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1

Effects of smoking on resorption of the residual alveolar ridges in complete denture wearers  

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Full Text Available Introduction Based on literature data it is obvious that there is a connection between smoking and periodontal diseases. Alveolar bone loss increases with smoking. Tobacco smoking affects the proportion of subgingival bacterial flora by influencing oxidoreduction potential of dental plaque and thus making conditions for development of anaerobic bacteria. According to some researchers, smoking affects the mineral component of bone tissue. Orthopantomograms show higher level of alveolar bone loss in smokers than in nonsmokers with the same level of oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to establish if smoking affects alveolar bone loss in complete denture wearers. Material and methods Our clinical investigation included 60 patients of both sexes (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers all complete dentures wearers. All patients met study criteria: jaw relation and smokers who smoke over 20 cigarettes per day. All subjects were interviewed, and after that orthopantomograms were made. They were used to calculate the degree of alveolar bone loss. Results The examined subjects were approximately of the same age. Mean age of smokers was 59.9 and nonsmokers 61.8. It was established that differences regarding resorption in men were not significant. The degree of resorption in women smokers and women nonsmokers was different, but differences were not significant. Discussion It has been proven that the number of cigarettes smoked per day is very important. It is considered that the risk of oral epithelial dysplasia increases when smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Considering our results regarding resorption of edentulous alveolar ridge in smokers and nonsmokers, we concluded that there were no significant differences. There are opinions in literature that smoking is not an etiological factor in resorption, but there are some opinions that smoking is connected with the degree of resorption in periodontium. The analyses of resorptive changes in edentulous smokers were done only around implants and it was estimated that smoking has more influence than other clinical risk factors. Conclusion On the bases of our research we may conclude that smoking does not directly affect the degree of resorption of edentulous alveolar ridge with complete denture wearers.

Markovi? Dubravka

2003-01-01

2

An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs  

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Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

2014-03-01

3

Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were performed subperiosteally on the premaxilla and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluations revealed that all allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone implants induced new bone formation. No inflammatory or foreign body reactions were observed.

Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

1990-01-01

4

Reactive dentures: a novel approach to decrease residual ridge resorption.  

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The need for reduction of traumatic forces transmitted through the prosthesis has long been recognised and studies have shown that either a soft acrylic resin/silicone rubber can serve as a stress distributor and absorb some of the forces applied to the teeth. These dentures permit reaction to impacting forces which allows independent movement of one or more teeth in function unlike the conventional dentures. A completely edentulous patient with adequate inter-ridge distance was selected for the case, the dentures with soft liner placed between the patient's teeth and denture base were fabricated. This report presents a completely new technique to reduce the ridge resorption and facilitate patient comfort. PMID:23576651

Reddy, Kesava K; Prasanna, Renuka G S; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

2013-01-01

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Improving prosthetic prognosis by connective tissue ridge augmentation of alveolar ridge  

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The contour of edentulous ridge should be carefully evaluated before a fixed partial denture is undertaken. The ideal ridge height and width allows placement of a natural looking pontic which facilitates maintenance of plaque-free environment. The localized alveolar ridge defect refers to the volumetric deficit of the limited extent of bone and soft tissue within the alveolar process. Such type of ridge defects can be corrected by surgical ridge augmentation that can be accomplished by the ad...

Mishra Niraj; Singh Balendra; Rao Jitendra; Rastogi Pavitra

2010-01-01

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Management of Compromised Vertical Alveolar Ridge using Distraction Osteogenesis  

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Full Text Available Deficient alveolar ridge is an often encountered problem which causes problem in providing prosthesis to patients. Acquired alveolar deficiencies are the result of tooth loss and associated periodontal disease, trauma or other pathology. This case report describes vertical mandibular alveolar ridge distraction achieved using Liebenger endosseous alveolar distractor device in a patient who had vertical ridge defect due to localized aggressive periodontitis leading to tooth loss. Total 5.6mm vertical distraction in mandibular alveolar ridge was achieved at 0.8mm per day in eight days. The advantage of this technique is that there is no need for bone harvesting hence it is not associated with donor site morbidity. Moreover gain of both soft tissue along with hard tissue is achieved.

Wg Cdr Parul Sharma

2011-12-01

7

Alveolar ridge augmentation by combining autogenous mandibular bone grafts and non-resorbable membranes.  

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of using mandibular cortical bone grafts covered with e-PTFE membranes for maxillary alveolar ridge augmentation, in comparison with the use of mandibular cortical grafts alone. The experiment was carried out in 20 rats. At one side of the maxillary jaw, the edentulous alveolar ridge between the incisor and the first molar was augmented by means of an autogenous mandibular bone graft, which was fixed with a titanium microimplant and covered with a Teflon membrane. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated the same way, except for the placement of a membrane. Histological analysis at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery demonstrated that, in situations where the membrane was not exposed to the oral cavity during healing, the mandibular bone grafts presented no resorption and were in continuity with the maxillary bone at the recipient site. In situations where the membrane had become exposed, however, the bone grafts presented extensive resorption and lack of continuity with the bone at the recipient site. These latter findings were similar to those made at the non-membrane-treated side. The results indicate that the volume of autogenous bone graft used for alveolar ridge augmentation can be retained by covering the graft with a membrane, provided that the membrane is properly adapted and is kept covered with mucosa during healing. PMID:11952739

Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild

2002-04-01

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Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar / Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la [...] distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación), indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática. Abstract in english The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, dis [...] traction and consolidation), indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and complications. A bibliographic review was made by database search of reference systems as MEDLINE and PubliMed using the descriptors "alveolar distraction" o "osteogenic distraction". The published bibliographic sources mainly over 5 years concluding that this technique is an excellent alternative for the bone and soft tissues formation in zones of alveolar atrophy including three stages: latency, distraction and consolidation; being a foreseeable method and with low rates of bone reabsorption compared to other techniques of increase of alveolar ridge. It has its main indication in implant therapy to provide bone volume. We must to individualize each case and to use the more appropriate method according the clinical and personal features of patient. A proper case selection and a better understand of technique are essential to achieve successful results by alveolar osteogenic distraction. In Cuba the alveolar distraction has been not much applied being necessary to expand the studies on this subject matter.

Denia, Morales Navarro.

9

Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge  

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Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como MEDLINE y PubMed con la utilización de descriptores "alveolar distraction" y "osteogenic distraction". Se consultaron las fuentes bibliográficas publicadas fundamentalmente en los últimos 5 años, lo que reveló que esta técnica es una excelente alternativa para la formación de huesos y tejidos blandos en zonas de atrofia alveolar, que consta de tres etapas: latencia, distracción y consolidación; un método previsible y con bajas tasas de reabsorción ósea en comparación con otras técnicas de aumento del reborde alveolar. Tiene su principal indicación en la terapia de implantes al proveer volumen óseo. Debemos individualizar cada caso y usar el método más adecuado según las características clínicas y personales del paciente. Una adecuada selección de los casos y una mejor comprensión de la técnica son los puntales para lograr exitosos resultados mediante la distracción osteogénica alveolar. En Cuba se ha aplicado poco la distracción alveolar, por lo que ha sido necesario ampliar los estudios sobre esta temática.The alveolar osteogenic distraction, as a biological process of alveolar bone neoformation, motivates us to make the bibliographic review whose objective was to emphasize in analysis the following variables: historical backgrounds in Cuba, distraction classification, distraction phases (latency, distraction and consolidation, indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and complications. A bibliographic review was made by database search of reference systems as MEDLINE and PubliMed using the descriptors "alveolar distraction" o "osteogenic distraction". The published bibliographic sources mainly over 5 years concluding that this technique is an excellent alternative for the bone and soft tissues formation in zones of alveolar atrophy including three stages: latency, distraction and consolidation; being a foreseeable method and with low rates of bone reabsorption compared to other techniques of increase of alveolar ridge. It has its main indication in implant therapy to provide bone volume. We must to individualize each case and to use the more appropriate method according the clinical and personal features of patient. A proper case selection and a better understand of technique are essential to achieve successful results by alveolar osteogenic distraction. In Cuba the alveolar distraction has been not much applied being necessary to expand the studies on this subject matter.

Denia Morales Navarro

2011-03-01

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Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images  

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Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

2007-06-15

11

In-Vivo Effect of Andrographolide on Alveolar Bone Resorption Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Its Relation with Antioxidant Enzymes  

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Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20?mg/kg and 10?mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1?:?1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20?mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil

2013-01-01

12

Effects of smoking on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa  

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Full Text Available Introduction Tobacco use is an important risk factor for advanced histopathological findings on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on histopathological findings on edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa. Material and methods The experimental group consisted of 48 patients (29 smokers and 19 nonsmokers. The mean age of smokers was 42.6 and of nonsmokers 48.7 years. The anamnesis included the following data: age, sex, diseases and toxic habits-cigarette smoking. Biopsy samples were taken from the edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa without gross signs of symptoms. Results The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 11.5±7. The results of ?² test proved that there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa. The mean duration of smoking was 12.7± 5 years. Hyperkeratosis was established in 76.92% of smokers who smoked longer than 15 years. The mean-age at which smokers began smoking was 27.3±8 years and there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa correlated with the beginning of smoking. Conclusion On the basis of our research we conclude that smokers who have been smoking for 15 years are at risk for developing histopathological changes of the alveolar ridge mucosa, but there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings on the alveolar ridge mucosa correlated with the number of cigarettes per day and the beginning of smoking. .

Markovi? Dubravka

2005-01-01

13

Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva gel prevents alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Brazilian folk medicine, Lippia sidoides (Ls) and Myracrodruon urundeuva (Mu) have gained popularity and reputation as effective antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of topical herbal gel from Ls 0.5% (v/w) and Mu 5% (w/w) in experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to ligature placement around the second upper left molars. Animals were treated topically with Ls and/or Mu-based gel, immediately after EPD induction and three times/day for 11 days until the rats were sacrificed (11th day). Saline-based gel was utilized as control for all experiments and doxycycline based gel 10% (w/w) was utilized as reference substance. Animals were weighed daily. Alveolar bone loss was measured as the difference (in millimeters) between the cusp tip and the alveolar bone. The periodontum and the surrounding gingivae were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingivae was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production mainly tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels by ELISA method. The local bacterial flora was assessed through culture of the gingival tissue in standard aerobic and anaerobic media. Alveolar bone loss was significantly inhibited by Ls and Mu combined treatment compared to the saline control group. Ls and Mu combined treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, with partial preservation of the periodontum, coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as significantly inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production in gingival tissue compared to the saline control group. Ls and Mu combined treatment also prevented the growth of oral microorganisms and the weight loss. Ls and Mu combined based gel treatment preserved alveolar bone resorption and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in experimental periodontitis. PMID:17714897

Botelho, M A; Rao, V S; Carvalho, C B M; Bezerra-Filho, J G; Fonseca, S G C; Vale, M L; Montenegro, D; Cunha, F; Ribeiro, R A; Brito, G A

2007-09-25

14

¿Preservación del reborde alveolar? Toma de decisión ante la colocación de implantes dentales / Alveolar ridge preservation?: Decision making for dental implant placement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La reabsorción ósea es una consecuencia fisiológica de la pérdida dental que puede convertirse en un riesgo funcional y estético significativo para la colocación de implantes dentales. Los cambios dimensionales del reborde alveolar pueden ser manejados con diferentes materiales de injerto y procedim [...] ientos quirúrgicos reportados en la literatura. El propósito de esta revisión es presentar las indicaciones y técnicas actuales utilizadas para ayudar a prevenir, en lo posible, la reabsorción del reborde residual asegurando el éxito de la rehabilitación sobre implantes. Abstract in english Bone resorption is a physiological consequence of tooth loss that could be a significant functional and an esthetic risk for dental implants. The dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge could be managed with different graft materials and surgical techniques that have been reported in the scientifi [...] c literature. The purpose of this review is to explore the indications and present actual techniques to help prevent residual ridge resorption, as much as possible, guaranteeing the success of Prosthodontic rehabilitation with implants.

Vanessa Louise, Ford-Martinelli; Gianna, Hanly; Juliana, Valenzuela; Lina Marcela, Herrera-Orozco; Sebastian, Muñoz-Zapata.

15

Alveolar ridge augmentation using a resorbable copolymer membrane and autogenous bone grafts. An experimental study in the rat.  

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The aim of the present study was to compare the result of maxillary alveolar ridge augmentation by the combined use of mandibular bone grafts and resorbable membranes (Resolut), with that achieved by the use of the same type of bone graft combined with the placement of e-PTFE membranes (Gore-Tex). The experiment was carried out in 30 rats. In one side of the maxillary jaw, the edentulous alveolar ridge between the incisor and the first molar was augmented by means of an autogenous mandibular bone graft that was fixed with a titanium microimplant and covered with a resorbable membrane. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated in the same way, with the difference that an e-PTFE membrane was placed over the bone graft. Histological analysis at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days after surgery demonstrated that, in both test and control sites where the membrane was properly adapted and not exposed, the bone grafts presented no resorption and were integrated into the maxillary bone at the recipient site. In cases where the membrane was exposed, however, the bone grafts presented extensive resorption and lack of continuity between the graft and the recipient bed. At 60-180 days after surgery, the exposure of both types of membrane had frequently led to complete resorption of the grafts, encapsulation of the titanium microimplant by fibrous connective tissue, or exfoliation of the microimplant. It is concluded that alveolar ridge augmentation can be predictably accomplished by combining mandibular bone grafting with the placement of resorbable or non-resorbable membranes according to the GTR principle, provided that the membrane is properly adapted over the graft and complete closure of the treated area is maintained during healing. PMID:11952741

Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Karring, Thorkild

2002-04-01

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Distracción osteogénica alveolar como método de aumento del reborde alveolar Alveolar osteogenic distraction as method to increase the alveolar ridge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La distracción osteogénica alveolar, como proceso biológico de neoformación de hueso alveolar, nos motivó a la realización de la presente revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo enfatizar en el análisis de las variables: antecedentes históricos en Cuba, clasificación de los distractores, fases de la distracción (latencia, distracción y consolidación), indicaciones, contraindicaciones, ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la co...

