thus, 5-LO might be a potential target for controlling bone resorption in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25270168

Moura, A P; Taddei, S R A; Queiroz-Junior, C M; Madeira, M F M; Rodrigues, L F D; Garlet, G P; Souza, D G; Machado, F S; Andrade, I; Teixeira, M M; Silva, T A

2014-12-01

82

Microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar (MAP es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por la presencia difusa y bilateral de microlitos de fosfato de calcio en el interior de los espacios alveolares. La progresión de esta enfermedad potencialmente letal, es lenta y la mayoría de los pacientes permanecen asintomáticos por años o décadas, resultando en deterioro lento de sus funciones pulmonares. El hallazgo de la radiografía de tórax en "tormenta de arena" es característico de la entidad. Recientemente se identificaron mutaciones en el gen SLC34A2, que codifica para el cotransportador tipo IIb de fosfato sódico, como responsable de la enfermedad. De los casi 600 casos, sólo seis han sido reportados en Colombia. Nosotros presentamos un caso de microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar en un hombre de 27 años, con dificultad respiratoria progresiva, cuyo diagnóstico se hizo por los hallazgos radiográficos y se confirmó por biopsia transbronquial. En el seguimiento durante dos años, evolucionó hacia el deterioro de su función respiratoria y es candidato a trasplante de pulmón.Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the "sand storm" in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

Franco Javier Vallejo García

2007-12-01

83

Microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar / Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar (MAP) es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por la presencia difusa y bilateral de microlitos de fosfato de calcio en el interior de los espacios alveolares. La progresión de esta enfermedad potencialmente letal, es lenta y la mayoría de los pacientes permanecen asi [...] ntomáticos por años o décadas, resultando en deterioro lento de sus funciones pulmonares. El hallazgo de la radiografía de tórax en "tormenta de arena" es característico de la entidad. Recientemente se identificaron mutaciones en el gen SLC34A2, que codifica para el cotransportador tipo IIb de fosfato sódico, como responsable de la enfermedad. De los casi 600 casos, sólo seis han sido reportados en Colombia. Nosotros presentamos un caso de microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar en un hombre de 27 años, con dificultad respiratoria progresiva, cuyo diagnóstico se hizo por los hallazgos radiográficos y se confirmó por biopsia transbronquial. En el seguimiento durante dos años, evolucionó hacia el deterioro de su función respiratoria y es candidato a trasplante de pulmón. Abstract in english Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, result [...] ing in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the "sand storm" in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

Franco Javier, Vallejo García; Alejandro, Vallejo García; Maximiliano, Parra.

2007-12-01

84

Combined method of treating a complete absence of teeth in the mandible and the prevention of alveolar atrophy  

OpenAIRE

An alternative fully removable laminar prosthesis on the lower jaw design with poor fixation and sharp atrophy of alveolar ridge - a combined denture with girder construction of titanium, fixed on the implants

Perunov A.Y.; Maslennikov D.N.; Batusov N.A.

2011-01-01

85

Combined method of treating a complete absence of teeth in the mandible and the prevention of alveolar atrophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An alternative fully removable laminar prosthesis on the lower jaw design with poor fixation and sharp atrophy of alveolar ridge - a combined denture with girder construction of titanium, fixed on the implants

Perunov A.Y.

2011-03-01

86

Periodontal repair in dogs: effect of rhBMP-2 concentration on regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) concentration on regeneration of alveolar bone and cementum, and on associated root resorption and ankylosis. Contralateral, critical size, supra-alveolar, periodontal defects were surgically produced and immediately implanted with rhBMP-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier in 8, young adult, male, beagle dogs. 6 animals received rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 at 0.05, 0.10, or 0.20 mg/mL; total construct volume/defect approximately 4.0 mL) in contralateral defects following an incomplete block design. 2 animals received rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 at 0 and 0.10 mg/mL) in contralateral defects (controls). The animals were euthanised at 8 weeks post-surgery and block sections of the defects were collected for histologic and histometric analysis. Supra-alveolar periodontal defects receiving rhBMP-2 at 0.05, 0.10, or 0.20 mg/ml exhibited extensive alveolar regeneration comprising 86%, 96%, and 88% of the defect height, respectively. Cementum regeneration encompassed 8%, 6%, and 8% of the defect height, respectively. Root resorption was observed for all rhBMP-2 concentrations. Ankylosis was observed in almost all teeth receiving rhBMP-2. Control defects without rhBMP-2 exhibited limited, if any, evidence of alveolar bone and cementum regeneration, root resorption, or ankylosis. Within the selected rhBMP-2 concentration and observation interval, there appear to be no meaningful differences in regeneration of alveolar bone and cementum. There also appear to be no significant differences in the incidence and extent of root resorption and ankylosis, though there may be a positive correlation with rhBMP-2 concentration. PMID:10382580

Wikesjö, U M; Guglielmoni, P; Promsudthi, A; Cho, K S; Trombelli, L; Selvig, K A; Jin, L; Wozney, J M

1999-06-01

87

3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

2002-07-01

88

Correction of bone and softtissue deformity of the single implant in the aesthetic zone: a case treated with alveolar ridge preservation, modified roll technique and a digitally coded healing abutment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The correction of soft tissue deformity and aesthetic rehabilitation of a single implant in the aesthetic zone with a combination of periodontal and prosthodontic approaches is described. Soft tissue deformity was corrected resulting in significant soft tissue volume increase and eliminated the need for prosthetic gingival replacement. A two stage implant placement protocol, ridge preservation and a soft tissue augmentation flap design preserved epithelium attachment to the connective tissues. Use of a digitally coded healing abutment preserved the newly established soft tissue volume, allowed impression making without implant component removal, and minimized trauma to the newly established soft tissue architecture. PMID:25134361

Dhima, M

2014-06-01

89

Measuring mandibular ridge reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

90

Congenital alveolar proteinosis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is recently described as a rare cause of lung dysfunction and respiratory distress in term neonates. In several cases, a deficiency or insufficiency of surfactant protein B SP-B has been caused by a frame shift mutation in the gene encoding SP-B. Three siblings with congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis showed clinical and radiological evidence. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies in the last sibling revealed deficiency of SP-B, one of the group of 3 specific lipoproteins that reduce the surface tension between air and liquid interface within pulmonary alveoli, suggesting a gene associated illness.

Abdulhakeim K. Kattan

2004-10-01

91

A Comparative Study of Bone Resorption between Implant Placement Sites and Non-Implant Placement Sites after Autogenous Block Bone Grafts in the Anterior Maxilla  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the bone resorption differences between implant placement sites (IPS and non-implant placement sites (NIPS after autogenous block bone grafts in the anterior maxilla. Fourteen patients (58 edentulous sites with alveolar atrophy in the anterior maxilla were treated with autogenous block bone grafts. CBCT examinations were performed at 1 month before surgery (T0, immediately after surgery (T1, 3 to 4 months after surgery (T2, 6 to 7 months after surgery before implant placement (T3, 12 to 13 months after surgery (T4, and the longest follow-up point (T5. Alveolar crestal and basal bone width (ACBW, ABBW, and alveolar bone height (ABH were measured and divided into IPS (30 sites and NIPS (28 sites. All results were compared by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. The bone resorption changes for both groups were the same. For these three parameters, ACBW didn’t change significantly from T2 to T3 and T4 to T5, ABBW didn’t change at every period from T2 to T5, and ABH didn’t change from T4 to T5. The bone resorption volume of ACBW and ABH in NIPS were more than in IPS after implant placement surgery, while the volume of ABBW was similar in both groups. At T5, the bone resorption percentages of ACBW, ABBW, and ABH were 25.57%, 16.85% and 43.84% in IPS, and 33.55%, 15.92% and 46.44% in NIPS. A more rapid loss of alveolar crest in NIPS resulted from implant placement surgery, and this reminded us of the importance of immediate implant placement.

Jisi Zheng

2014-04-01

92

Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

Scadding, Steven R.

1984-01-01

93

Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes whole-lung lavage, application of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor and lung transplantation. Case report. We reported a 51 year-old man with primary form of the disease. It was the second case of this extremely rare disease in the past 30 years in our clinic. The symptoms were longlasting dry cough, fever and physical deterioration. Chest Xray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; computed tomography showed patchy ground-glass opacification with interlobular thickening. The diagnosis was established by open lung biopsy. Additional tests were performed to exclude secondary form of the disease. Conclusion. We presented a rare clinical entity with typical clinical features and clinical and radiological course of the disease, in order to improve differential diagnostic approach to patients with bilateral lung infiltrations. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis timely diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve a prognosis.

Šarac Sanja

2012-01-01

94

Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

Kjær, Inger; StrØm, Carsten

2012-01-01

95

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

A 40-year-old male patient was referred with a history of exertional shortness of breath since a few years ago. Spirometric findings were consistent with a restrictive ventilatory defect. Plain chest radiographs showed sand-like opacities throughout both lungs predominantly in the lower zones. Computerized tomographic scan revealed diffuse bilateral calcified fine nodular pattern. The diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy.

Razi, E.; Ehteram, H.; Talari, H. R.

2006-01-01

96

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 40-year-old male patient was referred with a history of exertional shortness of breath since a few years ago. Spirometric findings were consistent with a restrictive ventilatory defect. Plain chest radiographs showed sand-like opacities throughout both lungs predominantly in the lower zones. Computerized tomographic scan revealed diffuse bilateral calcified fine nodular pattern. The diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy.

E. Razi

2006-06-01

97

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We report a patient with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with chest pain, shortness of breath, dry cough and swelling of lower limbs. The patient underwent chest radiographs and CT scan showing multiple diffuse, almost symmetrical bilateral micronodular opacities of calcific density. The diagnosis was confirmed after percutaneous lung biopsy from the patient. Cardiokinetics, diuretics and oxygen were administered with slight improvement.

Fasih Uddin

2004-05-01

98

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiliasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a patient with plmonary alveolar microlithiliasis who was admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with chest pain, shortness of breath dry cough and swelling of lower limbs.The patient underwent chest radiolgraphs and computerized tomography scan showing multiple diffuse, almost symmetrical bilateral micronodulor opacities of calicific density. The diagnosis was confirmed after percuraneous lung biopsy from the patient. Cardiokinetics, diuretics and oxygen were administerd with slight improvement. (author)

99

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT We report a patient with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with chest pain, shortness of breath, dry cough and swelling of lower limbs. The patient underwent chest radiographs and CT scan showing multiple diffuse, almost symmetrical bilateral micronodular opacities of calcific density. The diagnosis was confirmed after percutaneous lung biopsy from the patient. Cardiokinetics, diu...

Fasih Uddin; Alawi, Malak H.; Abdulshakoor, Bothaina M.

2004-01-01

100

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the sand storm in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

101

Theoretical basis of alveolar sampling.  

OpenAIRE

The conditions under which the partial pressure of a solvent in the alveolar gas is likely to provide a valid index of its partial pressure in the mixed venous blood, and thus of whole-body exposure, is explored on a theoretical basis. Under steady-state conditions, providing the solvent's blood/gas partition coefficient exceeds 10, its mixed venous and alveolar pressures will agree within 10% and become virtually identical during the prolonged expiration necessary to obtain an alveolar sampl...

Kelman, G. R.

1982-01-01

102

Effects of potassium peroxydiphosphate on bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potassium peroxydiphosphate (KPDP) is a slowly hydrolyzed pyrophosphate analog that can release hydrogen peroxide during hydrolysis. We tested its effects on the resorption of cultured fetal rat long bones as measured by the release of previously incorporated 45Ca, both by direct addition of KPDP to the medium and after preincubation of KPDP with large-molecular-weight resorbing factors followed by dialysis to reduce the KPDP concentration. With direct addition, KPDP at a concentration of 1 mM could inhibit the resortive response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), parathyroid hormone (PTH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and mouse recombinant interleukin-1 (mrIL-1). The response to LPS was partially inhibited at 0.3 mM KPDP. Control resorption in the absence of stimulators was also inhibited. Potassium pyrophosphate at 1 mM was less effective as an inhibitor of bone resorption. The inhibitory effects of KPDP did not appear to be due entirely to nonspecific toxicity since partial recovery occurred after it was removed. There was no significant decrease in [3H]thymidine or [3H]proline incorporation into bones incubated with KPDP at 1 mM for 5 days, but [3H]proline incorporation was decreased at 24 h, suggesting that KPDP may have a general inhibitory effect on bone cells. When media with and without stimulators of resorption were incubated overnight at 4 degrees C with KPDP at 5.8 mM and then dialyzed to bring the concentration to below 0.3 mM, the bone-resorbing activity of PTH, LPS, and mrIL-1 was completely lost. This may have been due to the slow release of hydrogen peroxide; however, preincubation with equimolar concentrations of H2O3 caused only partial inactivation of PTH and LPS. LPS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1796751

Gaffar, A; Alander, C B; Raisz, L G

1991-10-01

103

Evaluation of horizontal ridge augmentation using beta tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix: A comparative study  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) alone compared to ?-TCP and Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) in regenerating localized horizontal maxillary alveolar ridge deficiencies prior to implant placement. Study Design: The study included 20 patients with horizontal maxillary ridge deficiencies limited to one or more neighbouring teeth and initial ridge width of ? 5mmm. Patients were divided equally into two equal groups. Ridge augmentation was perfo...

Shalash, Mahmoud A.; Rahman, Hatem A.; Azim, Amr A.; Neemat, Amani H.; Hawary, Hesham E.; Nasry, Sherine A.

2013-01-01

104

Bone Remodeling and Hydroxyapatite Resorption in Coated Primary Hip Prostheses  

OpenAIRE

Hydroxyapatite coatings for THA promote bone ongrowth, but bone and coating are exposed to stress shielding-driven osteoclastic resorption. We asked: (1) if the resorption of hydroxyapatite coating and bone ongrowth correlated with demographics; (2) if the resorption related to the stem level; and (3) what happens to the implant-bone interface when all hydroxyapatite coating is resorbed? We recovered 13 femoral components from cadaveric specimens 3.3 to 11.2 years after uneventful primary TH...

Tonino, Alphons J.; Wal, Bart C. H.; Heyligers, Ide C.; Grimm, Bernd

2008-01-01

105

Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the reduction of mandibular residual ridge among edentulous patients using panoramic radiographs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the reduction of mandibular residual ridge in completely edentulous patients wearing complete dentures and to investigate the ef-fect of gender, age and years of edentulousness / den-ture wearing on ridge resorption on both groups. Methods:Seventy-two (36 men and 36 women with a mean age 63.5 years (range of 52 to 73 years com-pletely edentulous denture-wearing patients were included in this study. Of these, there were 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 control subjects participated in the study. Resorption in the mandibular residual ridges was assessed by using the mental foramen and the inferior border of the mandible, as they appear in panoramic radiographs, as reference points using Wical and Swoope Analysis method. Measurements were performed using “Dijite” Digital Caliper. The amount of mandibular ridge resorption was calculated and correlated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the results were compared with control group. Differences in gender, age and years of edentulousness were investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (V11.0. A 2-sample t-test was used to evaluate the differences in mean values of mandibular ridge resorption between diabetics and controls. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean mandibular residual ridge resorption of all participants is 8.0 mm (26.9%, diabetic group significantly (P < 0.01 had two times more resorption compared with control group (35.8% versus 18.0%. Females recorded greater amount of resorption in diabetics 49.7% versus 21.8% (P < 0.001 and in controls 22.3% versus 13.7%, (P < 0.05 compared to males, respectively. There were no differences in both groups regarding the age of subjects and the length of time they have been edentulous and years of denture wearing. The amount of mandibular residual ridge resorption was directly related to the number of years of edentulousness. Conclusion: Completely edentulous, denture-wearing diabetics, women in particular, are at more risk to have ridge resorption than “nondiabetic” subjects. Reduced mandibular height is directly related to years of edentulousness and denture wear-ing with greater amount of resorption among diabet-ics.

Osama Al-Jabrah

2011-09-01

106

Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

2011-04-01

107

Alveolar soft-part sarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alveolar soft-part sarcoma usually arises from the soft tissue of the lower extremity, but may arise from the orbit, retroperitoneum and else where, in both children and adults. The tumors grow slowly, may invade the underlying bone, and eventually may metastasis widely through the blood stream. Recently, we experienced 5 cases of alveolar soft-part sarcoma originated from thigh, lower leg, inguinal region, retroperitoneum and orbit. The radiologic findings are soft tissue mass (2 cases) with underlying bony destruction (3 cases), lung metastasis (2 cases). Although rare, alveolar soft-part sarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor arising from the lower extremity

108

Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone resorption.

Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter

2003-01-01

109

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following is the case of a 36-year old pregnant woman reaching term, suffering from advanced pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. To our knowledge, this is the first record of such a case. PMID:16854698

Rodríguez, Fabián; Ferrer, Jorge; Briozzo, Leonel; Pons, José

2006-04-01

110

Adhesion Molecule Deficiencies Increase Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar bone resorption can be induced in specific-pathogen-free mice by oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. J. Baker, R. T. Evans, and D. C. Roopenian, Arch. Oral Biol. 39:1035–1040, 1994). Here we used a mouse strain, C57BL/6J, which is relatively resistant to P. gingivalis-induced bone loss to examine whether partial or complete deletion of various adhesion molecules would increase susceptibility. Complete deletion of P-selectin or nearly complete lack of expression of inte...

Baker, Pamela J.; Dufour, Lisa; Dixon, Mark; Roopenian, Derry C.

2000-01-01

111

Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorpti [...] on during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force are involved. For biological factors, a genetic susceptibility, systemic disease, gender and medication intake have been demonstrated influence root resorption. Orthodontic therapy of patients with increased risk of root resorption should be carefully planned. Medical history, medication intake, family history, tooth agenesis, root morphology, oral health and habits must be considerate if we do not want jeopardize our patients by severe root resorption. To monitor apical root resorption the standard procedure is a radiographic examination after 6 months of treatment. In teeth with enhanced risk, a 3-month radiographic follow-up is recommended. The administration of anti-inflammatory drugs might suppress root resorption induced by orthodontic therapy, although none study was enough conclusive to indicate a protocol for patients with enhanced risk. In the event of multiple external root resorption, the diagnostic procedure should focus on the exclusion of the local factors and its associations (such as magnitude, duration and type of orthodontic force; periodontal disease; root form) that might lead to external root resorption. Systemic disorders associated with phosphorus-calcium metabolic alterations shall be suspected. This review searched the current knowledge of the mechanical and biological aspects of root resorption in orthodontic tooth movement.

Allan, Abuabara.

2007-12-01

112

Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar, caso clínico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Proteinosis Alveolar Pulmonar es una patología poco frecuente, especialmente en la edad pediátrica, caracterizada por acumulación de material lipoproteináceo proveniente del surfactante en los macrófagos alveolares. Objetivo: Comunicar un caso de proteinosis pulmonar en el cual el uso de la fibrobroncoscopía (FB permitió el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Caso Clínico: Escolar de 7 años, que consulta por un cuadro febril, en la cual se plantea inicialmente el diagnóstico de neumonía. Ante la mala evolución, con aumento de las imágenes radiológicas de tipo nodular, el ascenso de los niveles de LDH en plasma, y la mínima sintomatología clínica respiratoria, se planteó el diagnóstico de proteinosis alveolar, realizando una FB con lavado alveolar. Las tinciones de Sudán y PAS confirmaron la sospecha diagnóstica, lo cual fue apoyado por la mejoría radiológica y clínica de la paciente. Discusión: Se discute las formas clínicas de presentación, los hallazgos clínicos, radiológicos y de laboratorio que permiten plantear el diagnóstico. Se destaca el rol de la fibrobroncoscopía como método diagnóstico y terapéuticoPulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. Case-report Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pathology in children, characterized by the presence of lipoprotein material becoming from surfactants in alveolar macrophages. Objetive: Describe a clinical case of pulmonary proteinosis, in which fibrobronchoscopy (FB allowed diagnosis and treatment. Case-report: A 7 years-old boy with fever and diagnostic presumption of pneumonia. The evolution was not favorable, in terms of increase in nodular images on chest X-ray and increase in LDH plasmatic level, with few respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was suspected, performing a FB with bronchoalveolar lavage, where Sudán and PAS colouring confirmed the diagnosis. Discussion: Analysis of clinical presentations, laboratory findings and chest images that suggest the diagnosis. It is important to point out the role of FB in diagnosis and treatment

TERESA PARAM S

2007-04-01

113

Gamma Interferon (IFN-?) and IFN-?-Inducing Cytokines Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Do Not Augment Infection-Stimulated Bone Resorption In Vivo  

OpenAIRE

Periapical granulomas are induced by bacterial infection of the dental pulp and result in destruction of the surrounding alveolar bone. In previous studies we have reported that the bone resorption in this model is primarily mediated by macrophage-expressed interleukin-1 (IL-1). The expression and activity of IL-1 is in turn modulated by a network of Th1 and Th2 regulatory cytokines. In the present study, the functional roles of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-?) and IFN-?-inducing c...

Sasaki, Hajime; Balto, Khaled; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Eastcott, Jean; Hoshino, Katsuaki; Akira, Shizuo; Stashenko, Philip

2004-01-01

114

"Internal root resorption: An endodontic challenge": A case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of internal root resorption is a challenge to the endodontists. It may occur in cases with chronic pulpal inflammation, following caries or due to trauma in the form of an accidental blow. Most cases of internal root resorption are seen in anterior teeth, due to their susceptibility to trauma. However, it may be seen in posterior teeth, most likely because of carious involvement of the pulp. Early diagnosis, removal of the cause, proper treatment of the resorbed root is mandatory for successful treatment outcome. This paper is an attempt to summarize the knowledge on internal root resorption and present various cases, which were successfully managed with different treatment modalities. PMID:25506152

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-11-01

115

Sanguinarine inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption via suppressing RANKL-induced activation of NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sanguinarine is a natural plant extract that has been supplemented in a number of gingival health products to suppress the growth of dental plaque. However, whether sanguinarine has any effect on teeth and alveolar bone health is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that sanguinarine could suppress osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. Sanguinarine diminished the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including TRAP, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, DC-STAMP, V-ATPase d2, NFATc1 and c-fos. Further investigation revealed that sanguinarine attenuated RANKL-mediated I?B? phosphorylation and degradation, leading to the impairment of NF-?B signaling pathway during osteoclast differentiation. In addition, sanguinarine also affected the ERK signaling pathway by inhibiting RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation. Collectively, this study suggested that sanguinarine has protective effects on teeth and alveolar bone health. PMID:23261473

Li, Haowei; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Guangwang; Tang, Tingting; Lin, Zhen; Zheng, Minghao; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2013-01-18

116

Substitution of osteoporotic alveolar bone by biphasic calcium phosphate/poly-DL-lactide-co-glycolide biomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lost bone tissue due to osteoporosis makes dentistry very difficult. The aim of thisstudy is to reconstruct the bone tissue with composite biomaterials and to estimate the optical density and alveolar ridge height of the mandible. Research is conducted on 30 postmenopausal women aged from 46 to 62 years, with diagnosed osteoporosis and defects in alveolar bones caused by extraction of paradontopathic teeth, enucleation of cysts and periapical changes, extraction of impacted teeth,or by trauma.Biphasic calcium phosphate/poly-DL-lactide-co-glycolide (BCP/PLGA) composite is implanted into the defects of alveolar bones. Six weeks after implantation of BCP/PLGA, the alveolar bone density in the region of premolars on the experimental side of the jaw is found to be lower than that on the untreated, control, side of the jaw. On thecontrary, 24 weeks after implantation, it is significantly higher compared with the density of the control side. A significant increase in optical density of alveolar bones in the region of premolars on the experimental side compared with the control one is noticed. These results indicate a high level of osteoregeneration and osteoblast activity. Synthetic BCP/PLGA composite belongs to the group of biomaterials, which facilitate formation of new bones and rehabilitation of alveolar bones weakened by osteoporosis. Because of its osteoconductive characteristics, BCP/PLGA composite is supposed to be the material of choice for replacement of bone tissue in the future. PMID:17229816

Ajdukovi?, Zorica; Zorica, Ajdukovi?; Ignjatovi?, Nenad; Nenad, Ignjatovi?; Petrovi?, Dragan; Dragan, Petrovi?; Uskokovi?, Dragan; Dragan, Uskokovi?

2007-01-01

117

Genetics Home Reference: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... lungs, specifically in cells in the alveoli called alveolar type II cells. These cells produce and recycle surfactant, which is ... Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pulmonary alveolar ... gallbladder ; gene ; homeostasis ; imaging ; inherited ; phosphate ; ...

118

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21139727

Malhotra, Balbir; Sabharwal, Raghu; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Amarjeet

2010-10-01

119

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

Malhotra Balbir

2010-01-01

120

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

Malhotra Balbir; Sabharwal Raghu; Singh Mandeep; Singh Amarjeet

2010-01-01

121

Novel Role of the Human Alveolar Epithelium in Regulating Intra-Alveolar Coagulation  

OpenAIRE

Intra-alveolar fibrin deposition is a common response to localized and diffuse lung infection and acute lung injury (ALI). We hypothesized that the alveolar epithelium modulates intra-alveolar fibrin deposition through activation of protein C. Our obejctives were to determine whether components of the protein C activation pathway are present in the alveolar compartment in ALI and whether alveolar epithelium is a potential source. In patients with ALI, pulmonary edema fluid levels of endotheli...

Wang, Ling; Bastarache, Julie A.; Wickersham, Nancy; Fang, Xiaohui; Matthay, Michael A.; Ware, Lorraine B.

2006-01-01

122

The influence of mandibular ridge anatomy on treatment outcome with conventional complete dentures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since prognostic indicators are likely to take on increasing importance as a diagnostic tool for selection of patients for implant provision, this study investigated the influence of the shape and resiliency of the mandibular alveolar ridge on the retention and stability of conventional complete dentures. Ninety- three edentulous patients wearing both maxillary and mandibular conventional complete dentures composed the sample. Data were collected regarding shape and resiliencyof the mandibular residual ridge. Dentures were assessed for retention and stability using an objective and reproducible tool.The associations between the clinical characteristics of the mandibular alveolar ridge and denture retention and stability were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests (a = 0.05). A significant association between ridge shape and denture stability (p denture retention (p mandibular ridge shape and resiliency influenced the retention and stability of conventional complete dentures. PMID:25523954

Ribeiro, Jaiane A M; de Resende, Camila M B M; Lopes, Ana L C; Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Carreiro, Adriana da F P

2014-01-01

123

Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan  

OpenAIRE

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from 60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union.

Usubalieva, Jumagul; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul R.

2013-01-01

124

Human alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human echinococcosis is a reportable disease in Kyrgyzstan. Between 1995 and 2011, human alveolar echinococcosis increased from 60 cases per year. The origins of this epidemic, which started in 2004, may be linked to the socioeconomic changes that followed the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. PMID:23763935

Usubalieva, Jumagul; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Torgerson, Paul R

2013-07-01

125

Evidence for interrupted bone resorption in human iliac cancellous bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone resorption and formation are coupled both in time and space and may occur simultaneously in the same remodeling unit. A number of studies have shown that the formative phase of the remodeling sequence may undergo temporary interruptions prior to completion and it is possible that bone resorption may be subject to similar interruptions. We have investigated this hypothesis by studying the distribution of eroded depth in resorption cavities in human cancellous bone. Eroded depth was assessed in iliac crest cancellous bone from 41 normal healthy subjects using a cubic spline curve fitting technique. The distribution of mean eroded depths was skewed to the right. Comparison of the observed distribution with an expected distribution, which was calculated from previously published data and assumes resorption begins rapidly and slows as it approaches completion, showed a significantly greater proportion of shallower cavities than expected (p<0001). Similarly, comparison of observed and uniform distributions, which assumes a constant rate of resorption throughout the erosion period, also showed a significantly greater proportion of smaller cavities (p<0.01). In subjects aged less than 39 years, there were fewer small cavities than in those aged 40-59 years. In addition, there was some evidence that females of 40-59 years had a proportionately greater number of smaller cavities than males; however, there were no differences in other age groups. Our results demonstrate a significantly greater proportion of smaller resorption cavities than would be expected from current models of bone remodeling and are consistent with the hypothesis that resorption undergoes temporary interruptions and/or permanent arrest during the process of bone remodeling. PMID:8686510

Croucher, P I; Gilks, W R; Compston, J E

1995-10-01

126

The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. Keywords: photobiomodulation, root resorption, accelerate tooth movement, orthodontics, cone beam computed tomography

Nimeri G

2014-01-01

127

An evaluation of root resorption incident to orthodontic intrusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new radiographic method was developed for measuring changes in root length. With this technique, orthodontic intrusion was investigated as a potential cause of apical root resorption of maxillary incisors. The experimental group consisted of 17 patients with excessive overbite who were treated with a Burstone-type intrusion arch, which delivered a low level of force (about 15 gm per tooth). A control group was made up of 17 patients in full-arch fixed appliances who were randomly selected. After a period of approximately 4 months, the intrusion group had only slightly more root resorption than the controls, 0.6 mm versus 0.2 mm (statistically significant difference). Intrusion measured at the center of resistance of the central incisor averaged 1.9 mm. The amount of resorption was not correlated with the amount of intrusion. A weak correlation, r = 0.45, was found between resorption and movement of the apex (i.e., in addition to intrusion, there was often palatal root movement). Results of this study seem to indicate that intrusion with low forces can be effective in reducing overbite while causing only a negligible amount of apical root resorption. PMID:8638600

Costopoulos, G; Nanda, R

1996-05-01

128

Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco") possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL A [...] ND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily); ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily). Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

Bruno B., Benatti; Jozafá C., Campos-Júnior; Vilmar J., Silva-Filho; Polyanna M., Alves; Isabela R., Rodrigues; Elizabeth, Uber-Bucek; Silvio M., Vieira; Marcelo H., Napimoga.

2012-06-01

129

Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

Bruno B. Benatti

2012-06-01

130

Histologic Healing Following Tooth Extraction With Ridge Preservation Using Mineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft Alone Versus a Combined Mineralized-Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Mineralized and demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBA) are used in alveolar ridge preservation, however each material has advantages and disadvantages. Combinations of allografts aimed at capitalizing on the advantages each offers are available. To date there is no evidence to indicate if a combination allograft is superior in this application. The primary objective of this study is to histologically evaluate and compare healing of non-molar extraction sites grafted with either mineralized FDBA or a 70:30 mineralized: demineralized FDBA combination allograft in alveolar ridge preservation. The secondary objective is to compare dimensional changes in ridge height and width after grafting with these two materials. Materials: 42 patients randomized into two equal groups received ridge preservation with either 100% mineralized FDBA (active control group) or the combination 70% mineralized:30% demineralized allograft (test group). Sites were allowed to heal for 18-20 weeks, at which time core biopsies were obtained and dental implants were placed. Alveolar ridge dimensions were evaluated at the time of extraction and at implant placement, including change in ridge width and change in buccal and lingual ridge height. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine percentage of vital bone, residual graft, and connective tissue/other non-bone components. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in alveolar ridge dimensional changes. Combination allograft produced increased vital bone percentage, 36.16%, compared to the FDBA group, 24.69% (p=0.0116). The combination allograft also had a significantly lower mean percentage of residual graft particles at 18.24% compared to FDBA at 27.04% (p=0.0350). Conclusions: This study provides the first histologic evidence showing greater new bone formation with a combination mineralized/demineralized allograft compared to 100% mineralized FDBA in alveolar ridge preservation in humans. Combination allograft results in increased vital bone formation while providing similar dimensional stability of the alveolar ridge when compared to FDBA alone in alveolar ridge preservation. PMID:25415247

Borg, Tyler D; Mealey, Brian L

2014-11-21

131

B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Periodontal disease is one of the most common infectious diseases of humans. Immune responses to infection trigger loss of alveolar bone from the jaw and eventual tooth loss. We investigated the contribution of B cell IgD to alveolar bone loss by comparing the response of B cell normal BALB/cJ mice and IgD deficient BALB/c-Igh-5?/?J mice to oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative periodontopathic bacterium from humans. P. gingivalis-infected normal mice lost bone. Specific antibody to P. gingivalis was lower and oral colonization was higher in IgD deficient mice; yet bone loss was completely absent. Infection increased the proportion of CD69+ activated B cells and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

Pamela J. Baker

2009-01-01

132

Peculiarities of the bone tissue resorption under microgravity conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The actual problem - peculiarities of resorptive processes in the spongiose of thingbones - we studied with the use of tranmissive electron microscopy in experiments on rats (American space station SLS-2) and on monkeys Macaca mulatt? (BION-11). Animals were onboard during 2 weeks. There was established, that the resorption happen with osteoclasts participation. They can create groups of cells. In the osteoclasts population we indicated not typical for the control (ground experiment) "giant" cells, which have on ultrathin sections 5-6 nuclei, many lysosomes, well developed "light" zone and "brush-border". The destruction of minera lized matrix in bone lacunas also happens by the way of osteolytic activity of osteocytes. Lysosome ferments of osteocytes are secreted by the eczocytosis. The osteocytic osteolysis, as well as the osteoclastic one can be seen as a physiological, gormon-dependent mechanism of resorption. The presence of a considerable number of neutrophiles, which enter in some zones of resorption is also typical. When these neutrophiles destruct, they release lysosomic ferments that dissolve the bone matrix. In some zones of resorption we noted the presence of the row from collagen fibrils, which loosed crystals , on mineralized matrix borders. The cell detritus is noted in zones of surface dissolving among crystallic conglomerates. It certificates the processes of osteogenic cells destruction that happen here. So, under the microgravity conditions in zones of adaptive remodeling of the spongiose the processes of the bone tissue resorption happen by some ways, namely: by the functional activization of osteoclasts; by the osteocytic osteolysis increasing; as a result of hydrolytic activity of neutrophiles, entering in these zones, and also by the local demineralization and further destruction of bone matrix surface zones.

Rodionova, N.; Oganov, V.; Polkovenko, O.; Nitsevich, T.

133

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in siblings.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) in siblings. The male child was diagnosed initially and family screening led to the diagnosis of the asymptomatic sister. The diagnosis was confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and bone scintigraphy which demonstrated the calcific nature of the lesions. We emphasize the importance of family screening of PAM index cases to detect the disease in the early, asymptomatic stage. PMID:18310798

Thapa, Rajoo; Ganguly, Debasree; Ghosh, Apurba

2008-02-01

134

Ridge suction drives plume-ridge interactions.  

OpenAIRE

Deep-sourced mantle plumes, if existing, are genetically independent of plate tectonics. When the ascending plumes approach lithospheric plates, interactions between the two occur. Such interactions are most prominent near ocean ridges where the lithosphere is thin and the effect of plumes is best revealed. While ocean ridges are mostly passive features in terms of plate tectonics, they play an active role in the context of plume-ridge interactions. This active role is a ridge suction forc...

Niu, Y.; He?kinian, R.

2004-01-01

135

Alveolar permeability and mucociliary clearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of alveolar permeability and mucociliary clearance by means of radionuclides are rarely used methods to estimate various functions of the lungs in-vivo (barrier and self cleaning function). Results of both methods are influenced by many factors which requires standardization of data acquisition and data interpretation. Although normal values are available, large interindividual variations require intraindividual follow-up investigations (i.e. after intervention or during therapy). The estimation of alveolar permeability by means of Pertechnegas is an alternative to the use of conventional Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and can be completed within 15 min. A tiny modification (i.e. order of a special gas) enables the Technegas generator to deliver Pertechnegas which is optimal to estimate alveolar permeability. By contrast, no adequate particle is commercially available to estimate mucociliary clearance; however, patient's own red blood cells can be used for this purpose. This method has been applied by several investigators and labelling expense is low. Both scintigraphic methods are highly sensitive but have low specificity. Therefore, their strength is the exclusion of an alteration of lungs' partial function. (orig.)

136

Inhibition of prostaglandin action and bone resorption by copper.  

OpenAIRE

Mouse calvaria were maintained in organ culture without serum additives. The effects of Cu2+ on bone resorption and on the synthesis and action of prostaglandins were studied. Non-toxic concentrations of copper sulphate (5 microM) were found to decrease active resorption, measured by 45Ca release, to 54% control values (p less than 0.001), while prostaglandin F (PGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, (6-keto-PGF1 alpha), determined by radioimmunoassay, were increase...

Katz, J. M.; Skinner, S. J.; Wilson, T.; Gray, D. H.

1984-01-01

137

Humoral Regulation of Osteoclasts and Their Role in Bone Resorption  

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Full Text Available Osteoclasts are derived from the macrophage haematopoietic lineage, resemble monocyte-like phagocytic cells, and are involved in bone resorption. The cells of the bone and the immune system communicate by cytokines and growth factors. The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK signalling pathway in osteoclasts provides a deeper understanding of osteoclastogenesis, mechanisms of the activation of bone resorption, and how bone structure and mass are affected by hormones. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 12-7

Hatice Sebile Dökmeta?

2008-05-01

138

Alveolar septal pulmonary amyloidosis: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare diesase, and is classified as either tracheobronchial or parenchymal; the latter is also divided into nodular and diffuse alveolar septal forms. The alveolar septal form is extremely rare and usually produces reticular and nodular opacities. We describe a case of alveolar septal pulmonary amyloidosis manifested as multiple small nodules on chest radiograph and disseminated micronodules mainly in centrilobular and subpleural location without reticular opacities, on HRCT

139

Prosthodontic rehabilitation of patient with flabby ridges with different impression techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fibrous or flabby ridge is a superficial area of mobile soft tissue affecting the maxillary or mandibular alveolar ridges. It can develop when hyperplastic soft tissue replaces the alveolar bone and is a common finding particularly in the upper anterior region of long term denture wearers. Masticatory forces can displace this mobile denture-bearing tissue, leading to altered denture positioning and loss of peripheral seal. Forces exerted during the act of impression making can result in distortion of the mobile tissue. Unless managed appropriately by special impression techniques, such 'flabby ridges' adversely affect the support, retention and stability of complete dentures. This paper presents three case reports for prosthodontic rehabilitation of patient with flabby ridges with three different impression techniques. PMID:25565737

Bansal, Rubina; Kumar, Manjit; Garg, Rashim; Saini, Rishi; Kaushala, Shaveta

2014-04-01

140

[Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Report of one case].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an extremely rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of calcified spherical particles (called microliths), due to a mutation of the gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the alveolar surface. Most patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis. The course of the disease is slowly progressive, with development of pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. The "sandstorm" pattern is the characteristic finding of this disease. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea. A chest X ray showed ground-glass opacities and a high resolution CT scan showed numerous calcified lung micronodules. A surgical lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:25427025

Fernández F, Cristina; Salinas F, Mauricio; de Grazia K, José Andrés; Díaz P, Juan Carlos

2014-05-01

141

Effect of fish oil on lipopolysaccharide-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone: A Preliminary Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fish oil has been shown to inhibit bone resorption and, therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fish oil alters lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone. Rats were divided into four groups. The animals injected with saline or Escherichia coli-derived LPS into the maxillary alveolar mucosa on the buccoapical site of the molar region daily for 8 days were served as a negative or positive control, respectively. Other groups of animals were injected with LPS and orally treated with fish oil at the same day with or after LPS injection. The results of the present study showed that the hydroxyapatite contents of alveolar bone in rats treated with fish oil at the same day with or before LPS injection were significantly higher than those in rats injected with LPS alone, but still lower than those in untreated animals. Therefore, the present study suggests that oral treatment with fish oil may reduce LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone

Didin E. Indahyani

2009-02-01

142

Gamma Interferon (IFN-?) and IFN-?-Inducing Cytokines Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Do Not Augment Infection-Stimulated Bone Resorption In Vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Periapical granulomas are induced by bacterial infection of the dental pulp and result in destruction of the surrounding alveolar bone. In previous studies we have reported that the bone resorption in this model is primarily mediated by macrophage-expressed interleukin-1 (IL-1). The expression and activity of IL-1 is in turn modulated by a network of Th1 and Th2 regulatory cytokines. In the present study, the functional roles of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-?) and IFN-?-inducing cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 were determined in a murine model of periapical bone destruction. IL-12?/?, IL-18?/?, and IFN-??/? mice were subjected to surgical pulp exposure and infection with a mixture of four endodontic pathogens, and bone destruction was determined by microcomputed tomography on day 21. The results indicated that all IL-12?/?, IL-18?/?, and IFN-??/? mice had similar infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo as wild-type control mice. Mice infused with recombinant IL-12 also had resorption similar to controls. IFN-??/? mice exhibited significant elevations in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in lesions compared to wild-type mice, but these modulations had no net effect on IL-1? levels. Recombinant IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-? individually failed to consistently modulate macrophage IL-1? production in vitro. We conclude that, at least individually, endogenous IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-? do not have a significant effect on the pathogenesis of infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo, suggesting possible functional redundancy in proinflammatory pathways. PMID:14715554

Sasaki, Hajime; Balto, Khaled; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Eastcott, Jean; Hoshino, Katsuaki; Akira, Shizuo; Stashenko, Philip

2004-01-01

143

Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 do not augment infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periapical granulomas are induced by bacterial infection of the dental pulp and result in destruction of the surrounding alveolar bone. In previous studies we have reported that the bone resorption in this model is primarily mediated by macrophage-expressed interleukin-1 (IL-1). The expression and activity of IL-1 is in turn modulated by a network of Th1 and Th2 regulatory cytokines. In the present study, the functional roles of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 were determined in a murine model of periapical bone destruction. IL-12-/-, IL-18-/-, and IFN-gamma-/- mice were subjected to surgical pulp exposure and infection with a mixture of four endodontic pathogens, and bone destruction was determined by microcomputed tomography on day 21. The results indicated that all IL-12-/-, IL-18-/-, and IFN-gamma-/- mice had similar infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo as wild-type control mice. Mice infused with recombinant IL-12 also had resorption similar to controls. IFN-gamma-/- mice exhibited significant elevations in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in lesions compared to wild-type mice, but these modulations had no net effect on IL-1alpha levels. Recombinant IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-gamma individually failed to consistently modulate macrophage IL-1alpha production in vitro. We conclude that, at least individually, endogenous IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-gamma do not have a significant effect on the pathogenesis of infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo, suggesting possible functional redundancy in proinflammatory pathways. PMID:14715554

Sasaki, Hajime; Balto, Khaled; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Eastcott, Jean; Hoshino, Katsuaki; Akira, Shizuo; Stashenko, Philip

2004-01-01

144

Horizontal ridge expansion and implant placement using screws: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implants are typically placed after performing ridge expansion by inserting screws of gradually increasing thickness and good clinical outcomes are often obtained. We placed 11 implants in 6 patients, and one implant failed during osseointegration but it was replaced immediately after removal and successful prosthetic treatments were completed. During these surgeries, buccal cortical plate complete fractures do not occur. Inserting screws for ridge expansion is a successful and predictable technique for implant placement in narrow alveolar bone. PMID:25368836

Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Su-Gwan

2014-10-01

145

The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: In general, the differences were insignificant (P 0.001). Conclusion: Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable. PMID:24348621

Aghili, Hosseinagha; Ardekani, Mohammad Danesh; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Modaresi, Jalil; Mansouri, Reza; Momeni, Ehsan

2013-01-01

146

Management of the alveolar cleft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthopedic and orthodontic management of patients born with clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate is based on the application of basic biomechanical principles adapted to the individualized cleft anatomy. This article focuses on orthopedic and orthodontic preparation for 2 stages of interdisciplinary orthodontic/surgical cleft care: presurgical infant orthopedics (nasoalveolar molding) for lip/alveolus/nasal surgical repair and maxillary arch preparation for secondary alveolar bone grafting. These preparatory stages of orthopedic/orthodontic therapy are undertaken with the goal of restoring normal anatomic relationships to assist the surgeon in providing the best possible surgical care. PMID:24607190

Santiago, Pedro E; Schuster, Lindsay A; Levy-Bercowski, Daniel

2014-04-01

147

Alveolar Gas - Mac 10.7 Version  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar Gas is a computer program that lets you study some of the physiological factors that affect the composition of alveolar and expired gases. Such factors include dead space, tidal volume, the frequency of breathing, and the rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. A worksheet is included.

2012-09-20

148

Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis: CT and MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis is uncommon. We report a patient with right frontal lobe and palpebral lesions secondary to a primary hepatic focus with secondary lesion in the lung. The intracranial and palpebral cystic masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. An unusual feature in this case is CT and MRI demonstration of dural and bony extension. (orig.)

149

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4 year 7 month-old girl of consanguineous parents presented with only fever for 25 days but no cough or respiratory distress. Ches x-ray showed bilateral diffuse nodulo-striate opacities in both lungs. Investigations for any infection were negative including tuberculosis. Thoracoscopic biopsy showed alveolar microliths on histopathology suggesting the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM). PMID:24292320

Kabir, M L; Mollah, A H; Mostafa, G; Chowdhury, M A; Ahmed, S; Amin, M R; Ahmed, S U

2013-10-01

150

CT quantification of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare, familial disease with massive symmetrical intra-alveolar calcium deposition. Conventional CT findings and CT measurements with a dual energy technique were carried out in a 26-year-old patient suffering from this disease. The importance of the findings in the differential diagnosis and for estimating the progression and prognosis of the disease is discussed. (orig.)

151

CT quantification of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare, familial disease with massive symmetrical intra-alveolar calcium deposition. Conventional CT findings and CT measurements with a dual energy technique were carried out in a 26-year-old patient suffering from this disease. The importance of the findings in the differential diagnosis and for estimating the progression and prognosis of the disease is discussed.

Wurche, K.D.; Kubale, R.; Vallee, D.; Ostertag, H.

1987-07-01

152

Alveolar macrophages and the diagnosis of drowning.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the number of alveolar macrophages in lung tissue from 17 cases of fresh water drowning, 22 cases of acute death and 6 cases of lung emphysema. When counting only the number of alveolar macrophages per alveolus without consideration of the alveolar size we found no relevant differences between the groups investigated. To exclude any influence of the alveolar size on the results the surface density of the alveolar macrophages and interstitial tissue was estimated and compared in the different groups. In cases of drowning, the lungs showed significantly lower values in both categories. The ratio of 'alveolar macrophages/interstitial tissue' was also reduced in cases of drowning in comparison to the other groups, however, without significant differences. These morphometrical results characterizing the 'emphysema aquosum' with almost 'empty' and dilated alveoli could be explained by a wash-out effect of the drowning fluid leading to a partial removal of the macrophages from the alveoli. This hypothesis was confirmed by the detection of alveolar macrophages in the drowning froth by immunohistochemical analysis. Even though alveolar macrophages were unambiguously identified in advanced putrefied lungs in HE-stained sections as well as by immunohistochemical staining, an estimation of the number of these cells cannot provide further information for the diagnosis of drowning in putrefied corpses due to the autolytic destruction of the lung architecture providing no reliable values. PMID:8307531

Betz, P; Nerlich, A; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

1993-12-01

153

Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates bone development and P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone development and bacterially induced periodontal bone loss was examined using mice with targeted mutation of the iNOS gene. Femurs of iNOS KO mice showed 30% and 9% higher bone mineral density compared to wild type (WT) at 4 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Micro-computed tomography revealed that cortical thickness and cortical bone density is increased in the absence of iNOS, while trabecular bone thickness and bone density remains unchanged. Histochemical analysis using TRAP staining showed that osteoclast numbers are lower by 25% in iNOS KO femurs compared to WT femurs. When bone marrow cells were stimulated with M-CSF and RANKL in vitro, iNOS KO cultures developed 51% fewer TRAP-positive multinuclear cells compared to WT cultures. When similar cultures were grown on dentine discs, resorption pit area was decreased by 54% in iNOS KO cultures. Gene expression studies showed that iNOS expression is induced by M-CSF and RANKL in WT bone marrow cultures, while no iNOS transcript was detected in iNOS KO. No compensatory change was detected in the expression of neuronal or endothelial NOS isoforms. There was no difference in RANK and osteoprotegerin expression between iNOS KO and WT bone marrow cultures after M-CSF and RANKL-treatment, while Traf6 expression was significantly lower in the absence of iNOS. In the alveolar bone of the maxilla, the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest was larger in iNOS KO compared to WT mice from 6 to 14 weeks of age, indicating a developmental effect of iNOS in oral tissues. Oral administration of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis caused alveolar bone loss in the maxilla of WT mice, but failed to do so in iNOS KO mice. Expression of the osteoclast marker cathepsin K was 25% lower in iNOS KO alveolar bone. These data indicate that iNOS promotes bone resorption during bone development as well as after bacterial infection, and that iNOS is an important signal for normal osteoclast differentiation. PMID:15777672

Gyurko, R; Shoji, H; Battaglino, R A; Boustany, G; Gibson, F C; Genco, C A; Stashenko, P; Van Dyke, T E

2005-03-01

154

Fluoride effect on the process of alveolar bone repair in rats: evaluation of activity of MMP-2 and 9  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effect of fluoride (F on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 involved in process of alveolar bone repair. Material and methods: This study used 4 groups of Wistar rats with 80 days of life (n = 160 which received drinking water containing different doses of fluoride (NaF: 5, 15, 50 ppm and deionized water (control throughout the experiment. These animals had their right upper incisors extracted. After extraction, the animals were euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 30 days and the hemi-maxillae were collected for microscopic analysis (Hematoxylin and Eosin and immunohistochemistry for MMP-9 and zymography (MMP-2 and 9. Results: Microscopically the process of bone repair was similar in all groups, being noted only a delay of the blood clot resorption and bone formation in the group of 50 ppm F. The expression for MMP-9 showed differences between groups only during the initial repair (7 days. However, the zymography showed no significant differences between treated and control groups. Conclusion: Ours results suggest an effect of fluoride on the activity of MMPs 2 and 9 at the initial period of alveolar repair which could be associated to the process of blood clot remission and delay in bone repair. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between the initial process of resorption of the blood clot, and the involvement of MMPs 2 and 9 and its regulators/tissue inhibitors.

Mileni da Silva Fernandes

2012-09-01

155

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

Schmidt, H. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Loercher, U. [Center of Diagnostic Radiology, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Kitz, R. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Zielen, S. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Ahrens, P. [Center of Pediatrics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Koenig, R. [Inst. of Human Genetics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

1996-01-01

156

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two asymptomatic Turkish sibs are presented, a 4-year-old boy and his 7-year-old sister, with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT demonstrated wide-spread intra-alveolar calcifications in both lungs. The lesions were sharply defined and less than 1 mm in diameter. CT documented a high concentration of microliths along the bronchovascular bundles, the intralobular fissue and the (sub)pleural lung parenchyma. The combination of bronchoalveolar lavage and roentgenographic appearance in high resolution CT are characteristic and pathognomonic, and can confirm the diagnosis. The more severe changes in the elder sib and the radiographic controls suggest that the pulmonary disease may be progressive in our patients. The described family of consanguineous, unaffected parents with two affected and one healthy child confirmed the autosomal recessive inheritance of PAM (McKusick 265100). In addition, the affected girl had autosomal recessive Waardenburg-anophthalmia syndrome (McKusick 206920), raising the question of whether this is a chance occurrence or possibly a contiguous gene syndrome. (orig.)

157

Glucocorticoids maintain human osteoclasts in the active mode of their resorption cycle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Osteoclasts are known to exert their resorptive activity through a so-called resorption cycle consisting of alternating resorption and migration episodes and resulting typically in the formation of increasing numbers of discrete round excavations on bone slices. This study shows that glucocorticoids deeply modify this resorptive behavior. First, glucocorticoids gradually induce excavations with a trenchlike morphology while reducing the time-dependent increase in excavation numbers. This indicates that glucocorticoids make osteoclasts elongate the excavations they initiated rather than migrating to a new resorption site, as in control conditions. Second, the round excavations in control conditions contain undegraded demineralized collagen as repeatedly reported earlier, whereas the excavations with a trenchlike morphology generated under glucocorticoid exposure appear devoid of leftovers of demineralized collagen. This indicates that collagenolysis proceeds generally at a lower rate than demineralization under control conditions, whereas collagenolysis rates are increased up to the level of demineralization rates in the presence of glucocorticoids. Taking these observations together leads to a model where glucocorticoid-induced increased collagenolysis allows continued contact of osteoclasts with mineral, thereby maintaining resorption uninterrupted by migration episodes and generating resorption trenches. In contrast, accumulation of demineralized collagen, as prevails in controls, acts as a negative-feedback loop, switching resorptive activity off and promoting migration to a new resorption site, thereby generating an additional resorption pit. We conclude that glucocorticoids change the osteoclastic resorption mode from intermittent to continuous and speculate that this change may contribute to the early bone fragilization of glucocorticoid-treated patients.

SØe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

2010-01-01

158

Evaluation of the posterior superior alveolar artery and the maxillary sinus with CBCT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of the maxillary sinus anatomy before sinus augmentation is important for avoiding surgical complications, because of the close anatomical relationship between the posterior maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinus. The posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is the branch of the maxillary artery that supplies the lateral sinus wall and overlying membrane. We evaluated the location of the PSAA and its relationship to the alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study group consisted of 135 CBCT scans (270 sinuses) obtained from the archive of the dentomaxillofacial radiology department at Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. The distance between the lower border of the artery and the alveolar crest, bone height from the sinus floor to the ridge crest, distance from the artery to the medial sinus wall, and the diameter and location of the artery were determined. The occurrence of septa and pathology were recorded from CBCT scans. The PSAA was observed in 89.3% of sinuses, and 71.1% of arteries were intraosseous with diameters mostly sinus septa was 55.2%, and that of sinus pathology was 57.4%. The mean age was 43.07 ± 17.55 years. There was a statistically significant difference between the location of the artery and gender (p sinus membrane thickening was 57.4%. Detailed knowledge about the location of the PSAA and sinus morphology may be obtained with CBCT before maxillary sinus surgery. PMID:24036981

Ilgüy, Dilhan; Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dolekoglu, Semanur; Fisekcioglu, Erdogan

2013-01-01

159

Influence of the variation in radiographic technique on the digital radiographic image reading in interproximal alveolar bone resorption evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To analyze digital radiographic images using the resources available in the Digora digital radiograph system (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), and comparing it with real images of the open surgical site, varying the angles of radiographs taken with the aim of obtaining a result closer to that which would be real. Methods: For the clinical exam, millimetric probes were used with the aid of a line that joins the amelocemental junction, measuring up to the center of the bone defect betwee...

Orivaldo Tavano; José Peixoto Ferrão Junior; Pedro Gregol da Silva

2009-01-01

160

Nutrient resorption of two evergreen shrubs in response to long?term fertilization in a bog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant resorption of multiple nutrients during leaf senescence has been established but stoichiometric changes among N, P and K during resorption and after fertilization are poorly understood. We anticipated that increased N supply would lead to further P limitation or co-limitation with N or K [i.e. P-(co)limitation], decrease N resorption and increase P and K resorption, while P and K addition would decrease P and K resorption and increase N resorption. Furthermore, Ca would accumulate while Mg would be resorbed during leaf senescence, irrespective of fertilization. We investigated the effect of N, P and K addition on resorption in two evergreen shrubs (Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada. In general, N addition caused further P-(co)limitation, increased P and K resorption efficiency but did not affect N resorption. P and K addition did not shift the system to N limitation and affect K resorption, but reduced P resorption proficiency. C. calyculata resorbed both Ca and Mg while R. groenlandicum resorbed neither. C. calyculata showed a higher resorption than R. groenlandicum, suggesting it is better adapted to nutrient deficiency than R. groenlandicum. Resorption during leaf senescence decreased N:P, N:K and K:P ratios. The limited response of N and K and the response of P resorption to fertilization reflect the stoichiometric coupling of nutrient cycling, which varies among the two shrub species; changes in species composition may affect nutrient cycling in bogs. PMID:24078082

Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan T; Moore, Tim R

2014-02-01

161

Concomitant reconstruction of mandibular basal and alveolar bone with a free fibular flap.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repair of long-span mandibular defects with a free fibular flap is now a routine procedure. However, the bone height of the neo-mandible after reconstruction with a fibular flap is about half that of the dentulous mandible. When a fibular graft is placed only at the inferior border of the mandible, the resulting vertical discrepancy between the graft segment and the occlusal plane can adversely affect implant mechanics or denture stability and retention. To overcome these problems, we developed a technique for two-strut type mandibular reconstruction. A vascularized fibular segment is used to reconstruct the inferior basal portion of the neo-mandible, while a non-vascularized residual fibular segment is used to simulate the superior alveolar portion. We used this technique in 22 patients. Graft survival, graft resorption, and the ability to place implants were assessed as compared with those after the conventional one-strut type technique. The fibular segment grafted to the alveolar region was removed in one patient with intraoral wound dehiscence and in two with postoperative infection. All vascularized fibular flaps were successful. The resorption rate was 13.6+/-7.2% for non-vascularized segments and 3.0+/-3.7% for vascularized segments. Dental implants were placed in five of our 22 patients. The crown:fixture length ratio was improved to 1:1.7, as compared with a ratio of 1:1.21 with use of a conventional fibular flap. We conclude that our technique is very easy and safe and provides substantially improved lower-lip and cheek support and implant-prosthetic mechanics than conventional procedures for the repair of long-span mandibular defects. PMID:15050071

Lee, J H; Kim, M J; Choi, W S; Yoon, P Y; Ahn, K M; Myung, H; Hwang, S J; Seo, B M; Choi, J Y; Choung, P H; Kim, S M

2004-03-01

162

Bilateral Hip Resorption in a Case with Ochronosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 72-year-old female patient with complaints of back pain, bilateral hip pain and walking difficulty referred to our clinic. Physical examination revealed excessive limitation of lumbar and hip range of motion bilaterally. Radiological examination showed diffuse intervertebral disc calcification and degenerative changes in lumbar and dorsal vertebrae. Lytic, sclerotic areas and resorption in both femoral heads were observed, being more prominent on the left side. According to the physical examination and radiological findings ochronosis was suspected. Urine analysis was positive for homogentisic acid and the patient was diagnosed as ochronosis. Ochronosis is a rarely seen inborn error of metabolism. In cases with spine involvement and excessive degenerative and resorptive articular changes in the hip joint ochronosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:122-5.

Banu Aydeniz

2009-09-01

163

A resorption cycle for the cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: A novel resorption cycle driven by low grade heat for cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration is studied. The cycle features in high exergy efficiency, very little or no ammonia liquid inside and simple structure. Highlights: ? A resorption cogeneration cycle for electricity and refrigeration is proposed. ? The cycle improved refrigeration COP by 10 times compared with Goswami cycle. ? The highest exergy efficiency of the cogeneration cycle is as high as 0.9. ? The cycle also features in safety and simple structure. - Abstract: This paper describes a novel resorption cycle driven by the low grade heat for the cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration, which is based on ammonia adsorption refrigeration technology. The presented cycle features a variable endothermic process which stands for higher adaptability if compared with the traditional Rankine cycle, very little or no ammonia liquid in the system which is a safety feature, solid adsorbents inside the beds, and simple structure for the fact of no rectifying equipment and circulation pumps required by the working fluids. This cycle can be utilised for the heat source with the temperature higher than 100 °C, and it has an electricity generation exergy efficiency of up to 0.69 and a refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP) of up to 0.77. If compared with the Goswami cycle, which is established based on the absorption Kalina cycle for the cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration, the novel resorption cycle kept the merit of the high exergy efficiency for electricity generation, meanwhile, it overcame the limitation of the low refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP) of Goswami cycle, and improved the COP by 10 times. The optimum overall exergy efficiency is as high as 0.9, which is 40–60% improved compared with the Goswami cycle under the same working conditions

164

Surgical and prosthetic management of ridge deficiency for an implant-supported restoration in the esthetic zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

This clinical report presents the surgical and prosthetic management of a patient with complex needs involving anterior implants. After extraction and ridge augmentation, unexpected ridge resorption occurred. Two implants were placed in conjunction with an allograft skin material. Upon healing, 2 additional soft tissue augmentation procedures were performed with autologous pedicle connective tissue grafts to correct the residual ridge deficiency. At the second stage surgery, a modified flap approach was used to further enhance the soft tissue volume and contour. Definitive implant-supported splinted crowns with minimal interproximal pink ceramic material were provided. PMID:24819524

Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Chochlidakis, Konstantinos M; Weitz, Daniel S; Wazirian, Berge; Ercoli, Carlo

2014-09-01

165

A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is reported. A 33-year-old male visited our clinic because of cough and sore throat. The chest X-ray showed granular micronodulation diffusely disseminated throughout the lung fields. On the eighth day since admission, cough and sore throat disappeared. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and the differential cell count of the BAL fluid showed 74.3 % eosinophilia. Furthermore, 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy revealed diffuse uptake throughout the lung fields. Whether these findings are common in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis or not is considered to be an unanswered problem. (author)

166

The Systemic Inflammation of Alveolar Hypoxia Is Initiated by Alveolar Macrophage–Borne Mediator(s)  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar hypoxia produces widespread systemic inflammation in rats. The inflammation appears to be triggered by activation of mast cells by a mediator released from alveolar macrophages, not by the reduced systemic partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). If this is correct, the following should apply: (1) neither mast cells nor tissue macrophages should be directly activated by hypoxia; and (2) mast cells should be activated when in contact with hypoxic alveolar macrophages, but not with hypoxic ti...

Chao, Jie; Wood, John G.; Blanco, Victor Gustavo; Gonzalez, Norberto C.

2009-01-01

167

Age-dependent changes in porcine alveolar macrophage function during the postnatal period of alveolarization  

OpenAIRE

During early postnatal ontogeny in most mammals, the lung is structurally and functionally immature. In some species with relatively altricial lung morphology, there is evidence of a coupling between functional maturity of the pulmonary cellular immune system and alveolar maturation. Herein, we examine changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) number and function occurring during alveolarization in a more precocial species, the pig, to determine if heightened oxidative metabolism and phagocytic abi...

Dickie, R.; Tasat, D. R.; Fernandez Alanis, E.; Delfosse, V.; Tsuda, A.

2008-01-01

168

Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 Released from Alveolar Macrophages Mediates the Systemic Inflammation of Acute Alveolar Hypoxia  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar hypoxia produces rapid systemic inflammation in rats. Several lines of evidence suggest that the inflammation is not initiated by low systemic tissue partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) but by a mediator released into the circulation by hypoxic alveolar macrophages. The mediator activates tissue mast cells to initiate inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein–1/Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2) is rapidly released by hypoxic alveolar macrophages. This study investigated...

Chao, Jie; Donham, Paula; Rooijen, Nico; Wood, John G.; Gonzalez, Norberto C.

2010-01-01

169

A radiologic study of the teeth resorption in the area of a ameloblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ameloblastoma produces more extensive resorption of the teeth on which it encroaches than do most of the other lesions. In this study, intraoral and extraoral radiographs of 78 cases of ameloblastoma were observed and the root resorption associated with ameloblastoma was classified into four types of resorption. With these, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The root resorption was observed in 72 cases of ameloblastoma. (92.3%) 2. In the aspect of resorptive changes of 424 roots observed, 342 roots showed smooth resorption. (80.6%) 3. The 424 roots associated with ameloblastoma revealed the following radiographic features. a) Root apex resorption in contact with the lesion appeared in 189 roots. (44.5%) b) The resorption of roots projected into the lesion appeared in 147 roots. (34.5%) c) Slight resorption of root surface in contact with the lesion was observed in 56 roots. (13.2%) d) Loss of lamina dura and periodontal space without root resorption were observed in 32 roots. (7.7%)

170

Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6?g P m?2 year?1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China. PMID:25631373

Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

2015-01-01

171

Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

1997-12-31

172

Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) whole colony irradiation: Do senescent zooid resorption and immunological resorption involve similar recognition events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes cyclic blastogenesis where feeding zooids are senescened and resorbed and a new generation of zooids takes over the colony. When non-identical colonies come into direct contact, they either reject each other or fuse. Fusion is usually followed by the resorption of one of the partners in the chimera (immunological resorption). The striking morphological similarities between the two resorption phenomena suggest that both may involve tissue destruction following self-nonself recognition events. Here we attempt to modify these two events by whole colony gamma irradiation assays. Three sets of experiments were performed: (1) different doses of whole colony irradiation for determination of irradiation effects (110 colonies); (2) pairs of irradiated-nonirradiated isografts of clonal replicates for the potential of reconstruction of the irradiated partners (23 pairs); (3) chimeras of irradiated-nonirradiated partners for analysis of resorption hierarchy. Mortality increased with the irradiation dose. All colonies exposed to more than 5,000 rads died within 19 days, while no colony died below 2,000 rads. The average mortality periods, in days, for doses of 6,000-8,000, 5,000, and 2,500-4,000 rads were 14.4 +/- 3.1 (n = 24), 19.8 +/- 6.0 (n = 15), and 19.6 + 5.1 (n = 22), respectively. Younger colonies (3-6 months old) may survive radiation better than older ones (more than 13 months). Many morphological alterations were reco. Many morphological alterations were recorded in irradiated colonies: ampullar contraction and/or dilation, accumulation of pigment cells within ampullae, abnormal bleeding from blood vessels, sluggish blood circulation, necrotic zones, reduction in bud number, and irregularities in zooid and system structures. With doses of 3,000-4,000 rads and above, irradiation arrested the formation of new buds and interrupted normal takeover

173

Membrane transport of clindamycin in alveolar macrophages.  