2011-01-01

17

A preliminary study of local administration of dexamethasone after tooth extraction: Better preservation of residual alveolar ridge?  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is important that the height of the edentulous alveolar ridge after tooth extraction remains at a reasonable acceptable level for as long as possible. The aim of this study was to report preliminary results of the clinical effect of local oral submucous administration of dexamethasone after tooth extractions in order to prepare alveolar supporting tissues for acceptance of removable dentures. Methods. In a total of 15 patients (11 partially and 4 completely edentulous the quantity of 0.25 mL to 0.5 mL of dexamethasone was injected bucally and orally in the region of the tooth socket after complicated extractions. Results. Healing of extraction wounds was uneventful in all the patients, without pain or local inflammation. Conclusion. Dexamethasone can be locally applied to oral tissues to prevent post-extraction inflammation and extensive resorption of the residual alveolar ridge. The obtained results are promising for patients undergoing classic prosthodontic rehabilitation soon after tooth extraction, demonstrating that there are no adverse effects after local oral corticosteroids administration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

Pošti? Sr?an D.

2014-01-01

18

Distracción osteogénica del reborde alveolar: revisión de la literatura / Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge: a review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno de los principales problemas para la colocación de implantes dentales es la presencia de hueso insuficiente que impide que sean de una longitud y/o de un diámetro adecuados. Dentro de los métodos que se usan para el aumento del reborde alveolar se incluye tan solo desde hace una década la aplica [...] ción de los principios de distracción osteogénica (DO). Esta técnica se basa en la separación gradual de dos fragmentos de hueso perfectamente vascularizados, entre los que se forma un callo de distracción que progresivamente se transforma en hueso maduro. Un científico clave en el desarrollo de esta técnica fue el traumatólogo ruso Ilizarov. Esta revisión bibliográfica evalúa la metodología, el funcionamiento y las posibles aplicaciones de DO en el tratamiento de los defectos del reborde alveolar. Por sus cualidades demostradas, la DO podría sustituir el uso de injertos y regeneración ósea guiada para favorecer las relaciones esqueléticas de los rebordes alveolares. Abstract in english One of the principal problems in dental implantation is the lack of sufficient bone height or width. In the case of the alveolar ridge, a very effective technique for resolving this problem is distraction osteogenesis, introduced in this context about a decade ago. This technique is based on the gra [...] dual separation of a mobile but fully vascularized bone segment from the basal bone, leading to the formation of an intervening soft callus which gradually transforms to mature bone. A key researcher in the development of this technique was the Russian traumatologist Ilizarov. The present article reviews alveolar ridge distraction procedures and their clinical application. Alveolar ridge distraction may often be preferable to bone grafting or guided bone regeneration for increasing ridge height and width prior to implantation.

Nikola, Saulacic; Pilar, Gándara Vila; Manuel, Somoza Martín; Abel, García García.

19

Benign alveolar ridge keratosis (oral lichen simplex chronicus): A distinct clinicopathologic entity.  

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Benign alveolar ridge keratosis is a common benign white papule or plaque that occurs on the keratinized gingiva of the maxillary or mandibular alveolar ridge that is probably traumatic/frictional in origin, with characteristic histologic features, similar to those of lichen simplex chronicus of the skin. This is a retrospective study of 108 consecutive specimens displaying characteristic histopathologic features of benign alveolar ridge keratosis accessioned during a 36-month period. There was a male:female ratio of 3.7:1. It occurred on the attached gingiva, with the retromolar area and the edentulous alveolar ridge involved in 51% and 49% of cases, respectively; 19% were bilateral and all bilateral cases were on the retromolar pad. Detailed clinical information was available on 27 cases by a mail-in questionnaire. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by moderate to marked hyperorthokeratosis and wedge-shaped hypergranulosis. The epithelium exhibited slight surface papillomatosis and acanthosis in the form of long, tapered rete ridges that frequently anastomosed at the base. There was generally insignificant inflammation. These features are similar if not identical to lichen simplex chronicus of the skin, a benign condition caused by chronic irritation. Ten randomly selected cases were immunostained for p16INK4A(p16), a tumor suppressor protein expressed in dysplastic epithelium. All lesions were negative for p16. Benign alveolar ridge keratosis is a specific clinicopathologic entity that should be removed from the category of leukoplakia as is currently the practice for clinical white lesions with a specific, consistently recognizable histologic appearance. PMID:18158926

Natarajan, Easwar; Woo, Sook-Bin

2008-01-01

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Alveolar Ridge and Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using rhBMP-2 : A Systematic Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate clinical and safety data for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier when used for alveolar ridge/maxillary sinus augmentation in humans.

de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Spin-Neto, Rubens

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Photoelastic Stress Analysis Surrounding Implant-Supported Prosthesis and Alveolar Ridge on Mandibular Overdentures  

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The purpose of this research was to evaluate the maximum stress around osseointegrated implants and alveolar ridge, in a mandible with left partial resection through a photoelastic mandibular model. The first group consisted of two implants: traditional model (T), implants placed in the position of both canines; fulcrum model (F), implants placed in the position of left canine CL and right lateral incisor LiR. Both models linked through a bar and clips. The second group was consisted of three...

Dorival Pedroso da Silva; Claudia Cazal; Fernanda Campos Sousa de Almeida; Dias, Reinaldo Brito E.; Ballester, Rafael Yag E.

2010-01-01

22

Distracción osteogénica alveolar: una alternativa en la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos: Descripción de 10 casos / Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: an alternative in the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges: Report of 10 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distracción osteogénica alveolar (DOA) es un método alternativo para la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos que ofrece un resultado previsible y que disminuye los tiempo de espera entre la reconstrucción del reborde alveolar atrófico y la colocación de los implantes óseo-integrados, e [...] n comparación con los métodos tradicionalmente utilizados. Fueron atendidos 10 pacientes que presentaban deficiencia de reborde alveolar mandibular y/o maxilar por medio de distracción osteogénica, utilizando un dispositivo yuxtaoseo (Conexión Implant System® - SP-Brasil). Todos los pacientes fueron atendidos de forma ambulatoria, bajo anestesia local y sedación conciente, comenzando la activación del dispositivo a los 7 días posteriores a la instalación, con un patrón de activación de 1 mm diarios hasta alcanzar la altura ósea deseada. Posteriormente se aguardaron 10 semanas como parte del periodo de consolidación ósea y se realizo la colocación de los implantes oseointegrados y local y el retiro del dispositivo de distracción, pudiéndose comprobar clínica y radiográficamente la ganancia de la altura y volumen óseo necesario para la rehabilitación por medio de implantes. Abstract in english The alveolar distraction osteogenesis is an alternative method for the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges with success, that decrease the time of wait between the reconstruction of the alveolar ridge and the placement of the osseointegrated implants in comparison with the traditionally used [...] methods. 10 patients that presented deficiency of the alveolar ridge in the maxilla and/or mandible were assisted by means of distraction osteogenesis, using a juxtaosseous device (Conexion Implant System® - SP-Brazil). All the patients were assisted of form ambulatory, under local anesthesia and conscientious sedation, beginning the activation from the device 7 days later to the installation, with a pattern of activation 1 mm diary until reaching the wanted bony height. Later on 10 weeks like part of the period of bony consolidation were awaited and one carries out the placement of the osseointegraded implants and the retirement of the distraction device, being able to check clinic and radiographic the gain of the height and necessary bony volume for the rehabilitation by means of implants.

P.E., Maurette O’Brien; M.E., Allais de Maurette; R., Mazzonetto.

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Distracción osteogénica alveolar: una alternativa en la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos: Descripción de 10 casos Alveolar distraction osteogenesis: an alternative in the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges: Report of 10 cases  

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Full Text Available La distracción osteogénica alveolar (DOA es un método alternativo para la reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos que ofrece un resultado previsible y que disminuye los tiempo de espera entre la reconstrucción del reborde alveolar atrófico y la colocación de los implantes óseo-integrados, en comparación con los métodos tradicionalmente utilizados. Fueron atendidos 10 pacientes que presentaban deficiencia de reborde alveolar mandibular y/o maxilar por medio de distracción osteogénica, utilizando un dispositivo yuxtaoseo (Conexión Implant System® - SP-Brasil. Todos los pacientes fueron atendidos de forma ambulatoria, bajo anestesia local y sedación conciente, comenzando la activación del dispositivo a los 7 días posteriores a la instalación, con un patrón de activación de 1 mm diarios hasta alcanzar la altura ósea deseada. Posteriormente se aguardaron 10 semanas como parte del periodo de consolidación ósea y se realizo la colocación de los implantes oseointegrados y local y el retiro del dispositivo de distracción, pudiéndose comprobar clínica y radiográficamente la ganancia de la altura y volumen óseo necesario para la rehabilitación por medio de implantes.The alveolar distraction osteogenesis is an alternative method for the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges with success, that decrease the time of wait between the reconstruction of the alveolar ridge and the placement of the osseointegrated implants in comparison with the traditionally used methods. 10 patients that presented deficiency of the alveolar ridge in the maxilla and/or mandible were assisted by means of distraction osteogenesis, using a juxtaosseous device (Conexion Implant System® - SP-Brazil. All the patients were assisted of form ambulatory, under local anesthesia and conscientious sedation, beginning the activation from the device 7 days later to the installation, with a pattern of activation 1 mm diary until reaching the wanted bony height. Later on 10 weeks like part of the period of bony consolidation were awaited and one carries out the placement of the osseointegraded implants and the retirement of the distraction device, being able to check clinic and radiographic the gain of the height and necessary bony volume for the rehabilitation by means of implants.

P.E. Maurette O’Brien

2004-02-01

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Alveolar distraction osteogenesis vs. vertical guided bone regeneration for the correction of vertically deficient edentulous ridges: a 1-3-year prospective study on humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this prospective study was to compare vertical guided bone regeneration (GBR) and vertical distraction osteogenesis (DO) for their ability in correcting vertically deficient alveolar ridges and their ability in maintaining over time the vertical bone gain obtained before and after implant placement. Eleven patients (group 1) were treated by means of vertical GBR with autogenous bone and e-PTFE membranes, while 10 patients (group 2) were treated by means of DO. In group 1, six patients received implants at the time of GBR (subgroup 1A), while five patients had implants placed at the time of membrane removal (subgroup 1B). In group 2, implants were placed at the time of distraction device removal. A total of 25 implants were placed in group 1 and 34 implants were placed in group 2 patients. Three to 5 months after implant placement, patients were rehabilitated with implant-borne dental prostheses. The following parameters were evaluated: (a) bone resorption of the regenerated ridges before and after implant placement; (b) peri-implant clinical parameters 1, 2, and 3 years after prosthetic loading of implants; (c) survival and success rates of implants. Bone resorption values before and after implant placement were significantly higher in group 1. The results suggested that both techniques may improve the deficit of vertically resorbed edentulous ridges, although distraction osteogenesis seems to be more predictable as far as the long-term prognosis of vertical bone gain is concerned. Implant survival rates as well as peri-implant clinical parameters do not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas the success rate of implants placed in group 2 patients was higher than that obtained in group 1 patients. PMID:14731181

Chiapasco, Matteo; Romeo, Eugenio; Casentini, Paolo; Rimondini, Lia

2004-02-01

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Anthropometric Measurements in Toothed and Toothless Maxillaries and its Consequences in Human Alveolar Bone Resorption Mediciones Antropométricas en Maxilares con y sin Dientes de Humanos y sus Consecuencias en la Reabsorción Ósea Alveolar  

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This study proposes to measure and compare anthropometric measurements between toothed and toothless maxillas. 26 human skulls were used with: 13 toothed and 13 toothless maxillas. The measurements were made between the distances of the alveolar ridge (AR): the anterior nasal spine (ANS), to the incisive foramen (FI) and the palatine foramen, greater (FPMA) and lower (FPME) on both sides by two evaluators. The data obtained showed that the average of the measurements were correspondingly high...