OpenAIRE

The use of antibiotics which can penetrate phagocytic cells and kill intracellular organisms is desirable in the treatment of chronic facultative bacterial infections. Recently, we reported that several antibiotics were selectively concentrated by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Clindamycin accumulation was especially marked. In the present study we evaluated the plasma membrane transport (initial uptake) of clindamycin in alveolar macrophages. The transport of clindamycin is an active process, ...

Hand, W. L.; King-thompson, N. L.

1982-01-01

174

Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan  

OpenAIRE

Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician?s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects...

Jayakumar A; Rohini S; Naveen A; Haritha A; Reddy Krishnanjeneya

2010-01-01

175

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis: A Rare Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an uncommon infiltrative pulmonary disease characterized by deposition of microliths in the alveoli. We present the case of a young adult with complaints of shortness of breath on exertion. Chest radiograph showed innumerable small, dense nodules, diffusely involving both the lungs - predominantly in the lower zones. High-resolution CT scan illustrated widespread intra-alveolar microliths, diffuse ground-glass attenuation areas, septal thickening, and blac...

Kaleem Ahmad; Mukesh Kumar Gupta; Kanchan Dhungel; Panna Lal Sah; Sajid Ansari; Raj Kumar Rauniyar

2013-01-01

176

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of Turkish reports.  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disorder, only 173 cases having been reported worldwide. Fifty two cases from Turkey are reported, 49 of which have previously been described only in Turkish publications. The mean age of the patients was 27 (SD 12) years, 34 were male, and 10 were symptomless. In 40 of the 52 cases diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Nineteen cases were diagnosed in siblings. This high rate suggests that pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a familial dise...

Ucan, E. S.; Keyf, A. I.; Aydilek, R.; Yalcin, Z.; Sebit, S.; Kudu, M.; Ok, U.

1993-01-01

177

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in a textile worker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare lung disease characterized by small calculi, called calsispheritis, in the alveoli. The disease usually presents at age 20 to 30 years and is mostly diagnosed incidentally or detected on routine pulmonary roentgenograms. The radiologic findings are pathognomonic for the disease. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis most frequently appears in Turkey, followed by Italy. We present the case of a 29-year-old female textile worker found to have widespread micronodules after a routine pulmonary roentgenogram. PMID:19699880

Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ogur, Umit

2009-09-01

178

Diagnostic problems of alveolar cell carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and radiological symptoms and differential diagnosis of four out of seven cases of alveolar cell carcinomas of the lung, which were observed during the last years have been compared. Some characteristics are shown, which make the differentiation possible between tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, chronic carcinogenic pneumonia and interstitial lung deseases. Early diagnosis by histological investigation of cells from sputum or from bronchial secretion and by needle biopsy seems possible. During the earliest stage alveolar cell carcinoma can be cured by surgery. (orig.)

179

Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Much progress has been made to understand each of the two processes individually; however, it is not clear whether the two processes are coordinated and how they are deployed at the correct time and location. Here we show that an epithelial branching morphogenesis program antagonizes alveolar differentiation in the mouse lung. We find a negative correlation between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation temporally, spatially, and evolutionarily. Gain-of-function experiments show that hyperactive small GTPase Kras expands the branching program and also suppresses molecular and cellular differentiation of alveolar cells. Loss-of-function experiments show that SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) functions downstream of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Kras to promote branching and also suppresses premature initiation of alveolar differentiation. We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution. PMID:24058167

Chang, Daniel R.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K.; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; McCrea, Pierre D.; Chen, Jichao

2013-01-01

180

Urokinase plasminogen activator released by alveolar epithelial cells modulates alveolar epithelial repair in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intra-alveolar fibrin is formed following lung injury and inflammation and may contribute to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrin turnover is altered in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, resulting in intra-alveolar fibrin accumulation, mainly due to decreased fibrinolysis. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC) repair the injured alveolar epithelium by migrating over the provisional fibrin matrix. We hypothesized that repairing alveolar epithelial cells modulate the underlying fibrin matrix by release of fibrinolytic activity, and that the degree of fibrinolysis modulates alveolar epithelial repair on fibrin. To test this hypothesis we studied alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro using a modified epithelial wound repair model with human A549 alveolar epithelial cells cultured on a fibrin matrix. In presence of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta, wounds increase by 800% in 24 hours mainly due to detachment of the cells, whereas in serum-free medium wound areas decreases by 22.4 +/- 5.2% (p < 0.01). Increased levels of D-dimer, FDP and uPA in the cell supernatant of IL-1beta-stimulated A549 epithelial cells indicate activation of fibrinolysis by activation of the plasmin system. In presence of low concentrations of fibrinolysis inhibitors, including specific blocking anti-uPA antibodies, alveolar epithelial repair in vitro was improved, whereas in presence of high concentrations of fibrinolysis inhibitors, a decrease was observed mainly due to decreased spreading and migration of cells. These findings suggest the existence of a fibrinolytic optimum at which alveolar epithelial repair in vitro is most efficient. In conclusion, uPA released by AEC alters alveolar epithelial repair in vitro by modulating the underlying fibrin matrix. PMID:16411403

Van Leer, Coretta; Stutz, Monika; Haeberli, André; Geiser, Thomas

2005-12-01

181

Effect of icariin on cell proliferation and the expression of bone resorption/formation-related markers in human periodontal ligament cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periodontitis is a common destructive inflammatory disease that leads to changes in the tooth-supporting tissues. Human periodontal ligament cells are essential in periodontal tissue regeneration. The traditional Chinese medicine icariin promoted bone formation, stimulated the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic cells and inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Thus, in the present study, the effect of icariin on cell proliferation and the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL), core binding factor ?1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OC) was investigated in human periodontal ligament cells, by an MTT assay, qPCR and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that icariin promoted cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, upregulated OPG, Cbfa1 and OC expression, and downregulated RANKL production and the RANKL/OPG expression ratio. This suggested the potential value of icariin in treating alveolar bone resorption and promoting periodontal tissue regeneration, due to its ability to stimulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells and inhibit osteoclast differentiation. PMID:24065204

Pei, Zhenhua; Zhang, Fengqiu; Niu, Zhongying; Shi, Shenggen

2013-11-01

182

The influence of ovariectomy, simvastatin and sodium alendronate on alveolar bone in rats Influência da ovariectomia, da sinvastatina e do alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of many diseases involving increased bone resorption such as osteoporosis. Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recent studies have shown that these drugs are also capable of stimulating bone formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an estrogen deficient state and the effects of simvastatin and sodium alendronate therapies on alveolar bone in female rats. Fifty-four rats were either ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. A month later, the animals began to receive a daily dose of simvastatin (SIN - 25 mg/kg, sodium alendronate (ALN - 2 mg/kg or water (control orally. Thirty-five days after the beginning of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their left hemimandibles were removed and radiographed using digital X-ray equipment. The alveolar radiographic density under the first molar was determined with gray-level scaling and the values were submitted to analysis of variance (a = 5%. Ovariectomized rats gained more weight (mean ± standard deviation: 20.06 ± 6.68% than did the sham operated animals (12.13 ± 5.63%. Alveolar radiographic density values, expressed as gray levels, were lowest in the OVX-water group (183.49 ± 6.47, and differed significantly from those observed for the groups receiving alendronate (sham-ALN: 193.85 ± 3.81; OVX-ALN: 196.06 ± 5.11 and from those of the sham-water group (193.66 ? 4.36. Other comparisons between groups did not show significant differences. It was concluded that the ovariectomy reduced alveolar bone density and that alendronate was efficient for the treatment of this condition.Os bisfosfonatos s?o empregados atualmente para o tratamento de várias doenças caracterizadas pelo aumento da reabsorção óssea, como a osteoporose. As estatinas são amplamente utilizadas para redução de níveis elevados de colesterol e estudos recentes têm revelado sua ação anabólica no osso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da deficiência estrogênica e dos tratamentos com sinvastatina ou alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas. Cinqüenta e quatro ratas sofreram ovariectomia (OVX ou cirurgia simulada ("sham". Um mês após, os animais passaram a receber diariamente, via oral, 25 mg/kg de sinvastatina (SIN, 2 mg/kg de alendronato (ALN ou água (controle. Trinta e cinco dias depois do início do tratamento os animais foram sacrificados, as hemimandíbulas esquerdas removidas e radiografadas em aparelho de raios X digital. Foi calculada a densidade radiogr?fica em tons de cinza da área de osso alveolar sob o primeiro molar mandibular e os valores foram submetidos a ANOVA, ao nível de 5%. Ratas ovariectomizadas ganharam mais peso (média ± desvio-padrão: 20,06 ± 6,68% que as demais (12,13 ± 5,63%. Os valores de densidade radiográfica, em tons de cinza, foram menores nos animais do grupo OVX-água (183,49 ± 6,47, significantemente diferentes daqueles observados nos grupos que receberam alendronato ("sham"-ALN: 193,85 ? 3,81; OVX-ALN: 196,06 ± 5,11 e no grupo "sham"-água (193,66 ± 4,36. Outras comparações entre grupos não revelaram diferenças estatísticas. Concluiu-se que a ovariectomia reduziu a densidade óssea alveolar e que o tratamento com alendronato sódico foi eficiente para o tratamento desta situação.

Ana Lia Anbinder

2007-09-01

183

The influence of ovariectomy, simvastatin and sodium alendronate on alveolar bone in rats / Influência da ovariectomia, da sinvastatina e do alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os bisfosfonatos são empregados atualmente para o tratamento de várias doenças caracterizadas pelo aumento da reabsorção óssea, como a osteoporose. As estatinas são amplamente utilizadas para redução de níveis elevados de colesterol e estudos recentes têm revelado sua ação anabólica no osso. O objet [...] ivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da deficiência estrogênica e dos tratamentos com sinvastatina ou alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas. Cinqüenta e quatro ratas sofreram ovariectomia (OVX) ou cirurgia simulada ("sham"). Um mês após, os animais passaram a receber diariamente, via oral, 25 mg/kg de sinvastatina (SIN), 2 mg/kg de alendronato (ALN) ou água (controle). Trinta e cinco dias depois do início do tratamento os animais foram sacrificados, as hemimandíbulas esquerdas removidas e radiografadas em aparelho de raios X digital. Foi calculada a densidade radiográfica em tons de cinza da área de osso alveolar sob o primeiro molar mandibular e os valores foram submetidos a ANOVA, ao nível de 5%. Ratas ovariectomizadas ganharam mais peso (média ± desvio-padrão: 20,06 ± 6,68%) que as demais (12,13 ± 5,63%). Os valores de densidade radiográfica, em tons de cinza, foram menores nos animais do grupo OVX-água (183,49 ± 6,47), significantemente diferentes daqueles observados nos grupos que receberam alendronato ("sham"-ALN: 193,85 ± 3,81; OVX-ALN: 196,06 ± 5,11) e no grupo "sham"-água (193,66 ± 4,36). Outras comparações entre grupos não revelaram diferenças estatísticas. Concluiu-se que a ovariectomia reduziu a densidade óssea alveolar e que o tratamento com alendronato sódico foi eficiente para o tratamento desta situação. Abstract in english Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of many diseases involving increased bone resorption such as osteoporosis. Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recent studies have shown that these drugs are also capable of stimulating bone formation. The pu [...] rpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an estrogen deficient state and the effects of simvastatin and sodium alendronate therapies on alveolar bone in female rats. Fifty-four rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or sham operated. A month later, the animals began to receive a daily dose of simvastatin (SIN - 25 mg/kg), sodium alendronate (ALN - 2 mg/kg) or water (control) orally. Thirty-five days after the beginning of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their left hemimandibles were removed and radiographed using digital X-ray equipment. The alveolar radiographic density under the first molar was determined with gray-level scaling and the values were submitted to analysis of variance (a = 5%). Ovariectomized rats gained more weight (mean ± standard deviation: 20.06 ± 6.68%) than did the sham operated animals (12.13 ± 5.63%). Alveolar radiographic density values, expressed as gray levels, were lowest in the OVX-water group (183.49 ± 6.47), and differed significantly from those observed for the groups receiving alendronate (sham-ALN: 193.85 ± 3.81; OVX-ALN: 196.06 ± 5.11) and from those of the sham-water group (193.66 ± 4.36). Other comparisons between groups did not show significant differences. It was concluded that the ovariectomy reduced alveolar bone density and that alendronate was efficient for the treatment of this condition.

Ana Lia, Anbinder; Fernanda de Almeida, Prado; Marcela de Almeida, Prado; Ivan, Balducci; Rosilene Fernandes da, Rocha.

2007-09-01

184

Intracanal bisphosphonate does not inhibit replacement resorption associated with delayed replantation of monkey incisors  

OpenAIRE

Progressive replacement resorption following delayed replantation of avulsed teeth has proved to be an intractable clinical problem. A wide variety of therapeutic approaches have failed to result in the predictable arrest of resorption, with a good long-term prognosis for tooth survival. Bisphosphonates are used in the medical management of a range of bone disorders and topically applied bisphosphonate has been reported to inhibit root resorption in dogs. This study evaluated the effectivenes...

Thong, Y. L.; Messe R, H. H.; Zain, R. B.; Saw, L. H.; Yoong, L. T.

2009-01-01

185

Root resorption after dental traumas: classification and clinical, radiographic and histologic aspects  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: One of the most common sequelae observed after dental trauma is root resorption. Objective: The aim of this study was to classify and discuss the external root resorption after a dental trauma, based on a literature review. Literature review: A bibliographic search was performed in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, and Lilacs, from 1997 to 2010. The following descriptors were used: Root resorption, Dental trauma and Classification. From a total of 152 articles found, 25...

Bruno Oliveira de Aguiar Santos; Diego Santiago de Mendonça; Denise Lins de Sousa; José Jeová Siebra Moreira Neto; Rebeca Bastos Rocha de Araújo

2011-01-01

186

Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Advanced Inflammatory External Root Resorption Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation  

OpenAIRE

Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root an...

Sangeeta Talwar; Gaurav Garg; Shipra Arora; Shivani Utneja

2012-01-01

187

Physiological and pathological factors and mechanisms in the process of root resorption in primary teeth  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth resorption is essential in the process of root resorption in primary teeth. However, pathological root resorption, mainly the inflammatory one, is a consequence and/or complication of several clinical conditions, such as dental trauma and periapical inflammatory lesions from dental caries, thus becoming a common cause of tooth loss. Objective: To present and discuss a literature review regarding the mechanisms of physiological and inflammatory pathological root resorption in primary teeth, emphasizing their biochemical and cellular events. Literature review: The odontoclasts cells are responsible for resorption of dental tissues, and they are influenced by several stimuli and molecular signals derived from cytokines, neuropeptides, hormones and degradation products released when tissue is injured. However, so far it is not clear what leads to the differentiation of the precursor cells of odontoclasts, what gives them the signal to start the resorption in a specific place and time (especially in primary teeth and why they are activated in some pathological conditions,but not in others.Conclusion: The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms and factors that regulate the process of root resorption is still meager.Research in this area is of great relevance,since new knowledge about the molecular pathway(s involved in root resorption may allow the development of different therapies, more biological ones, in order to control or prevent resorption, thus preventing tooth loss and its consequences.

Bianca Zimmermann Santos

2010-07-01

188

Control of bone resorption in mice by Schnurri-3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice lacking the large zinc finger protein Schnurri-3 (Shn3) display increased bone mass, in part, attributable to augmented osteoblastic bone formation. Here, we show that in addition to regulating bone formation, Shn3 indirectly controls bone resorption by osteoclasts in vivo. Although Shn3 plays no cell-intrinsic role in osteoclasts, Shn3-deficient animals show decreased serum markers of bone turnover. Mesenchymal cells lacking Shn3 are defective in promoting osteoclastogenesis in response to selective stimuli, likely attributable to reduced expression of the key osteoclastogenic factor receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand. The bone phenotype of Shn3-deficient mice becomes more pronounced with age, and mice lacking Shn3 are completely resistant to disuse osteopenia, a process that requires functional osteoclasts. Finally, selective deletion of Shn3 in the mesenchymal lineage recapitulates the high bone mass phenotype of global Shn3 KO mice, including reduced osteoclastic bone catabolism in vivo, indicating that Shn3 expression in mesenchymal cells directly controls osteoblastic bone formation and indirectly regulates osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:22573816

Wein, Marc N; Jones, Dallas C; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Lazarevic, Vanja; Poliachik, Sandra L; Gross, Ted S; Glimcher, Laurie H

2012-05-22

189

Bone Resorption in Syndromes of the Ras/MAPK Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Disorders of the Ras/MAPK pathway have an overlapping skeletal phenotype (eg. scoliosis, osteopenia). The Ras proteins regulate cell proliferation and differentiation and NF1 individuals have osteoclast hyperactivity and increased bone resorption as measured by urine pyridinium crosslinks [pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd)]. Pyd and Dpd are hydroxylysine derived cross-links of collagen found in bone and cartilage and excreted in the urine. Dpd is most abundant in bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate if other syndromes of the Ras/MAPK pathway have increased bone resorption, which may impact the skeletal phenotype. Methods and Results Participants: [Noonan syndrome (n=14), Costello syndrome (n=21), and cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome (n=14)]. Pyridinium cross-links from two consecutive first morning urines were extracted after acid hydrolysis and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromotography. Three separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to compare Pyd, Dpd, and Dpd/Pyd ratio of each group to controls after controlling for age. Data were compared to 99 healthy controls. Conclusions The Dpd and the Dpd/Pyd ratio were elevated (p<0.0001) in all 3 conditions compared to controls suggesting that collagen degradation was predominantly from bone. The data suggest that the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway is important in bone homeostasis. PMID:21204800

Stevenson, David A.; Schwarz, E.L.; Carey, John C.; Viskochil, David H.; Hanson, Heather; Bauer, Stephanie; Weng, Hsin-Yi Cindy; Greene, Tom; Reinker, Kent; Swensen, Jeffrey; Chan, Rebecca J.; Yang, Feng-Chun; Senbanjo, Linda; Yang, Zhenyun; Mao, Rong; Pasquali, Marzia

2011-01-01

190

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALVEOLAR BONE  

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Full Text Available The morpho – functional complex that ensures the fastening of teeth to sockets, called parodontium, is constituted of the alveolar bone, alveolodental ligament, radicular cement and gingiva, which transmit the chewing forces to the resistance functional structures within the cranium’s architectonics. This work presents the structural features of the alveolar bone, both from maxilla’s alveolar process level and mandible’s alveolar edge level. The alveolar bone is generally characterized by a sponginess contained between the two compact lamellae. The weight of the spongy bone and the compact bone differs from maxilla to mandible and, at the same time, from zone to zone. Within the spongy bone, one can notice the lamellae orientated and adapted to the pressure, traction and flexion forces as a result of the chewing forces. These lamellae are being in a continuous remodeling process, in answer to the functional requests. The compact bone, better represented and stronger at the mandible by its lamellae, vestibular outside and lingual inside, has remarkable features. All of them have not only a descriptive importance, but also an applicable one.

V. Niculescu

2001-01-01

191

The solitary alveolar-cell carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alveolar-cell carcinoma was first described by Malassez in 1876. It contributes 5 per cent to all malignant tumors of the lung. In a retrospective study 75 patients with alveolar-cell carcinoma were analyzed. Clinical symptoms are non-specific and the tumor will often be discovered on the occasion of a routine chest X-ray as a small peripheral and infiltrative lesion. The most frequent form is a nodule which generally shows a regular and well defined outline, but may sometimes be irregular and have spiky margins too. Very often an air bronchogram and the tail sign can be seen so the combination seems typical of solitary alveolar-cell carcinoma. In the case material investigated the authors found it in 36 per cent. The early stage of localized alveolar-cell carcinoma has a good prognosis when treated by surgery. Multilocular and advanced cases, however, have a very poor prognosis. Therefore, early radiological diagnosis is most important. The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of alveolar-cell carcinoma is emphasized. (orig.)

192

Impairment of Alveolar Macrophage Transcription in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

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Rationale: Alveolar macrophages are inflammatory cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which is characterized by excessive alveolar aggregation of cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

Ren, Ping; Rosas, Ivan O.; Macdonald, Sandra D.; Wu, Hai-ping; Billings, Eric M.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

2007-01-01

193

Aumento del reborde alveolar residual mediante técnica de rollo Increase of residual alveolar ridge using roll technique  

OpenAIRE

La pérdida dentaria, asociada a factores sistémicos, patológicos y traumáticos, promueve el proceso de reabsorción ósea de los rebordes residuales y genera problemas funcionales, como la falta de estabilidad y retención de las prótesis dentarias removibles, y disturbios estéticos y psicológicos. Estos defectos varían en dependencia de la cantidad de pérdida ósea y de tejidos blandos que hayan alcanzado. En la actualidad son descritas diversas técnicas que permiten corregir estos...

Miguel Ángel Simancas Pallares; Alejandra del Carmen Herrera Herrera; Luisa Leonor Arévalo Tovar; Antonio José Díaz Caballero; Farith Damián González Martínez

2011-01-01

194

The solitary alveolar-cell carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alveolar-cell carcinoma was first described by Malassez in 1876. It constitutes about 5% of all malignant tumors of the lungs. The author studied 64 Patients with solitary alveolar-cell carcinoma. Clinical findings are nonspecific. Many times it is discovered on a routine chest examination as a small peripherial infiltrative lesion. The most frequent form of presentation is a nodule with often regular and well defined outlines. On the other hand, some nodules show irregular and spiky margins. Very often one can see an air bronchogram and tail sign. The combination of air bronchogram and tail sign seems to be a typical radiographic pattern for solitary alveolar-cell carcinoma. The author could see it in 36% of his cases. The localized infiltration has a good prognosis by surgery. Advanced cases, however, have a very poor prognosis. Therefore the early diagnosis is very important. (orig.)

195

Alveolar Epithelial Dynamics in Post-pneumonectomy Lung Growth  

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The intimate anatomic and functional relationship between epithelial cells and endothelial cells within the alveolus suggests the likelihood of a coordinated response during post-pneumonectomy lung growth. To define the population dynamics and potential contribution of alveolar epithelial cells to alveolar angiogenesis, we studied alveolar Type II and Type I cells during the 21 days after pneumonectomy. Alveolar Type II cells were defined and isolated by flow cytometry using a CD45?, MHC cl...

Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Lee, Grace S.; Konerding, Moritz A.; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.

2013-01-01

196

Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis  

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Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.

Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

1989-03-01

197

Calcitonin causes a sustained inhibition of protein kinase C-stimulated bone resorption in contrast to the transient inhibition of parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcitonin is a well known inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resortion, both in vivo and in vitro. However, it is also known that calcitonin has only a transient inhibitory effect on bone resorption. The mechanism for this so-called ''escape from inhibition'' phenomenon is not clear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of calcitonin on phorbol ester-induced bone resorption was examined in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. Bone resorption was assessed as the release of radioactivity from bones prelabelled in vivo with 45Ca. Two proteon kinase C-activating phorbol esters, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, both stimulated 45Ca release in 120-h cultures at a concentration of 10 nmul/l. Calcitonin (30 nmol/l) inhibited phorbol esterstimulated bone resorption without any ''escape from inhibition''. This was in contrast to the transient inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10 nmol/l), prostaglandin E2 (2 ?mol/l), and bradykinin (1 ?mol/l). Our results suggest that activation of protein kinase C produces a sustained inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption. (author)

198

Descrição fonética eletropalatográfica de fones alveolares Phonetic description of alveolar phones using electropalatography  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a descrição articulatória do Português Brasileiro, examinando-se o contato da língua com o palato na produção de fones consonantais. MÉTODOS: Foi utilizada a eletropalatografia (EPG de consoantes alveolares do Português Brasileiro de um sujeito com fala típica, considerando-se o índice alveolar, pós-alveolar, palatal e velar e a porcentagem de contatos ativados no ponto de máxima constrição, assim como a inspeção visual dos palatogramas. RESULTADOS: Observou-se, conforme o esperado, que todos os fones avaliados têm, no ponto de máxima constrição, maior contato na região alveolar. Os fones /t/, /d/ e /n/ foram os que apresentaram maior contato alveolar, com obstrução total da corrente aérea; os fones fricativos /s/ e /z/ caracterizaram-se pela ausência de contato no eixo longitudinal central; o fone lateral /l/ não apresentou contato no eixo longitudinal lateral e o tapa, /?/, apresentou poucos contatos da língua com o palato e foi produzido com o menor tempo de duração. CONCLUSÃO: Por meio da eletropalatografia, pode-se fazer uma descrição detalhada da forma e da extensão do contato língua-palato nos diferentes fones alveolares do Português.PURPOSE: To describe the articulation of the Brazilian Portuguese, by examining the tongue-palate contact in the production of consonantal phones. METHODS: The electropalatography (EPG of the alveolar consonants of the Brazilian Portuguese produced by an individual with typical speech was used, considering the alveolar, post-alveolar, palatal, and velar rates, as well as the percentage of activated contacts at the point of maximum constriction, and the visual inspection of palatograms. RESULTS: As expected, it was observed that all the examined phones have more contact in the alveolar region at the point of maximum constriction. The phones /t/, /d/ and /n/ showed more alveolar contact, with total obstruction of the air stream; the fricative phones /s/ and /z/ were characterized by the absence of contact at the central longitudinal axis; the lateral phone /l/ did not present contact at the lateral longitudinal axis, and the tap /?/ showed not only few tongue-palate contacts but it was also produced in the shortest duration time. CONCLUSION: The electopalatography allowed a detailed description of the extension of the tongue-palate contact in the different alveolar phones of the Brazilian Portuguese and how they occur.

Marisa de Sousa Viana Jesus

2012-01-01

199

Postoperative assessment of secondary bone grafting to the alveolar cleft using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1995 and 2004, 282 alveolar bone grafts were performed in our department using particle cancellous bone from the iliac bone. To evaluate postoperative results the height of bone bridging was measured in a two-dimensional evaluation using dental radiographs. However, recently, with the development of three-dimension CT (3-D CT), three-dimensional evaluation of bone bridging is recommended. Therefore, since last year, we have been evaluating bone bridging using dental CT. In this paper, we report a diagnostic imaging method for bone grafting to the alveolar cleft. First, a horizontal line passing along the inferior border of the piriform aperture of the normal side on the 3-D picture is drawn and then a horizontal line passing through the tip of the labial alveolar ridge of the central incisor of the upper jaw of the normal side is drawn. Then the distance between these two horizontal lines is measured. Next, this distance is equally divided into five segments by four horizontal lines. The labial lingual width of the bone bridge of the alveolar cleft part from the axial view of the height of these four horizontal lines is compared to that of the alveolar bone of the normal side. These four compared values are called the progression of the alveolar cleft, and the results of the bone grafting are judged by these numbers. We are convinced that the results of bone grafting can be more easily understood using this progression than from the many axial views of 3-D CT. than from the many axial views of 3-D CT. (author)

200

Non-Surgical Repair of Internal Resorption with MTA: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Internal resorption is rare in permanent teeth. Treatment is usually performed through warm gutta-percha technique. If the resorptive process perforates the root, treatment may be more difficult and is usually performed via surgical approach. Non-surgical repair of a perforating internal root resorption with MTA was conducted in this case. Before repairing the resorption, a master gutta-percha point was placed in the canal to maintain negotiability of the original canal path. Then, MTA was prepared and applied with a small carrier in the resorption area and compacted. Thereafter gutta-percha was retrieved and the access cavity was closed with a temporary filling material. In the second visit, the root canal was obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique and subsequently, the crown was restored. The symptoms and signs ceased and the result was satisfactory at the 18 month follow-up visit.

Zahed Mohammadi

2012-10-01

201

Foliar Nutrient Dynamics and Foliar Resorption in Quercus brantii Lindley along an Elevational Gradient  

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Full Text Available Foliar mass per area (mg dm-2 -based nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, specific leaf mass (mg dm-2 and absolute and proportional resorption in Quercus brantii was investigated along a topographic gradient from 450 to 850 m altitude. Foliar N and P concentrations in Q. brantii exhibited significant differences with respect to topographic position and sampling dates in all of the studied parameters. A sharp decrease was observed from April to September in terms of Specific Leaf Mass (SLM values. However, mass per area-based absolute and proportional N resorption was lowest at 450 m, while absolute and proportional P resorption was lowest at 850 m. Significant correlations were found between mass per area-based leaf nutrient concentration and foliar resorption except for the correlations between absolute P resorption and foliar P concentrations at 450, 650 and 750 m during full-leaf expansion and 850 m during senescence, respectively.

Ertugrul Aksekili

2007-01-01

202

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of Turkish reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disorder, only 173 cases having been reported worldwide. Fifty two cases from Turkey are reported, 49 of which have previously been described only in Turkish publications. The mean age of the patients was 27 (SD 12) years, 34 were male, and 10 were symptomless. In 40 of the 52 cases diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Nineteen cases were diagnosed in siblings. This high rate suggests that pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a familial disease, which, though rare, is for unknown reasons most common in Turkey. Images PMID:8493634

Ucan, E S; Keyf, A I; Aydilek, R; Yalcin, Z; Sebit, S; Kudu, M; Ok, U

1993-01-01

203

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: a rare case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an uncommon infiltrative pulmonary disease characterized by deposition of microliths in the alveoli. We present the case of a young adult with complaints of shortness of breath on exertion. Chest radiograph showed innumerable small, dense nodules, diffusely involving both the lungs - predominantly in the lower zones. High-resolution CT scan illustrated widespread intra-alveolar microliths, diffuse ground-glass attenuation areas, septal thickening, and black pleural lines - predominantly in the basal regions. Transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:24174699

Ahmad, Kaleem; Kumar Gupta, Mukesh; Dhungel, Kanchan; Lal Sah, Panna; Ansari, Sajid; Kumar Rauniyar, Raj

2013-09-01

204

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis: A Rare Case Report  

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Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an uncommon infiltrative pulmonary disease characterized by deposition of microliths in the alveoli. We present the case of a young adult with complaints of shortness of breath on exertion. Chest radiograph showed innumerable small, dense nodules, diffusely involving both the lungs - predominantly in the lower zones. High-resolution CT scan illustrated widespread intra-alveolar microliths, diffuse ground-glass attenuation areas, septal thickening, and black pleural lines - predominantly in the basal regions. Transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.

Kaleem Ahmad

2013-09-01

205

Morphometric evidence for bone resorption and replacement in prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of 78 patients with metastatic bone disease from prostate cancer underwent iliac crest biopsy, enabling histomorphometric quantification of eroded bone surface and bone volume in both tumour-free and metastatic bone tissue. Eroded surfaces in tumour-free specimens were high in patients with active compared to stable disease but bone volume was maintained in both groups, whilst in bone surrounding micrometastases (n = 8) eroded surfaces were further increased and bone volume reduced. Eroded surfaces within metastases were greater still but were associated with increased bone volume due to replacement of the existing trabecular tissue with abnormal woven bone, giving an overall appearance of sclerosis. These results show that the effect of prostate cancer on bone tissue is complex, involving differential disturbance of bone formation and resorption within metastases, in bone surrounding tumour invasion and in the tumour-free skeleton. PMID:1873694

Clarke, N W; McClure, J; George, N J

1991-07-01

206

Microlitiasis alveolar pulmonar: caso clínico / Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an extremely rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of calcified spherical particles (called microliths), due to a mutation of the gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the alveolar surface. Most patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis. [...] The course of the disease is slowly progressive, with development of pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. The "sandstorm" pattern is the characteristic finding of this disease. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea. A chest X ray showed ground-glass opacities and a high resolution CT scan showed numerous calcified lung micronodules. A surgical lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

Cristina, Fernández F; Mauricio, Salinas F; José Andrés, de Grazia K; Juan Carlos, Díaz P.

2014-05-01

207

Age-dependent changes in porcine alveolar macrophage function during the postnatal period of alveolarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

During early postnatal ontogeny in most mammals, the lung is structurally and functionally immature. In some species with relatively altricial lung morphology, there is evidence of a coupling between functional maturity of the pulmonary cellular immune system and alveolar maturation. Herein, we examine changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) number and function occurring during alveolarization in a more precocial species, the pig, to determine if heightened oxidative metabolism and phagocytic ability is similarly delayed until completion of lung morphogenesis. We assessed cell differential in lavage fluid and evaluated two main functional parameters of AM phagocytic response, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and particle internalization. AM functional maturation occurred mainly during the first postnatal week: the proportion of AMs, ROS generation, and phagocytosis all increased significantly. These results suggest maturational improvement of the impaired AM-based pulmonary immune system of the neonate piglet occurs during the postnatal period of rapid alveolarization. PMID:18775449

Dickie, R; Tasat, D R; Alanis, E Fernandez; Delfosse, V; Tsuda, A

2009-02-01

208

Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and the PPAR?-regulated ATP binding cassette (...