Jaciel Benedito de Oliveira; Andrelle Nayara Cavalcanti Lima de Almeida; Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly Lins; Adelmar Afonso de Amorim Júnior; Zélia Albuquerque Seixas

2012-01-01

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The effect of therapeutic radiation on canine alveolar ridges augmented with hydroxylapatite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of radiation on hydroxylapatite (HA) implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs. All bicuspids and molars were extracted from 16 dogs. After 6 weeks, nonporous HA granules were implanted subperiosteally on the alveolar ridge. Following 4 months of healing, 12 dogs (experimental group) underwent therapeutic radiation therapy (Co60, 4,000 rad [40 Gy]) to the head and neck region. Four dogs were not irradiated and served as controls. Four animals (three experimental and one control) were killed at 5,6,7, and 8 months after HA augmentation. Light microscopic evaluation showed that approximately 25% of HA granules were encased by bone while the others were surrounded by fibrous connective tissue. Dissolution of the HA was observed. Microparticles of HA were phagocytized as part of a granulomatous inflammatory reaction. This reaction decreased significantly as time elapsed after implantation. Osteoclastic activity was seen at the junction of HA and periosteum and as part of bone remodeling. Dissolution of the HA granules and the granulomatous inflammatory reaction were not significantly increased by therapeutic radiation. The radiation did not cause development of dehiscence or osteonecrosis.

Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

1992-01-01

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Clinical Results of Localized Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Bone Grafts Harvested from Symphysis in Comparison with Ramus  

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Background and aims. Autogenous onlay bone grafting is a common procedure for alveolar ridge augmentation. It has been suggested that the amount of healed bone after this technique would be significantly less than the initial quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the various parameters influencing the outcome of ridge augmentation procedures.

Materials and methods. Thirty-...

2007-01-01

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Evaluation of radiographic predictors to assess the rate of mandibular residual ridge resorption.  

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Sixty healthy clinical edentulous patients (thirty male and thirty female) were chosen for the study. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken of each patient. The amount of bone loss was estimated from the panoramic radiographs as per the formula proposed by Wical and Scoop. The rate of mandibular residual resorbed ridge (RRR) expressed as percentage of bone loss per year was then computed. The correlation between the mandibular RRR and gonial cortical thickness and the per...

Mahapatra G; Nar O; Joshi S

2004-01-01

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Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by combined hydroxylapatite and osteoinductive material  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine if increased bony ingrowth developed when hydroxylapatite was implanted together with an osteoinductive substrate. Dense hydroxylapatite granules (HA) (Calcitite, Calcitek, San Diego, CA, USA) were mixed with equal volumes of allogenic, demineralized, lyophilized dentin or bone and implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles in rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed that HA was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue containing foreign body giant cells and it had neither an osteoinductive nor an osteoconductive effect. The newly formed bone induced from the implanted allogenic, demineralized, lyophilized dentin or bone was never found in close contact with the HA and did not incorporate the implant.

Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

1991-01-01

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Clinical Results of Localized Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Bone Grafts Harvested from Symphysis in Comparison with Ramus  

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Full Text Available

Background and aims. Autogenous onlay bone grafting is a common procedure for alveolar ridge augmentation. It has been suggested that the amount of healed bone after this technique would be significantly less than the initial quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the various parameters influencing the outcome of ridge augmentation procedures.

Materials and methods. Thirty-two patients, 17 males and 15 females (mean age 40 ± 8.66, requiring lateral ridge augmentation in the anterior maxilla were recruited. Bone grafts obtained from either the mandibular ramus or symphysis were grafted on the recipient site and the buccolingual dimensions of the edentulous ridge before and six months after the procedure were measured and the difference between them was considered as ridge augmentation (RA. Parameters including graft thickness (GT, graft area (GA and donor site (DS were also recorded.

Results. Onlay bone grafts, taken from mandibular and symphysis areas, significantly increased the buccolingual dimension of the alveolar ridge (mean 1.98 ± 1.22 mm, p < 0.001. However, the mean RA by symphysis grafts was significantly greater than ramus grafts (2.49 mm vs. 1.48 mm. There was also a significant correlation between graft thickness, surface area and the amount of bone augmentation.

Conclusion. Symphysis area provides thicker and larger grafts, which may result in a better clinical outcome in alveolar ridge augmentation.

Reza Pourabbas

2007-06-01

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Effects of a herbal gel containing carvacrol and chalcones on alveolar bone resorption in rats on experimental periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carvacrol and dimeric chalcones are the respective bioactive components of Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva, popular medicinal plants of Northeastern Brazil with proven antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Periodontal disease is associated with inflammation and microbiological proliferation, thus the study aimed to investigate the effect of a topical gel based on carvacrol and chalcones in the experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Animals were treated with carvacrol and/or chalcones gel, immediately after EPD induction, three times a day for 11 days. Appropriate controls were included in the study. Animals were weighed daily. They were killed on day 11, the mandibles dissected and alveolar bone loss was measured. The periodontium were examined at histopathology and the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora were assessed through culture of the gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by combined carvacrol and chalcones gel, compared with the vehicle and non-treated groups. The treatment with the combined gel reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, decreased myeloperoxidase activity in gingival tissue and inhibited the growth of oral microorganisms as well as the weight loss. Carvacrol and chalcones combination gel has a beneficial effect upon EPD in this model. PMID:18338370

Botelho, Marco Antonio; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Montenegro, Danusa; Bandeira, Mary Anne Menezes; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves Cruz; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly Pinto; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro

2008-04-01

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Regeneración ósea guiada para el aumento vertical del reborde alveolar / Guided osseous regeneration for the vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se considera como aumento óseo vertical, cualquier técnica que apunte a crear una mayor altura del reborde alveolar. A inicios de la década de los 90’s se empezó a utilizar la regeneración ósea guiada (ROG) en mandíbulas atróficas, con el fin de permitir la instalación de implantes óseointegra [...] dos. Con el fin de evaluar y exponer parte de la evidencia disponible en la actualidad, con respecto a la ROG para aumento óseo vertical, se realizó la siguiente revisión bibliográfica. Abstract in english Any technique aimed to improve the alveolar ridge height is considered as a vertical bone augmentation procedure. In the early 90’s guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures began to be used in atrophic mandibles to allow the installation of osseointegrated dental implants. The following bibli [...] ographic review was made with the purpose of evaluating and exposing part of the available evidence at present in this field.

Nappe, CE; Baltodano, CE.

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Regeneración ósea guiada para el aumento vertical del reborde alveolar Guided osseous regeneration for the vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge  

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Full Text Available Se considera como aumento óseo vertical, cualquier técnica que apunte a crear una mayor altura del reborde alveolar. A inicios de la década de los 90’s se empezó a utilizar la regeneración ósea guiada (ROG en mandíbulas atróficas, con el fin de permitir la instalación de implantes óseointegrados. Con el fin de evaluar y exponer parte de la evidencia disponible en la actualidad, con respecto a la ROG para aumento óseo vertical, se realizó la siguiente revisión bibliográfica.Any technique aimed to improve the alveolar ridge height is considered as a vertical bone augmentation procedure. In the early 90’s guided bone regeneration (GBR procedures began to be used in atrophic mandibles to allow the installation of osseointegrated dental implants. The following bibliographic review was made with the purpose of evaluating and exposing part of the available evidence at present in this field.

CE Nappe

2013-04-01

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Autogenous bone graft alone or associated with titanium mesh for vertical alveolar ridge augmentation: a controlled clinical trial  

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this controlled clinical trial is to evaluate alveolar ridge augmentation using an autogenous onlay bone graft alone or associated with a titanium mesh (Ti-Mesh). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 23 partially edentulous patients, presenting the need for vertical bone augmentation of at least 4 mm, were treated before implant placement. Surgical procedure was performed by the same operator and was identical at 12 test (bone graft+Ti-Mesh) and 12 control (bone graft alone...

2007-01-01

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Photoelastic Stress Analysis Surrounding Implant-Supported Prosthesis and Alveolar Ridge on Mandibular Overdentures  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the maximum stress around osseointegrated implants and alveolar ridge, in a mandible with left partial resection through a photoelastic mandibular model. The first group consisted of two implants: traditional model (T, implants placed in the position of both canines; fulcrum model (F, implants placed in the position of left canine CL and right lateral incisor LiR. Both models linked through a bar and clips. The second group was consisted of three implants, with implants placed in the position of both canines (CR and CL and the right lateral incisor (LiR, which composed four groups: (1 model with 3 “O” rings, (2 model 2 ERAs, bar with clips, (3 model 2 ERAs bar without clips; (4 model “O” ring bar and ERA. An axial and an oblique load of 6.8?kgf was applied on a overdenture at the 1st Pm, 2nd Pm, and 1st M. Results showed that the area around the left canine (CL was practically free of stress; the left lateral incisor (LiL developed only small tensions, and low stress in all the other cases; the right canine tooth suffered the largest concentrations of stress, mainly with the ERA retention mechanism.

Rafael Yagüe Ballester

2010-01-01

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Efficacy of Enamel Matrix Derivative on Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis  

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Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a surgical-orthopedic technique for lengthening a bone by separating or distracting a fractured callus. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD on bone repair and regeneration after DO on a canine mandible. Ten adult beagle dogs were used in this study. Their right and left mandibles were compared as the test and control groups, respectively. The distraction was undertaken at a rate of 1 mm per day for 10 consecutive days to yield 10 mm lengthening of the mandibular corpus. The EMD was treated into the test group at the site of the lengthened bone. At 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 weeks after EMD treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD at the site of the lengthened bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography. BMD in the tested group was higher during consolidation period than in the control. The difference in the BMD of 1 and 3 weeks after EMD treatment was significant (p < 0.05. In histological findings, new bone formation in the test group was denser than the control group. These results suggest that the application of an EMD during DO is suitable method for alveolar ridge augmentation in dogs.

J.M. Kim, J.H. Kim, T.S. Han, G. Kim, S.S. Kang1 and S.H. Choi*

2011-04-01

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The application of bone graft substitutes for alveolar ridge preservation after orthodontic extractions and for augmentation of residual cleft defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of bone substitute materials in orthodontics is to be considered prior to orthodontic space closure after tooth extraction during the treatment of marked crowding as well as for treatment of residual defects in cleft-lip-and-palate children. In both cases the common objective is structure preservation or augmentation of the alveolar ridge. The demands to be made on the synthetic bone graft substitute comprise not just complication-free and safe use but also the chance of early tooth movement into the treated defect area with sufficient stability of the new tooth position. PMID:16783746

Proff, P; Bayerlein, T; Fanghänel, J; Gerike, W; Bienengräber, V; Gedrange, T

2006-02-01

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Altered position of the medial lingual nutritional foramina at different stages of alveolar ridge atrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the altered location of the medial lingual nutritional foramina in different stages of bone resorption, 55 cadaveric mandibles were selected for this study from a total of 1532. Prevalence, location of the foramen (lingual, cranial, labial), application of Atwood classification (grades 1-6), and macroanatomic dissections were tools of this examination. An increasing grade of atrophy leads to a shift in position of the medial lingual nutritional foramen. PMID:22103707

Lautner, Nora Valerie; Bernauer, Erwin; Krenkel, Christian; Gaggl, Alexander

2014-02-01

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Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation methods using three-dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two-dimensional histometric evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Materials and Methods Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Results Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. Conclusion These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Sungtae; Oh, Seung-Hee; Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Sophia; Lee, Young-Kyu; Heo, Min-Suk

2014-01-01

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Multiple congenital epulis in alveolar ridges of maxilla and mandible in a newborn: a rare case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL) or congenital epulis is an uncommon benign of the oral cavity tumor appearing at birth with typical clinical and pathologic features. It predominately affects females, mainly on the anterior maxillary alveolar ridge, and occurs usually as a single mass, although sometimes as multiple. The left side incisor area is the most common site. The etiology and histogenesis of the lesion remain obscure. Though it is a benign lesion, the tumor may cause feeding and respiratory problems if there are too large or multiple tumors. We report a case of a three-day-old, female newborn, who was referred to our hospital with multiple congenital oral swellings arising from the maxilla and mandible. The tumors caused a feeding problem and, hence, they were resected by surgical excision under general anesthesia. PMID:24808964

Saki, Nader; Araghi, Somayeh

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

1972-11-01

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Orthopantomographic study of the alveolar bone level on periodontal disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author had measured the alveolar bone level of periodontal disease on 50 cases of orthopantomogram to detect the degree of alveolar bone resorption of both sexes of Korean. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Alveolar bone resorption of mesial and distal portion was similar in same patient. 2. The order of alveolar bone resorption was mandibular anterior region, posterior region, canine and premolar region of both jaws. 3. The degree of alveolar bone destruction was severe in shorter root length than longer one. 4. The degree of alveolar bone resorption was severe in fourth decades.

Lee, Ki Sik; You, Dong Soo [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1972-11-15

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Histomorphometric evaluation of extraction sockets and deficient alveolar ridges treated with allograft and barrier membrane: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to determine the fate of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) used in conjunction with a barrier membrane in the management of extraction sockets and deficient alveolar ridges, and to compare the amount of bone formed with that found in untreated sites. Ten biopsies were obtained from 8 grafted patients. Five biopsies were harvested from untreated sites during routine implant placement and analyzed for comparison. In the socket management procedure, DFDBA was packed tightly into the socket and covered with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane. Primary closure was achieved in all cases. In the ridge regeneration procedure, cortical columns were placed in the ridge projecting outward approximately 3 mm to create and maintain space for DFDBA particles packed between them; the columns were then covered by an e-PTFE membrane. Healing time ranged from 8 to 23 months. At the time of implant placement, bone cores (7 mm x 2 mm) were harvested, fixed in 10% formalin solution, and prepared for histologic examination. At the light microscopic level, no inflammation or fibrous encapsulation was observed. New bone formation on and around DFDBA particles was widespread. Histomorphometric analysis of the grafted specimens and untreated sites was carried out using the trabecular bone volume (TBV) index. The TBV in the maxillary test specimens was 55.03%, as compared to 57.33% of control cores. Unaltered DFDBA made up 8.7% of the test specimens. In the mandibular biopsies, the TBV was 56.6%, while for the controls it was 40.9%. The volume of DFDBA still present was 2.45%. The results tended to indicate that treatment with DFDBA in conjunction with cell occlusive membranes will result in new bone formation, predominantly by the process of conduction, which appears to be similar in amount and nature to that found in cores harvested from healed nonfunctional edentulous areas. PMID:10379115

Smukler, H; Landi, L; Setayesh, R

1999-01-01

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Alveolar ridge preservation after dental extraction and before implant placement: a literature review / Preservação do rebordo alveolar após a extração dentária e antes da colocação de implante: revisão da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Várias técnicas e materiais têm sido sugeridos para a preservação do rebordo alveolar (PRA) após a extração dentária e antes da colocação do implante. Esta revisão de literatura buscou discutir os aspectos histológicos e clínicos da cicatrização do alvéolo e do procedimento PRA após a extração dentá [...] ria e verificar se ele permite a colocação de implante dentário (com ou sem enxerto adicional). Apesar da heterogeneidade dos estudos, há evidência que os procedimentos de preservação do rebordo são eficazes na limitação da perda dimensional do rebordo pós-extração e são acompanhados por um grau diferente de regeneração óssea, com variadas quantidades de partículas residuais dos "materiais de enxerto". Abstract in english Several techniques and materials have been suggested for alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) after dental extraction and before implant placement. This literature review aimed to discuss the histological and clinical aspects of alveolar healing and the ARP procedure after dental extraction and to veri [...] fy whether it allows dental implant placement (with or without further augmentation). Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, some evidence suggests that ridge preservation procedures are efficient in limiting the postextraction dimensional loss of the ridge and are accompanied by a different degree of bone regeneration, with varied amounts of residual graft material particles.

Mezzomo, Luis André; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami; Mardas, Nikos; Donos, Nikolaos.

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Vertical alveolar ridge augmentation by means of a titanium mesh and autogenous bone grafts  

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The aim of this study is to evaluate a surgical protocol for vertical ridge augmentation in the maxilla and mandible using autogenous onlay bone graft associated with a titanium mesh. A group of 18 partially edentulous patients, presenting the need for vertical bone augmentation of at least 4 mm, were treated before implant placement. During the first surgery, an autogenous bone graft was harvested from either the mandibular ramus or the mental symphysis and secured by means of titanium screw...

2004-01-01

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An evaluation of the position of the neutral zone in relation to the crest of mandibular alveolar ridge - An In-vivo study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In view of the importance of neutral zone in complete denture construction, it was thought feasible to determine the relation between the centre of the alveolar ridge crest in relation to the neutral zone in a buccolingual direction which will help in positioning of the teeth in a region of minimum conflict so that the stability of the denture is enhanced. Materials & Methods: The position of the neutral zone to alveolar ridge crest was investigated in 30 edentulous patients comprising of both males and females divided into three groups, Group I consisted of ten patients whose period of edentulousness varied from 0-4 years. Group II included ten patients who were edentulous for more than 4 years but less than 8 years. Group III consisted of ten patients whose period of edentulousness varied between 8-12 years. One-way ANOVA test and multiple comparisons by bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to analyze the results and the significance was tabulated. Results: The results of the present study state that the neutral zone serves as a guide and suggests that the period of edentulousness should be considered while arranging the teeth for complete dentures. Conclusion: The findings of the current study may serve as an important guide in arrangement of teeth for complete denture prosthesis and would help to determine the correlation between the neutral zone in relation to the crest of the alveolar ridge and the period of edentulousness. How to cite the article: Bhorgonde D, Nandakumar K, Khurana PR, Kumari VS, Reddy MS, Siddique S. An evaluation of the position of the neutral zone in relation to the crest of mandibular alveolar ridge - An In-vivo study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):45-54.

Bhorgonde, Deepak; Nandakumar, K; Khurana, Punit R S; Kumari, V Santoshi; Reddy, M Sushendar; Siddique, Sabin

2014-01-01

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Diets Based on Virgin Olive Oil or Fish Oil but Not on Sunflower Oil Prevent Age-Related Alveolar Bone Resorption by Mitochondrial-Related Mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Objectives Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Methods/Findings Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. Conclusions The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C.; Ochoa, Julio J.; Cordero, Mario D.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, Jose L.

2013-01-01

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Fate of autologous and fresh-frozen allogeneic block bone grafts used for ridge augmentation. A CBCT-based analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate dimensional changes in autologous (AT) and fresh-frozen allogeneic (AL) block bone grafts 6 months after alveolar ridge augmentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six partially or totally edentulous patients treated either with fresh-frozen AL bone or AT bone onlay block grafts prior to implant placement (13 patients in each group), were included in this analysis. Patients received CBCT (i-CAT Classic) examinations prior to surgery and 14 days and 6 months after grafting. Differences in alveolar ridge area among the various observation times were evaluated by planimetric measurements on two-dimensional CBCT images of the grafted regions. Nineteen grafted blocks from each group were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant increase in alveolar ridge dimensions, allowing implant placement, was obtained with both types of grafts 6 months after grafting; no significant differences in alveolar ridge area were observed between the groups at the various observation times. However, graft resorption in the AL group was significantly larger compared to that in the AT group at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Larger bone graft resorption was seen in patients treated with fresh-frozen AL bone than in those treated with AT bone 6 months following alveolar ridge augmentation.

Spin-Neto, Rubens; Stavropoulos, Andreas

2013-01-01

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Evaluación radiográfica de aumentos de rebordes alveolares con injertos aloplásticos de hidroxiapatita no reabsorbible: seguimiento a nueve meses Radiographic evaluation of alveolar ridge augmentation with non resorbable hydroxyapatite alloplastic grafts: nine months follow up  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el objetivo fue determinar radiográficamente el porcentaje de estabilidad de la altura del reborde alveolar del maxilar superior e inferior en pacientes sometidos a cirugía preprotésica de aumento de reborde con implante de HA no reabsorbible. MÉTODOS: el estudio se realizó en quince pacientes, en quienes se determinaron mediciones reproducibles. Para el maxilar superior: (A desde espina nasal anterior; (B derecha-izquierda desde el borde más inferior de las fosas nasales; (C derecha- izquierda desde el borde más inferior de la órbita. Para el maxilar inferior: (E desde el borde inferior de la mandíbula y pasando por la sínfisis; (F derecha-izquierda pasando por el agujero mentoniano; (G derecha-izquierda pasando 5 mm. atrás del agujero mentoniano; (H derecha-izquierda pasando 10 mm posterior al agujero mentoniano. Todas las mediciones se realizaron en el prequirúrgico, en el posquirúrgico inmediato, y a los nueve meses. RESULTADOS: se promediaron los diferentes puntos del maxilar superior (PPMXS y se observó una pérdida de altura entre el 6,29 y un 33,6% con promedio del 17,36 %. En el maxilar inferior (PPMXI se observó una variación desde ganancia del 6,31% hasta una disminución del 18,87%, con promedio del 2,54%. CONCLUSIONES: el implante de HA permite restablecer adecuada altura del reborde alveolar. La altura del reborde alveolar obtenida inicialmente presenta un porcentaje de disminución de su altura en el maxilar superior del 17,36%, y en el maxilar inferior del 2,54 durante el seguimiento a nueve meses.INTRODUCTION: the purpose of this study was to determine radiographically the percentage of stability of alveolar ridge height in the maxilla and the mandible in patients subjected to pre prosthetic surgery of ridge augmentation with non resorbable HA implants. METHODS: the study was performed in 15 patients in whom reproducible measurements were taken. For the maxilla: (A From Anterior Nasal Spine; (B right and left from the lowest border of the nasal fossae; (C right and left from the lowest border of the orbit. For the mandible: (E from the lowest border of the mandible passing through symphysis; (F right and left passing through the mental foramen; (G right and left passing 5 mm posterior to the mental foramen; (H right and left passing 10 mm posterior to mental foramen. All measurements were performed before surgery, immediately after and, nine months after surgery. RESULTS: the different points of the maxilla were averaged (PPMXS and a height loss between 6.29% and 33.6% was observed, with an average of 17.36%. For the mandible (PPMXL variations ranging from 6.31% of augmentation to 18.8% loss were observed, with an average of 2.54%. CONCLUSIONS: HA implants allow reestablishment of adequate alveolar ridge height. The alveolar ridge height initially obtained presents a decrease percentage in height for the maxilla of 17.36% and 2.54% for the mandible after nine months follow up.

Félix Antonio Gil Cárdenas

2008-12-01

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Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

2011-06-01

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Co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The development of various benign oral mucosal lesions associated with dental implants, such as pyogenic granuloma or peripheral giant cell granuloma, has been rarely reported. However, the occurrence of vascular diseases, such as hemangioma, related to dental implants has not been explored in the literature. In this study, we report a case of co-development of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma on the alveolar ridge associated with a dental implant in a patient undergoing antithrombotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is first case of hemangioma formation associated with a dental implant. Case presentation A 68-year-old Korean man was referred for intermittent bleeding and a dome-shaped overgrowing mass on his upper alveolar ridge. He underwent dental implantation 5 years ago, and was started on warfarin for cerebral infarction a year ago. He had experienced gum bleeding and gingival mass formation 6 months after warfarinization; then, his implant fixture was removed. However, his gingival mass has been gradually increasing. The gingival mass was surgically excised, and revealed the coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma in histological analysis of the specimen. The lesion has showed no recurrence for more than a year. Conclusions Regarding immunostaining features, the endothelial cell markers, CD34 and CD31, and the mesenchymal cell marker, vimentin, were strongly detected, but cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was negatively expressed in the endothelial cells of the hemangioma portion. However, in the pyogenic granuloma portion, CD34 was almost negatively detected, whereas vimentin and Ki-67 were highly detected in the fibroblast-like tumor cells. According to these heterogeneous characteristics of the lesion, the patient was diagnosed with coexistence of pyogenic granuloma and capillary hemangioma associated with the dental implant on the attached gingiva. We recommend that patients with dental implants who have chronic peri-implantitis under antithrombotic therapy should be closely followed to ensure early detection of oral mucosal abnormalities.

2014-01-01

52

Restoration of the maxillary anterior tooth using immediate implantation with simultaneous ridge augmentation  

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Full Text Available Atrophy is most severe during the first month of post-extraction in the anterior maxilla with the degree of horizontal bone resorption being nearly twice as high as that of vertical bone resorption. The loss of the buccal alveolar plate following tooth extraction may lead to palatal implant positioning of the implants. Thus, immediate or early implant placement in the extraction socket has been suggested, because it would reduce the time period and the number of surgical intervention and yield higher patient satisfaction compared with delayed placed implants. However, placement of an implant immediately after tooth extraction may result in a gap between the occlusal portion of the implant and the surrounding alveolar bone crest. In this case report, an implant-supported restoration which is in harmony with the surrounding hard and soft tissue was created by the immediate implant placement with ridge augmentation in anterior region with high satisfaction from the patient.

Park Jun-Beom

2010-01-01

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Low-dose doxycycline prevents inflammatory bone resorption in rats  

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are considered to be key initiators of collagen degradation, thus contributing to bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We determined whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DX) (<=10 mg kg-1 day-1), a known MMP inhibitor, could inhibit bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model. Thirty male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were subjected to placement of a nylon thread ligature around the maxillary molars and sacrificed after 7 days. Alveolar bone...

Bezerra, M. M.; Brito, G. A. C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rocha, F. A. C.

2002-01-01

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Part II. Minimizing alveolar bone loss during and after extractions. Protocol and techniques for alveolar bone preservation.  

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Alveolar ridge resorption accelerates following extraction of teeth and the residual defect varies from socket to socket. This article proposes a new treatment oriented classification of extraction defects. It also reviews several graft materials and membranes that aid in the decision for selecting an appropriate socket preservation technique. The algorithm developed by the authors helps design a potentially successful treatment plan based on the classification of extraction defects, with choices ranging from no treatment to complex grafting procedures (i.e. allogenic block grafts). In addition, the principles of wound healing and the ideal time points for utilizing the various types of graft materials and implants are discussed. This socket preservation treatment algorithm will guide clinicians to employ surgical procedures using various biomaterials to promote a successful outcome. PMID:24881443

Iyer, Shankar; Haribabu, Prashanth Konatham; Xing, Yi

2014-01-01

55

Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs  

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Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

Tiainen, Hanna; Verket, Anders; Haugen, Havard J.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter; Wohlfahrt, Johan Caspar

2012-01-01

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Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges  

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Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Chan-young; Kim, Euiseong; Roh, Byoung-duck

2012-01-01

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A 5- Year Comparison of Marginal Bone Level Following Immediate Loading of Single-Tooth Implants Placed in Healed Alveolar Ridges and Extraction Sockets in the Maxilla.  