Malur Anagha; Kavuru Mani S; Marshall Irene; Barna Barbara P; Huizar Isham; Karnekar Reema; Thomassen Mary

2012-01-01

209

Pre-surgical Alveolar Molding in A Newborn Patient with Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate-A Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) are the most common congenital malformations seen in the head and neck region. Children with CLAP face a vast variety of problems like feeding difficulties, hearing loss (ear infections), missing or malformed teeth and speech defects, along with psychosocial stigma which influences the social development and rehabilitation of such patients. Management of CLAP has been recognized as a unique challenge for parents as well as medical team. Pre-surgical alveolar molding has shown promising results in solving the problems which are associated with CLAP, to a great extent. We are reporting a case of a newborn patient with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, who had inability in suckling and nasal regurgitation of oral fluids since birth, which were aided by providing a Pre-surgical alveolar molding to facilitate feeding and also to improve future facial appearance. This article highlights the effectiveness of alveolar molding appliance which was used to direct growth of the alveolar ridges and lips in the pre surgical treatment of cleft lip and palate. As a result of this appliance, the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip which was done, healed under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the aesthetic results. PMID:24995251

Tiwari, Shilpi; Nandlal, B; Reddy, Sudhakar

2014-05-01

210

[Alveolar microlithiasis: an uncommon cause of the crazy paving pattern].  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar microlithiasis is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of multiple, predominantly subpleural, intra-alveolar microcalcifications. We present a case in which the high-resolution CT images show diffuse pulmonary microcalcifications together with patchy areas of ground glass attenuation associated to marked thickening of the interlobular septa, all of which taken together constitute the crazy paving pattern. This pattern is not specific for alveolar microlithiasis; it has also been reported in other entities, including alveolar proteinosis, lipoid pneumonia, and bronchial alveolar carcinoma. PMID:18275793

Roca Vanaclocha, Y; Narváez, J A; Pozuelo, C; Monés, L

2008-01-01

211

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis presenting with chronic cough.  

OpenAIRE

A case of a 10 year old boy with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is presented. Although most children with this disease are asymptomatic, our patient had persistent cough for more than 3 years. It is likely that his chronic cough was a direct consequence of the disease.

Tu?rktas, I.; Saribas, S.; Balkanci, F.

1993-01-01

212

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis presenting with chronic cough.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of a 10 year old boy with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is presented. Although most children with this disease are asymptomatic, our patient had persistent cough for more than 3 years. It is likely that his chronic cough was a direct consequence of the disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:8446559

Türktas, I.; Saribas, S.; Balkanci, F.

1993-01-01

213

Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the reduction of mandibular residual ridge among edentulous patients using panoramic radiographs  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the reduction of mandibular residual ridge in completely edentulous patients wearing complete dentures and to investigate the ef-fect of gender, age and years of edentulousness / den-ture wearing on ridge resorption on both groups. Methods:Seventy-two (36 men and 36 women) with a mean age 63.5 years (range of 52 to 73 years) com-pletely edentulous denture-wearing patients were included in this study. Of these, there w...

Osama Al-Jabrah

2011-01-01

214

Chemical modulation of alveolar epithelial permeability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume and composition of fluid on the surface of the alveoli can affect alveolar ventilation, gas diffusion, and macrophage function. The passive permeability and active processes of the alveolar epithelial lining play a role in regulating surface fluid and are a potential site of damage by airborne chemicals. Like other epithelial barriers, the alveolar lining is permeabile to lipophilic substances but restricts the transmural flow of small ions and hydrophilic nonelectrolytes (equivalent pore radius ca. 0.5 to 1.5 nm). The mammalian fetal lung and alveolar sacs of the adult bullfrog secrete Cl- and K+ into the airspace. Secretion by the fetal lung ceases at birth. Many environmental agents increase the permeability of the capillary endothelium and/or respiratory epithelium and induce pulmonary edema. Studies with bullfrog alveolar sacs have demonstrated that selective effects may or may not be followed by general derangement of the epithelial barrier. Exposure of the luminal surface to HgCl2 (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) induces a selective increase in Cl- secretion that is followed by a fall in transport and a general increase in ion permeation. CdC/sub 12/ (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) depresses ciliomotion on cells on the trabecula of the alveolus but does not affect Cl- secretion or transepithelial conductance. HNO/sub 3/, like other mineral acids, increases conductance and the radii or pores in the barrier, whereas NaNO/sub 3/ selectively inhibits Cl- secretion. Amphotericin B(10(7) to 10(-5) MJ) induces K+ secretion into the lumen of both bullfrog and rat lung. We conclude that environmental agents induce changes in epithelial function that may compromise the lung's ability to regulate respiratory fluid without destroying the characteristic permeability of the epithelial lining.

Gatzy, J.T.; Stutts, M.J.

1980-04-01

215

Effect of tetracycline and SnF2 on root resorption in replanted incisors in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was made to assess the effect of applying SnF2, tetracycline, or both, to root surfaces of extracted teeth prior to replantation. In five young adult beagles, a total of 18 mandibular incisors were extracted, bench dried for 45 min, and reimplanted in their respective sockets either after no further treatment or following treatment with 1% doxycycline HCl for 5 min, 1% SnF2 for 5 min, or 1% SnF2 followed by 1% doxycycline HCl. After 4 wk of healing, the relative frequency of root resorption (surface resorption, inflammatory resorption and replacement resorption) was approximately 27% of the root surface in bench-dried as well as in doxycycline-treated specimens. By contrast, SnF2-treated and SnF2 + doxycycline-treated teeth showed less than 1% resorption. In the latter two specimen groups an inflammatory reaction in the periodontal ligament without resorption occurred with a frequency of 38.3% and 11.1%, respectively. The results indicate that application of SnF2 to the root surface prior to replantation effectively reduces resorptive processes during the first postoperative weeks. By subsequently treating the root surface with tetracycline, the adverse effect of SnF2 on periodontal connective tissue repair may be reduced. PMID:2617147

Bjorvatn, K; Selvig, K A; Klinge, B

1989-12-01

216

Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis  

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Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute pericoronitis (AP arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A, the proximal surface (B, and distal surface (C in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.Keywords: bone resorption, pericoronitis, mandible, acute inflammation, elderly

Minoru Yamaoka

2009-04-01

217

Effects of thionaphthene 2-carboxylic acid and related compounds on bone resorption in organ culture.  

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We have compared the effects of thiophene 2-carboxylic acid (TCA) and a number of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing analogs for their ability to inhibit bone resorption in organ cultures of fetal rat long bones. Four compounds,--thionaphthene-2-carboxylic acid (TNCA), dibenzo-thiophene-4-carboxylic acid, indole-2-carboxylic acid and carbazole-1-carboxylic acid--caused a dose-related inhibition of PTH-stimulated bone resorption, although TCA was ineffective in this system. TNCA at 3 X 10(-4) M or 10(-4) M was the most potent inhibitor of PTH-stimulated bone resorption and was selected for further study. TNCA also inhibited stimulation of resorption by prostaglandin E2 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Unlike calcitonin, the effect of TNCA was persistent and did not show escape. Moreover, TNCA could inhibit resorption in bones that had previously escaped from calcitonin. TNCA did not appear to be a nonspecific toxin, since it did not decrease incorporation of [3H]thymidine or [3H]proline into fetal rat long bones. The fact that resorption in unstimulated cultures was only decreased when the control rates were high also argues against nonspecific toxicity. Moreover, this suggests that TNCA will be most effective under conditions of accelerated bone resorption when an inhibiting effect is most desirable. PMID:2998577

Raisz, L G; Alander, C; Onkelinx, C; Rodan, G A

1985-09-01

218

Enhanced m1/m2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.  

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Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-? and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-? inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. PMID:25344334

He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

2015-01-01

219

Quantitative determination of enteral calcium resorption with enriched stable 46Ca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of a Ca-resorption test without the use of radioisotopes, which can therefore be used for babies, children and pregnant women, was investigated on 14 adult patients. In place of a radioisotope, an enriched form of the stable isotope 46Ca was administered orally, and the proportion of the applied dose of 46Ca appearing in the serum and urine was measured. 46Ca was measured by neutron activation over 47Sc. The clinical picture showed a close correlation with the determined resorption capacities. On the basis of the results, patients were classified into three groups: those with normal, increased, and decreased Ca-resorption. (orig.)

220

An In Vitro Analysis of Wear Resistance of Commercially Available Acrylic Denture Teeth  

OpenAIRE

Posterior denture teeth wear faster than the anterior teeth, causing occlusal prematurities and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. The loss of vertical dimension of occlusion lays more stress on the anterior alveolar ridge, which in turn increases the rate of residual ridge resorption and causes loss of alveolar ridge height in the anterior segment and compromises esthetics. Hence it is important for the clinician to choose acrylic resin teeth with high wear resistance. The objective of...

Shetty, Mallika S.; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth

2010-01-01

221

Ridge jump process in Iceland  

OpenAIRE

Eastward ridge jumps bring the volcanic zones of Iceland back to the centre of the hotspot in response to the absolute westward drift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Mantellic pulses triggers these ridge jumps. One of them is occurring in Southern Iceland, whereas the exact conditions of the last ridge jump in Northern Iceland remain controversial. The diachronous evolution of these two parts of Iceland may be related to the asymmetric plume-ridge interaction when comparing Northern and Southern I...

Garcia, Sebastian

2010-01-01

222

Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: Orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. PMID:25533077

Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

2015-01-01

223

Vitamin B1 resorption. X.Changes in thiamine resorption in the small intestine of chickens and rats treated with somatotropic hormone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trial was carried out with broiler chickens aged one month and Wistar male albino rats of mean liveweight of 207 g. The chickens were intramusculary injected with somatotropic hormone (STH), Sotropin H (DDR) 2 units/1O0 g liveweight for 3 successive days and the rats - 4 days. Intestine alkaline phosphatase activity was determined for a separate group of chickens post hormone injection. The resorption of 35S-thiamine, introduced in bilaterally ligated duodenum, 30 ?Ci/kg liveweight, was studied in chickens; in rats -the resorption of thiamine chloride (non radioactive), 20O ?g dissolved in 3 ml volume, introduced in the lupen of the entire small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) bilaterally ligated. It was found that STH enhanced thiamine both in chickens and rats (p 1 resorption in the small intestine (2, 3). Thiamine resorption depends on the activity of metabolic processes in small intestine epithelium. This is confirmed by data on the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) and monoiodoacetic acid (MIAA). Thiamine resorption is depressed when 10-2M or 1O-3M MIAA are jointly introduced in the lumen of the intestine. When the action of NaF and MIAA takes place against the background oIAA takes place against the background of STH action, then thiamine resorption goes up and equal that of the control group. NaF inhibits small intestine respiratory activity. These results are interpreted in the sense that the active thiamine transport is influenced by STH which restores the enzyme and respiratory activity of intestine epithelial cells. (author)

224

LEPTIN REGULATION OF BONE RESORPTION BY THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND CART  

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Bone remodelling, the mechanism by which vertebrates regulate bone mass, comprises two phases, namely resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts; osteoblasts are multifunctional cells also controlling osteoclast differentiation. Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb...

225

Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of advanced inflammatory external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate obturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root and lateral root surface both mesially and distally. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was disinfected with intracanal triple antibiotic paste for 2 weeks. The antibiotic dressing was then removed, and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 18 months, significant osseous healing of the periradicular region and lateral periodontium had occurred with arrest of external root resorption, and no clinical symptoms were apparent. PMID:23304567

Utneja, Shivani; Garg, Gaurav; Arora, Shipra; Talwar, Sangeeta

2012-01-01

226

Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar  

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Full Text Available Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar proteinosis. Computed tomography of the thorax, bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy were performed. The histopathologic aspect was characteristic. The patient was discharged in good health conditions and remains asymptomatic to date.Proteinose alveolar é uma doença pulmonar incomum caracterizada pelo acúmulo de surfactante nas vias aéreas terminais e nos alvéolos, alterando a troca gasosa e, em alguns casos, promovendo insuficiência respiratória. Três formas clínicas e etiologicamente distintas de proteinose alveolar são reconhecidas: congênitas, secundárias e idiopáticas (mais de 90% dos casos são de etiologia idiopática. Neste relato, apresentamos um homem jovem que foi diagnosticado com proteinose pulmonar. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax, broncoscopia e biópsia transbrônquica foram realizadas. O aspecto histopatológico foi característico. O paciente teve alta, com boas condições de saúde, e encontra-se assintomático nos dias de hoje.

Thiago Prudente Bártholo

2012-02-01

227

Nutrient resorption in shrubs growing by design, and by default in Chihuahuan Desert arroyos.  

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In the northern stretches of the Chihuahuan Desert, the margins of ephemeral stream channels called arroyos support a unique vegetation dominated by a guild of winter-deciduous shrubs. To explore the dynamics of nutrient conservation in this assemblage of arroyo shrubs, we measured nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency and proficiency in six species of shrubs growing in arroyos in southern New Mexico. Collectively, these six species were no more efficient or proficient at resorbing N and P from senescing leaves than shrubs growing in other environments. Resorption efficiency averaged 53% and 50% for N and P, respectively, and resorption proficiency averaged 0.80% and 0.06% for N and P, respectively. However, resorption varied significantly between species specifically restricted in their distribution to riparian habitats (obligate riparian species), and those that were not. The two obligate riparian species combined (Brickellia laciniata, Chilopsis linearis) were significantly more efficient and proficient at resorbing N than the non-obligate riparian species combined (Fallugia paradoxa, Flourensia cernua, Prosopis glandulosa, Rhus microphylla). Additionally, both Brickellia and Chilopsis were individually significantly more proficient at resorbing N than any of the other four species. The dichotomy in resorption between obligate riparian species and those that were not may have been the result of the interplay between hydrology, geomorphology, and biology. Because arroyos move in space as the movement of water erodes banks and changes channel location, some plants are found along arroyos only because the arroyos have moved to them. These plants (plants growing by default) may be less well adapted to arroyo margins than obligate riparian species (plants growing by design). Significant differences in resorption between obligate and non-obligate riparian species suggested that evolutionary history and habitat specificity may be added to the list of factors known to influence resorption. Selected life history traits of the six species did not appear to be related to any measure of resorption, but leaf surface area, specific leaf mass, and nutrient concentrations in green leaves were all correlated with resorption efficiency or proficiency in one or more species. The only species capable of symbiotic N fixation, Prosopis glandulosa, retained at least 2.3 times more N in its senesced leaves than any other species. Patterns of resorption in arroyo shrubs strongly indicated that efficiency and proficiency are fundamentally different, complementary measures of resorption. PMID:24549904

Killingbeck, K; Whitford, W

2001-08-01

228

Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

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A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

2009-01-01

229

Changing a limb muscle growth program into a resorption program.  

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Transgenic Xenopus laevis tadpoles that express a dominant negative form of the thyroid hormone receptor (TRDN) controlled by the cardiac actin muscle promoter (pCar) develop with very little limb muscle. Under the control of the tetracycline system the transgene can be induced at will by adding doxycycline to the rearing water. Pre-existing limb muscle fibers begins to disintegrate within 2 days after up-regulation of the TRDN transgene. The muscle cells do not die even after weeks of transgene exposure when the myofibrils have degenerated completely and the tadpole is nearing death. A microarray analysis after 2 weeks of exposure to the transgene identified 24 muscle genes whose expression was altered in such a way that they might cause the muscle phenotype. These candidate genes are normally activated in growing limb muscle but they are repressed by the TRDN transgene. Several of these genes have been implicated in mammalian myopathies. However, the expression of only one of these genes, calsequestrin, is down-regulated in 1 day and therefore might initiate the degeneration. Calsequestrin is one of several affected genes that encode proteins involved in calcium sequestration, transport and utilization in muscle suggesting that uncontrolled calcium influx into the growing limb muscle fibers causes rhabdomyolysis. Many of the same genes that are down-regulated in the tail at the peak of metamorphic climax just before it is resorbed are suppressed in the transgenic limb muscle in effect turning the limb growth program into a tail resorption program. PMID:17234173

Cai, Liquan; Das, Biswajit; Brown, Donald D

2007-04-01

230

Relative importance of renal failure and increased bone resorption in the hypercalcaemia of myelomatosis.  

OpenAIRE

In order to define the relative importance of renal failure and increased bone resorption in the hypercalcaemia of myelomatosis 22 untreated patients were studied, of whom 12 were hypercalcaemic. Most patients had malabsorption of radiocalcium from the gastrointestinal tract and evidence of increased bone resorption as assessed by fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio. The mean OHPr/Cr ratio, however, was similar in patients with and without hypercalcaemia. Renal failure and Bence J...

Heyburn, P. J.; Child, J. A.; Peacock, M.

1981-01-01

231

Reduction of instability-induced bone resorption using bisphosphonates: high doses are needed in rats.  

OpenAIRE

Bone resorption associated with prosthetic loosening can be reduced by giving bisphosphonates since they bind to bone surfaces and inactivate osteoclasts when bisphosphonate-containing bone is resorbed. During loosening, an increase in osteoclastic activity can be triggered by mechanical instability, fluid pressure or wear particles. We used a rat model in which a titanium surface can be made to slide over a bone surface and cause instability-induced bone resorption. 111 rats were operated on...

A?strand, Jo?rgen; Aspenberg, Per

2002-01-01

232

Amylin inhibits bone resorption while the calcitonin receptor controls bone formation in vivo  

OpenAIRE

Amylin is a member of the calcitonin family of hormones cosecreted with insulin by pancreatic ? cells. Cell culture assays suggest that amylin could affect bone formation and bone resorption, this latter function after its binding to the calcitonin receptor (CALCR). Here we show that Amylin inactivation leads to a low bone mass due to an increase in bone resorption, whereas bone formation is unaffected. In vitro, amylin inhibits fusion of mononucleated osteoclast precursors into multinucleat...

Dacquin, Romain; Davey, Rachel A.; Laplace, Catherine; Levasseur, Re?gis; Morris, Howard A.; Goldring, Steven R.; Gebre-medhin, Samuel; Galson, Deborah L.; Zajac, Jeffrey D.; Karsenty, Ge?rard

2004-01-01

233

Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland  

Science.gov (United States)

Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

2013-01-01

234

Stereological analysis of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of placentas of young and older pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Aim To determine quantitative parameters of volume density and absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of control and experimental group, compare the results and search for correlation between structural parameters of resorption villi and pregnancy age. Metods The research was performed on 60 human placentas of term pregnancy: 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 20 - 34 (control group), and 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 35 and older (experimental group). Stereolog...

Sergije Markovi?; Zlata Žigi?; Suada Rami?; Jasminka Hadžihalilovi?

2010-01-01

235

Human alveolar macrophages produce leukotriene B4.  

OpenAIRE

Human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were labeled overnight with [3H]arachidonic acid. The cells were stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187, and the 20:4 oxygenated metabolites released into the culture medium were identified by reverse-phase HPLC. Leukotriene B4 was the major 20:4 metabolite produced by these cultures. Leukotriene B4 was identified by its reverse-phase HPLC elution time, its UV spectrum, and its chemotactic and chemokinetic activities for neutroph...

Fels, A. O.; Pawlowski, N. A.; Cramer, E. B.; King, T. K.; Cohn, Z. A.; Scott, W. A.

1982-01-01

236

A Case of Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It is characterized by diffuse, innumerable, and minute calculi, called microlithiasis in the alveoli. More than half of reported cases are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. We describe the first case of PAM in Korea. A 19-yr-old man without respiratory symptoms presented with interstitial thickening on the chest radiograph. His chest high resolution CT scan showed diffusely scattered, ill d...

Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Tae Ok; Oh, In-jae; Kim, Yu-il; Lim, Sung Chul; Choi, Yoo-duk; Song, Sang-yun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Yong Soo

2011-01-01

237

Phagolysosomal pH in alveolar macrophages.  

OpenAIRE

We studied phagolysosomal pH in alveolar macrophages (AM) using fluorescein-labeled yeast (FYP) and silica particles (FSP) as probes. Fluorescence intensities from the ingested test particles were measured on populations of AM using fluorescence spectrometry and on individual phagolysosomes using fluorescence microscopy. Measurements were performed on rabbit AM, which had been incubated with FYP or FSP (in vitro procedure). We also instilled FYP or FSP via the trachea into rabbit lungs and af...

Nyberg, K.; Johansson, U.; Johansson, A.; Camner, P.

1992-01-01

238

Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Mammalian organs, including the lung and the kidney, often use a branched design to maximize their functional capacity and efficiency. Lung formation requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis to build a treelike tubular network, and alveolar differentiation to generate specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Although each process has been extensively studied, much less is known about whether and how the two processes are coordinated. We show that an epithelial branc...

Chang, Daniel R.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K.; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mccrea, Pierre D.; Chen, Jichao

2013-01-01

239

Phagocytic properties of lung alveolar wall cells  

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Full Text Available For the purpose to define the mechanism of heavy metal intoxication by inhalation, morphologic observations were made on rat lungs after nasal instillation of iron colloid particles of positive and negative electric charges. Histochemical observation was also made on the liver and spleen of these animals. The instilled iron colloid particles reach the alveolar cavity easily, as can be seen in the tissue sections stained by Prussian blue reaction. Alveolar macrophages do take up them avidly both of positive and negative charges, though much less the positive particles than negative ones. In contrast, the alveolar epithelial cells take up solely positive particles by phagocytosis but not negative ones. Electron microscope observation revealed that the positive particles are ingested by Type I epithelial cells by pinocytosis and by Type II cells by phagocytosis as well. Then the iron colloid particles are transferred into the basement membrane by exocytosis. Travelling through the basement membrane they are again taken up by capillary endothelial cells by phagocytosis. Some particles were found in the intercellular clefts of capillary endothelial cells but not any iron colloid particles in the intercellular spaces of epithelial cells and in the capillary lumen. However, the liver and spleen tissues of the animals given iron colloid showed a strong positive iron reaction. On the basis of these observations, the mechanism of acute intoxication by inhaling heavy metal dusts like lead fume is discussed from the view point of selective uptake of alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial cells for the particles of the positive electric cha'rge.

Tanaka,Akisuke

1974-04-01

240

In vivo tissue sampling of embryonic resorption sites using ultrasound guided biopsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the polytocous European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) more than 23% of all successful implantations undergo embryonic resorption. The objective of the study was to establish a minimally invasive ultrasound guided biopsy technique to collect embryonic resorption tissue in vivo. The sampled material was genetically analysed to determine paternity and the sex of the embryo. Female hares were either mated or artificially inseminated and pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound on day six post ovulation. Subsequent embryonic development was ultrasonographically monitored on a regular basis to detect embryos undergoing resorption. Cell material of the resorption site was collected under ultrasonographic control via transabdominal biopsy of the placenta or aspiration of resorption fluid. To avoid breathing movements during the biopsy, the animals were intubated and a short apnoea was evoked by assisted ventilation. The presence of embryonic cells in the biopsy material was confirmed by microsatellite analysis in 11 of the fluid samples (n = 28) and six of the placental samples (n = 8). The lower success rate in the fluid samples was attributed to the abundance of maternal cells which was confirmed by the analysis of fluid sample smears. Male sex of the embryos undergoing resorption was detected by SRY analysis for ten of the fluid samples and for one of the placental samples. The two biopsy techniques did not have any negative impact on the prenatal development of the healthy siblings nor did it influence the future breeding performance of the females that were biopsied. PMID:21601265

Schroeder, K; Drews, B; Roellig, K; Menzies, B R; Goeritz, F; Hildebrandt, T B

2011-09-01

241

Rat spontaneous foetal resorption: altered ?2-macroglobulin levels and uNK cell number.  

Science.gov (United States)

During rat pregnancy, some of the foetoplacental units undergo complete spontaneous resorption while the adjacent units remain unaffected. In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms implicated in this spontaneous resorption, implantation units from days 14 and 16 of pregnancy were examined. The number of implantation sites and resorption units was recorded, and uterine paraffin sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for the evaluation of tissue morphology. The incidence of resorption was about 9.2 % on day 14 and 8.2 % on day 16. Perforin and active caspase-3 immunostaining were performed for localization and characterization of uterine natural killer (uNK) and apoptotic cells, respectively. The ?2-macroglobulin (?2-MG) expression was examined by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and its levels quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A reduction in ?2-MG decidual levels in resorpted units was observed when compared to normal implantation units in both days. This potent protease inhibitor is the major product secreted by the mesometrial decidual tissue and may constitute an indicator of maternal tissues remodelling abnormalities. Besides the decreased ?2-MG levels, an increase in uNK cell number was found in resorption units. The decreased ?2-MG levels may be related to the aberrant control of trophoblast invasion that may activate uNK cells. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying natural pregnancy loss in rat may contribute for the clarification of the "vanishing twin" phenomenon that occurs in human pregnancy. PMID:25085343

Fonseca, B M; Almada, M; Costa, M A; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

2014-12-01

242

Notch is activated in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of osteoclast differentiation and resorption is fine-tuned by signal pathways, which need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the possible connections between NF-kappaB and Notch in RANKL-induced osteoclast activity. To this end, RANKL was used to stimulate mouse osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7. The number of multinucleated TRAP+ osteoclasts was counted and the resorption area was measured. NF-kappaB transcriptional factor activity was determined by EMSA. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis were used to determine Hes1 (one of Notch signaling primary targets) mRNA and protein expressions respectively. Mature osteoclasts and bone resorption areas were detected in the present study. NF-kappaB activity was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and resorption. mRNA and protein expressions of Hes1 in RAW264.7 cells were up-regulated after RANKL stimulation. In conclusion, NF-kappaB signaling mediated RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and resorption, during which, Notch signaling was activated. Therefore, Notch could be a novel therapeutic target for bone resorption related diseases. PMID:18508716

Duan, Li; de Vos, Paul; Fan, Mingwen; Ren, Yijin

2008-01-01

243

A survey on periapical radiography efficacy in detection apical root resorption (a histological study  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the dental lesions which is mainly diagnosed by periapical radiography is apical root resorption Diagnosis of the presence and extension of this lesion can put some effects on its treatment plan and prognosis. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of periapical radiography on apical root resorption diagnosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted teeth were examined radiographic and histological regarding the presence and extension of apical root resorption. It should be noted that periapical radiographs were taken before extraction of all mentioned teeth. The results were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The results of this study showed significant differences between radiological and histological examinations (P=0.0003. Significant correlation between these two observations was seen only in 53.33% of cases comprising 23% of teeth with root resouption. Non-correlation was found in 46% of samples. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of apical root resorption between maxillary and mandibular teeth (P=0.233. Sensitivity of periapical radiographs in apical root resorption diagnosis was determined 57.3%. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, it seems that periapical radiography technique does not possess desirable efficacy in diagnosis of apical root resorption and its limitation should be considered by clinicians.

Goodarzipoor D.

2004-07-01

244

External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who neebe carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

245

Effects of berberine on differentiation and bone resorption of osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of berberine on osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption action in vitro, and to investigate the cellular mechanism of its inhibitory effects on bone resorption.Methods: The multinucleated osteoclasts (MNCs were derived by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone from bone marrow cells in the coculture system with primary osteoblastic cells. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining and image analysis of bone resorption pit on dental slices were used to identify osteoclast. The activity of TRAP was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The bone resorption pit area on the bone slices formed by osteoclasts was measured by computer image processing.Results: At the concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 ?mol/L, berberine dose-dependently suppressed the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, the TRAP activity and the osteoclastic bone resorption. The strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited at the concentration of 10 ?mol/L, with the inhibiting rate of 60.45%, 42.12% and 72.69% respectively.Conclusion: Berberine can decrease bone loss through inhibition of osteoclast formation, differentiation and bone resorption.

Peng WEI

2009-04-01

246

Alveolar Bone Grafting: Past, Present, and New Horizons  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar bone grafting is an important part of the reconstructive journey for many cleft lip and palate patients. The reconstruction of the alveolar cleft can provide both aesthetic and functional benefits to the patient. To be able to effectively treat alveolar clefts, it is essential to possess an understanding of several aspects of the problem. Acquiring this knowledge will allow the provider to treat the different variants of the cleft alveolus. In this article, the author will discuss an...

Coots, Bradley K.

2012-01-01

247

Alveolar haemorrhage in a case of high altitude pulmonary oedema  

OpenAIRE

A case of high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) in a climber who made a rapid ascent on Mt McKinley (Denali), Alaska is described. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contained increased numbers of red blood cells and an abundance of haemosiderin laden macrophages consistent with alveolar haemorrhage. The timing of this finding indicates that alveolar haemorrhage began early during the ascent, well before the onset of symptoms. Although evidence of alveolar haemorrhage has been...

Grissom, C.; Albertine, K.; Elstad, M.

2000-01-01

248

Pulmonary Surfactant Surface Tension Influences Alveolar Capillary Shape and Oxygenation  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar capillaries are located in close proximity to the alveolar epithelium and beneath the surfactant film. We hypothesized that the shape of alveolar capillaries and accompanying oxygenation are influenced by surfactant surface tension in the alveolus. To prove our hypothesis, surfactant surface tension was regulated by conditional expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B in Sftpb?/? mice, thereby inhibiting surface tension–lowering properties of surfactant in vivo within 24 hours a...

Ikegami, Machiko; Weaver, Timothy E.; Grant, Shawn N.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

249

Analysis for stress environment in the alveolar sac model  

OpenAIRE

Better understanding of alveolar mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the alveolar mechanics for two different alveolar sac models, one based on actual geometry and the other an idealized spherical geometry using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. Both the models were analyzed through coupled fluid-solid analysis to estimate the p...

Pidaparti, Ramana M.; Burnette, Matthew; Heise, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Angela

2013-01-01

250

Roles for claudins in alveolar epithelial barrier function  

OpenAIRE

Terminal airspaces of the lung, alveoli, are sites of gas exchange which are sensitive to disrupted fluid balance. The alveolar epithelium is a heterogeneous monolayer of cells interconnected by tight junctions at sites of cell-cell contact. Paracellular permeability depends on claudin-family tight junction proteins. Of over a dozen alveolar claudins, cldn-3, cldn-4 and cldn-18 are the most highly expressed; other prominent alveolar claudins include cldn-5 and cldn-7. Cldn-3 is primarily expr...

Overgaard, Christian E.; Mitchell, Leslie A.; Koval, Michael

2012-01-01

251

Evolución en el tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la evolución del tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar se realiza una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de 25 referencias, se destacan las vestibuloplastias, injertos óseos, biomateriales, implantes endóseos, regeneración ósea guiada y la distracción ósea, que corrigen o compensan la atrofia alveolar con sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas.An updated literature review of 25 references was made to describe the development in the treatment of dental alveolar atrophy. Some procedures that correct or compensate alveolar atrophies such as vestibuloplasty, bone grafting, biomaterials, endo-bone implants, guided bone regeneration and bone distraction. Their indications, advantages and disadvantages are set forth.

Oscar García-Roco Pérez

2002-08-01

252

Roles for claudins in alveolar epithelial barrier function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminal airspaces of the lung, alveoli, are sites of gas exchange that are sensitive to disrupted fluid balance. The alveolar epithelium is a heterogeneous monolayer of cells interconnected by tight junctions at sites of cell-cell contact. Paracellular permeability depends on claudin (cldn)-family tight junction proteins. Of over a dozen alveolar cldns, cldn-3, cldn-4, and cldn-18 are the most highly expressed; other prominent alveolar claudins include cldn-5 and cldn-7. Cldn-3 is primarily expressed by type II alveolar epithelial cells, whereas cldn-4 and cldn-18 are expressed throughout the alveolar epithelium. Lung diseases associated with pulmonary edema, such as alcoholic lung syndrome and acute lung injury, affect alveolar claudin expression, which is frequently associated with impaired fluid clearance due to increased alveolar leak. However, recent studies have identified a role for increased cldn-4 in protecting alveolar barrier function following injury. Thus, alveolar claudins are dynamically regulated, tailoring lung barrier function to control the air-liquid interface. PMID:22671603

Overgaard, Christian E; Mitchell, Leslie A; Koval, Michael

2012-06-01

253

Ultrasound stimulation attenuates resorption of tooth root induced by experimental force application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root resorption is an adverse outcome of orthodontic tooth movement. However, there have been no available approaches for the protection and repair of root resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption during experimental tooth movement and the effects of LIPUS in the RANKL/OPG mechanism in osteoblasts and cementoblasts in vitro. Twenty four Wistar strain male rats of 12-week-old were used in this study. The upper first molars were subjected to experimental movement in the mesial direction for 1-3weeks. Through the experimental periods, the right upper first maxillary molar was exposed to LIPUS (LIPUS group) every day for 1, 2 or 3weeks. The nature of root resorption was observed and then quantified by histomorphometric analysis. In the 2weeks period, significantly greater amount of tooth movement was observed in the LIPUS group (p<0.05). In addition, LIPUS group showed less root resorption lacunae and lower number of odontoclasts. In the period of 3weeks, LIPUS group presented significantly shorter length of root resorption lacunae and smaller amount of root resorption area (p<0.01). The number of odontoclasts and osteoclasts was also significantly lower in the LIPUS group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). However, no significant differences could be found regarding the amount of tooth movement. It is shown that LIPUS exposure significantly reduced the degree of root resorption during tooth movement without interrupting tooth movement. In vitro experiments showed that MC3T3-1 constitutively expressed higher levels of RANKL and RANTES mRNA comparing to OCCM-30. However, OPG mRNA expression was much higher in OCCM-30. LIPUS stimulation significantly increased the mRNA expression of RANKL in MC3T3-E1 at 4 (p<0.01) and 12h (p<0.05), although OPG mRNA expression was not affected by LIPUS. In contrast, the expression of RANKL and OPG mRNAs were both significantly increased by LIPUS in OCCM-30 at 12h (p<0.01). Moreover, LIPUS application suppressed the up-regulation of RANKL mRNA induced by compression force in OCCM-30, but no similar effect could be observed in MC3T3-E1. In conclusion, it is suggested that LIPUS exposure significantly reduces root resorption by the suppression of cementoclastogenesis by altering OPG/RANKL ratio during orthodontic tooth movement without interfering tooth movement. LIPUS may be an effective tool to prevent root resorption during tooth movement and is applicable to clinical use in near future. PMID:23337039

Inubushi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Eiji; Rego, Emanuel B; Ohtani, Junji; Kawazoe, Aki; Tanne, Kazuo; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi

2013-04-01

254

Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces  

OpenAIRE

Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submer...

Mijailovich, S. M.; Kojic, M.; Tsuda, A.

2010-01-01

255

External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggestypes of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

256

Mast cell activation and degranulation occur early during induction of periosteal bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously postulated that mast cells participate in the cellular network involved in osteoclastic resorption, probably through histamine release. In this study, we examined mast cell activation and histamine release during origination of resorption. Groups of 10 rats were killed 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 h after induction of resorption in a synchronized model of cortical resorption along the mandible. The total number of mast cells was transiently decreased by about one-third at 1 and 9 h. Mast cell activation was monitored by Alcian blue-safranin staining. Early after induction, mast cells started to release their mediator stores; complete release led to the apparent disappearance of the cells with the staining technique used. Histamine immunostaining confirmed the release of histamine and its diffusion in the extracellular environment. Massive degranulation was observed at 1.5 and 9 h with toluidine blue staining. Cell recovery, assessed in terms of histidine decarboxylase expression, occurred gradually. The number of ED1+ osteoclast precursors strongly increased from 12 h up to 18 h. Most parameters had returned to baseline at 18 h, except the ED1+ cells. H2 receptor inhibition with famotidine strongly decreased ED1+ osteoclast precursors at 12 h and subsequently osteoclasts at the peak of resorption. These data support a role of mast cells in resorption origination. They show an early and transient intervention of mast cells in the events regulating the recruitment of circulating osteoclast precursors and ultimately of resorption. Mast cell activation and degranulation induce the release of mediators, particularly histamine acting through its H2 receptors, which are likely involved in these reactions. PMID:16249129

Fouilloux, I; Duplan, M Biosse; Baroukh, B; Cherruau, M; Saffar, J L; Lesclous, Ph

2006-01-01

257

Ridge from Strings  

CERN Document Server

In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte-Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comarison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Also a good agreement is found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles.

Braun, M A; Vechernin, V V

2014-01-01

258

A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method  

OpenAIRE

Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

Sm, Zahed Zahedani; Oshagh M; Momeni Danaei Sh.; Smm, Roeinpeikar

2013-01-01

259

Investigation of the diurnal variation in bone resorption for optimal drug delivery and efficacy in osteoporosis with oral calcitonin  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Bone resorption displays marked diurnal variation. Reversible inhibition of bone resorption may result in best possible efficacy when bone resorption peaks. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of 0.8 mg of oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) and the effect of timing of drug intake. Methods The study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, phase I study to assess the ...

Byrjalsen I; Ma, Karsdal; Bj, Riis; Christiansen C

2008-01-01

260

Embryonic resorption in context to intragestational corpus luteum regression: a longitudinal ultrasonographic study in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778).  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryonic resorption is frequently observed in polytocous mammals. Often it occurs as partial litter resorption affecting only single conceptuses of a whole litter. The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and morphology of embryonic resorption in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). In 154 pregnancies viable conceptuses, conceptuses undergoing resorption and CL of pregnancy were ultrasonographically monitored during the entire gestation period. Resorptions were classified into (1) "pre-implantation resorptions," (2) "peri-implantation resorptions," and (3) "post-implantation resorptions." The incidence of resorption in the pre-implantation period was 9%, in the peri-implantation period 9%, and in the post-implantation period 24%. Post-implantation resorptions were found up to late pregnancy stages when fetal development was already in progress. The highest daily incidence of resorption was on Day 8 of the 42-day pregnancy. In 91% of the cases, the regression of one CL was observed, while an embryo was undergoing resorption at the same time. The number of resorptions did not significantly differ from the number of CL in regression during gestation, suggesting an interesting one-resorption-to-one-regression relationship. The ultrasonographic appearance of the luteal regression during pregnancy was similar to the morphology characteristic for postpartal luteolysis. PMID:23773690

Schroeder, K; Drews, B; Roellig, K; Goeritz, F; Hildebrandt, T B

2013-09-15

261

Pediatric pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare infiltrative pulmonary disease characterized by deposition of microliths in the alveoli. In this case report, we present a case of a 5 year-old girl with complaints of common cold and loss of appetite. Chest radiograph showed innumerable small, dense nodules, diffusely involving both lungs. High-resolution CT scan illustrated widespread micro-nodular infiltration, diffuse ground-glass attenuation areas predominantly in upper anterior regions and septal thickening. Trans-bronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25191486

Mehrian, Payam; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Hassanzad, Maryam; Hasani, Zeinab; Nejad, Sabereh Tashayoie; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2013-01-01

262

A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It is characterized by diffuse, innumerable, and minute calculi, called microlithiasis in the alveoli. More than half of reported cases are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. We describe the first case of PAM in Korea. A 19-yr-old man without respiratory symptoms presented with interstitial thickening on the chest radiograph. His chest high resolution CT scan showed diffusely scattered, ill defined tiny micronodules and interstitial thickening. Open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM. He was followed up for 6 months without treatment, and no progression was noticed. PMID:22022196

Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Tae Ok; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung Chul; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Song, Sang-Yun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Yong Soo

2011-10-01

263

Alveolar Macrophage Interaction With Air Pollution Particulates  

OpenAIRE

We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml,...

Goldsmith, C. A.; Frevert, C.; Imrich, A.; Sioutas, C.; Kobzik, Lester

1997-01-01

264

Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

2013-01-01

265

Menatetrenone inhibits bone resorption partly through inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 homolog, on bone resorption stimulated by interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]. Bone-resorbing activity was assessed by measurement of calcium and hydroxyproline in the media and calvariae. IL-1 alpha (0.1-100 U/ml), 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10(-10)-10(-7) M), PGE2 (10(-9)-10(-6) M), and PTH (3 x 10(-8)-3 x 10(-7) M) dose dependently increased the levels of calcium and hydroxyproline in the medium. Indomethacin (10(-6) M) completely inhibited bone resorption induced by IL-1 alpha and partially inhibited bone resorption induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3. However, indomethacin did not affect the action of PGE2 or PTH. Menatetrenone (3 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the bone resorption induced by IL-1 alpha (2 U/ml), PGE2 (10(-7) M), PTH (3 x 10(-7) M), and 1,25-(OH)2D3 (3 x 10(-10) M) in a dose-dependent manner. Menatetrenone also inhibited the PGE2 production stimulated by IL-1 alpha. These results indicate that menatetrenone may inhibit bone resorption through at least two different mechanisms; one possibly is an inhibitory effect on prostaglandin production. PMID:8511981

Hara, K; Akiyama, Y; Tajima, T; Shiraki, M

1993-05-01

266

Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystal structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites - Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites) [5].

Xiang Wei

2006-08-09

267

Reduction of mandibular residual ridge after vestibuloplasty. A two-year follow-up study comparing the Edlan flap, mucosal and skin graft operations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mandibular residual ridge reduction (RRR) after Edlan flap vestibuloplasty, buccal mucosal graft, and split skin graft vestibuloplasty was measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postsurgery in 50 patients. The ridge reduction was most severe during the immediate postoperative period. The different operation methods did not give rise to significant variations in the reduction pattern, neither did the sex of the patient appear to be an important factor. The temporary increase of mandibular resorption after vestibuloplasty surgery is of a magnitude comparable to the average RRR during 1 year in full denture wearers with a long denture experience.

Hillerup, SØren; Eriksen, Erik

1989-01-01

268

Insights into augmenting and maintaining alveolar bone ridge around implants in periodontally compromized patients  

OpenAIRE

Survival and success rates of dental osseous implants are well documented and are recorded exceeding a 90% rate for an observation period of more than 15 years. This long-term predictability combined with high safety levels for the treatment concept explains continuous growth of lists for indications. Various local and also systemic disorders which had been considered as absolute contra-indications a decade ago are meanwhile widely accepted being temporary. Cases sufferring from severe loss o...

Friedmann, Anton

2012-01-01

269

Localized Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: Two Case Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a relatively rare disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of surfactant-like material in the alveolar spaces. The classic radiologic findings of PAP include bilateral, symmetric, diffuse ground-glass opacity (GGO) or consolidation. The most common computed tomography (CT) feature of PAP is widespread GGO with thickened interlobular septa, the so-called crazy-paving pattern, which strongly suggests the diagnosis. Case Report: Here, we report the cases of two young male patients with unusual presentations of PAP. One patient showed localized PAP in the left lower lobe on CT images and the other patient presented with unilateral PAP involving the right lower lung field and recurrence in the same area with the same pattern as the initial manifestation. Conclusion: In conclusion, it is important for radiologists to be aware of potential atypical imaging findings of PAP in order to provide a correct diagnosis. Along these lines, PAP can present as a solitary nodular lesion or unilateral focal lesion, and can recur in the same pattern and location. PMID:25337424

Oh, Seon Jeong; Choo, Ji Yung; Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Je-Hyeong; Yeom, Suk Keu

2014-01-01

270

Consideraciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior / Anatomical considerations of the inferior alveolar canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: el conocimiento de variantes anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior es necesario para la realización de procedimientos que involucren la mandíbula. El objetivo fue determinar las relaciones y variaciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior MÉTODOS: se hizo un estudio descripti [...] vo, en 50 hemimandíbulas humanas secas, midiendo distancias del foramen mandibular con respecto a los bordes anterior, posterior, inferior y escotadura sigmoidea, las distancias del agujero mentoniano al borde basal y la cresta alveolar. Se hicieron cortes en la rama y el cuerpo, para determinar las relaciones con estructuras anatómicas próximas. RESULTADOS: el foramen mandibular fue encontrado en el 88% en el tercio medio de rama. La distancia del foramen a la escotadura fue 19,78 ± 3,3 mm, al borde anterior 17,46 ± 3,04, al borde posterior 12,2 ± 1,9 y al borde basal 26,4 ± 3,8 mm. La ubicación del conducto alveolar inferior a nivel de rama respecto a los bordes anterior, posterior, lateral y medial fue 11,1 ± 2,6, 15,8 ± 2,7, 3,5 ± 1,0 y 1,9 ± 0,7 mm respectivamente. En el cuerpo mandibular la distancias respecto a los bordes basal, lateral, medial y alveolar fueron 10,1 ± 2,3, 4,7 ± 1,4, 2,5 ± 1,0 y 13,7 ± 2,7 mm respectivamente distal al tercer molar, 7,6 ± 1,7, 6,4 ± 1,4, 2,8 ± 1,0 y 16,4 ± 2,2 mm distal al segundo molar, 7,1 ± 1,5, 6,1 ± 1,3, 2,6 ± 0,8 y 17,0 ± 2,3 mm distal al primer molar, y 7,9 ± 1,7, 4,7 ± 1,2, 3,4 ± 1,2 y 18.3±2.7 mm distal al segundo premolar. El diámetro fue 2,82 ± 0,6 mm. La distancia del agujero mentoniano al borde basal fue 14,2 ± 1,59 mm, a la cresta alveolar 15,97 ± 2,87 mm, y se relacionó con el segundo premolar. CONCLUSIONES: los datos obtenidos, si bien, no infieren en la totalidad de la población colombiana, confirma que existen variaciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior diferentes a las descritas en otras poblaciones. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the knowledge of anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar canal is necessary for surgical procedures involving the mandible. The purpose was to determine the relationships and anatomical variations of the mandibular canal. METHODS: a descriptive study was performed using 50 dry m [...] andibles measuring distances of the mandibular foramen with respect to the anterior posterior and lower borders and the sigmoid notch, distances from the mental foramen to the basal border and the alveolar crest. Cuts were done in ramus and body to determine the relationship with close anatomical structures. RESULTS: The mandibular foramen was found in 88% of the cases in the middle third of ramus. The distance from the foramen to the sigmoid notch was 19.78 ± 3.3 mm, to the anterior border was 17.46 ± 3.04 mm, to the posterior border was 12.2 ± 1.9 mm and to the inferior border was 26.4 ± 3.8 mm. The location of the inferior alveolar canal on the mandibular ramus with respect to the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial borders were 11.1 ± 2.6 mm, 15.8 ± 2.7 mm, 3.5 ±1.0 mm y 1.9 ± 0.7 mm respectively. On the mandibular body, the distances from the inferior alveolar canal to the inferior, lateral, medial and alveolar borders were 10.1 ± 2.3 mm, 4.7 ± 1.4 mm, 2.5 ± 1.0 mm and 13.7±2.7 mm respectively distal to the third molar, 7.6 ± 1.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.4 mm, 2.8 ± 1.0 mm and 16.4 ± 2.2 mm distal to the second molar, 7.1 ± 1.5 mm, 6.1 ± 1.3 mm, 2.6 ± 0.8 mm and 17.0 ± 2.3 mm distal to the first molar, and 7.9 ± 1.7 mm, 4.7 ± 1.2 mm, 3.4 ± 1.2 mm and 18.3 ± 2.7 mm distal to the second bicuspid. The diameter was 2.82 ± 0.6 mm. The distance from the mental foramen to the inferior border was 14.2 ± 1.59 mm, to the alveolar crest was 15.97 ± 2.87 mm, and it was directly related to the second bicuspid. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained, even though, do not infer in the totality of the Colombian population, confirms that there are anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar canal different from the ones

Omar Yamid, Ruge Jiménez; Oscar Andrés, Camargo Cañón; Yudy, Patricia Ortiz.

2009-07-01

271

Treatment of severe inflammatory root resorption in a young permanent incisor with mineral trioxide aggregate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory root resorption is a pathologic condition caused by several etiologic factors including traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor affected by severe, perforating inflammatory root resorption. An 11-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary lateral incisor associated with pain, mobility and a sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed a large periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was treated with intracanal calcium hydroxide for 2 weeks. The calcium hydroxide dressing was then removed and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 1 year, advanced osseous healing of the periradicular region had occurred and no clinical symptoms were apparent. PMID:21846458

Guzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar; Cehreli, Zafer C

2011-01-01

272

Anti-resorptive osteonecrosis of the jaws: facts forgotten, questions answered, lessons learned.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonate and other anti-resorptive medications (ARONJ) has historically been a poorly understood disease process in terms of its pathophysiology, prevention and treatment since it was originally described in 2003. In association with its original discovery 11 years ago, non-evidence based speculation of these issues have been published in the international literature and are currently being challenged. A critical analysis of cancer patients with ARONJ, for example, reveals that their osteonecrosis is nearly identical to that of cancer patients who are naive to anti-resorptive medications. In addition, osteonecrosis of the jaws is not unique to patients exposed to anti-resorptive medications, but is also seen in patients with osteomyelitis and other pathologic processes of the jaws. This article represents a review of facts forgotten, questions answered, and lessons learned in general regarding osteonecrosis of the jaws. PMID:24630868

Carlson, Eric R; Schlott, Benjamin J

2014-05-01

273

Distribution of dissolved water in magmatic glass records growth and resorption of bubbles  

Science.gov (United States)

Volcanic eruptions are driven by the growth of gas bubbles in magma. Bubbles grow when dissolved volatile species, principally water, diffuse through the silicate melt and exsolve at the bubble wall. On rapid cooling, the melt quenches to glass, preserving the spatial distribution of water concentration around the bubbles (now vesicles), offering a window into pre-eruptive conditions. We measure the water distribution around vesicles in experimentally-vesiculated samples, with high spatial resolution. We find that, contrary to expectation, water concentration increases towards vesicles, indicating that water is resorbed from bubbles during cooling; textural evidence suggests that resorption occurs largely before the melt solidifies. Speciation data indicate that the molecular water distribution records resorption, whilst the hydroxyl distribution records earlier decompressive growth. Our results challenge the emerging paradigm that resorption indicates fluctuating pressure conditions, and lay the foundations for a new tool for reconstructing the eruptive history of natural volcanic products.

McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E. W.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Nichols, A. R. L.; Burgisser, A.; Schipper, C. I.; Larsen, J. F.

2014-09-01

274

[Prosthodontic analysis in mandibular ridge augmentation with hydroxyapatite particle. 2. Evaluation of masticatory function and overall assessment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten patients received augmentation of deficient mandibular alveolar ridges using particulate hydroxyapatite (HAP). Masticatory ability was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively by a questionnaire with 35 foods listed and by the spectrophotometric method using ATP granules. The results showed that masticatory ability when wearing newly constructed complete dentures was significantly enhanced compared to that when wearing old dentures or relined dentures, and that the surgical procedure and the use of the surgical stent greatly improved masticatory ability when wearing the new dentures. The sensitivity of the mucose membrane of the augmented mandibular alveolar ridge was examined during a postoperative period of 24 months by using an electric nerve stimulator. The sensitivity of the mucose membrane decreased postoperatively, especially at the buccal site of the molar region, the so-called buccal shelf. The level of sensitivity increased periodically, and did not return to the average level for normal edentulous mucosa even 24 months after the augmentation. The patients were highly satisfied with the new dentures and the HAP augmentation judging from the questionnaire. From these points of view, HAP augmentation in edentulous patients having severely resorbed alveolar ridges has proved to be beneficial in allowing the recovery of masticatory function. PMID:2562280

Tanaka, O; Hirai, T; Murase, H

1989-12-01

275

Effects of two bacterial products, muramyl dipeptide and endotoxin, on bone resorption in organ culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have compared two components of bacterial cell walls, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), for their effects on bone resorption as measured by the release of previously incorporated 45Ca. MDP is the smallest active component of peptidoglycan, whereas LPS is the active component of endotoxin. Fetal rat long bones were cultured for 5 days in a chemically defined medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or serum. LPS increased 45Ca release at concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram/ml. LPS further purified by electrolytic dialysis (ED-LPS) was active at 0.01 microgram/ml. ED-LPS was ineffective at such low concentrations in the presence of serum. The response to MDP was more variable than that to LPS, but bone resorption was stimulated at concentrations of 10(-7)-10(-5) M. MDP was less effective or inactive in medium supplemented with serum. Stereoisomers of MDP that do not have adjuvant activity caused minimal stimulation of bone resorption, whereas 6-0-steroyl MDP stimulated resorption at 10(-8) M. The stimulation of bone resorption by LPS and MDP was not inhibited by indomethacin. Both LPS and MDP increased lysosomal enzyme release in proportion to their effects on 45Ca release. LPS also markedly increased collagenase activity in the medium, but MDP did not. These results indicate that chemically different products of bacterial cell walls can stimulate bone resorption in vitro. These products may be distinguished by differences in dose response curve, serum inhibition, and collagenase release. PMID:6291730

Raisz, L G; Alander, C; Eilon, G; Whitehead, S P; Nuki, K

1982-07-01

276

Dissolved water distribution in vesicular magmatic glass records both decompressive bubble growth and quench resorption  

Science.gov (United States)

Water distribution in magma varies over the lifetime of an eruption due to a variety of processes, including decompressive degassing of the melt, cooling during the quench from melt to glass, and post-emplacement hydration under ambient conditions. Correct interpretation of water distributions in erupted pyroclasts can therefore offer crucial insights into the dynamics of eruption mechanisms and emplacement histories. Volcanic eruptions are driven by the nucleation and growth of bubbles in magma. Bubbles grow as volatile species in the melt, of which water is volumetrically the most important, diffuse down a concentration gradient towards and across the bubble wall. On cooling, the melt quenches to glass, preserving the spatial distribution of water concentration around the bubbles (now vesicles). We use Backscatter Scanning Electron Microscopy (BSEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the spatial distribution of water around vesicles in experimentally-vesiculated samples. We find that, contrary to expectation, the total water concentration increases (by up to 2 wt.%) in the ~30 microns closest to the vesicle wall. Our samples record significant resorption of water back into the melt around bubbles during the quench process, a process which represents ';regassing' of the magma. We propose that the observed total water resorption profiles result from the increase in the equilibrium solubility of water as temperature decreases during the quench to glass, and that this resorption locally overprints the pre-existing concentration total water profile resulting from bubble growth during decompression. This resorption occurs over the very short timescales of rapid experimental quench (3-10 seconds) resulting in strongly disequilibrium water speciation. Water re-enters the melt as molecular water leading to enrichment in molecular water around vesicles, while the distribution of hydroxyl groups remains relatively unaltered during quench, thus preserving information about syn-experimental (or syn-eruptive) degassing. Our work demonstrates the effectiveness of two tools for deciphering the water contents of pyroclasts. BSEM imaging of glassy pyroclasts offers an easy, qualitative assessment of whether glass has been affected by quench resorption or secondary alteration processes, which becomes quantitative if calibrated by a technique such as SIMS. FTIR speciation data, meanwhile, enables the cause of bubble resorption to be identified, since resorption caused by pressure increase and by temperature decrease will result in distinctly different distributions of water species. We present here data extracted using these tools that demonstrate the potential impact of temperature-controlled quench resorption, which can reduce bubble volumes and sample porosities by a factor of two and reintroduce significant amounts of water back into the melt, with implications for obsidian and rheomorphic flow mechanisms.

McIntosh, I. M.; Llewellin, E.; Humphreys, M.; Nichols, A. R.; Burgisser, A.; Schipper, C.

2013-12-01

277

Effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the bioelectric properties of the alveolar epithelium.  

OpenAIRE

To investigate the hypothesis that Mycobacterium tuberculosis penetrates the alveolar epithelium by downregulating its barrier properties, we evaluated the interactions between M. tuberculosis and rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers that are believed to share electrophysiologic properties of the human alveolar epithelium. Nonproteinaceous components of M. tuberculosis caused marked declines in electrical resistance and equivalent short-circuit current of the alveolar epithelial cell monol...

Zhang, M.; Kim, K. J.; Iyer, D.; Lin, Y.; Belisle, J.; Mcenery, K.; Crandall, E. D.; Barnes, P. F.

1997-01-01

278

Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts.

SØrensen, Mette G; Karsdal, Morten A

2010-01-01

279

Mast cells in the human alveolar wall: an electronmicroscopic study.  

OpenAIRE

Mast cells were identified by electronmicroscopy in the alveolar wall of the lung in 20 subjects (10 normal, 10 abnormal). A quantitative and qualitative study was made of the mast cells. In the normal lung there was an average concentration of 350 mast cells/mm2 of alveolar wall and in the abnormal 523/mm2. Mast cells occupied approximately 1.6-2.1% of the area of the alveolar wall. There was marked variation in the structure of the mast cell granules but no differences between those in the ...

Fox, B.; Bull, T. B.; Guz, A.

1981-01-01

280

[Clinical aspect of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) were encountered in our Hospital between January 1996 and October 2001. Eight patients were men and five were women, their mean age being 59.5 +/- 19.2 years (range, 18-88 years). Three patients had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), three (23%) had polyarteritis nodosa (including microscopic PN), one (7.7%) had allergic granulomatous angitis, one (7.7%) had Goodpasture syndrome, one (7.7%) had MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis, one (7.7%) had Behçet's disease, one (7.7%) had chronic heart failure caused by mitral stenosis, one (7.7%) had chronic renal failure (etiology unknown), and the last had no particular disorder. Nine episodes (69%) had occurred as complications of primary diseases, four (31%) as the first symptoms of underlying diseases. Prognosis was poor in the former cases but in the latter, the prognosis was relatively favorable. PMID:14727544

Ishida, Kazuo; Seki, Reiko; Inoue, Takeo; Iwamoto, Tokuzen; Hoshino, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takemasa

2003-12-01

281

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to ketorolac tromethamine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug-induced lung disease (DILD) is a common but frequently missed diagnosis. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion and familiarity with the clinical syndromes associated with DILD are important in making the diagnosis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostly commonly used classes of medications. NSAIDs are safe when used at prescribed doses. Side effects from use of NSAIDs are not uncommon and can affect almost every organ system in the body. NSAIDs are notorious for causing pulmonary toxicity, the common ones being bronchospasm and hypersensitivity reactions. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) secondary to NSAIDs is uncommon. Here, we report a case of DAH secondary to the use of ketorolac tromethamine. PMID:23867384

Marak, Creticus P; Alappan, Narendrakumar; Shim, Chang; Guddati, Achuta K

2013-01-01

282

CT diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To study the CT findings and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM). Methods: The CT findings of 9 cases of PAM proved by lung biopsy or clinical diagnosis were retrospectively analysed. Results: On conventional CT, pulmonary window revealed widespread intraalveolar calcifications of both lungs concentrating in the subpleural parenchyma of the middle and lower lobes. The CT value of microliths ranged from 200 to 400 HU, usually combined with pulmonary emphysema and interstitial fibrosis; Mediastinal window showed linear calcifications along pleura or scattered punctate calcifications in the concentrated area of microliths looking like flame or white line in the medial border. On HRCT, pulmonary window revealed diffuse ground-glass appearance, nodules of different sizes, more microliths along the bronchovesicular bundles and thickening of lobule septa. Conclusion: CT, especially HRCT, can better demonstrate pathological features and stage of PAM, playing an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis

283

DISTRACCIÓN OSTEOGÉNICA ALVEOLAR EXPERIMENTAL CON DISPOSITIVO SIMPLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de desarrollar un dispositivo simple con tornillos de distracción para aumentos del reborde alveolar deficitario mediante distracción osteogénica e investigar las reacciones locales de los tejidos se realizó en el Centro de Experimentación Animal del ISCM-Camagüey un ensayo preclínico unicéntrico aleatorizado en 10 perros Beagles certificados y distribuidos por el método de lotería en dos grupos, experimental y control, desde enero a diciembre de 2003. El procedimiento utilizado constó de cuatro etapas: extracción de los premolares mandibulares y alveoloplastia en ambos grupos, para crear un área atrófica que permaneció sin tratamiento en el grupo control. A las 12 semanas osteotomías en el grupo experimental para construir un segmento de transporte rectangular y colocación del distractor. Previo período de latencia de siete días elongación ósea vertical a 1.0 mm/ día durante siete días, y fijación durante ocho semanas. Se realizó evaluación radiográfica e histológica en el sitio de distracción y control. Se logró un aumento vertical promedio de 6.53 ± 0.21 mm después de completar la distracción y de 5.81 ± 0.43 mm alconcluir el período de consolidación, se apreció en el sitio una osteogénesis satisfactoria con hueso maduro. En el grupo control la atrofia alveolar siguió su curso natural, se apreciaron fenómenos de cicatrización y remodelado óseo con una pérdida vertical de 1.05 ± 0.5 mm al evaluarse radiográficamente. Histológicamente no se apreciaron diferencias morfológicas entre los tejidos del sitio quirúrgico y los circundantes. El dispositivo intraoral de distracción en estudio es una técnica novedosa, y los resultados obtenidos son todavía variables, pero experimentalmente resultó eficaz y fiable para conseguir un determinado volumen de masa ósea en una posición predeterminada.

Oscar Garc\\u00EDa-Roco P\\u00E9rez

2005-01-01

284

Human Alveolar Macrophage Growth Factor for Fibroblasts: REGULATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION  

OpenAIRE

The number of fibroblasts composing the alveolar structures in controlled within narrow limits by a strictly modulated rate of fibroblast replication. One possible source of growth-modulating signals for alveolar fibroblasts is the alveolar macrophage, a member of the mononuclear phagocyte family of cells, which collectively are known to be important sources of growth factors for a variety of target cells. To evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages in the control of alveolar fibroblast repl...

Bitterman, Peter B.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Crystal, Ronald G.

1982-01-01

285

Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT)-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP) II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of in...

Chen Yao; Legan Susan K; Mahan Anne; Thornton Janet; Xu Haiming; Schwarz Margaret A

2012-01-01

286

Depletion of resident alveolar macrophages does not prevent Fas-mediated lung injury in mice  

OpenAIRE

Activation of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system in the lungs results in a form of injury characterized by alveolar epithelial apoptosis and neutrophilic inflammation. Studies in vitro show that Fas activation induces apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells and cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. The main goal of this study was to determine the contribution of alveolar macrophages to Fas-induced lung inflammation in mice, by depleting alveolar macrophages using clodronate-containing lip...

Bem, R. A.; Farnand, A. W.; Wong, V.; Koski, A.; Rosenfeld, M. E.; Rooijen, N.; Frevert, C. W.; Martin, T. R.; Matute-bello, G.

2008-01-01

287

Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities. Specifically, we found that in the presence of GC osteoclasts (OCs) cultured on bone slices make more trenchlike cavities, compared to rather round cavities in the absence of GCs, while the total eroded surface remained constant. For this study, we hypothesized that trenchlike cavities affect bone strength differently compared to round cavities. To test this hypothesis, we cultured OCs on bone slices in the presence and absence of GC and quantified their dimensions. These data were used to model the effects of OC resorption cavities on bone mechanical properties using a validated beam-shell finite element model of trabecular bone. We demonstrated that a change in the geometry of resorption cavities is sufficient toaffect bone competence. After correcting for the increased EV/BV with GCs, the difference to the control condition was no longer significant, indicating that the GC-induced increase in EV/BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures.

Vanderoost, Jef; SØe, Kent

2012-01-01

288

Subligamentary resorption of bone at the caudal end of the lateral clavicula in secondary hyperparathyroidism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Next to the less frequently found hyperostosis and soft tissue calcinations, the main radiological signs indicating hyperparathyroidism are intracortical and subperiostal resorption of bone, and osteolysis. Their different manifestations in the X-ray picture lead to the diagnoses discussed in this article. (orig.)