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Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden. Implants were placed in healed ridges (group I or immediately into extraction sockets (group II. Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36 and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implantResults: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study and all remaining implants osseointegrated successfully after 5 years of functional loading. The mean change in marginal bone loss after implant placement was 0.267±0.161 for one year, and 0.265±0.171 for three years and 0.213±0.185 for five years in extraction sockets and was 0.266±0.176 for one year and 0.219±0.175 for three years and 0.194±0.172 for five years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone loss was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P

AntoineNicolasBerberi

2014-01-01

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A 5-year comparison of marginal bone level following immediate loading of single-tooth implants placed in healed alveolar ridges and extraction sockets in the maxilla.  

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Purpose: The aim of present investigation was to evaluate marginal bone level after 5-year follow-up of implants placed in healed ridges and fresh extraction sockets in maxilla with immediate loading protocol. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in need of a single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla received 42 Astra Tech implants (Astra Tech Implant system™, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden). Implants were placed either in healed ridges (group I) or immediately into fresh extraction sockets (group II). Implants were restored and placed into functional loading immediately by using a prefabricated abutment. Marginal bone level relative to the implant reference point was recorded at implant placement, crown cementation, 12, 36, and 60 months following loading using intra-oral radiographs. Measurements were made on the mesial and distal sides of each implant. Results: Overall, two implants were lost from the group II, before final crown cementation: they were excluded from the study. The mean change in marginal bone loss (MBL) after implant placement was 0.26 ± 0.161 mm for 1 year, and 0.26 ± 0.171 mm for 3 years, and 0.21 ± 0.185 mm for 5 years in extraction sockets and was 0.26 ± 0.176 mm for 1 year and 0.21 ± 0.175 mm for 3 years, and 0.19 ± 0.172 mm for 5 years in healed ridges group. Significant reduction of marginal bone was more pronounced in implants inserted in healed ridges (P < 0.041) compared to fresh surgical extraction sockets (P < 0.540). Significant MBL was observed on the mesial side of the implant after cementation of the provisional (P < 0.007) and after 12 months (P < 0.034) compared to the distal side which remained stable for 3 and 5 years observation period. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, responses of local bone to immediately loaded implants placed either in extraction sockets or healed ridges were similar. Functional loading technique by using prefabricated abutment placed during the surgery time seems to maintain marginal bone around implant in both healed and fresh extraction sites. PMID:24550840

Berberi, Antoine N; Sabbagh, Joseph M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Noujeim, Ziad F; Salameh, Ziad A

2014-01-01

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Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series  

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Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

Markus Glocker

2014-01-01

60

[Decoronation: treatment protocol for ankylotic root resorption as a consequence of dental trauma].  

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Severe dental traumatic injuries, such as the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket (Avulsion) or the displacement of a tooth within its socket (Intrusive Luxation), may result in extensive injury to the root surface. As a result, the root surface injury heals without cementum and there is fusion between the alveolar bone and the exposed dentin or anorganic exposed cementum, without any attachment apparatus between them. This phenomenon is known as "dento-alveolar ankylosis" and is accompanied by ankylotic resorption of the root. In a process that results subsequent to the ankylosis, the root surface resorbs, and this is part of the remodeling of the alveolar bone (ankylotic resorption). When the traumatic injury occurs at a young age, lateral and apical growth of the alveolar bone continues without continued physiological eruption of the tooth. As a result, the position of the ankylotic tooth does not change, and with time thetooth appears infra-occluded resulting in severe esthetic and functional consequences. Extraction of the ankylotic tooth is difficult and sometimes even impossible due to the rigid fusion between the bone and the tooth. In addition, attempted extraction of the ankylotic tooth may lead to fracture of the buccal plate and resorption of the alveolar bone. Retention of the ankylotic tooth may lead to damage in bone deposition in the verticaldimension, leading to difficulties in future prosthodonticrehabilitation, research-based information has been incorporated PMID:24660573

Lin, S; Fuss, Z; Wigler, R; Karawani, M; Ashkenazi, M

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Ridge Preservation for Implant Therapy: a Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Healing of the extraction socket after tooth removal involves retention of the blood clot followed by a sequence of events that lead to changes in the alveolar process in a three dimensional fashion. This normal healing event results in a minimal loss of vertical height (around 1 mm), but a substantial loss of width in the buccal-lingual plane (4-6 mm). During the first three months following extraction that loss has been shown to be significant and may result in both a hard tissue and soft tissue deformity affecting the ability to restore the site with acceptable esthetics. Procedures that reduce the resorptive process have been shown to be predictable and potentially capable of eliminating secondary surgery for site preparation when implant therapy is planned. The key element is prior planning by the dental therapist to act at the time of extraction to prevent the collapse of the ridge due to the loss of the alveolus. Several techniques have been employed as ridge preservation procedures involving the use of bone grafts, barrier membranes and biologics to provide a better restorative outcome. This review will explore the evidence behind each technique and their efficacy in accomplishing site preparation. The literature does not identify a single technique as superior to others; however, all accepted therapeutic procedures for ridge preservation have been shown to be more effective than blood clot alone in randomized controlled studies.

Tomlin, Elizabeth M; Nelson, Shelby J; Rossmann, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

62

Candidates cell sources to regenerate alveolar bone from oral tissue.  

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Most of the cases of dental implant surgery, especially the bone defect extensively, are essential for alveolar ridge augmentation. As known as cell therapy exerts valuable effects on bone regeneration, numerous reports using various cells from body to regenerate bone have been published, including clinical reports. Mesenchymal cells that have osteogenic activity and have potential to be harvested from intra oral site might be a candidate cells to regenerate alveolar bone, even dentists have not been harvested the cells outside of mouth. This paper presents a summary of somatic cells in edentulous tissues which could subserve alveolar bone regeneration. The candidate tissues that might have differentiation potential as mesenchymal cells for bone regeneration are alveolar bone chip, bone marrow from alveolar bone, periosteal tissue, and gingival tissue. Understanding their phenotype consecutively will provide a rational approach for alveolar ridge augmentation. PMID:22505911

Nishimura, Masahiro; Takase, Kazuma; Suehiro, Fumio; Murata, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

63

Resorption of bone implants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weanling isogenously related rats were divided into one control group, one group given a fluoride supplement of 100 parts/106 of F- in the drinking water, and a third group given 0.5 mg per kg body weight of phosphorus as dichloromethylene diphosphanic acid (Cl2MDP). The rats were labeled with 1 ?Ci per g body weight of 3H proline and 40 ?Ci of 45Ca. Four weeks after labeling, the animals were sacrificed and one scapula was implanted subcutaneously in the back of an isogenously related rat of the same age. The other scapula was stored in a freezer pending analysis. After another 4 weeks the implants were recovered and the radioactivity of each isotope was compared with that of the initially stored scapulae. A 30-40 % loss of activity was found, reflecting a considerable loss of bone. However, this loss was significantly lower (P 2MDP was given to the donor animals, whereas fluoride treatment did not affect the resorption. (author)

1978-01-01

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Expansion of the alveolar bone crest with ultrasonic surgery device: clinical study in mandible.  

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The purpose of this paper was to document the application to the split-crest mandibular procedure in two stage in order to avoid cortical resorption due to periosteal detachment in buccal cortical bone of the alveolar crest. Twenty-two healthy patients with non-contributory past medical history (14 women and 8 men, all non-smokers, mean age 59 years, range 54-65 years) were included in this study. After buccal mucoperiosteal flap was followed by a sagittal corticotomy in the coronal area of the alveolar crest and a second sagittal corticotomy, but in a lower (basal) position and two vertical corticotomies in the buccal wall, using a ultrasonic surgery device (Surgysonic, Esacrom, Imola Italy). Adequate crest expansion was achieved without compromising cortical vascularisation by utilising a combination of scalpel, thin chisels and threaded osteotomes (Bone System, Milano, Italy). Postoperative results were assessed by panoramic and periapical radiographs. Ossification of the osteotomy lines was evident and could be observed as sites with increasing radiopacity on panoramic and periapical radiographs 3 months after implants insertion. No dehiscence of the mucosa was observed. No patient suffered from hypoaesthesia. The mean horizontal bone increase in coronal area was 5±3 mm. Mandibular ridge expansion using a split-crest technique that included grafting the implant sites with a ultrasonic surgery device is a viable therapeutic alternative for implant placement in this patient population. PMID:21781449

Scarano, A; Murmura, G; Sinjiari, B; Assenza, B; Sollazzo, V; Spinelli, G; Carinci, F

2011-01-01

65

Periosteum: Resorption or Formation Area?  

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Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones. Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones. Periosteal formation is observed in every stage of life, especially in childhood and early adulthood. Formation continues mechanically as a response to load. Periosteal resorption is observed especially in the flat bones in the growing period. In adulthood, resorption is a part of remodeling. The periosteal surface contains fewer osteoclasts t...

2008-01-01

66

Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn < 29º. However, the distance between the buccal cortical bone and the central incisor root apex showed no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2; CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there are no correlations between the proximity of buccal cortical bone, maxillary incisor roots and the root resorption index.

Antonio Geraldo de Oliveira

2012-04-01

67

Low-dose doxycycline prevents inflammatory bone resorption in rats  

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Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are considered to be key initiators of collagen degradation, thus contributing to bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We determined whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DX (<=10 mg kg-1 day-1, a known MMP inhibitor, could inhibit bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model. Thirty male Wistar rats (180-200 g were subjected to placement of a nylon thread ligature around the maxillary molars and sacrificed after 7 days. Alveolar bone loss (ABL was measured macroscopically in one hemiarcade and the contralateral hemiarcade was processed for histopathologic analysis. Groups of six animals each were treated with DX (2.5, 5 or 10 mg kg-1 day-1, sc, 7 days and compared to nontreated (NT rats. NT rats displayed significant ABL, severe mononuclear cell influx and increase in osteoclast numbers, which were significantly reduced by 5 or 10 mg kg-1 day-1 DX. These data show that DX inhibits inflammatory bone resorption in a manner that is independent of its antimicrobial properties.

M.M. Bezerra

2002-05-01

68

Periosteum: Resorption or Formation Area?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones. Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones. Periosteal formation is observed in every stage of life, especially in childhood and early adulthood. Formation continues mechanically as a response to load. Periosteal resorption is observed especially in the flat bones in the growing period. In adulthood, resorption is a part of remodeling. The periosteal surface contains fewer osteoclasts than does the endosteal surface, and remodeling on the periosteal surface is much slower. For this reason, adult periosteum is defined as a formation area. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 28-31

Betül U?ur Altun

2008-05-01

69

The effect of osteoporosis on periodontal status, alveolar bone and orthodontic tooth movement. A literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis, an age-related condition, is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. It is considered the most common bone metabolic disease and it constitutes a major public health problem. Several studies indicate that osteoporosis may be related to decreased oral bone density and alveolar bone loss. In osteoporotic patients, uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation has taken place. Both bone resorption and bone formation are accelerated, and excessive bone resorption usually leads to loss of attachment. Osteoporosis could also affect the rate of tooth movement through the involvement of alveolar bone. In healthy individuals, bone is constantly being remodeled in the coupled sequence of bone resorption and formation. When a force is applied to a tooth, alveolar bone formation and resorption occur predominantly on the tension and pressure sides of the root, respectively, and the tooth moves with increased alveolar bone remodeling. Experimental studies suggest that systemic-osteoporotic hormone imbalance increases bone turnover and accelerates tooth movement while under orthodontic treatment. Based on these observations it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover and consequent periodontal problems influence the response to orthodontic forces, and this should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in adult patients with metabolic bone disease, especially postmenopausal females or those on chronic medication affecting bone metabolism. PMID:17715839

Sidiropoulou-Chatzigiannis, Sossani; Kourtidou, Maria; Tsalikis, Lazaros

2007-07-01

70

Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatom [...] ical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º) showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn

Antonio Geraldo de, Oliveira; Fabiana Guilhermina Ferreira, Castro.

71

[Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre- and posttreatment radiographs of 2050 orthodontically treated patients were examined and apical root resorptions of more than 2 mm were identified. 30 patients (211 teeth) were affected. Treatment characteristics and objectives of this group (with severe apical root resorption) were compared to a treated group of 30 patients (with no resorption) to determine clinical risk factors. Extrusion, but especially jiggling and a long treatment period were found to be significantly more frequent in the group exhibiting resorption than in the control group. Pathogenesis of treatment-induced root resorption is discussed in respect to histological results. PMID:2767586

Göz, G; Rakosi, T

1989-06-01

72

Primary alveolar hypoventilation  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary alveolar hypoventilation is a rare disorder of unknown cause in which a person does not take ... more deeply or more quickly. In people with primary alveolar hypoventilation, this change in breathing does not ...

73

Candidates Cell Sources to Regenerate Alveolar Bone from Oral Tissue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the cases of dental implant surgery, especially the bone defect extensively, are essential for alveolar ridge augmentation. As known as cell therapy exerts valuable effects on bone regeneration, numerous reports using various cells from body to regenerate bone have been published, including clinical reports. Mesenchymal cells that have osteogenic activity and have potential to be harvested from intra oral site might be a candidate cells to regenerate alveolar bone, even dentists have ...

2012-01-01

74

Working pairs for resorption refrigerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performances of three chemisorption working pairs operating under the resorption cycle were studied gravimetrically by comparing the desorbed and adsorbed mass of refrigerant in different operation conditions. All pairs used NH3 as refrigerant and MnCl2 in the main reactor, but each one used a different salt for the cooling effect production in the secondary reactor. These salts were NH4Cl or NaBr or BaCl2. The experimental results indicated that the degree of conversion in reaction between the NH3 and BaCl2 was inferior to 25% during cooling production at 0 oC or below, whereas the reactions with the other salts had conversions of at least 80%. When the systems operated with heat source temperature for the main reactor at 155 oC, heat sink temperature for both reactors at 30 oC, and cooling effect production temperature at 0 oC the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system using NH4Cl and the system using NaBr were similar and around 0.30; however, the former system had a specific cooling power (SCP) 5% higher than that of the latter system. Because the reaction in the system with NH4Cl was practically halted in a period much shorter than that used in the experiments, it is possible to expect that if the period of the cooling period was shortened, the difference between the SCP of those systems would be much higher. - Highlights: ? The comparison of three different working pairs operating under resorption cycle was conducted. ? The three working pairs were NH4Cl/MnCl2, NaBr/MnCl2, BaCl2/MnCl2, respectively. ? The mass of refrigerant reacted in different situations were measured and compared. ? Among the LTS studied, NH4Cl is the most suitable to be used in a resorption machine at 0 or below 0 oC.

2011-10-01

75

Low-dose doxycycline prevents inflammatory bone resorption in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are considered to be key initiators of collagen degradation, thus contributing to bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We determined whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DX) ([...] n experimental periodontitis model. Thirty male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were subjected to placement of a nylon thread ligature around the maxillary molars and sacrificed after 7 days. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was measured macroscopically in one hemiarcade and the contralateral hemiarcade was processed for histopathologic analysis. Groups of six animals each were treated with DX (2.5, 5 or 10 mg kg-1 day-1, sc, 7 days) and compared to nontreated (NT) rats. NT rats displayed significant ABL, severe mononuclear cell influx and increase in osteoclast numbers, which were significantly reduced by 5 or 10 mg kg-1 day-1 DX. These data show that DX inhibits inflammatory bone resorption in a manner that is independent of its antimicrobial properties.

M.M., Bezerra; G.A.C., Brito; R.A., Ribeiro; F.A.C., Rocha.

76

[Polyfunctional role of the alveolar brush cells in the rat lung].  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy it was demonstrated that the number of vacuoles located in the apical part of cytoplasm in alveolar brush cells of the regenerating rat lung increases, hyperplasia of Golgi-complex takes place and the activation of the protein-synthetising apparatus is evident. The immature surfactant material (osmiophilic lamellar bodies) and secretory dense core vesicles were found in the cytoplasm of alveolar brush cells. Intramuscular injections of colchicin to rats (0.1 mg/100 g body weight) 6 times during 24 hours before decapitation does not influence the number, topography and structure of microfibrilla bundles contained in a sufficient amount by alveolar brush cells. At the same time a part of microvilli of alveolar brush cells undergoes destruction and resorption under the action of colchicin. The data on ultrastructural organization of alveolar brush cells show that they are able to fulfill several functions: absorptive, contractile and secretory. PMID:583028

Romanova, L K

1979-10-01

77

Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

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Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary) and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes w...

Šarac Sanja; Mili? Rade; Zolotarevski Lidija; A?imovi? Slobodan; Tomi? Ilija; Plavec Goran

2012-01-01

78

Resorption of roots of different dimension induced by different types of forces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Root resorption is a variable to be considered in induced tooth movement (ITM). It is related to root morphology and alveolar bone crest, and also to the types of forces exerted by mechanotherapy. This histometric study evaluated the predominance of root resorption among roots of different dimension [...] s, following ITM with different types of forces and at different time intervals. The study was conducted on 54 rats divided into three groups, according to the type of force: continuous (CF), continuous interrupted (CIF) and intermittent (IF), at periods of 5, 7 and 9 days. The percentage of resorption between mesiobuccal roots of larger dimension and intermediate roots of smaller dimension was assessed. The evaluations were performed on the AxioVision software, and the non-parametric analysis of variance for repeated measures in independent groups was further applied, consisting of a scheme of two factors, and complemented by the Dunn test at a significance level of 5%. The intermediate roots presented a higher percentage of resorption, which was gradual at the periods evaluated for the three types of forces, but mainly for CF. Comparing the intermediate roots with the mesiobuccal roots, there was a statistically significant difference (p 0.05) in individually analyzed roots.

Osmar Aparecido, Cuoghi; Carlos Alberto, Aiello; Alberto, Consolaro; Pedro Marcelo, Tondelli; Marcos Rogério de, Mendonça.

2014-06-11

79

Resorption of roots of different dimension induced by different types of forces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root resorption is a variable to be considered in induced tooth movement (ITM). It is related to root morphology and alveolar bone crest, and also to the types of forces exerted by mechanotherapy. This histometric study evaluated the predominance of root resorption among roots of different dimensions, following ITM with different types of forces and at different time intervals. The study was conducted on 54 rats divided into three groups, according to the type of force: continuous (CF), continuous interrupted (CIF) and intermittent (IF), at periods of 5, 7 and 9 days. The percentage of resorption between mesiobuccal roots of larger dimension and intermediate roots of smaller dimension was assessed. The evaluations were performed on the AxioVision software, and the non-parametric analysis of variance for repeated measures in independent groups was further applied, consisting of a scheme of two factors, and complemented by the Dunn test at a significance level of 5%. The intermediate roots presented a higher percentage of resorption, which was gradual at the periods evaluated for the three types of forces, but mainly for CF. Comparing the intermediate roots with the mesiobuccal roots, there was a statistically significant difference (p 0.05) in individually analyzed roots. PMID:24918365

Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Aiello, Carlos Alberto; Consolaro, Alberto; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de

2014-06-11

80

Ridge 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

... OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS GENERAL INFORMATION Program Title: RIDGE 2000 Synopsis of Program: RIDGE ... directed toward the program elements below. Cognizant Program Officer(s): Dr. David Epp, Marine ...

 
 
 
 
81

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

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Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

2011-01-01

82

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:21712928

Gayathri Devi, H J; Mohan Rao, K N; Prathima, K M; Das, Jayanth K

2011-04-01

83

Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

Kovalev ?.?.

2013-09-01

84

The four mechanisms of dental resorption initiation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho propõe-se a apresentar uma classificação, com aplicação clínica, para as reabsorções dentárias, para que o diagnóstico seja objetivo e imediatamente ligado à causa do problema, levando automaticamente o clínico ao provável plano de tratamento e a um prognóstico preciso. Com esse [...] objetivo, sugerimos agrupar cada caso clínico de reabsorção dentária em um dos seguintes grupos: 1) Reabsorções radiculares pela morte dos cementoblastos, com manutenção dos restos epiteliais de Malassez. 2) Reabsorções radiculares pela morte dos cementoblastos e dos restos epiteliais de Malassez. 3) Reabsorções dentárias pela morte dos odontoblastos, com manutenção da vitalidade pulpar. 4) Reabsorções dentárias pela exposição direta da dentina ao tecido conjuntivo gengival, nos gaps da junção amelocementária. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to present a classification with a clinical application for root resorption, so that diagnosis will be more objective and immediately linked to the source of the problem, leading the clinician to automatically develop the likely treatment plan with a precise prognosis. With [...] this purpose, we suggest putting together all diagnosed dental resorptions into one of these four criteria: 1) Root resorption caused by cementoblast cell death, with preservation of the Malassez epithelial rests. 2) Root resorption by cementoblasts and Malassez epithelial rests death. 3) Dental resorption by odontoblasts cell death with preservation of pulp vitality. 4) Dental resorption by direct exposure of dentin to gingival connective tissue at the cementoenamel junction gaps.

Alberto, Consolaro.

85

Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4, on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1 at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4 at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores comuns aos pacientes que desenvolveram reabsorção radicular externa moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico fixo na dentição permanente. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 99 pacientes que iniciaram o tratamento ortodôntico fixo com a técnica Edgewise. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 - 50 pacientes que concluíram o tratamento com ausência de reabsorções radiculares ou apresentando apenas irregularidades apicais (graus 0 e 1 de Malmgren, com idade média inicial de 16,79 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,21 anos; G2 - 49 pacientes que finalizaram o tratamento apresentando reabsorção radicular moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren nos incisivos superiores, com idade média inicial de 19,92 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,98 anos. As radiografias periapicais e telerradiografias foram avaliadas, além de diversos fatores que pudessem influenciar a ocorrência de uma reabsorção severa. A análise estatística incluiu o testes qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher e teste t independente. RESULTADOS: foi demonstrada a presença de diferença significativa entre os grupos para as variáveis realização de extrações, grau de reabsorção radicular inicial, comprimento radicular, proporção coroa/raiz e da espessura da cortical óssea alveolar. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que são fatores de risco para reabsorção radicular severa nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a presença de reabsorção radicular antes do início do tratamento, a realização de extrações, o comprimento radicular reduzido, a proporção coroa/raiz diminuída e a espessura óssea alveolar fina.

Gracemia Vasconcelos Picanço

2013-02-01

86

Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores comuns aos pacientes que desenvolveram reabsorção radicular externa moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren) nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico fixo na dentição permanente. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 99 pacientes que iniciaram o tratamento or [...] todôntico fixo com a técnica Edgewise. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 - 50 pacientes que concluíram o tratamento com ausência de reabsorções radiculares ou apresentando apenas irregularidades apicais (graus 0 e 1 de Malmgren), com idade média inicial de 16,79 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,21 anos; G2 - 49 pacientes que finalizaram o tratamento apresentando reabsorção radicular moderada ou severa (graus 3 e 4 de Malmgren) nos incisivos superiores, com idade média inicial de 19,92 anos e tempo de tratamento médio de 3,98 anos. As radiografias periapicais e telerradiografias foram avaliadas, além de diversos fatores que pudessem influenciar a ocorrência de uma reabsorção severa. A análise estatística incluiu o testes qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fisher e teste t independente. RESULTADOS: foi demonstrada a presença de diferença significativa entre os grupos para as variáveis realização de extrações, grau de reabsorção radicular inicial, comprimento radicular, proporção coroa/raiz e da espessura da cortical óssea alveolar. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que são fatores de risco para reabsorção radicular severa nos incisivos superiores, durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a presença de reabsorção radicular antes do início do tratamento, a realização de extrações, o comprimento radicular reduzido, a proporção coroa/raiz diminuída e a espessura óssea alveolar fina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who unde [...] rwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.

Gracemia Vasconcelos, Picanço; Karina Maria Salvatore de, Freitas; Rodrigo Hermont, Cançado; Fabricio Pinelli, Valarelli; Paulo Roberto Barroso, Picanço; Camila Pontes, Feijão.

87

Ridge augmentation with guided bone regeneration and GTAM case illustrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principle of Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) can be used for Ridge Augmentation. These case illustrations describe the technique using Autogenous Cortico-Cancellous Bone Grafts and stabilization with Miniscrews and placement of a GTAM Barrier Membrane. Nyman et al (1990) published the first report of enlargement of a reduced alveolar ridge. Becker & Becker, Jovanovic, Buser et al have documented successful regeneration of such ridges. A study by Lang et al established that: 1. An undisturbed healing period of at least six months is required for optimal bone regeneration. 2. Smaller defects (less than 70 mm.3) regenerate almost completely. 3. Larger defects (greater than 90 mm.3) regenerate 90-93 percent and bone grafts may enhance success in larger defects. 4. Premature membrane removal will result in incomplete regeneration. Buser et al have described the technique of GBR in detail. They found the creation and maintenance of a secluded space is essential for successful outcome with GBR procedures. This space allows for the in growth of osteogenic cells so that bone regeneration is undisturbed by competing non-osteogenic soft tissue cells. Space-making defects such as extraction sockets are simple to treat, but localized ridge augmentation may be difficult because the membrane is not supported by bony walls. E-PTFE membranes have been reinforced with titanium struts and mini screws have been developed as a way of dealing with membrane collapse. Buser et al began to utilize autogenous bone grafts to support the membrane and to act as an osseoinductive scaffold for bone regeneration. They utilized a cortico-cancellous block graft in the centre of the augmentative area with smaller chips to fill in the periphery. The cortical portion of the graft re-establishes the buccal cortex and the cancellous portion is placed against the host bone. The host bone is perforated to open the marrow spaces. Placement of membrane protects the bone graft (up to 50 percent of grafted bone is lost through resorption in augmentation procedures where membrane is not used). PMID:9611454

Carlson-Mann, L D; Ibbott, C G; Grieman, R B

1996-01-01

88

The influence of ovariectomy, simvastatin and sodium alendronate on alveolar bone in rats Influência da ovariectomia, da sinvastatina e do alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of many diseases involving increased bone resorption such as osteoporosis. Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recent studies have shown that these drugs are also capable of stimulating bone formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an estrogen deficient state and the effects of simvastatin and sodium alendronate therapies on alveolar bone in female rats. Fifty-four rats wer...