289

Osteoclast resorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate controlled by surface architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A resorbable bone graft substitute should mimic native bone in its capacity to support bone formation and be remodeled by osteoclasts (OCl) or other multinucleated cells such as foreign body giant cells (FBGC). We hypothesize that by changing the scale of surface architecture of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), cellular resorption can be influenced. CD14(+) monocyte precursors were isolated from human peripheral blood (n = 4 independent donors) and differentiated into OCl or FBGC on the surface of TCP discs comprising either submicron- or micron-scale surface topographical features (TCPs and TCPb, respectively). On submicrostructured TCPs, OCl survived, fused, differentiated, and extensively resorbed the substrate; however, on microstructured TCPb, OCl survival, TRAP activation, and fusion were attenuated. Importantly, no resorption was observed on microstructured TCPb. By confocal microscopy, OCl formed on TCPs contained numerous actin rings allowing for resorption, but not on TCPb. In comparison, FBGC could not resorb either TCP material, suggesting that osteoclast-specific machinery is necessary to resorb TCP. By tuning surface architecture, it appears possible to control osteoclast resorption of calcium phosphate. This approach presents a useful strategy in the design of resorbable bone graft substitutes. PMID:24927681

Davison, Noel L; ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Luo, Xiaoman; Yuan, Huipin; Everts, Vincent; Barrère-de Groot, Florence; de Bruijn, Joost D

2014-08-01

290

On the assessment of radionuclide resorption from the gastro-intestinal tract of the blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the resorption rates measured for the radionuclides Ce, Co, Pu, Ru, Sr and Zn as well as the vitamin B12 with the recommendations for calculation given by the SSK showed that the values used by the SSK partly are too low by orders of magnitude. The dose factors therefore no longer correspond to the international level of science. (DG)

291

Inhibitory regulation of osteoclast bone resorption by signal regulatory protein alpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclasts mediate bone resorption, which is critical for bone development, maintenance, and repair. Proper control of osteoclast development and function is important and deregulation of these processes may lead to bone disease, such as osteoporosis. Previous studies have shown that the cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 acts as a suppressor of osteoclast differentiation and function, but putative inhibitory receptors that mediate recruitment and activation of SHP-1 in osteoclasts have remained unknown. In the present study, we identify the SHP-1-recruiting inhibitory immunoreceptor signal regulatory protein (SIRP) alpha as a negative regulator of osteoclast activity. SIRPalpha is expressed by osteoclasts, and osteoclasts from mice lacking the SIRPalpha cytoplasmic tail and signaling capacity display enhanced bone resorption in vitro. Consequently, SIRPalpha-mutant mice have a significantly reduced cortical bone mass. Furthermore, osteoclasts from SIRPalpha-mutant mice show an enhanced formation of actin rings, known to be instrumental in bone resorption. SIRPalpha mutation did not significantly affect osteoclast formation, implying that the role of SIRPalpha was limited to the regulation of mature osteoclast function. This identifies SIRPalpha as a bona fide inhibitory receptor that regulates the bone-resorption activity and supports a concept in which osteoclast function is balanced by the signaling activities of activating and inhibitory immunoreceptors. PMID:19667119

van Beek, Ellen M; de Vries, Teun J; Mulder, Lars; Schoenmaker, Ton; Hoeben, Kees A; Matozaki, Takashi; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Kraal, Georg; Everts, Vincent; van den Berg, Timo K

2009-12-01

292

Is mild dental invagination a risk factor for apical root resorption in orthodontic patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess if dental invagination is a risk factor for root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 91 patients (32 males, 59 females) with a mean age of 13.1 years (range 9.3-32.1 years) with complete orthodontic records, including periapical radiographs of the maxillary incisors before and after treatment. Forty-nine patients had at least one maxillary incisor invaginated, whilst the remaining 42 patients were free of dental invaginations. Variables recorded for each patient included gender, age, Angle classification, extraction or non-extraction therapy, ANB angle, overjet, overbite, trauma, habits, agenesis, tooth exfoliation, treatment duration, Class II elastics, body-build, general factors, impacted canines, and root form deviation. Crown and root length of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment long cone periapical radiographs corrected for image distortion. The percentage of root shortening and root length loss in millimetres was then calculated. Most of the invaginated teeth were minor type 1. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the severity of apical root resorption between invaginated and non-invaginated incisors in patients without dental invaginations, nor was the extent of dental invagination related to the severity of apical root resorption. However, invaginated teeth had malformed roots more often than non-invaginated teeth. Dental invagination, and particularly type 1, cannot be considered a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:16763089

Mavragani, Maria; Apisariyakul, Janya; Brudvik, Pongsri; Selvig, Knut Andreas

2006-08-01

293

Osteoclastic resorptive capacity is suppressed in patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose - Hypoxia, necrosis, and bone loss are hallmarks of many skeletal diseases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is often used as an adjunctive therapy in these cases. However the in vivo effect of HBO on osteoclast formation has not been fully established. We therefore carried out a longitudinal study to examine the effect of HBO on osteoclast formation and bone resorptive capacity in patients who were referred to the Plymouth Hyperbaric Medical Centre. Methods - Osteoclast precursors were isolated from peripheral blood prior to and following 10 and 25 daily hyperbaric treatments (100% O2 at 2.4 atmospheres absolute ATA for 90 min) to determine osteoclast formation and resorptive capacity. The expression of key regulators of osteoclast differentiation RANK, Dc-STAMP, and NFATc1 was also assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results - HBO reduced the ability of precursors to form osteoclasts and reduced bone resorption in a treatment-dependent manner. The initial suppressive effect of HBO was more pronounced on mononuclear osteoclast formation than on multinuclear osteoclast formation, and this was accompanied by reduction in the expression of key regulators of osteoclast formation, RANK and Dc-STAMP. Interpretation - This study shows for the first time that in vivo, HBO suppresses the ability of monocytic precursors to form resorptive osteoclasts. PMID:25238438

Hadi, Hadil Al; Smerdon, Gary; W Fox, Simon

2014-09-19

294

Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)?induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2, RhoU/Wrch1, RhoF/Rif, Rac2, RhoG, Rnd1 and RhoBTB1), ROCK1 and ROCK2. In conclusion, podosome distribution was affected by the OPG-induced inhibition of the expression of genes in the RhoGTPase signaling pathway. This resulted in damage to or destruction of the sealing zone, thus inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. PMID:25017214

Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

2014-09-01

295

The ways of resorption of mineralized bone matrix under hypokinesia and microgravity  

Science.gov (United States)

By the method of electron microscopy and autoradiography employing 3H-thymidine and 45Ca the study was performed of the peculiarities of resorptive processes in the bone tissue of thighbones in the experiments with rats (American space Station SLS-2 during 2 weeks) and in the experiments with model hypokinesia (28 days). It was established that under support unloading in zones of adaptive bone remodeling (spongy bone; vascular canals and periostal bone) the processes of bone tissue resorption intensify and take place by several ways: by a functional activization of osteoclasts; by an increase of the osteocytic osteolysis, as a result of a hydrolytic activity of neutrophils entering to these zones as well as by the local demineralization and further destruction of bone matrix surface zones. In resorption zones the osteoclasts form groups of cells. The investigations of the dynamics and peculiarities of osteoclastic nuclei labeling in the experiment with 3H-thymidine during various intervals after its injection demonstrate intensive formation of osteoclasts. In the osteoclastic population we revealed "giant cells" not typical for the control (ground-based experiment). They had 5 to 6 nuclei in an ultrathin section, abundance of lysosomes, a well-developed "light" zone and the "brush-border" and also numerous vacuoles, filled with degrading conglomerates of a mineral component. By the electron microscopy with the use of 45Ca we studied some mechanisms of osteoclastic resorption of the mineralized bone matrix. The destruction of the mineralized matrix in bone lacunae happens by way of osteolytic activity of osteocytes. Lysosomal enzymes of osteocytes are secreted by exocytosis. The presence of a considerable number of neutrophils which enter to some resorption zones appears to be also typical. During destruction the neutrophils release lysosomal enzymes which dissolve the bone matrix. In some resorption zones we noted the appearance of a fringe bordering the mineralized matrix and consisting of collagen fibrils which had lost crystals. In resorption zones among the conglomerate crystals a cell detritus is registered. This witnesses of the processes of osteogenic cells destruction that take place here. The utilization of the destroyed osteoblasts and osteocytes is accomplished by macrophages.

Rodionova, N. V.; Polkovenko, O. V.; Oganov, V. S.

296

Oestrogen regulates bone resorption and cytokine production in the maxillae of female mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oestrogen plays major role in bone metabolism/remodelling. Despite of well-established effect of oestrogen deficiency on long bones, it remains unclear whether alveolar bone is affected. We aimed to determine the effect of oestrogen-deficiency in the alveolar bone microarchitecture. C57BL6/J and Balb/c mice were ovariectomized and implanted with oil-(OVX) or 17?-estradiol (E2)-containing (OVX+E2) capsules. Ovary-intact mice were used as controls. The dose of E2 replacement was selected based on trophic effects on the uterus and femur bone loss. As determined by maxillary alveolar bone MicroCT analysis, both C57BL6/J and Balb/c OVX mice displayed decreased trabecular thickness, bone density and bone volume, and increased trabecular separation at 15 and 30 days after ovariectomy. These effects were associated with a reduction of trabecular bone percentage and cortical thickness in the femur. A significant loss of alveolar bone crest was also associated with ovariectomy in both mice strains. The E2 replacement fully prevented ovariectomy-induced alterations in the alveolar and femoral bones. Moreover, TNF-? (tumour necrosis factor-?) levels and RANKL/OPG (receptor activator of NF-?B ligand/osteoprotegerin) ratio were increased in the maxilla after OVX, and these responses were also reversed by E2. In conclusion, oestrogen deficiency causes maxillary alveolar bone loss, which is similar to the effects found in the femur. The release of inflammatory molecules like TNF-?, RANKL and OPG is the potential mechanism to the decrease of bone quality and alveolar bone crest. PMID:25438102

Macari, Soraia; Duffles, Letícia F; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Madeira, Mila F M; Dias, George J; Teixeira, Mauro M; Szawka, Raphael E; Silva, Tarcília A

2015-02-01

297

Elevación del piso del seno maxilar a través de la cresta ósea alveolar, mediante el uso de osteotomos: Reporte de caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se describe la técnica de aumento del piso del seno maxilar a través del reborde alveolar, mediante el uso de osteotomos en combinación con procedimientos de regeneración ósea guiada y uso de biomateriales de relleno. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenina de 65 años de [...] edad, con disminución de altura ósea del reborde alveolar, debido a la neumatización de los senos maxilares, asociada con moderada reabsorción ósea, a quien se le colocó a nivel del primer molar superior izquierdo implantes 3,5 x 11 mm IMTEC Endure Internal Hex System y se aplicó la técnica descrita de aumento del piso del seno maxilar. Mediante esta técnica es posible la elevación atraumática de la membrana sinusal, con bajo riesgo de lesionarla. Abstract in english In the present article, the technique of maxillary sinus floor increase through the alveolar ridge by using osteotomes in combination with bone regeneration guided procedures and the use of biomaterial fillings is described. It is reported the case of a 65 year old, female patient, with a decrease o [...] f alveolar ridge bone height due to the pneumatization of the maxillary sinus, associated with moderate bone re-absorption. The procedure consisted on the placement of a 3.5 x 11 mm IMTEC Endure Internal Hex System implant, at the level of the superior left first molar and the application of the technique described before (maxillary sinus floor increase). By using this technique, an atraumatic elevation of the sinus membrane is possible with low risk of injuring it.

E, Di Natale.

2009-06-01

298

Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure  

OpenAIRE

Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium.

Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-jin; Crandall, Edward D.

2010-01-01

299

Leflunomide Prevents Alveolar Fluid Clearance Inhibition by Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

OpenAIRE

Rationale: Previously, we demonstrated that intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) resulted in an early 40% reduction in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), an effect mediated via P2Y purinergic receptors.

Davis, Ian C.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Hickman-davis, Judy M.; Fortenberry, James A.; Chen, Fu-ping; Zhao, Xiaodong; Sorscher, Eric; Graves, Lee M.; Sullender, Wayne M.; Matalon, Sadis

2005-01-01

300

Evolución en el tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de describir la evolución del tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar se realiza una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de 25 referencias, se destacan las vestibuloplastias, injertos óseos, biomateriales, implantes endóseos, regeneración ósea guiada y la distracción ósea, que corrigen o c [...] ompensan la atrofia alveolar con sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas. Abstract in english An updated literature review of 25 references was made to describe the development in the treatment of dental alveolar atrophy. Some procedures that correct or compensate alveolar atrophies such as vestibuloplasty, bone grafting, biomaterials, endo-bone implants, guided bone regeneration and bone di [...] straction. Their indications, advantages and disadvantages are set forth.

Oscar, García-Roco Pérez; Miguel, Arredondo López.

2002-08-01

301

Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma-cell of origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma is the least common of the primary pulmonary carcinomas, and there is controversy as to its cell of origin. In this light- and electron microscopic study of five bronchiolo-alveolar carcinomas, at least two cell types were found, both of bronchiolar origin. One cell type is a metaplastic bronchiolar mucous cell and the other a bronchiolar stem cell that has ultrastructural features of both the respiratory ciliated and the respiratory nonciliated ("Clara") cell. It would not be unusual if tumors of the bronchiolo-alveolar region differentiate into cells of either the bronchiole or the alveolus, for embryologically they have a common origin. However, as information about the ultrastructure of these tumors accumulates, it is becoming apparent that an alveolar-cell carcinoma must be a rare occurrence. Hyperplastic Type II aleveolar epithelial cells may be found about the margins of these tumors and can be mistaken for the neoplastic cells. PMID:163571

Greenberg, S D; Smith, M N; Spjut, H J

1975-02-01

302

Cytotoxic effect of uranium dioxide on rat alveolar macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchial lavage were used to assess the response of these cells to cultivation in media containing increasing concentrations of particulate UO2. The characteristic time course of uranium effects on alveolar macrophages was determined by analyzing cell viability and incorporation of uranium particles. This study reveals the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize uranium particles despite the high toxicity the metal exerts on cell membranes. However, lethal effects soon become evident. Ultrastructural analysis showed uranium particles confined within membrane bound vacuoles or free in the cytoplasm. Marked ultrastructural alterations consistent with cell death were frequently observed. The elimination of the first biological barrier hinders the scavenging of particulate contaminants in alveolar spaces, thus favoring the translocation to target organs

303

Assessment of global morphological and topological changes in trabecular structure under the bone resorption process  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a frequent skeletal disease characterised both by loss of bone mineral mass and deterioration of cancellous bone micro-architecture. It can be caused by mechanical disuse, estrogen deficiency or natural age-related resorption process. Numerical analysis of high-resolution images of the trabecular network is recognised as a powerful tool for assessment of structural characteristics. Using ?CT images of 73 thoracic and 78 lumbar human vertebral specimens in vitro with isotropic resolution of 26?m we simulate bone atrophy as random resorption of bone surface voxels. Global morphological and topological characteristics provided by four Minkowski Functionals (MF) are calculated for two numerical resorption models with and without conservation of global topological connectivity of the trabecular network, which simulates different types of bone loss in osteoporosis, as it has been described in males and females. Diagnostic performance of morphological and topological characteristics as a function of relative bone loss is evaluated by a correlation analysis with respect to experimentally measured Maximum Compressive Strength (MCS). In both resorption models the second MF, which coincides with bone surface fraction BS/TV, demonstrates almost constant value of Pearson's correlation coefficient with respect to the relative bone loss ?BV/TV. This morphological characteristic does not vary considerably under age-related random resorption and can be used for predicting bone strength in the elderly. The third and fourth MF demonstrate an increasing correlation coefficients with MCS after applying random bone surface thinning without preserving topological connectivity, what can be used for improvement of evaluation of the current state of the structure.

Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Baum, Thomas; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmueller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Raeth, Christoph W.

2012-03-01

304

Effect of alterations in the cyclopentane ring on bone resorptive activity of prostaglandin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have shown that the natural prostanoids, PGE2, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha are potent stimulators of bone resorption. In this study, we have examined the effects of alterations in the cyclopentane ring of these prostanoids for their effect on the resorptive response of cultured long bones from 19-day fetal rats as measured by the release of previously incorporated /sup 45/Ca. Indomethacin (10(-6)M) was added to minimize endogenous prostaglandin production. In this system PGE2 and PGE1, the 9 keto, 11 alpha hydroxy compounds, were approximately equally effective at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M. The 9 alpha hydroxy, 11 alpha hydroxy compound, PGF2 alpha, was active at 10(-7) to 10(-5) M. In contrast, the 9 alpha hydroxy, 11-keto compound, PGD2, showed only a minimal stimulation of bone resorption at 10(-5) M. While these data suggested that the 11 alpha hydroxy group was important for bone resorbing activity, 11 beta PGE2 and 11-deoxy PGE1 were only slightly less potent than their physiologic counterparts. Both 9 beta, 11 alpha PGF2 and 9 alpha, 11 beta PGF2 were less potent than PGF2 alpha but did cause substantial stimulation of bone resorption and were equally effective at 10(-6) to 10(-5) M. 9 alpha, 11 beta PGF2 alpha is of particular interest since it is major metabolite of PGD2. These results suggest that the binding of prostanoids to the receptor which mediates bone resorption is affected by changes at the 9 and 11 positions of the pentane ring but do not support the hypothesis that the 11 alpha OH function is essential for this biological activity.

Raisz, L.G.; Woodiel, F.N.

1989-02-01

305

Effect of alterations in the cyclopentane ring on bone resorptive activity of prostaglandin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that the natural prostanoids, PGE2, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha are potent stimulators of bone resorption. In this study, we have examined the effects of alterations in the cyclopentane ring of these prostanoids for their effect on the resorptive response of cultured long bones from 19-day fetal rats as measured by the release of previously incorporated 45Ca. Indomethacin (10(-6)M) was added to minimize endogenous prostaglandin production. In this system PGE2 and PGE1, the 9 keto, 11 alpha hydroxy compounds, were approximately equally effective at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M. The 9 alpha hydroxy, 11 alpha hydroxy compound, PGF2 alpha, was active at 10(-7) to 10(-5) M. In contrast, the 9 alpha hydroxy, 11-keto compound, PGD2, showed only a minimal stimulation of bone resorption at 10(-5) M. While these data suggested that the 11 alpha hydroxy group was important for bone resorbing activity, 11 beta PGE2 and 11-deoxy PGE1 were only slightly less potent than their physiologic counterparts. Both 9 beta, 11 alpha PGF2 and 9 alpha, 11 beta PGF2 were less potent than PGF2 alpha but did cause substantial stimulation of bone resorption and were equally effective at 10(-6) to 10(-5) M. 9 alpha, 11 beta PGF2 alpha is of particular interest since it is major metabolite of PGD2. These results suggest that the binding of prostanoids to the receptor which mediates bone resorption is affected by changes at the 9 and 11 positions of the pentane at the 9 and 11 positions of the pentane ring but do not support the hypothesis that the 11 alpha OH function is essential for this biological activity

306

Appearance of remodelled and dendritic cell-rich alveolar-lymphoid interfaces provides a structural basis for increased alveolar antigen uptake in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

OpenAIRE

RATIONALE: The alveolar pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves antigen-driven immune events. However, the induction sites of alveolar adaptive immune responses have remained poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: To explore the hypothesis that interfaces between the alveolar lumen and lymphoid aggregates (LAs) provide a structural basis for increased alveolar antigen uptake in COPD lungs. METHODS: Lung samples from patients with mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstru...

Mori, Michiko; Andersson, Cecilia K.; Svedberg, Kaj; Glader, Pernilla; Bergqvist, Anders; Shikhagaie, Medya; Lo?fdahl, Claes-go?ran; Erjefa?lt, Jonas

2013-01-01

307

Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

FitzGerald, Kirsten

2012-02-01

308

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in Wegener?s granulomatosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a life-threatening though rare manifestation of Wegener?s granulomatosis (WG. An active diagnostic workup, intensive observation, and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment are cornerstones of the management. The treatment modalities available for such complications are pulse cyclophosphamide therapy with steroids. We report here a case of WG with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as the first manifestation of the disease in life that responded to steroids and cyclophosphamide.

Mahajan Vineet

2011-01-01

309

[Detection of the nucleolar activity in alveolar macrophages of swine].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the help of the toluidine blue-staining-technique different characteristic shapes of alveolar macrophage nucleoli were detected, indicating differences in the rRNA synthesis activity of these cells. After application of a Pasteurella multocida aerosol the percentage of alveolar macrophages with a high rRNA synthesis increased. No correlation between the nucleolar activity and the efficacy of the clearance of aerogenously administered Pasteurella could be measured. PMID:1559462

Köhler, H

1992-02-01

310

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an 8-month-old infant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) in an 8-month-old male infant is reported. He presented initially at 2 months of age with worsening respiratory distress and cyanosis. Chest imaging by X-ray and by CT scan showed widespread reticulo-nodular densities mostly in the mid and lower zones. The diagnosis of PAM was confirmed by an open lung biopsy which showed diffuse alveolar calcium deposits. PMID:19222936

Dahabreh, M; Najada, A

2009-03-01

311

Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3-siblings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM in 3 siblings. (author)

312

Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3 siblings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM in 3 siblings. PMID:16501684

Al-Alawi, Alia S

2006-02-01

313

Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3 siblings.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM in 3 siblings.

Alia S. Al-Alawi

2006-02-01

314

Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3 siblings.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM i...

Al-alawi, Alia S.

2006-01-01

315

Bar retained dento-alveolar prosthesis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique for restoring missing anterior teeth with associated extensive alveolar bone loss has been presented. This technique combines fixed and removable restorations where in removable prosthesis that restores the alveolar defect gets attached to the fixed prosthesis through precision attachment. The fixed prosthesis contributes to esthetics, function and also elevates patient's self image. The removable prosthesis provides the much needed soft tissue support and also facilitates oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25489167

Kannan, Kamala; Isaac, Lijo; Bhaskaran, S; Raj, Nirmal; Sivakumar, Keerthana; Chandrasekaran, Dileepan

2014-12-01

316

Dynamics of surfactant release in alveolar type II?cells  

OpenAIRE

Pulmonary surfactant, secreted via exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LB) by alveolar type II (AT II) cells, maintains low alveolar surface tension and is therefore essential for normal lung function. Here we describe real-time monitoring of exocytotic activity in these cells by visualizing and quantifying LB fusion with the plasma membrane (PM). Two approaches were used. First, fluorescence of LysoTracker Green DND-26 (LTG) in LB disappeared when the dye was released after exocytosis. Second, ph...

Haller, Thomas; Ortmayr, Jo?rg; Friedrich, Franz; Vo?lkl, Harald; Dietl, Paul

1998-01-01

317

Stress Responses Affecting Homeostasis of the Alveolar Capillary Unit  

OpenAIRE

The maintenance of the alveolar structure is required throughout life. To accomplish this goal, alveolar cells, including endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblastic cells, provide key molecules with broad survival and antiapoptotic effects. These complex interactions are disrupted by cigarette smoke, leading to emphysema. Smoke imposes an environmental stress to the lung with the activation of “sensor-like” molecular signaling. Activation of RTP801, leading to mTOR inhibition, is paradigma...

Tuder, Rubin M.; Yoshida, Toshinori

2011-01-01

318

Glucocorticoids reduce alveolar and trabecular bone in mice  

OpenAIRE

Glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is the main cause of secondary osteoporosis. There are some controversies about the relationships between alveolar bone loss and bone loss at the appendicular and axial skeleton. Objective: To assess, in parallel, the effects of GCs on alveolar bone and on the tibia in a mice model. Methods: 5-month-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomized into two groups. Pellets releasing 5mg/kg/day of prednisolone or control pellets were subcutaneously implanted for 28 days...

Bouvard, Be?atrice; Gallois, Yves; Legrand, Erick; Audran, Maurice; Chappard, Daniel

2013-01-01

319

Hydrogen ion currents in rat alveolar epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar epithelial cells isolated from rats and maintained in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the "patch-clamp" technique. After other ionic conductances were eliminated by replacing permeant ions with N-methyl-D-glucamine methanesulfonate, large voltage-activated hydrogen-selective currents were observed. Like H+ currents in snail neurons and axolotl oocytes, those in alveolar epithelium are activated by depolarization, deactivate upon repolarization, and ...

Decoursey, T. E.

1991-01-01

320

Toxicity of pneumolysin to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

Mortality during the first several days of pneumococcal pneumonia has not decreased appreciably over the past 30 years, despite the widespread use of antibiotics. Disruption of the alveolar epithelial barrier is likely an initial step in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. We report that soluble factors from Streptococcus pneumoniae can directly injure isolated rat alveolar epithelial cells. Using biochemical and immunological techniques, we identified pneumolysin as a major soluble S...

Rubins, J. B.; Duane, P. G.; Clawson, D.; Charboneau, D.; Young, J.; Niewoehner, D. E.

1993-01-01

321

Utilidad de la ortopedia prequirúrgica en el moldeamiento de las crestas alveolares en niños de 0-12 meses de edad con fisura labiopalatina unilateral completa. Revisión sistemática de la literatura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Dentro del manejo temprano de los niños que presentan FLP se ha propuesto la ortopedia prequirúrgica, como una alternativa para el alineamiento de las crestas alveolares.. En la actualidad hay variaciones y existen dos filosofías de tratamiento en relación al uso o no de ortopedia prequirúrgica. Lo anterior ha generado controversia en los efectos reales de la misma. OBJETIVO: Determinar la utilidad de la ortopedia prequirúrgica en el moldeamiento de las crestas alveolares, en pacientes de 0 a 12 meses de edad con Fisura Labiopalatina Unilateral Completa. METODO: La investigación se realizó a través de una Revisión Sistemática de la literatura mediante la búsqueda electrónica de artículos científicos, empleando las bases de datos Medline, Elsevier, Cochrane y Ebsco. Como descriptores de búsqueda se incluyeron las palabras Pre-surgical orthopedics, ridges alveolar, Alveolar molding, Complete Unilateral cleft lip and palate. Se realizó lectura de títulos, abstracts y textos completos. Se determinó la calidad y validez de los estudios de acuerdo a las listas de chequeo internacionales : Consort, Strobe y Quórum. Se clasificaron los artículos según el nivel de evidencia y los grados de recomendación de acuerdo a los parámetros del SIGN. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 4739 artículos de los cuales se seleccionaron 88 que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La depuración y filtro final arrojó 3 artículos. DISCUSION Y CONCLUSIONES: No existe suficiente evidencia científica que avale la utilidad de la ortopedia prequirúrgica en el moldeamiento de las crestas alveolares y existen factores adicionales que influyen y que deben ser estudiados conjuntamente PALABRAS CLAVES: Ortopedia Prequirúrgica, Crestas Alveolares, Moldeamiento Alveolar, Fisura Labio Palatina Unilateral Completa.

Adriana Isabel Betancourt

2014-09-01

322

Influence of balanced occlusion in complete dentures on the decrease in reduction of an edentulous ridge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Balanced occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth and balanced occlusion is a specific type of occlusion that preserves the stability of complete dentures. Balanced occlusion comprises realization of tooth contacts at the working side as well as at the balancing side, at the same time. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of balanced occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth on the decrease in reduction of edentulous alveolar ridge. Methods. A longitudinal study on 91 fully edentulous patients was conducted using their panoramic radiographs and parameters of vertical dimension of edentulous ridges. All the patients were clinically examined by the same and a qualified dental practitioner. Numerical values of parameters of vertical dimensions of edentulous ridges and lines were statistically processed and compared using the Student’s t-test. Results. Vertical dimensions and heights of edentulous ridges were different after comparison of parameters in complete denture wearers with balanced occlusion and complete denture wearers without bilaterally balanced occlusion, as well as between male and female edentulous patients. Statistically significant differences of heights were established in complete denture wearers’ with a set of artificial teeth without balanced occlusion, at the baseline and 12 months after wearing of complete dentures. Conclusion. Balanced occlusion is a favored occlusal design in setting of artificial teeth in conventional complete dentures, which preserves edentulous ridge and influence the stability of dentures.

Pošti? Sr?an D.

2012-01-01

323

Posterior maxillary segmental osteotomy for the implant reconstruction of a vertically deficient ridge: a 3-year clinical report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vertically deficient posterior maxillary edentulous ridge in conjunction with sinus pneumatization or extensive horizontal bone resorption presents significant challenges for implant placement and restoration with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Various surgical techniques have been reported for the reconstruction of the vertically deficient posterior maxilla: guided bone regeneration, sinus elevation, block and/or particulate grafting with barrier membranes, and distraction osteogenesis. This clinical report describes the technique, the management of intrasurgical complications, and the 3-year follow-up results of augmenting the vertically deficient posterior maxilla with a segmental osteotomy prior to rehabilitation with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:23929367

Papaspyridakos, Panos; Ostuni, Angelo; Han, Chang; Lal, Kunal

2013-08-01

324

[Alveolar microlithiasis with severe interstitial fibrosis leading to lung transplantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease, characterized by extensive phosphocalcic concretions within the alveolar spaces. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is usually asymptomatic and is incidentally found because radiologic findings are characteristic. In about half of the cases, it is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the SLC34A2 gene. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis can easily be diagnosed by bronchioloalveolar lavage or transbronchial biopsy. The clinical course is usually stable during several years and lung transplantation is the only effective treatment when a respiratory failure occurs. A 49-year-old woman was referred with a restrictive respiratory failure due to a pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis incidentally discovered on a chest radiography when she was 11 and was confirmed by surgical lung biopsy. She was asymptomatic until she was 43 when she presented a progressive dyspnea leading to continuous oxygen administration 4 years later. Laboratory findings only showed a polyglobulia related to hypoxemia. Chest radiography and computed tomography chest scan revealed a bilateral symmetric micronodular pattern. She underwent a lung transplantation when she was 49. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with interstitial fibrosis. The patient died 3 months after surgery in an infectious context. PMID:19619834

Coulibaly, Béma; Fernandez, Carla; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; D'Journo, Xavier; Doddoli, Christophe; Taséi, Anne-Marie

2009-06-01

325

Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos univitelinos: relato de dois casos Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in monozygotic twins: report of two case  

OpenAIRE

Os autores apresentam dois casos de microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos monozigóticos. Os principais achados obtidos em exames radiográficos e de tomografia computadorizada (técnica de alta resolução) são enfatizados, com base em breve revisão literária.The authors report two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis affecting monozygotic twins. The main findings observed on plain x-ray films and high-resolution computed tomography are discussed and compared with data from...

Sizenildo da Silva Figueirêdo; Luiza Helena Vilela Ribeiro; Bruno Barcelos da Nóbrega; Kim-Ir-Sen Santos Teixeira; Maurício Sérgio Brasil Leite; Albino Alegro Oliveira

2002-01-01

326

Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos univitelinos: relato de dois casos Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in monozygotic twins: report of two case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores apresentam dois casos de microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos monozigóticos. Os principais achados obtidos em exames radiográficos e de tomografia computadorizada (técnica de alta resolução são enfatizados, com base em breve revisão literária.The authors report two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis affecting monozygotic twins. The main findings observed on plain x-ray films and high-resolution computed tomography are discussed and compared with data from a brief literature review.

Sizenildo da Silva Figueirêdo

2002-07-01

327

Gravidez em paciente com microlitíase alveolar pulmonar grave Pregnancy in a patient with severe pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

OpenAIRE

A microlitíase alveolar pulmonar (MAP) é uma doença rara que atinge ambos os pulmões, caracterizada pela presença de pequenos cálculos (fosfato de cálcio) nos espaços alveolares. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 26 anos, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado com base nos achados marcantes na radiografia de tórax e tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução. A paciente, gestante de 28 semanas, retornou ao hospital 10 meses após o diagnóstico apresentando insufici...

José Osmar Bezerra de Souza Filho; Cristiane Maria Cavalcante Silveira; Aline Barreto da Cunha; Valéria Goes Ferreira Pinheiro; Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa; Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

2008-01-01

328

Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician?s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ?45° and defect depth was ?3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for this type of bone loss. This study should be an impetus for greater attention to an otherwise ubiquitous periodontal challenge.

Jayakumar A

2010-01-01

329

A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling : lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs.

Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin

2014-01-01

330

A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling : Lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs.

Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin

2013-01-01

331

Apical root resorption of maxillary first molars related to headgear use as detected by cone beam computed tomography  

OpenAIRE

Extraoral traction (EOT) by occipital headgear is a widely used anchorage and orthopedic approach for the control of maxillary growth. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the hypothesis that headgear use may increase the risk of apical root resorption, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to detect root resorptions of maxillary fi rst molars, and 2) to assess which roots are more prone to resorption and to which extent. A total of 112 maxillary fi rst molars from 56 patients at 52 t...

Jairo Curado de Freitas; Sar Porto Lyra, Olavo C. U. E.; Alves Alencar, Ana Helena Gon U. E.; Carlos Estrela

2011-01-01

332

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma after treatment of osteosarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) after treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) is rare. Reported here is the case of a metachronous RMS in the nasal cavity, developing 12 years after successful treatment of non-metastatic OS. The patient was diagnosed as having OS of the femur at 2 years of age. Chemotherapy for OS included doxorubicin (cumulative dose, 488 mg/m(2) ). No radiotherapy was given. There was no family history suggestive of cancer predisposition syndrome. At 14 years of age, alveolar RMS was diagnosed on histopathology. PAX3-FKHR fusion transcripts were detected on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Germline TP53 mutation was not seen on standard DNA sequencing. The occurrence of secondary sarcomas, in the Children's Cancer Survivor study conducted in North America, has been associated with high cumulative doses of anthracyclines, which may also have played a role in the development of RMS in the present case. In the future, novel molecular technologies might uncover genetic cancer predisposition in patients with metachronous cancers. PMID:23910806

Kasahara, Yasushi; Iwabuchi, Haruko; Takachi, Takayuki; Hosokai, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Sakiko; Imamura, Masaru; Watanabe, Akihiro; Umezu, Hajime; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ogose, Akira; Imai, Chihaya

2013-08-01

333

Management of alveolar hemorrhage in lung vasculitides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar hemorrhage (AH) is an important pulmonary manifestation of small vessel vasculitis because severe presentations are the most common vasculitic cause of early death. Renal vasculitis is usually present with AH; the combination is known as pulmonary-renal syndrome. Early diagnosis and intensive therapy are of particular importance to reduce early mortality and improve longer-term outcomes. The commonest immune-mediated cause of AH is anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) (80%), with other vasculitides, including systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease accounting for 20%. One quarter of AAV patients develop AH, which when mild is associated with a good outcome, but mortality rises to 50% for cases with respiratory failure requiring ventilator support. The prognosis of AH in the other vasculitides is generally favorable, but cases are rare and experience is limited. Treatment follows similar regimens to those for other AAV presentations, although when severe there is widespread use of parenteral glucocorticoids together with plasma exchange. These interventions have developed empirically supported by a theoretical rationale but have not been validated by randomized clinical trials. Sepsis and cardiovascular and thromboembolic events are important early complications. and long-term follow-up is required to monitor for and prevent relapse and manage disease-related damage. A minority of cases develop on a background of pulmonary fibrosis, or progressive pulmonary fibrosis develops after vasculitis has gone into remission. PMID:21674419

Casian, Alina; Jayne, David

2011-06-01

334

Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis. PMID:21674412

Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

2011-06-01

335

Hemorragia alveolar como complicación del uso de trombolíticos / Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of thrombolytic therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La trombolisis se usa como estrategia de reperfusión coronaria en el infarto agudo de miocardio. El sangrado es su principal complicación; la mayoría ocurre en los sitios de accesos venosos y es leve, pero también pueden presentarse hemorragia gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinaria, pulmo [...] nar y a nivel del sistema nervioso central, episodios estos generalmente de mayor gravedad y a veces fatales. Se describe aquí el caso de un paciente que recibió terapia trombolítica con estreptoquinasa como tratamiento por un infarto de miocardio, y que posteriormente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, caída del hematocrito y aumento de la difusión de monóxido de carbono, cuadro compatible con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar. Abstract in english Coronary thrombolysis is used as a strategy for coronary reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Bleeding is the main complication described. Although most of these events occur at sites of vascular access and are mild, in some cases gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinary, lung and ce [...] ntral nervous system bleeding may occur. These episodes are usually serious and sometimes fatal. The following report describes the case of a patient who received thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase as a treatment for myocardial infarction. Subsequently he developed acute respiratory failure, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fall of hematocrit compatible with diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage.