Ana Lia Anbinder; Fernanda de Almeida Prado; Marcela de Almeida Prado; Ivan Balducci; Rosilene Fernandes da Rocha

2007-01-01

89

Measuring mandibular ridge reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

1984-01-01

90

3D-CT evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in alveolar clefts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1994 to 2000, we treated 116 patients with cleft alveolus by secondary alveolar bone grafts, and 48 of them were evaluated morphologically with 3D-CT. The frequency of successful bony bridging was significantly higher in the group whose grafts were completely enveloped (including the anterior alveolar ridge) with a mucoperiosteal flap. The frequency was also significantly higher in the group who underwent bone grafts at the age of 13 or less, and canine eruptions did not influence the ratio. Some cases showed such an improved growth pattern of grafted bone that the shape of the affected maxilla resembled that of the normal side, after long-term follow-up observations. The growth increment was remarkable in anterior maxillary height. Orthodontic management guides the canine or incisor into the reconstructed area of the previous cleft. We surmise that the new occlusal position puts pressure on the grafted bone and promotes further osteogenesis. These findings show that it is important to produce sufficient bony bridge to guide the canine or incisor, not the volume of grafted bone, in secondary alveolar bone grafts. Long-term follow-up observation, after more than 2-3 years, is also necessary to evaluate secondary alveolar bone grafts. (author)

Naitoh, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamawaki, Yoshiroh [Kyoto Katsura Hospital (Japan); Morimoto, Naoki [Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)

2002-07-01

91

Displasia alveolar congénita Congenital alveolar dysplasia  

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Full Text Available La displasia alveolar congénita es una patología congénita poco frecuente caracterizada por disminución de las unidades alveolares y anormalidades del desarrollo de la vasculatura pulmonar. Esta entidad produce hipertensión pulmonar severa e hipoxemia persistente con una evolución mortal en la mayoría de los casos. Afecta generalmente a recién nacidos a término, con un test de Apgar normal, que posteriormente desarrollan dificultad respiratoria, habitualmente en el primer día de vida. La enfermedad es refractaria al soporte pulmonar convencional en la mayoría de los casos. Publicamos el caso de un recién nacido a término, sin complicaciones perinatales, que a las pocas horas de vida presenta dificultad respiratoria grave requiriendo ventilación mecánica prolongada, con posterior compromiso multiorgánico, falleciendo a los 54 días de vida. Mediante la autopsia se hace diagnostico del caso. De acuerdo al caso recogido se plantea la necesidad de realizar biopsia pulmonar temprana para los pacientes en los que exista una alta sospecha clínica de esta patología con el fin de brindar un adecuado manejo y apoyo familiar dado la pobre evolución de la enfermedad. Congenital alveolar dysplasia is an uncommon congenital condition characterized by decrease of the alveolar units and abnormalities of the development of the pulmonary vasculature. This condition causes severe pulmonary hypertension and persistent hypoxemia with fatal course in most of the cases. It generally affects full-term newborns, with normal Apgar test, who subsequently develop breathing problems, usually in the first day of life. The disease is refractory to conventional pulmonary support in most of the cases. We are publishing the case of a full-term newborn, without perinatal complications, who at a few hours of life presented with severe breathing difficulties that required prolonged mechanical ventilation, with subsequent multiorgan affectation, dying at 54 days of life. The case was diagnosed through autopsy. In accordance with the case collected, the need to perform early pulmonary biopsy for patients having high clinical suspicion of this condition is proposed in order to offer adequate management and family support, given the poor course of the disease.

D.P. Sánchez Hernández

2012-01-01

92

Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

Scadding, Steven R.

1984-01-01

93

[Reconstruction of the severely resorbed mandibular ridge using Brånemark tissue-integrated prostheses].  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction procedure for the severely resorbed mandibular edentulous ridge has historically involved the use of a variety of surgical procedures and biologic and nonbiologic materials with limited success. The treatment of three patients with severe mandibular ridge resorption utilizing Brånemark Osseointegrated Prostheses is described. PMID:2701233

Asavanant, S

1989-01-01

94

Treatment of aggressive external root resorption with calcium hydroxide medicaments: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrusive luxation is an injury involving the axial displacement of a tooth into the alveolar socket. This paper describes apexification using calcium hydroxide medicaments of an immature permanent central incisor in which spontaneous re-eruption as well as severe inflammatory external root resorption was observed following traumatic intrusion. A 10-year-old boy was referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry 3 days after having fallen at school. Intraoral examination revealed intrusive luxation and an enamel-dentin crown fracture of the maxillary left central incisor (Tooth 21). The tooth was not sensitive to percussion and responded positively to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination indicated that the tooth had an open apex and had been intruded approximately 3-4 mm relative to the cemento-enamel junction of the adjacent right central incisor. The tooth was left for possible spontaneous re-eruption. The crown fracture was temporarily restored using glass ionomer cement, and the patient was scheduled for recall in 2 weeks, at which time intraoral examination revealed spontaneous re-eruption of the tooth. However, radiographic examination also showed inflammatory external root resorption. The root canal was accessed and filled with a calcium hydroxide paste; however, follow-up examination indicated continuing resorption after 1 month. Calcium hydroxide plus points (CHPP) was chosen as an alternative treatment. At the end of 6 months of CHPP treatment, examination showed no further progression of external resorption and complete apexification of the tooth. After a 24-month follow-up period, no signs of pathosis were observed. PMID:19519861

Oktem, Zeynep Ba?ak; Cetinba?, Tu?ba; Ozer, Levent; Sönmez, Hayriye

2009-10-01

95

Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes whole-lung lavage, application of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor and lung transplantation. Case report. We reported a 51 year-old man with primary form of the disease. It was the second case of this extremely rare disease in the past 30 years in our clinic. The symptoms were longlasting dry cough, fever and physical deterioration. Chest Xray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; computed tomography showed patchy ground-glass opacification with interlobular thickening. The diagnosis was established by open lung biopsy. Additional tests were performed to exclude secondary form of the disease. Conclusion. We presented a rare clinical entity with typical clinical features and clinical and radiological course of the disease, in order to improve differential diagnostic approach to patients with bilateral lung infiltrations. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis timely diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve a prognosis.

Šarac Sanja

2012-01-01

96

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década). Se clasifican en forma histológic [...] a en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años). A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de útero Abstract in english Rabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade). They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, [...] botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Ernesto, Hurel M; Gregorio, Evans M; Ronald, Poulsen R; Hugo, Gómez P.

97

Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ? 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

Sina Haghanifar

2012-01-01

98

Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten

2012-01-01

99

[Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption. PMID:2576918

Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

1989-01-01

100

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiliasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a patient with plmonary alveolar microlithiliasis who was admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with chest pain, shortness of breath dry cough and swelling of lower limbs.The patient underwent chest radiolgraphs and computerized tomography scan showing multiple diffuse, almost symmetrical bilateral micronodulor opacities of calicific density. The diagnosis was confirmed after percuraneous lung biopsy from the patient. Cardiokinetics, diuretics and oxygen were administerd with slight improvement. (author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Alveolar bone grafting  

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In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible t...

Lilja Jan

2009-01-01

102

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the diffuse and bilateral presence of calcium phosphate microlite in the alveolar spaces. The progression of this potentially lethal disease is show and most of the patients remain asymptomatic during years or decades, resulting in a show deterioration of the pulmonary function. The typical finding of the sand storm in the chest X-ray is characteristic of this entity. Mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that does the coding for the type II co-transporter of sodium phosphate were identified as responsible for this disease. Of the almost 600 cases, only 6 have been reported in Colombia. We are presenting a case of pulmonary alveolar microlite in a 27 year old man, with progressive respiratory distress whose diagnosis was made by the X-ray findings and confirmed by trans bronchial biopsy. In the 2 years follow-up, shows evolution towards deterioration of his respiratory function making him a candidate for lung transplantation.

2007-01-01

103

Multiple Congenital Epulis of the Mandibular Ridge: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Congenital epulis is a very rare benign soft-tissue tumor of uncertain histogenesis, which is also known as “gingival granular cell tumor of the newborn”. It occurs almost exclusively as a single tumor along the alveolar ridge of the maxilla in newborn females. Although congenital epulis is strikingly similar to the more common adult granular cell tumor histologically, in contrast to the latter congenital epulis cells are negative for S-100 protein. This case report describes a 15-day-old female infant with multiple congenital epulis of the mandibular alveolar ridge.

Mohammad Gharavi

2011-01-01

104

Periapical tissue reactions to calcium hydroxide and MTA after external root resorption as a sequela of delayed tooth replantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical experience has shown that most avulsed teeth are replanted after a long extra-alveolar time and dry or inadequate wet storage, causing necrosis of periodontal ligament cells. This condition invariably leads to development of external root resorption, leaving the filling material in contact with the periapical connective tissues. In this study, the periapical tissue reactions to calcium hydroxide (CH) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were evaluated after occurrence of external root resorption as an expected sequela of delayed tooth replantation. Twenty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) had their right upper incisor extracted and maintained in dry storage for 60 min. Then, the dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were immersed in a 2% acidulated phosphate sodium fluoride solution, pH 5.5, for 10 min. The teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 10), in which the canals were filled with either a CH and saline paste (CH group) or MTA (MTA group). The sockets were irrigated with saline, and the teeth were replanted. After 80 days, it was possible to observe large areas of replacement root resorption and some areas of inflammatory root resorption in both groups. More severe inflammatory tissue reaction was observed in contact with calcium hydroxide compared with the mineral trioxide aggregate. New bone formation was more intense at the bottom of the socket in the MTA group. In conclusion, as far as periapical tissue compatibility is concerned, intracanal MTA can be considered as a viable option for root canal filling in delayed tooth replantation, in which external root resorption is an expected sequela. PMID:22151580

Marão, Heloisa Fonseca; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeiras; Silva, Pedro Ivo Santos

2012-08-01

105

Bioceramics composition modulate resorption of human osteoclasts.  

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Biomaterials used in bone regeneration are designed to be gradually resorbed by the osteoclast and replaced by new bone formed through osteoblastic activity. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of osteoclasts in the resorption process. The attachment of human osteoclasts and the appearance of their resorption lacunae, when cultured on either the resorbable crystalline, calcium orthophosphate materials or on the long-term stable bioceramic material was investigated. The resorbable materials contain Ca10[K,Na](PO4)7 (AW-Si) and Ca2KNa(PO4)2 (GB14, GB9 & D9/25) as their main crystal phases, however they differ in their total solubility. These differences result from small variations in the composition. The long-term stable material consist of about 30% fluorapatite beside calcium zirconium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3F + CaZr4(PO4)6) and shows a very small solubility. AW-Si has an alkali containing crystalline phase, Ca10[K,Na](PO4). While GB14, GB9 and D9/25 contain the crystalline phase Ca2KNa(PO4)2 with small additions of crystalline and amorphous diphosphates and/or magnesium potassium phosphate (GB14). D9/25 and AW-Si is less soluble compared to GB14, and GB9 among the resorbable materials. Resorbable and long-term stable materials vary in their chemical compositions, solubility, and surface morphology. Osteoclasts modified the surface in their attempts to resorb the materials irrespective of the differences in their physical and chemical properties. The depth and morphology of the resorption imprints were different depending on the type of material. These changes in the surface structure created by osteoclasts are likely to affect the way osteoblasts interact with the materials and how bone is subsequently formed. PMID:16362222

Ramaswamy, Y; Haynes, D R; Berger, G; Gildenhaar, R; Lucas, H; Holding, C; Zreiqat, H

2005-12-01

106

Endodontic therapy of pathological resorptions of tooth root  

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Pathological resorptions of a tooth root very often represent both a diagnostic and therapeutical problem. The goal of this study was, based on clinical research on a number of pathological resorptions of various types and localization in relation to time, to analyze and evaluate applied endodontic therapy. Clinical research covered 30 patients (40 root canals in total). 18 teeth (22 canal) with external and 12 (18 canal) with internal root resorptions received endodontic therapy. After stand...

Opa?i?-Gali? Vanja; Živkovi? Slavoljub

2004-01-01

107

Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy  

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External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force are i...

Allan Abuabara

2007-01-01

108

Androgens regulate bone resorption activity of isolated osteoclasts in vitro  

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For many years it has been recognized that sex steroids have profound effects on bone metabolism. The current perception is that estrogen decreases bone resorption and androgen increases bone deposition. To investigate the potential for androgens to directly modulate bone resorption, we have examined avian osteoclast and human and mouse osteoclast-like cells for androgen responsiveness. There was a dose-dependent decrease in resorption activity in response to ?-dihydrotestosterone (?-DHT), ...

Pederson, Larry; Kremer, Matthew; Judd, Jeffrey; Pascoe, David; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Riggs, B. Lawrence; Oursler, Merry Jo

1999-01-01

109

Root resorption following treatment with aligners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Can orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) be the result of Invisalign treatment? Since OIIRR was first described in the literature, orthodontists have been looking for a treatment procedure where no root shortening will occur. In the past decade, Invisalign orthodontic treatment has become very popular, and there is no description of OIIRR after this treatment. Therefore, it might be incorrectly concluded that the body is immune to this type of orthodontic treatment modality and no OIIRR appears as a result of this treatment. The following case report demonstrates an aspect of the complexity of OIIRR. PMID:18947291

Brezniak, Naphtali; Wasserstein, Atalia

2008-11-01

110

Congenital granular cell tumor of the alveolar ridge  

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Congenital epulis or neonatal granular cell tumor is a tumor whose histogenesis has long been debated. It is dissimilar to other granular cell tumors; the latter having derivation from Schwann cells and hence being S-100 positive. We report a case of congenital granular cell tumor in a newborn female child that was uneventfully operated. The case is reported here because of its rarity.