Alejandra, González; Judith, Sagardía; Amorina, Redondo; Marcelo, Villaverde; Alfredo, Monteverde.

2011-12-01

336

Hemorragia alveolar como complicación del uso de trombolíticos Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of thrombolytic therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La trombolisis se usa como estrategia de reperfusión coronaria en el infarto agudo de miocardio. El sangrado es su principal complicación; la mayoría ocurre en los sitios de accesos venosos y es leve, pero también pueden presentarse hemorragia gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinaria, pulmonar y a nivel del sistema nervioso central, episodios estos generalmente de mayor gravedad y a veces fatales. Se describe aquí el caso de un paciente que recibió terapia trombolítica con estreptoquinasa como tratamiento por un infarto de miocardio, y que posteriormente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, caída del hematocrito y aumento de la difusión de monóxido de carbono, cuadro compatible con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar.Coronary thrombolysis is used as a strategy for coronary reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Bleeding is the main complication described. Although most of these events occur at sites of vascular access and are mild, in some cases gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinary, lung and central nervous system bleeding may occur. These episodes are usually serious and sometimes fatal. The following report describes the case of a patient who received thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase as a treatment for myocardial infarction. Subsequently he developed acute respiratory failure, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fall of hematocrit compatible with diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage.

Alejandra González

2011-12-01

337

Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex post  

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Full Text Available The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

Hariharan V

2010-01-01

338

Endovascular Embolization of Varicoceles: Resorption of Tungsten Coils in the Spermatic Vein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate whether resorption of tungsten coils occurs in patients with varicoceles treated by endovascular embolization of the spermatic vein.Methods: Patients who had previously had varicocele embolization were requested by letter to attend the radiology department. Blood levels of tungsten were compared with a group of controls. Fluoroscopic images of the coils were taken and compared with those obtained during the original procedures.Results: Nineteen patients attended, whose procedure had been done 19-57 months previously (mean 40 months). Blood levels of tungsten were raised in 18 patients compared with the controls. Radiographic evidence of loss of substance of the coils was seen in four patients.Conclusion: Tungsten coil resorption occurs in varicocele embolization. In view of the unknown long-term effects of raised blood tungsten levels and the availability of alternative embolization agents, we feel that it is unwise to persist in the use of tungsten coils in this application

339

Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil  

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Full Text Available In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm of three undisturbed forest plots at ‘Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas’ on the east coast of Mexico (18°34’ - 18°36’ N, 95°04’ - 95°09’ W. N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30. As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11 and P (0.11%, n = 11 resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de nutrientes. En 30 muestras del suelo superficial (10 cm de tres sitios de la selva no perturbada, se analizó entre otras características físicas y químicas, la concentración de N total y P extraíble. A través de la concentración de N y P en hojas seniles, se determinó la reabsorción real de 11 especies dominantes de arboles de esta selva. El N se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el P se analizó por digestión con ácido nítrico y destilación con perclórico. El suelo fue rico en N total (0.50%, n = 30 y P extraíble (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30. Tal como se esperaba, los arboles mostraron una reabsorción incompleta para el N (1.13%, n = 11 y P (0.11%, n = 11.

José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

2005-09-01

340

Spontaneous resorption of extruded iliac crest graft ina case of high cervical myelopathy  

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Full Text Available AbstractA 38 year old male patient presented to us with complaints of parasthesias in all four limbs with spastic quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine revealed central disc herniation at C2-C3 level with significant cord compression. He was operated for C2-C3 Smith-Robinson anterior cervical discectomy. An autogenous tricortical iliac crest graft of 1.5×1.0 cm was snugly fitted into the disc space. Postoperative check X-ray of the cervical spine showed extrusion of the graft. The patient was managed conservatively. Repeat X-ray of the cervical spine after follow-up of 6 weeks showed resorption of the graft. The distinct strategy of management in this case along with a brief review of literature is discussed.Key words: High cervical myelopathy: Extruded graft: Resorption

Chatleya A,

2008-01-01

341

Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estu [...] dio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de nutrientes. En 30 muestras del suelo superficial (10 cm) de tres sitios de la selva no perturbada, se analizó entre otras características físicas y químicas, la concentración de N total y P extraíble. A través de la concentración de N y P en hojas seniles, se determinó la reabsorción real de 11 especies dominantes de arboles de esta selva. El N se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el P se analizó por digestión con ácido nítrico y destilación con perclórico. El suelo fue rico en N total (0.50%, n = 30) y P extraíble (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30). Tal como se esperaba, los arboles mostraron una reabsorción incompleta para el N (1.13%, n = 11) y P (0.11%, n = 11). Abstract in english In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropic [...] al rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at ‘Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas’ on the east coast of Mexico (18°34’ - 18°36’ N, 95°04’ - 95°09’ W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 11) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

José Luis, Martínez-Sánchez.

2005-09-01

342

Influencing of resorption and side-effects of salicylic acid by complexing with ?-cyclodextrin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After oral administration of 14C-labelled salicylic acid and its ?-cyclodextrin complex to rats, the radioactivity level of the blood reached its maximum during the first 2 h. The blood level obtained with the complex is somewhat but not significantly lower than with free acid. Since the resorption of cyclodextrin is a considerably slower process, it is very likely that the resorption of salicylic acid takes place in the form of free acid after dissociation of the complex. The urinary excretion cumulative curves showed that the free salicylic acid was completely excreted, while about 10% of the salicylic acid administered in the form of complex is lost. The cyclodextrin complex formation increased the pK values of all hydroxybenzoic acids. Direct observations revealed that complex formation decreased the stomach-irritating effect of salicylic acid. The ratio of radioactivity was nearly the same in the organs of animals treated by both free salicylic and cyclodextrin complex. (author)

343

The resorption of nanocrystalline calcium phosphates by osteoclast-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanocrystalline calcium phosphates containing carbonate have a high similarity to bone mineral. The reactions of bone cells (primary osteoblasts and osteoclast-like cells) on these materials as well as on sintered beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (HA) confirmed a good biocompatibility of the nanocrystalline samples. However, osteoclastic differentiation was constrained on the carbonate-rich samples, leading to a small number of osteoclast-like cells on the materials and few resorption pits. The grain size of the calcium phosphate ceramics (nano vs. micro) was less important than expected from to physico-chemical considerations. When comparing the nanocrystalline samples, the highest resorption rate was found for nano-HA with a low carbonate content, which strongly stimulated the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells on its surface. PMID:20206720

Detsch, R; Hagmeyer, D; Neumann, M; Schaefer, S; Vortkamp, A; Wuelling, M; Ziegler, G; Epple, M

2010-08-01

344

Early resorption of an artificial bone graft made of calcium phosphate for cranioplasty: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bernardo Assumpção de Monaco, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Manoel Jacobsen TeixeiraDivision of Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The treatment of uncomplicated osteoma consists of an en bloc resection, or curettage, of the tumor, followed by cranioplasty. Here, we present a case report of a patient treated for a parietal osteoma, followed by a calcium phosphate cranioplasty, with early resorption after 3 months, which was presented by a sinking flap above the resection area. This case suggests that synthetic cranioplasty should be preferred, even in small skull-gap areas.Keywords: cranioplasty, bone cement, osteoma, calcium phosphate, resorption

Monaco BA

2013-11-01

345

Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. (Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (USA)); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

346

Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig

347

Cloning and identification of human Sca as a novel inhibitor of osteoclast formation and bone resorption.  

OpenAIRE

Increased osteoclast activity is responsible for the enhanced bone destruction in postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease, bone metastasis, and hypercalcemia of malignancy. However, the number of known inhibitory factors that block osteoclast formation and bone resorption are limited. Therefore, we used an expression-cloning approach to identify novel factors produced by osteoclasts that inhibit osteoclast activity. A candidate clone was identified and isolated from a human osteoclast-li...

Choi, S. J.; Devlin, R. D.; Menaa, C.; Chung, H.; Roodman, G. D.; Reddy, S. V.

1998-01-01

348

THE BENEFIT OF SOY BEAN- CHOCOLATE BEVERAGE ON BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS  

OpenAIRE

THE BENEFIT OF SOY BEAN- CHOCOLATE BEVERAGE ON BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS Nur Ainun Rani1, Nurpudji A. Taslim,1,2 Haerani Rasyid1,2, Burhanuddin Bahar3 Department of Clinical Nutrition Faculty of Medicine 1, Department of Nutrition2 Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Public Health3, Hasanuddin University, Makassar ABSTRACT Background Soybeans and chocolate contain isoflavones, which is the active substance which is recommended as an hormone replacem...

Ainun Rani, Nur; Astuti, Nurpudji; Rasyid, Haerani; Bahar, Burhanuddin

2011-01-01

349

Dose-Dependent Resorption of Quinine after Intrarectal Administration to Children with Moderate Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

OpenAIRE

The pharmacokinetics of increasing doses of an intrarectal Cinchona alkaloid combination containing 96.1% quinine, 2.5% quinidine, 0.68% cinchonine, and 0.67% cinchonidine (Quinimax) was compared to that of parenteral regimens in 60 children with moderate malaria. Quinine exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetics, suggesting a saturation of rectal resorption. When early rejections appeared, blood quinine concentrations decreased by 30 to 50% and were restored by an immediate half-dose administra...

Pussard, Eric; Straczek, Celine; Kabore?, Idrissa; Bicaba, Auguste; Balima-koussoube, Tatiana; Bouree, Patrice; Barennes, Hubert

2004-01-01

350

Endothelin-1 from prostate cancer cells is enhanced by bone contact which blocks osteoclastic bone resorption  

OpenAIRE

The causes for the propensity of metastasized prostate cancer cells to grow in bone and to induce osteoblastic lesions remain unresolved. Co-culture of human prostate cancer cell lines with bone slices was determined to increase the level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA and its production. ET-1 is an ejaculate protein that also stimulates osteoblasts. Osteoclastic bone resorption was significantly blocked by the presence of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as ...

Chiao, J. W.; Moonga, B. S.; Yang, Y. M.; Kancherla, R.; Mittelman, A.; Wu-wong, J. R.; Ahmed, T.

2000-01-01

351

Estrogen directly attenuates human osteoclastogenesis, but has no effect on resorption by mature osteoclasts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogen deficiency arising with the menopause promotes marked acceleration of bone resorption, which can be restored by hormone replacement therapy. The inhibitory effects of estrogen seem to involve indirect cytokine- mediated effects via supporting bone marrow cells, but direct estrogen-receptor mediated effects on the bone-resorbing osteoclasts have also been proposed. Little information is available on whether estrogens modulate human osteoclastogenesis or merely inhibit the functional activity of osteoclasts. To clarify whether estrogens directly modulate osteoclastic activities human CD14+ monocytes were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL to induce osteoclast differentiation. Addition of 0.1-10 nM 17beta-estradiol to differentiating osteoclasts resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity reaching 60% at 0.1 nM. In addition, 17beta-estradiol inhibited bone resorption, as measured by the release of the C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTX), by 60% at 0.1 nM, but had no effect on the overall cell viability. In contrast to the results obtained with differentiating osteoclasts, addition of 17beta-estradiol (0.001-10 nM) to mature osteoclasts did not affect bone resorption or TRACP activity. We investigated expression of the estrogen receptors, using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We found that ER-alpha is expressed in osteoclast precursors, whereas ER- beta is expressed at all stages, indicating that the inhibitory effect of estrogen on osteoclastogenesis is mediated by ER-alpha for the major part. In conclusion, these results suggest that the in vivo effects of estrogen are mediated by reduction of osteoclastogenesis rather than direct inhibition of the resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts.

SØrensen, M G; Henriksen, K

2006-01-01

352

Chondroclasts are mature osteoclasts which are capable of cartilage matrix resorption  

OpenAIRE

Multinucleated cells termed chondroclasts have been observed on the deep surface of resorbed hyaline cartilage but the relationship of these cells to macrophages and osteoclasts and their role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other arthritic conditions is uncertain. Multinucleated cells in RA and other arthritic conditions showing evidence of cartilage resorption were characterised immunohistochemically for expression of macrophage/osteoclast markers. Mature human osteoclasts formed from circ...

Knowles, Hj; Moskovsky, L.; Thompson, Ms; Grunhen, J.; Cheng, X.; Kashima, Tg; Athanasou, Na

2012-01-01

353

Ghrelin is an Osteoblast Mitogen and Increases Osteoclastic Bone Resorption In Vitro  

OpenAIRE

Ghrelin is released in response to fasting, such that circulating levels are highest immediately prior to meals. Bone turnover is acutely responsive to the fed state, with increased bone resorption during fasting and suppression during feeding. The current study investigated the hypothesis that ghrelin regulates the activity of bone cells. Ghrelin increased the bone-resorbing activity of rat osteoclasts, but did not alter osteoclast differentiation in a murine bone marrow assay nor bone resor...

Costa, Jessica L.; Dorit Naot; Jian-Ming Lin; Maureen Watson; Callon, Karen E.; Reid, Ian R.; Grey, Andrew B.; Jillian Cornish

2011-01-01

354

Early resorption of an artificial bone graft made of calcium phosphate for cranioplasty: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of uncomplicated osteoma consists of an en bloc resection, or curettage, of the tumor, followed by cranioplasty. Here, we present a case report of a patient treated for a parietal osteoma, followed by a calcium phosphate cranioplasty, with early resorption after 3 months, which was presented by a sinking flap above the resection area. This case suggests that synthetic cranioplasty should be preferred, even in small skull-gap areas. PMID:24265553

de Monaco, Bernardo Assumpção; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

2013-01-01

355

Galectin-1 Markedly Reduces the Incidence of Resorptions in Mice Missing Immunophilin FKBP52  

OpenAIRE

Progesterone (P4) signaling is critical for pregnancy. We previously showed that immunopilin FK506 binding protein (FKBP)52 serves as a cochaperone to optimize progesterone receptor (PR) function in the uterus, and its deficiency leads to P4 resistance in a pregnancy stage-specific and genetic background-dependent manner in mice. In particular, sc placement of SILASTIC implants carrying P4 rescued implantation failure in CD1 Fkbp52?/? mice, but the resorption rate was substantially high a...

Hirota, Yasushi; Burnum, Kristin E.; Acar, Nuray; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.

2012-01-01

356

[Effects of stand density on Oligostachyum lubricum leaf carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry and nutrient resorption].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking pure Oligostachyum lubricum forest as test object, this paper studied the matured and withered leaves carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and N and P resorption patterns of 1-3 years old stands at the densities of 24600-29800 stem hm-2 (D, ), 37500-42600 stem hm-2 (D2 ), 46500 - 52800 stem hm-2 (D3), and 76500 - 85500 stem hm-2 (D4). With increasing stand density, the matured leaves C, N, and P contents and withered leaves C and P contents had an overall decrease, the withered leaves N content decreased after an initial increase, and the matured leaves C content at density )4 decreased dramatically. The leaf C/N and C/P ratio increased with increasing stand density, whereas the leaf N/P ratio increased first but decreased then. At stand densities D3 and D4, the leaf N and P utilization efficiencies were significantly higher than those at D, and D2. With increasing stand density, the leaf N resorption capacity increased after an initial decrease, while the leaf P resorption capacity increased steadily. At stand densities D,-D3, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 16.24-19.37, suggesting that the P limitation occurred, leaf establishment increased, and population increase and expansion enhanced. At density D4, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 13.42-15.74, implying that the N limitation strengthened, leaf withering and defoliation increased, and population increase inhibited. All the results indicated that O. lubricum could regulate its leaf C, N and P contents and stoichiometry and enhance the leaf N and P utilization efficiency and resorption capacity to adapt to the severe competition of environment resources at high stand density. In our experimental condition, 46500-52800 stem hm-2 could be the appropriate stand density for O. lubricum management. PMID:23898642

Guo, Zi-Wu; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Qing-Ping; Li, Ying-chun

2013-04-01

357

Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with 99mTc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effectside effects

358

Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. (Royal Free Hospital, London (England))

1990-04-01

359

Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T1/2). Mean T1/2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T1/2, arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

360

Degradation of pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines by alveolar macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to determine whether rat pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) are degraded by alveolar macrophages in vitro. When [3H]choline-labeled surfactant materials are incubated with unlabeled alveolar macrophages, approximately 40% of the labeled DSPC is broken down in 6 h. There is just a slight decrease in the specific activity of DSPC, which suggests that most products of degradation are not reincorporated into DSPC, at least during the 6-h incubation period. There is a time- and temperature-dependent association of surfactant DSPC with alveolar macrophages, and some of the cell-associated materials are released from the cell fragments after sonication. Association of surfactant with the cells precedes degradation. The breakdown of surfactant DSPC by intact alveolar macrophages lags behind that produced by sonicated cell preparations with disrupted cell membranes. These data and other information suggest that the surfactant materials are internalized by the cells, before the breakdown. The products of degradation probably include free choline and fatty acids, most of which appear in the extracellular fluid. The breakdown processes do not seem to depend on the physical form of the surfactant or on the presence of surfactant apoproteins. Incubation of the cells alone also results in disappearance of intracellular DSPC, some of which may be surfactant phospholipid taken up by the cells in vivo. These results indicate that alvs in vivo. These results indicate that alveolar macrophages can degrade surfactant DSPC and suggest that these cells may be involved in catabolism of pulmonary surfactant materials

361

Th1 biased response to a novel Porphyromonas gingivalis protein aggravates bone resorption caused by this oral pathogen  

OpenAIRE

In previous studies we showed that biasing the immune response to Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens to the Th1 phenotype increases inflammatory bone resorption caused by this organism. Using a T cell screening strategy we identified eight P. gingivalis genes coding for proteins that appear to be involved in T-helper cell responses. In the present study we characterized the protein, encoded by PG_1841 gene and evaluated its relevance in the in bone resorption caused by P. gingivalis because su...

Leshem, Onir; Kashino, Suely S.; Gonc?alves, Reginaldo B.; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Onodera, Masao; Fujimura, Akira; Sasaki, Hajime; Stashenko, Philip; Campos-neto, Antonio

2008-01-01

362

Two distinct effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-? on osteoclast development and subsequent resorption of mineralized matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF ?) stimulates osteoclastic resorption. It is not known which steps in osteoclast formation are affected by TNF ?. The authors have investigated the effects of recombinant human TNF ? (rhTNF ?) on osteoclast development and osteoclastic resorption in two different in vitro resorption systems which are each characterized by a different stage of development of the osteoclast. The effects were further compared to those of bovine PTH-(1-84). rhTNF ? at concentrations between 0.01-50 ng/ml (3 x 10(-13) to 1.5 x 10(-9) M) did not alter the activity of mature osteoclasts, measured as 45Ca release in fetal mouse radii. In the osteoclast precursor-dependent system (fetal mouse metacarpals) rhTNF ? had a biphasic effect. It stimulated resorption dose-dependently from 0.01 ng/ml onward, with a maximal response at 0.5 ng/ml. At concentrations above 10 ng/ml rhTNF ?, resorption was inhibited. In experiments in which irradiation was used to block replication, it was found that TNF ? stimulates the proliferation of osteoclast progenitors at both low and high concentrations. As a result, at relatively low concentrations, more osteoclasts were formed in the calcified matrix, coinciding with an increased release of 45Ca. However, at relatively high concentrations, the increase in osteoclast progenitors did not lead to increased resorption, since the putative osteoclast progenitors were arrested in the periosteum. In comprested in the periosteum. In comparison, bovine PTH-(1-84) stimulated resorption independent of proliferation by enhancing the differentiation of postmitotic osteoclast precursors and activating mature osteoclasts. In conclusion, the effects of TNF ? on osteoclastic resorption are dependent on the stage of osteoclast development and the concentrations applied

363

A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT Method  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials and Method: In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0.Results: In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT, mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise tech-nique (p< .05. Male patients had higher rate of root resorption,statistically significant (p< .05. Age at onset of treatment, duration of treatment, type of dental occlusion, premolar extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics had no significant effect on the root resorption in this study.Conclusion: Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

Zahed Zahedani SM.

2013-09-01

364

Foliar Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P Dynamics, and Foliar Resorption of Corylus avellana var. avellana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corylus avellana var. avellana (Corylaceae has a widespread distribution in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey and is very valuable in the food industry and plays an important role in the economy of the Black Sea Region of Turkey. In this study, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations along a topographical gradient (from sea level to 550 m and through the growing season (from April to October were investigated. In addition to this, foliar resorption was also studied as resorption efficiency (RE and resorption proficiency (RP which is defined as the proportion of nutrients withdrawn from leaves and the N and P concentrations in senesced leaves, respectively. Statistically significant differences were not found with respect to leaf N concentration and SLA during the growing season although leaf P concentration, leaf N/P ratio and SLA were significantly changed during the growing season. Except for NRE, PRE, ARP, and PRP all of the leaf traits were significantly changed along the topographic gradient. The N/P ratio which is an indicator of N- and P- limitation decreased during the growing season and along the topographic gradient. The N and P concentrations in the senescent leaves of C. avellana was below 50 ?g cm-2 and 3 ?g cm-2, respectively along the topographic gradient and this species is N and P-proficient according to the threshold values. Soil properties along the topographic gradient also changed.

Tugba Bayrak Ozbucak

2011-12-01

365

p130Cas, Crk-associated substrate, plays important roles in osteoclastic bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

p130Cas, Crk-associated substrate (Cas), is an adaptor/scaffold protein that plays a central role in actin cytoskeletal reorganization. We previously reported that p130Cas is not tyrosine-phosphorylated in osteoclasts derived from Src-deficient mice, which are congenitally osteopetrotic, suggesting that p130Cas serves as a downstream molecule of c-Src and is involved in osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the physiological role of p130Cas in osteoclasts has not yet been confirmed because the p130Cas-deficient mice displayed embryonic lethality. Osteoclast-specific p130Cas conditional knockout (p130Cas(?OCL-) ) mice exhibit a high bone mass phenotype caused by defect in multinucleation and cytoskeleton organization causing bone resorption deficiency. Bone marrow cells from p130Cas(?OCL-) mice were able to differentiate into osteoclasts and wild-type cells in vitro. However, osteoclasts from p130Cas(?OCL-) mice failed to form actin rings and resorb pits on dentine slices. Although the initial events of osteoclast attachment, such as ?3-integrin or Src phosphorylation, were intact, the Rac1 activity that organizes the actin cytoskeleton was reduced, and its distribution was disrupted in p130Cas(?OCL-) osteoclasts. Dedicator of cytokinesis 5 (Dock5), a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchanger, failed to associate with Src or Pyk2 in osteoclasts in the absence of p130Cas. These results strongly indicate that p130Cas plays pivotal roles in osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:23526406

Nagai, Yoshie; Osawa, Kenji; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Tamura, Yukihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Yasuda, Hisataka; Hikiji, Hisako; Takahashi, Mariko; Seta, Yuji; Seo, Sachiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Kato, Shigeaki; Honda, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Ichiro; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

2013-12-01

366

Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [14C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

367

Experimental studies on the resorption and translocation of 14C-aldimorph in selected plant species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental studies were performed with 14C-labelled 4-n-dodecyl-trans-2,6-dimethyl morpholine and both isolated plant segments and intact seedlings of Hordeum distichon L. and Sinapis alba L. to elucidate resorption and transportation of the fungicidal substance aldimorph. The compound is quickly resorbed by isolated roots and leaves during the initial phase, and accumulated in plant tissue. In the steady state of influx/efflux equilibrium, the root concentration factor amounts to 10 with barley roots and the tissue concentration factor is 3 with mustard cotyledons. The relationship between the resorption of active substance and the concentration of ambient solution was found to be linear, thus corroborating a postulated resorption by diffusion. The morpholine derivative also penetrates into the leaf tissue of intact barley seedlings within few hours and at rather high rates. Nevertheless, according to translocation studies aldimorph has to be considered only moderately mobile. However, metabolites originated in the plant, especially during longer trial periods, show markedly improved translocation properties compared with the mother compound. (author)

368

Resorción dentaria interna: Presentación de un caso / Internal dental resorption: Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La resorción dentaria es un proceso de destrucción de los tejidos calcificados del diente, en ocasiones afecta la parte externa y en otras oportunidades el interior del mismo. En la resorción interna, hay destrucción de dentina y se forma en esa zona un tejido de granulación muy vascularizado. Su or [...] igen no está definido y estas lesiones podemos considerarlas como no regresivas y, por lo general, determinan la pérdida del órgano dentario. Abstract in english Resorption can be defined as the loss substances from any mineralized tissue, mediated by their own cell or humoral systems. The four mineralized tissues of our body are: bone, cement, dentin and enamel. Dental resorption is a process of destruction of the calcified tissues of the teeth, sometimes d [...] isturbing the outer part and some others their inner part. Internal resorption shows destruction of dentin, appearing in the area a well vascularized granulating tissue. Its origin is not yet defined and these lesions can be regarded as non regressive, which usually lead to the loss of the tooth.

Amparo, Pérez Borrego; Zaida T, Ilisastigui Ortueta; Alina, López Ilisastigui; Hidelisa, Valdés Domech; Nellysel, García Pérez.

2010-06-01

369

The estimation of the resorption of radionuclides from the gastro-intestinal tract into blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking a look at the international literature, resorption rates for the transfer of the following radionuclides from stomach-intestinal tract into the blood have been determined: Cerium, cobalt (also as vitamin B 12), plutonium, ruthenium, strontium and zinc. It was found that the resorption rates determined in experiments and measurements, partly varies by several orders of dimension and are dependent on numerous parameters. A comparison of the measured resorption rates for the single radionuclides with the values based on the recommendations of the radiation protection commission showed that the values used by the radiation protection commission are in many cases too low, partly by several orders of dimension. One may thus conclude that the dose factors given in the fundamental calculation of the radiation protection commission do no longer correspond with the international state of science. In interest of an exact estimation of the radiation burden caused by the nuclear power plant Biblis, we therefore recommend to recheck the further parameters relevant for dose factors and a new calculation of the dose factors within the framework of the model study radioecology Biblis. (orig./MG)

370

Resorption of apatite-wollastonite containing glass-ceramic and beta-tricalcium phosphate in vivo.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Apatite-wollastonite containing glass ceramic is considered to be difficult to resorb, but we experienced the disappearance of the porous type of Apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic particles . In this study, the resorption of porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic implanted in the femurs of rabbits was investigated, and the process was compared with beta-tricalcium phosphate, a resorbable ceramics. Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic (70, 80, and 90% porosity and beta-tricalcium phosphate (75% porosity were implanted in the femurs of Japanese white rabbits. Samples were harvested and examined 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 weeks after implantation. Quantitative analysis of the radiographic and histologic findings was performed with NIH Image software. Radiographic examination demonstrated that the radiopacity and size of the porous apatite-wollastonite glassceramic cylinders decreased gradually after implantation. Histologic examination revealed that the surface area of the apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic cylinders decreased continuously, and approached 20% of the original area 36 weeks after implantation. However, the resorption rate of porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic was slower than that of beta-tricalcium phosphate. Toluidine blue staining showed abundant new bone formation on the surface of the apatite-wollastonite glassceramic matrix. Considering its mechanical strength, gradual resorption characteristics, and good osteochonductive activity, porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic appears to be a suitable artificial bone substitutes.

Teramoto,Hidefumi

2005-10-01

371

Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation : are reversal cells the missing link?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined histomorphometry and IHC on human iliac biopsy specimens, and showed that reversal cells are immunoreactive for factors typically expressed by osteoblasts, but not for monocytic markers. Furthermore, a subpopulation of reversal cells showed several distinctive characteristics suggestive of an arrested physiological status. Their prevalence correlated with decreased trabecular bone volume and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces in postmenopausal osteoporosis. They were, however, virtually absent in primary hyperparathyroidism, in which the transition between bone resorption and formation occurs optimally. Collectively, our observations suggest that arrested reversal cells reflect aborted remodeling cycles that did not progress to the bone formation step. We, therefore, propose that bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis does not only result from a failure of the bone formation step, as commonly believed, but also from a failure at the reversal step.

Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim

2013-01-01

372

Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha (China); Wu, Chuanlong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Guangwang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xuzhou, Affiliated Hospital of Medical Collage of Southeast University, Xuzhou (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dai, Kerong, E-mail: krdai@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

2014-01-10

373

Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced root resorption in beagle dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were treated with an orthodontic appliance to move the mandibular fourth premolars bodily. The orthodontic movement was carried out for 4 wk with a continuous force of 1 N/side; using a split-mouth model, LIPUS was applied daily for 20 min. Fourth premolar and surrounding periodontal tissue were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We calculated the number, volume and distribution of root resorption lacunae and their percentage relative to total root volume, orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament space. There was no significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the two sides. LIPUS significantly reduced the number of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption initiation areas by 71%, reduced their total volume by 68% and reduced their volume relative to the affected root total volume by 70%. LIPUS induced the formation of a precementum layer, thicker cementum and reparative cellular cementum. PMID:24613212

Al-Daghreer, Saleh; Doschak, Michael; Sloan, Alastair J; Major, Paul W; Heo, Giseon; Scurtescu, Cristian; Tsui, Ying Y; El-Bialy, Tarek

2014-06-01

374

Growth of a tectonic ridge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Johnson, A.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1997-12-31

375

Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

Boutin Jean A

2010-10-01

376

Use of gastrointestinal proton pump inhibitors to regulate osteoclast-mediated resorption of calcium phosphate cements in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclasts degrade bone through the creation of an enclosed, acidic extracellular microenvironment adjacent to the bone surface. Membrane bound proton pumps in the osteoclast cell membrane function to create this acidified environment. Accordingly, this H(+) ion transport mechanism provides a potential target for a specific class of drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), with a view to controlling osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Self setting calcium phosphate cements are common bone graft materials that are degraded by osteoclastic activity. We have already shown that incorporation of bafilomycin, a non-regulated PPI, within these cements prevents or delays osteoclast mediated resorption of the cement. We demonstrate here that two regulated proton pump inhibitors, Pantaprazole and Omeprazole, currently used clinically to treat gastroesophageal reflux disorders, are effective in inhibiting osteoclast mediated resorption in-vivo when delivered to a bony defect in self setting calcium phosphate cements. As determined by qualitative histology, Pantaprazole at a dose of 0.5mg/ml produced a delay in osteoclast resorption whilst this effect was not as evident using Omeprazole at an equivalent dose, but higher doses of Omeprazole (40mg/ml) did delay cement resorption. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the functional effect of blocking the H(+)/K(+) ATPase pump in-vivo on the capacity of osteoclasts to resorb bone and the potential of this strategy to modulate osteoclast mediated resorption of calcium phosphate biomaterials. PMID:19450226

Sheraly, A R; Lickorish, D; Sarraf, F; Davies, J E

2009-04-01

377

Use of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Recapitulate Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Pathogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Rationale: In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) syndrome, disruption of granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling is associated with pathogenic surfactant accumulation from impaired clearance in alveolar macrophages.

Suzuki, Takuji; Mayhew, Christopher; Sallese, Anthony; Chalk, Claudia; Carey, Brenna C.; Malik, Punam; Wood, Robert E.; Trapnell, Bruce C.

2014-01-01

378

Histological and histomorphometrical comparative study of ?-tricalcium phosphate block grafts and periosteal expansion osteogenesis for alveolar bone augmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated local tissue reaction around the ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) block and compared results with ?-TCP block grafting and periosteal expansion osteogenesis (PEO). The mandibular premolars were extracted from five dogs and buccal corticotomy was performed. Narrow alveolar ridge models were created at 4 weeks. The ?-TCP block graft, such as veneer graft, was used on the right side and PEO using ?-TCP block on the left side. Changes of alveolar width, histological findings and histomorphometrical analysis were evaluated. There were no problems with materials at any of the sites at any time. In both groups, the width increased after surgery and results were stable 8 weeks after surgery. Newly formed bone tissue was observed inside the ?-TCP block in both sides. Histological findings differed especially at the division between mandibular bone and ?-TCP block. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that ?-TCP had been absorbed (mean decrease 28%) and new bone had formed (mean increase 43%) at 8 weeks postoperatively on both sides. The ?-TCP block worked as a space-maker under the soft tissue, including the periosteum, and acted as a substitute for original bone. This bone substitute was effective material for bone augmentation in both methods. PMID:20615666

Yamauchi, K; Takahashi, T; Funaki, K; Hamada, Y; Yamashita, Y

2010-10-01

379

CT staging of alveolar echinococcosis of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of a new staging scheme for alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. A total of 28 patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis underwent CT examinations and were staged according to the proposed staging scheme (stage 1: lesion measuring less than 3 cm in diameter; stage 2: lesion greater than 3 cm, confined to less than three hepatic segments; stage 3a: lesion with invasion of more than three hepatic segments; stage 3b: invasion of liver hilum or suprahepatic vena cava; stage 4: invasion of surrounding organs and/or distant metastasis). Of the patients 16 underwent laparotomy, and results of the radiologic staging were correlated with surgical data. The CT findings correlated well with surgical findings. Patients were followed-up for a period of 6 months to 7 years. We concluded that the proposed staging scheme seemed to be useful for the therapeutic planning of patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. (orig.)

380

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the mandibular ramus and its surrounding tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhabdomyosarcoma, when it occurs in the head and neck, is primarily found in children. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is rarely seen in the oral lesion, comparing to the embryonal and the pleomorphic variants. This is a report of a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mandible in a ten-year old girl who complained of a non-painful swelling on the right cheek. The right lower 1st molar was mobile. Her radiographs revealed an extensive radiolucency with somewhat irregular border on the right mandibular ramus. The right mandibular 1st and 2nd molars lost their lamina dura and were floating. CT images revealed smooth-outlined soft tissue mass occupying the pterygomandibular space, the infratemporal space, and the masseteric muscle with thinning and perforation of the right mandibular angle and ramus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings established the final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

381

Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma of Oral Cavity – A Rare Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are the malignant tumors of the striated skeletal muscles. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the children, adolescents and young adults. An eleven year old boy who presented with a painless progressive lump in the floor of the mouth since 4 months which was rapidly increasing in size without any systemic symptoms or signs of any metastatic spread. A wide excision of the lump was done and histopathology was reported to be an alveolar variant of rhabdomyosarcoma. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas account for almost 30% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. They have predilection for deep soft tissue of the extremities. The tumor may arise at other places also though they are rare. We report a rare case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in the oral cavity.

Ravi Batra

2010-07-01

382

Indentation modulus of the alveolar process in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

One mechanism of bone adaptation is alteration in tissue level material properties. We hypothesized that alteration in the indentation modulus of the alveolar process is an adaptive response to the localized mechanical environment. Forty-eight specimens representing anterior and posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible were obtained from 6 mature male beagle dogs. The indentation properties of the alveolar bone proper and more distant osteonal cortical bone were estimated. The bone types were further divided into 3 regions (coronal, middle, and apical), with 27 indents being made in each region of tooth-supporting bone. There was a significant difference (p interactions exist which preclude the simple interpretation of results. The distribution of relative stiffness provides a better understanding of bone adaptations in the alveolar process. PMID:17314255

Huja, S S; Fernandez, S A; Hill, K J; Gulati, P

2007-03-01

383

The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A reabsorção cervical externa em caninos superiores com vitalidade pulpar em sua quase totalidade está associada a traumatismo dentário decorrente de procedimentos cirúrgicos associado à preparação desse dente para ser tracionado ortodonticamente. Nessa preparação pode se manipular cirurgicamente a [...] junção amelocementária ou luxar o dente com forças excessivas ou com testes de movimentação além dos limites de tolerância estrutural do ligamento periodontal e tecidos cervicais. A exposição dentinária na junção amelocementária é o estopim para se iniciar uma reabsorção cervical externa a partir de uma inflamação induzida na região seguida de reconhecimento antigênico das proteínas dentinárias. A reabsorção cervical externa é indolor, não induz pulpites e tem uma evolução lenta. Em geral, a lesão está associada e recoberta por tecidos moles gengivais que mantêm, por longos períodos, os aspectos clínicos normais, induzindo diagnósticos tardios, quando o processo se aproxima dos limites pulpares. O tratamento endodôntico está indicado apenas em função de procedimentos operatórios que se fazem necessários no espaço pulpar; caso contrário, a reabsorção cervical externa deve ser tratada de forma conservadora, protegendo a polpa dentária e restaurando a função e estética do dente que permanecerá com sua polpa normal. Infelizmente, não sabemos, com base em pesquisas de casuísticas bem estabelecidas, qual é a frequência da reabsorção cervical externa associada a caninos ortodonticamente tracionados. Abstract in english External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or caus [...] e luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

Alberto, Consolaro; Mauricio de Almeida, Cardoso; Carolina Dornelas C. M. de, Almeida; Ingrid Araújo Oliveira, Souza; Leopoldino, Capelloza Filho.

2014-12-01

384

Intra-alveolar tissue factor pathway inhibitor is not sufficient to block tissue factor procoagulant activity  

OpenAIRE

The alveolar compartment in acute lung injury contains high levels of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity favoring fibrin deposition. We previously reported that the alveolar epithelium can release TF procoagulant activity in response to a proinflammatory stimulus. To test the hypothesis that the alveolar epithelium further modulates intra-alveolar fibrin deposition through secretion of an endogenous inhibitor to TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), we measured TFPI levels in edem...

Bastarache, Julie A.; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhengming; Albertine, Kurt H.; Matthay, Michael A.; Ware, Lorraine B.

2008-01-01

385

Phospholipid profile of Pneumocystis carinii and its interaction with alveolar type II epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

Pneumocystis carinii is an obligate parasite of mammalian lungs, attaching to but not invading the alveolar epithelium. The alveolar air spaces are rich in phospholipids, which are secreted by steroid-responsive alveolar type II epithelial cells. P. carinii isolated from rat lungs was found to contain the expected structural phospholipids as well as a large amount of firmly attached disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the characteristic phospholipid of alveolar surfactant. In vitro, P. carinii c...

Pesanti, E. L.

1987-01-01

386

Differential effects of claudin-3 and claudin-4 on alveolar epithelial barrier function  

OpenAIRE

Alveolar barrier function depends critically on the claudin family tight junction proteins. Of the major claudins expressed by alveolar epithelial cells, claudin (Cldn)-3 and Cldn-4 are the most closely related by amino acid homology, yet they differ dramatically in the pattern of expression. Previously published reports have shown that Cldn-3 is predominantly expressed by type II alveolar epithelial cells; Cldn-4 is expressed throughout the alveolar epithelium and is specifically upregulated...

Mitchell, Leslie A.; Overgaard, Christian E.; Ward, Christina; Margulies, Susan S.; Koval, Michael

2011-01-01

387

Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cell Dysfunction in Rat Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  

OpenAIRE

The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no stud...

Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Fallon, Michael B.; Zhang, Junlan

2014-01-01

388

Ozone Exposure of Macrophages Induces an Alveolar Epithelial Chemokine Response through IL-1?  

OpenAIRE

Ozone is known to produce an acute influx of neutrophils, and alveolar epithelial cells can secrete chemokines and modulate inflammatory processes. However, direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages to ozone (O3) produces little chemokine response. To determine if cell–cell interactions might be responsible, we investigated the effect of alveolar macrophage–conditioned media after ozone exposure (MO3CM) on alveolar epithelial cell chemokine production. Serum-free media ...

Manzer, Rizwan; Dinarello, Charles A.; Mcconville, Glen; Mason, Robert J.

2007-01-01

389

Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

390

Alcoholism Causes Alveolar Macrophage Zinc Deficiency and Immune Dysfunction  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: Alcohol use disorders cause oxidative stress in the lower airways and increase susceptibility to pneumonia and lung injury. Currently, no therapeutic options exist to mitigate the pulmonary consequences of alcoholism. Objectives: We recently determined in an animal model that alcohol ingestion impairs pulmonary zinc metabolism and causes alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of alcoholism on zinc bioavailability and alveolar macrophage function in human subjects. Methods: We recruited otherwise healthy alcoholics (n = 17) and matched control subjects (n = 17) who underwent bronchoscopy for isolation of alveolar macrophages, which were analyzed for intracellular zinc, phagocytic function, and surface expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor; all three of these indices are decreased in experimental models. Measurements and Main Results: Alcoholic subjects had normal serum zinc, but significantly decreased alveolar macrophage intracellular zinc levels (adjusted means [SE], 718 [41] vs. 948 [25] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); bacterial phagocytosis (adjusted means [SE], 1,027 [48] vs. 1,509 [76] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); and expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor ? subunit (adjusted means [SE], 1,471 [42] vs. 2,114 [35] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001]. Treating alveolar macrophages with zinc acetate and glutathione in vitro increased intracellular zinc levels and improved their phagocytic function. Conclusions: These novel clinical findings provide evidence that alcohol abuse is associated with significant zinc deficiency and immune dysfunction within the alveolar space and suggest that dietary supplementation with zinc and glutathione precursors could enhance airway innate immunity and decrease the risk for pneumonia or lung injury in these vulnerable individuals. PMID:23805851

Yeligar, Samantha M.; Elon, Lisa; Brown, Lou Ann; Guidot, David M.

2013-01-01

391

DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity ... in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian ... ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Silica binding and toxicity ... in alveolar macrophages. PubmedID 18226603 Title S ... ilica binding and toxicity ... in alveolar macrophages. Authors Hamilton RF Jr, T ...

392

Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (kep) in children with bronchial asthma, 99mTc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the kep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high kep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high kep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

393

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease in which calcium-phosphate microliths accumulate within the alveolar space. We report cases of 2 siblings with PAM, presenting differently as regards the distribution and clinical severity. Immune cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage showed a CD4 alveolitis in the radiologically most affected patient, whereas the least affected had a normal bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, demonstrating the low specificity of immune cytologic lavage analysis in diagnosing familial PAM. For the first time, we describe the endoscopic findings using a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy. PMID:23609253

Yserbyt, Jonas; Alamé, Touffic; Dooms, Christophe; Ninane, Vincent

2013-04-01

394

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, familial disease of unknown aetiology characterised by intra-alveolar formation and accumulation of microliths. Multiple formalin-fixed tissues were submitted from a 5-month-old female alpaca that died suddenly without significant clinical signs. No gross abnormalities were observed on postmortem examination. Histological findings included PAM and severe centrilobular hepatic necrosis. Although the hepatic lesion was the likely cause of death, PAM was an incidental finding that has not been reported previously in alpacas. An overview of PAM, including pathogenesis and histopathological characteristics, are discussed in relation to the concurrent hepatic disease in the present case. PMID:23186093

Lee, E J; Dawood, K E; Brudar, R; Philbey, A W

2012-12-01

395

Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

396

Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

397

Poliangeíte microscópica com hemorragia alveolar difusa / Microscopic polyangiitis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Poliangeíte microscópica é uma forma de vasculite sistêmica de pequenos vasos, associada aos anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos, que preferencialmente acomete vênulas, capilares e arteríolas, e que pode, entretanto, envolver artérias e veias. Está entre as vasculites sistêmicas primárias de pe [...] quenos vasos mais freqüentes, e pode ter apresentação clínica indistinguível da granulomatose de Wegener e da síndrome de Churg-Strauss. Estas vasculites de pequenos vasos são histologicamente semelhantes e podem ser diferenciadas pela presença de granulomas na granulomatose de Wegener, ou de quadro clínico-funcional de asma na síndrome de Churg-Strauss. Relata-se o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino de 66 anos com poliangeíte microscópica com hemorragia alveolar difusa como forma de apresentação clínica, com ênfase no diagnóstico diferencial com outras vasculites pulmonares de pequenos vasos. Abstract in english Microscopic Polyangiitis is a form of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)- associated small-vessel vasculitis that preferentially involves venules, capillaries and arterioles and may also involve arteries and veins. It is one of the most common primary systemic small-vessel vasculitis. Its c [...] linical presentation is not distinguishable from the Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG) and the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). These types of small-vessel vasculitis are histologically similar and can be differentiated by the presence of granulomatous inflammation in WG or asthma in CSS. The case of a 66-year-old man with microscopic polyangiitis presenting with alveolar hemorrhage is reported with a discussion of the differential diagnosis of other types of pulmonary small-vessel vasculitis.

José Wellington Alves dos, Santos; Gustavo Trindade, Michel; Carlos Eurico da Luz, Pereira; Vera Luiza, Capelozzi; Jader Nascimento, Mileto; Cleber Antonio, Fiorini.

2004-04-01

398

Poliangeíte microscópica com hemorragia alveolar difusa Microscopic polyangiitis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poliangeíte microscópica é uma forma de vasculite sistêmica de pequenos vasos, associada aos anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos, que preferencialmente acomete vênulas, capilares e arteríolas, e que pode, entretanto, envolver artérias e veias. Está entre as vasculites sistêmicas primárias de pequenos vasos mais freqüentes, e pode ter apresentação clínica indistinguível da granulomatose de Wegener e da síndrome de Churg-Strauss. Estas vasculites de pequenos vasos são histologicamente semelhantes e podem ser diferenciadas pela presença de granulomas na granulomatose de Wegener, ou de quadro clínico-funcional de asma na síndrome de Churg-Strauss. Relata-se o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino de 66 anos com poliangeíte microscópica com hemorragia alveolar difusa como forma de apresentação clínica, com ênfase no diagnóstico diferencial com outras vasculites pulmonares de pequenos vasos.Microscopic Polyangiitis is a form of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA- associated small-vessel vasculitis that preferentially involves venules, capillaries and arterioles and may also involve arteries and veins. It is one of the most common primary systemic small-vessel vasculitis. Its clinical presentation is not distinguishable from the Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG and the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS. These types of small-vessel vasculitis are histologically similar and can be differentiated by the presence of granulomatous inflammation in WG or asthma in CSS. The case of a 66-year-old man with microscopic polyangiitis presenting with alveolar hemorrhage is reported with a discussion of the differential diagnosis of other types of pulmonary small-vessel vasculitis.

José Wellington Alves dos Santos

2004-04-01

399

Alveolar osseous defect in rat for cell therapy: preliminary report Defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos para terapia celular: estudo preliminar  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: To study were to reproduce an alveolar bone defect model in Wistar rats to be used for testing the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Additionally, we also aimed to determine the osteogenesis process of this osseous defect in the 1 month period post-surgery. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 7 animals each. A gingivobuccal incision was made, and a bone defect of 28 mm² of area was performed in the alveolar region. Animals were killed at 2 weeks after surger...

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral; Gerson Shigeru Kobayashi; Ana Beatriz Almeida; Bueno, Daniela F.; Freitas, Fatima Rodrigues Souza E.; Luiz Carlos Vulcano; Maria Rita Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo Alonso

2010-01-01

400

Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos univitelinos: relato de dois casos / Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in monozygotic twins: report of two case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam dois casos de microlitíase alveolar pulmonar em gêmeos monozigóticos. Os principais achados obtidos em exames radiográficos e de tomografia computadorizada (técnica de alta resolução) são enfatizados, com base em breve revisão literária. [...] Abstract in english The authors report two cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis affecting monozygotic twins. The main findings observed on plain x-ray films and high-resolution computed tomography are discussed and compared with data from a brief literature review. [...

Sizenildo da Silva, Figueirêdo; Luiza Helena Vilela, Ribeiro; Bruno Barcelos da, Nóbrega; Kim-Ir-Sen Santos, Teixeira; Maurício Sérgio Brasil, Leite; Albino Alegro, Oliveira.

2002-07-01

401

Recrutamento alveolar em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca Alveolar recruitment in patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca são frequentes, destacando-se a atelectasia e a hipoxemia. As manobras de recrutamento alveolar contribuem significativamente para a prevenção e o tratamento destas complicações. Desta forma, este estudo buscou agrupar e atualizar os conhecimentos relacionados à utilização das manobras de recrutamento alveolar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca. Observou-se a eficácia do recrutamento alveolar por meio de diferentes técnicas específicas e a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas.Lung complications during postoperative period of cardiac surgery are frequently, highlighting atelectasis and hypoxemia. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers have an important role in the prevention and treatment of these complications. Thus, this study reviewed and updated the alveolar recruitment maneuvers performance in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. We noted the efficacy of alveolar recruitment through different specific techniques and the need for development of new studies.

Cauê Padovani

2011-03-01

402

Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO  

Science.gov (United States)

The ~1,000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff (CRT), erupted at 27.55 Ma during the mid-tertiary ignimbrite flare-up in the western USA, is among the largest known strongly zoned ash-flow tuffs. It consists primarily of densely welded crystal-poor rhyolite with a pronounced, highly evolved chemical signature (high Rb/Sr, low Ba, Zr, Eu), but thickly ponded intracaldera CRT is capped by a more crystal-rich, less silicic facies. In the outflow ignimbrite, this upper zone is defined mainly by densely welded crystal-rich juvenile clasts of trachydacite composition, with higher Fe-Ti oxide temperatures, and is characterized by extremely high Ba (to 7,500 ppm), Zr, Sr, and positive Eu anomalies. Rare mafic clasts (51-53 wt% SiO2) with Ba contents to 4,000-5,000 ppm and positive Eu anomalies are also present. Much of the major and trace-element variations in the CRT juvenile clasts can be reproduced via in situ differentiation by interstitial melt extraction from a crystal-rich, upper-crustal mush zone, with the trachydacite, crystal-rich clasts representing the remobilized crystal cumulate left behind by the melt extraction process. Late recharge events, represented by the rare mafic clasts and high-Al amphiboles in some samples, mixed in with parts of the crystal cumulate and generated additional scatter in the whole-rock data. Recharge was important in thermally remobilizing the silicic crystal cumulate by partially melting the near-solidus phases, as supported by: (1) ubiquitous wormy/sieve textures and reverse zoning patterns in feldspars and biotites, (2) absence of quartz in this very silicic unit stored at depths of >4-5 km, and (3) heterogeneous melt compositions in the trachydacite fiamme and mafic clasts, particularly in Ba, indicating local enrichment of this element due mostly to sanidine and biotite melting. The injection of hot, juvenile magma into the upper-crustal cumulate also imparted the observed thermal gradient to the deposits and the mixing overprint that partly masks the in situ differentiation process. The CRT provides a particularly clear perspective on processes of in situ crystal-liquid separation into a lower crystal-rich zone and an upper eruptible cap, which appears common in incrementally built upper-crustal magma reservoirs of high-flux magmatic provinces.

Bachmann, Olivier; Deering, Chad D.; Lipman, Peter W.; Plummer, Charles

2014-06-01

403

Probable Limitations of Osteoblasts Isolation from the Periosteum and Alveolar Bone in a Dog Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: Bone defects in jaws create major problems for oral and maxillofacial surgery. To overcome the limitations of Autografts tissue engineering uses autogenus cells and synthetic scaffolds. Type of cells or cell sources have an important effect on the construction which is produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and probable limitations of osteoblast isolation from the periosteum and alveolar bone in an animal model and to compare their probable results quantitatively. Materials & Methods: Bone and periosteal samples were harvested from interdental septum and retromolar area of 4 dogs. Because no cell was grown new samples were harvested from edentulous ridge and buccal mandibular periosteum. Since no cell was isolated in next step samples were harvested from buccal area of maxillary premolars and explants in cell culture medium. After 2 weeks adherent cells reaching 80% confluent; cells were counted and passaged in cell culture flasks. Results: Despite first good proliferation of periosteal cells of all dogs in P0, their growth was stopped and they become senescence after one week. Conclusion: The key problems in culture techniques are cell senescence and de-differentiation leading to lose the ability of proliferation. It seems there are probable reasons for isolating of osteoblasts including thermal damage of cells, contamination of culture with fibroblasts, inconsistency of medium and cell requirements, enzymatic damage from enzymes used for cell passage and high donor ages.

Sourena Vahabi

2014-06-01

404

APLICACION DE DISTRACCION OSTEOGENICA EN REBORDES ALVEOLARES ATROFICOS: ANALISIS DE SU EFECTIVIDAD Y ESTABILIDAD Ostheogenic distraction in patients with alveolar dent atrophy: Analysis of its effectiveness and stability  

OpenAIRE

La colocación de implantes dentales osteointegrados y la retención de las prótesis estomatológicas convencionales de acrílico es un grave problema en pacientes con reborde alveolar atrófico. La distracción osteogénica ofrece en la actualidad una solución potencial ante la severa pérdida de tejido óseo alveolar. Este estudio tuvo el propósito de evaluar en nuestro medio la Efectividad y Estabilidad de la osteogénesis alveolar. Se realizó un ensayo clínico Fase II. Fueron tratado...

Dadonim Vila Morales; María Elena Regalado Barreda; Angel Mario Felipe Garmendía

2007-01-01

405

Alveolar osseous defect in rat for cell therapy: preliminary report / Defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos para terapia celular: estudo preliminar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Reproduzir um novo modelo de defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos Wistar que será utilizado para terapia genética e estudos com células tronco. Adicionalmente, outro objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o pico de regeneração óssea do defeito criado na região alveolar do modelo experimenta [...] l. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos de sete animais. Através de uma incisão gengivobucal foi criado um defeito ósseo medindo 28 mm² de área na região alveolar dos ratos. Os ratos foram sacrificados após duas semanas (n=7) e quatro semanas (n=7) da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A área média do defeito alveolar após duas semanas de cirurgia foi de 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² e a área média do defeito alveolar após quatro semanas de cirurgia foi de 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². A taxa de formação óssea foi de 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² após duas semanas de cirurgia e de 19 ± 1.17 mm² após quatro semanas de cirurgia. Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na taxa de formação óssea entre o grupo dos animais sacrificados com duas e quatro semanas (p=0.003). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a maior taxa de regeneração óssea ocorreu no período entre duas e quatro semanas após a cirurgia de criação do defeito ósseo alveolar, portanto esta observação sugere que o período de tempo de quatro semanas será suficiente para avaliar a capacidade de células tronco em regenerar osso em ratos Wistar com defeito ósseo alveolar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study were to reproduce an alveolar bone defect model in Wistar rats to be used for testing the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Additionally, we also aimed to determine the osteogenesis process of this osseous defect in the 1 month period post-surgery. METHODS: The animals were randomly [...] divided into two groups of 7 animals each. A gingivobuccal incision was made, and a bone defect of 28 mm² of area was performed in the alveolar region. Animals were killed at 2 weeks after surgery (n=7) and 4 weeks after surgery (n=7). RESULTS: The average area of the alveolar defect at time point of 2 weeks was 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² and the average area of alveolar defect at time point of 4 weeks was 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². The average amount of bone formation at time point of 2 weeks was 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² and the average amount of bone formation at time point of 4 weeks was 19 ± 1.17 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after surgery were seen (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The highest rate of ossification occurred mostly from 2 to 4 weeks after surgery. This observation suggests that 4 weeks after the bone defect creation should be a satisfactory timing to assess the potential of bone inductive stem cells to accelerate bone regeneration in Wistar rats.

Cassio Eduardo, Raposo-Amaral; Gerson Shigeru, Kobayashi; Ana Beatriz, Almeida; Daniela F., Bueno; Fatima Rodrigues de Souza e, Freitas; Luiz Carlos, Vulcano; Maria Rita, Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo, Alonso.

2010-08-01

406

Alveolar osseous defect in rat for cell therapy: preliminary report Defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos para terapia celular: estudo preliminar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study were to reproduce an alveolar bone defect model in Wistar rats to be used for testing the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Additionally, we also aimed to determine the osteogenesis process of this osseous defect in the 1 month period post-surgery. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 7 animals each. A gingivobuccal incision was made, and a bone defect of 28 mm² of area was performed in the alveolar region. Animals were killed at 2 weeks after surgery (n=7 and 4 weeks after surgery (n=7. RESULTS: The average area of the alveolar defect at time point of 2 weeks was 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² and the average area of alveolar defect at time point of 4 weeks was 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². The average amount of bone formation at time point of 2 weeks was 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² and the average amount of bone formation at time point of 4 weeks was 19 ± 1.17 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after surgery were seen (p=0.003. CONCLUSION: The highest rate of ossification occurred mostly from 2 to 4 weeks after surgery. This observation suggests that 4 weeks after the bone defect creation should be a satisfactory timing to assess the potential of bone inductive stem cells to accelerate bone regeneration in Wistar rats.OBJETIVO: Reproduzir um novo modelo de defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos Wistar que será utilizado para terapia genética e estudos com células tronco. Adicionalmente, outro objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o pico de regeneração óssea do defeito criado na região alveolar do modelo experimental. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos de sete animais. Através de uma incisão gengivobucal foi criado um defeito ósseo medindo 28 mm² de área na região alveolar dos ratos. Os ratos foram sacrificados após duas semanas (n=7 e quatro semanas (n=7 da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A área média do defeito alveolar após duas semanas de cirurgia foi de 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² e a área média do defeito alveolar após quatro semanas de cirurgia foi de 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². A taxa de formação óssea foi de 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² após duas semanas de cirurgia e de 19 ± 1.17 mm² após quatro semanas de cirurgia. Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na taxa de formação óssea entre o grupo dos animais sacrificados com duas e quatro semanas (p=0.003. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a maior taxa de regeneração óssea ocorreu no período entre duas e quatro semanas após a cirurgia de criação do defeito ósseo alveolar, portanto esta observação sugere que o período de tempo de quatro semanas será suficiente para avaliar a capacidade de células tronco em regenerar osso em ratos Wistar com defeito ósseo alveolar.

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

2010-08-01

407

Multisystem involvement of alveolar echinococcosis in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic progressive infestation inducing a slowly progressing, life-threatening tumor-like growth in the liver. It may spread to other organs by regional extension or hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis. Herein, we report a fifteen-year-old patient diagnosed with AE of the liver and simultaneous lung and brain metastasis with a literature review. PMID:25390065

Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Ogul, Hayri; Oral, Akgun; Eren, Suat; Gundogdu, Betul

2014-11-01

408

Alveolar haemorrhage in eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two patients of alveolar haemorrhage in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA). This report adds to the evidence that pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare but severe manifestation of eGPA. It may not be associated with positive ANCA antibodies and requires aggressive treatment. PMID:24464436

Jagadeesh, L Yalakki; Sangle, S R; Verma, H; D'Cruz, D

2014-08-01

409

Surgical management of pneumothorax in pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, a disease characterized by severe lung calcification. We report only the second case of an associated spontaneous pneumothorax. Bullous disease, which was encountered at the time of surgery, proved impossible to manage using a video-assisted approach. The difficulties related to its management are discussed in this case report. PMID:17588441

Batchelor, Timothy J P; Ngaage, Dumbor L; McGivern, Damian V; Cowen, Michael E

2007-07-01

410

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to propylthiouracil-induced vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propylthiouracil is a drug used to treat hyperthyroidism. It can cause several side effects including pulmonary disorders that, although rare, can be severe. The authors describe the case of a woman treated with propylthiouracil who developed diffuse alveolar haemorrhage with severe respiratory failure and anaemia, which improved with discontinuation of the antithyroid drug and on starting systemic corticosteroid therapy. PMID:25661751

Ferreira, Catarina; Costa, Teresa; Marques, Ana Vieira

2015-01-01

411

Anti-GM-CSF antibodies in paediatric pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Auto-antibodies against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be central to the pathogenesis of adult sporadic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The role of anti-GM-CSF auto-antibodies in paediatric forms of PAP is as yet unclear.

Latzin, P.; Tredano, M.; Wust, Y.; Blic, J.; Nicolai, T.; Bewig, B.; Stanzel, F.; Kohler, D.; Bahuau, M.; Griese, M.

2005-01-01

412

Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden people in all age groups now have more remaining teeth than previosly. An investigation has been made to identify some predictors of alveolar bone loss in a 10-year period in subjects with at least 20 remaining teeth. The material consisted of 349 individuals, examined radiographically, clinically and by interview in 1970 and in 1980. These subjects, born in 1904-1952, constituted a subgroup, with regard to remaining teeth, of an unselected sample of the population of the old county of Stockholm. In the unselected sample statistically significant predictors of alveolar bone loss found in a stepwise multiple regression analysis were 1) alveolar bone loss in 1970, 2) age, 3) number of lost teeth and 4) Russell's Periodontol Index (PI). In the subgroup the predictors were in the order 1) Russell's PI and 2) smoking. The prediction values (R2) of further variables were marginal. The analyses showed that there was an interaction between PI and smoking, implying that the effect of smoking on alveolar bone loss was increased in individuals with high PI values. Furthermore, a tendency was found for a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption. This tendency almost disappeared when controlling for PI

413

CT scan patterns of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. To study computed tomographic (CT) findings in children with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) more extensively. Objective. To describe the CT features at the time of diagnosis and after therapeutic broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of five children (aged 3 months to 4 years) examined because of incidental bronchitis (n = 1), disease in a sibling (n = 1) and relapsing fever, cough and dyspnoea (n = 3). Each patient had an initial CT scan. Two asymptomatic cases were not treated but were followed up by plain chest films. The other three had BAL and follow-up CT. Results. Initial CT in all cases showed a diffuse reticulomicronodular pattern associated in three cases with posterior bilateral alveolar infiltrates. CT in the two asymptomatic patients remained unchanged or slightly improved without BAL. After BAL, a variable decrease of lung infiltrates was observed. Conclusions. Correlation between the extent of alveolar consolidation and severity of disease was found. Anatomical and pathological considerations allow us to consider that the classical reticulomicronodular pattern is not due to an interstitial infiltration but to alveoli filled with the abnormal material characteristic of PAP. (orig.)

414

Reconstruction of alveolar cleft with allogenous bone graft: clinical considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o enxerto ósseo secundário consiste em um procedimento rotineiro no tratamento de pacientes com fissura alveolar. Via de regra, é realizado no final da dentadura mista, na época de erupção do canino permanente, com osso medular autógeno retirado da crista ilíaca. OBJETIVO: o presente art [...] igo discorre sobre a alternativa de enxerto ósseo autógeno realizado com osso alógeno, obtido de banco de ossos humanos, ilustrando o resultado com a apresentação de um caso clínico de fissura alveolar unilateral do lado esquerdo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Secondary bone grafting consists in a routine procedure on the treatment of patients with alveolar cleft. Usually, it is performed by the end of the mixed dentition, when the permanent canine is erupting, with autogenous cancellous bone from the iliac crest. OBJECTIVE: The present arti [...] cle discusses the alternative of autogenous bone grafting with allogeneic bone, obtained from human bone bank, illustrating the result with the presentation of a clinical case of left unilateral alveolar cleft.

Omar Gabriel da, Silva Filho; Terumi Okada, Ozawa; Cláudia, Bachega; Marco Aurélio, Bachega.

2013-12-01

415

Alveolar macrophage response to carbon in monocyte-depleted mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The predominant source of alveolar macrophages is monocytic migration with a smaller proportion arising from dividing interstitial cells. To determine how this system responds to particulate loading when depleted of monocytes, mice received 650 rad whole body irradiation followed by 4 mg carbon instilled into the trachea. Control groups included irradiated mice given no carbon and nonirradiated mice given carbon. After irradiation alone, the number of monocytes fell to a very low level for at least 3 wk, whereas the output of alveolar macrophages remained normal. In nonirradiated mice, carbon induced a tenfold increase in macrophages the first day, dropping rapidly after 1 wk. Macrophage output in irradiated animals given carbon doubled the first day, then rose to 4 times normal after 2 wk. This limited response to carbon was accompanied by increased DNA synthesis in pulmonary interstitial cells, but the number of circulating monocytes and labeling of alveolar macrophages remained very low. The results indicate that when monocytes are not available, output of alveolar macrophages is maintained by precursor cells in the pulmonary interstitium. This interstitial compartment provides an essential back-u