2010-01-01

111

Congenital granular cell tumor of the alveolar ridge  

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Full Text Available Congenital epulis or neonatal granular cell tumor is a tumor whose histogenesis has long been debated. It is dissimilar to other granular cell tumors; the latter having derivation from Schwann cells and hence being S-100 positive. We report a case of congenital granular cell tumor in a newborn female child that was uneventfully operated. The case is reported here because of its rarity.

Dhingra Meetu

2010-04-01

112

Endodontic therapy of pathological resorptions of tooth root  

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Full Text Available Pathological resorptions of a tooth root very often represent both a diagnostic and therapeutical problem. The goal of this study was, based on clinical research on a number of pathological resorptions of various types and localization in relation to time, to analyze and evaluate applied endodontic therapy. Clinical research covered 30 patients (40 root canals in total. 18 teeth (22 canal with external and 12 (18 canal with internal root resorptions received endodontic therapy. After standard endodontic procedure had been applied (cleaning and canal shaping calcium hydroxide paste was used as a canal medicament for cases with internal resorptions and calcium hydroxide paste and points for cases with external resorptions. Canal opturations were done by modified technique of lateral condesation applying AH- Plus paste. The obtained results showed that in cases of internal resorption after 12 months, 11 cases were successful and only 1 failure occurred. In case of external resorption, after the same period of time, 15 cases were successful and failures occurred in 3 cases. The success of resorption treatment depends on many factors but, primarily, it depends on time and accuracy of diagnosis and properly applied treatment and root canal opturation.

Opa?i?-Gali? Vanja

2004-01-01

113

Alveolar bone grafting  

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Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

Lilja Jan

2009-10-01

114

Alveolar mucosa necrosis induced by utilisation of calcium hydroxide as root canal dressing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case demonstrates the ability of calcium hydroxide to cause connective tissue necrosis. A patient with a history of trauma exhibited a large area of external inflammatory root resorption affecting the cervical and middle thirds of tooth 12. After root canal cleaning, a calcium hydroxide root canal dressing was applied to control the resorption process. After three days when the patient attended for replacement of the dressing an irregular zone of necrosis was observed on the buccal aspect of the alveolar mucosa. Careful curettage and irrigation was then performed to remove the extruded calcium hydroxide and necrotic tissue. After curettage, the root canal was accessed and irrigated with saline solution for removal of remnants of the dressing. The dressing was than replaced taking care to avoid contact with soft tissue, which might induce further damage, minimising the overflow of material. Improvement in healing was observed at 15-day follow-up, with complete closure of the lesion by soft tissue. At the 120-day follow-up, no scar was detected. At 180-day follow-up, the root canal was filled only with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with aid of K files #20 and #50. At two-year follow-up, there were no symptoms and the resorption process seemed to have ceased. It is important to emphasise the damage that may occur when calcium hydroxide is in close and extended contact with the soft tissues, which could happen when dressing material is extruded through a root resorption. PMID:18478888

Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Sipert, Carla Renata; Bernadineli, Noberti; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; de Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho

2008-04-01

115

Management of internal resorption of central incisor using hybrid technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal inflammatory root resorption is characterised by progressive destruction of intraradicular dentin and dentinal tubules along the root canal wall. A number of theories have been proposed as a possible cause for internal resorption. It is usually asymptomatic and detected during routine radiographic investigations. Prompt diagnosis and early management of such defects is essential to maintain the integrity of the tooth. Non-surgical and surgical methods are the two main strategies involved in the management of internal resorption. The non-surgical method is usually preferred, but in cases of extensive resorption with external root perforation, surgical intervention has been advocated. The present case illustrates repair of perforating internal resorption by hybrid method, using mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha, following surgical exposure. After a 10-month follow-up, no clinical and radiographic abnormalities were observed. Additionally, there was also marked reduction in periodontal pocket depth. PMID:24473420

Gayathri, Prabakaran; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Jain, Eesha

2014-01-01

116

Proteinases in bone resorption : obvious and less obvious roles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone resorption is critical for the development and the maintenance of the skeleton, and improper regulation of bone resorption leads to pathological situations. Proteinases are necessary for this process. In this review, we show that this need of proteinases is not only because they are required for the solubilization of bone matrix, but also because they are key components of the mechanism that determines where and when bone resorption will be initiated. Moreover, there are indications that proteinases may also determine whether resorption will be followed by bone formation. Some of the proteinases involved in these different steps of the resorption processes were recently identified, as for instance cathepsin K, MMP-9 (gelatinase B), and interstitial collagenase. However, there is also increasing evidence showing that the critical proteinase(s) may vary depending on the bone type or on other factors.

Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Engsig, M T

2000-01-01

117

Bone resorption after alloplastic augmentation of the mandible.  

Science.gov (United States)

Augmentation mentoplasty is a commonly performed operation especially in conjunction with rhinoplasty. While various materials have previously been used for this procedure, silastic has been the implant of choice for the last three decades. Concerns have been raised due to the occurrence of bone resorption beneath these implants. Controversy prevails as to the cause and the long-term effects of the resorption. It has been suggested by some that the resorption is self-limiting although this has not been confirmed in clinical studies. In total, 40 patients with silastic implants, who had a mean follow-up of 20 months (8-60 months), were studied radiologically. In 21 of them (52%), a degree of resorption from 0.5 to 2 mm was observed. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant relationship between the degree of resorption and the time lapse since surgery (P = 0.048). PMID:11994120

Saleh, H A; Lohuis, P J F M; Vuyk, H D

2002-04-01

118

Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We investigated the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic acidification in vivo by using the rat ovariectomy model withtwice daily oral dosing of NS3696 at 50 mg/kg for 6 weeks. We observed a 60% decrease in resorption (DPYR), increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels, and no effect on bone formation evaluated by osteocalcin. We speculate that attenuated acidification inhibits dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone and results in an increased number of nonresorbing osteoclasts that are responsible for the coupling to normal bone formation. Thus, we suggest that acidification is essential for normal bone remodeling and that attenuated acidification leads to uncoupling with decreased bone resorption and unaffected bone formation.

Karsdal, Morten A; Henriksen, Kim Steen

2005-01-01

119

Alveolar proteinosis in Behçet's disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract A 51-year-old man with Behçet's disease complained of fever, dry cough and dyspnea during exertion. Chest CT showed ground glass opacities with interstitial septal thickening in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL revealed amorphous and lipoproteinaceous material that was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain positive. Transbronchial biopsy specimen demonstrated PAS positive alveolar eosinophilic material consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF antibody was negative. Recent studies have reported anti-GMCSF not present in the the serum of patients with secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP but they have not reported so in patients with idiopathic PAP. We report a case of alveolar proteinosis in the setting of Behçet's disease with spontaneous remission.

Tetikkurt Cuneyt

2010-08-01

120

Alveolar proteinosis in Behçet's disease  

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Abstract A 51-year-old man with Behçet's disease complained of fever, dry cough and dyspnea during exertion. Chest CT showed ground glass opacities with interstitial septal thickening in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) revealed amorphous and lipoproteinaceous material that was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain positive. Transbronchial biopsy specimen demonstrated PAS positive alveolar eosinophilic material consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum anti-granulocy...

Tetikkurt Cuneyt; Tetikkurt Seza; Ozdemir Imran; Zuhur Cigdem; Bayar Nihal

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two males, mean age 18.5 years). After the osteotomy procedure distractor was fixed. After 3 days of consolidation period, the distractor was activated 3 quarter turns per day(0.75 mm/day) till the canines comes in contact with second premolar. An electrical vitality test was applied before and after the distraction procedure and during the follow-up period. Results: The mean distal retraction of canines was 7.262 ± 0.4864 mm. The distal displacement of the canine was mainly a combination of tipping and translation. The mean distraction procedure was completed in 14.60 ±1.536 days. The duration of retraction was less for mandibular canine compared to maxillary canine. The mean posterior anchorage loss was mean 0.50±0.688 mm. The amount of root resorption that occurred during distraction was clinically insignificant. None of the teeth reacted negatively to the electrical vitality test that was performed 6 months after the completion of the distraction procedure. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any tooth. Conclusion: With dentoalveolar distraction, as canines can be fully retracted in 12 to 16 days, the non-compliance patients, patients with root-shape malformations, periodontal problems, or ankylosed teeth will benefit from this technique. The anchorage teeth can withstand the retraction forces better with no anchorage loss, and without clinical or radiographic evidence of root resorption, ankylosis, periodontal problems, and soft tissue dehiscence. This technique reduces orthodontic treatment duration by 6 to 9 months in patients who need extraction, with no need for any sort of anchorage reinforcement. How to cite this article: Kumar N, Prashantha GS, Raikar S, Ranganath K, Mathew S, Nambiar S. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):31-41 . PMID:24453442

Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, Gs; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

2013-12-01

122

Liquid supported denture-management of flabby ridges  

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The ideal properties of a denture are adequate rigidity on polished surface to bear masticatory forces and at the same time, flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of masticatory forces. The problem with conventional denture is rigidity of tissue surface; leads to uneven distribution of load. This drawback even worsens in the case of flabby, atrophic and unemployed ridges with excessive bone resorption. The liquid supported denture allows continued ada...

Mody, Pranav V.; Kumar, Girish; Kumar, Manish; Shetty, Brijesh

2012-01-01

123

[Dynamics of bone resorption analyzed by intravital imaging].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using conventional methods such as histological analysis, many osteoclasts can be observed in the site of bone destruction. However, how the bone-resorptive functions of mature osteoclasts are controlled in vivo remains unclear. To answer this question, we have originally developed an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital multiphoton microscopy. Using this system, we succeeded in visualizing bone resorption of mature osteoclasts in living bone. Here we show the latest data and also discuss the further application of intravital bone imaging. This approach would be quite useful for evaluating novel anti-bone-resorptive drugs in vivo . PMID:24162603

Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

2013-11-01

124

Study of the relationship between the indication rod of stent on implant CT and the real path of implant fixture insertion considering residual ridge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the relationship between the direction of the indicating rod of the radiographic stent for ideal prosthetic design and the actual possible path of implant fixture placement when residual ridge resorption is considered. The study materials considered of 326 implant sites (male 214 cases and female 112 cases) from a total of 106 patients (male 65 patients and female 41 patients) who desired implant prostheses. Computed tomography of patients were taken and reformatted using ToothPix software. Bony defects, bony sclerosis, the change of the direction of indicating rod, and root proximity of the adjacent teeth were examined on the CT-derived images. The rate of the irregular crestal cortex was relatively high on premolar and molar area of maxilla. Mandibular molar area showed relatively high rate of focal sclerosis on the area of implant fixture insertion. The position of the including rods were relatively acceptable on the molar areas of both jaws. However, the position of the indicating rods should be shifted to buccal side with lingual rotation of the apical end on maxillary anterior teeth and premolar area. Clinically determined rod direction and position of the indicating rod for implant placement was not always acceptable for insertion according to the reformatted CT images. The pre-operative treatment plan for implant should be determined carefully, considering the state of the alveolar bone using the reformatted CT images.

2003-06-01

125

Root resorption in association with ectopic eruption: report of case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This patient showed extensive root resorption close to the cementoenamel junction. It is likely that impacted teeth anywhere in the dental arch can participate in the destruction of root surfaces of neighboring teeth. PMID:3478365

Omnell, L; Sipher, D

1987-01-01

126

Effect of Pasteurella multocida toxin on bone resorption in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), which is the primary etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs, was found to stimulate bone resorption in vitro. This stimulation was observed both in cultures of murine calvaria by measuring the release of calcium and of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucuronidase and in murine long bone cultures by measuring the release of calcium. Both systems showed the same dose response curve, with the maximal effect at a concentration of 5 ng/ml. The effect on calvaria was studied in more detail. PMT increased bone resorption 24 h after its addition and always had to be present to express an effect. Calcitonin was able to inhibit this increase of resorption completely, and inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis suppressed it partially. Although the data show an effect of PMT on bone tissue, the results do not exclude an action on cells in the nasal cavity, which could indirectly stimulate bone resorption.

Felix, R; Fleisch, H; Frandsen, P L

1992-01-01

127

Zoledronate reduces unwanted bone resorption in intercalary bone allografts  

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Bone allografts are often hampered by graft incorporation and poor host bone formation. Bisphosphonates, synthetic pyrophosphate analogs, have shown promise in inhibiting bone resorption in human and animal trials. Some in vitro studies have suggested that high dose bisphosphonate may also inhibit bone formation, leading to our hypothesis that an ideal dose of bisphosphonate in allografts could protect allografts from resorption. We transplanted intercalary allografts in to the segmental defe...

Seo, Sung W.; Cho, Samuel K.; Storer, Steven K.; Lee, Francis Y.

2010-01-01

128

Identification of A Novel Root Resorptive Function of Osteopontin Gene  

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Objective: Osteopontin (OPN) has been proposed to play a role in bone resorption. With regard to bone and cementum/dentin structural and histological similarities, it was hy-pothesized that expression of this gene might be increased in resorptive lacunae during orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: Fixed Nickel-Titanium closed coil springs (Dentaurum®) capa-ble of delivering approximately 60 gf were applied for mesial movement of maxillary left first molars in 26 male 8-week-old ...

2008-01-01

129

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques  

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Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

Malhotra Balbir; Sabharwal Raghu; Singh Mandeep; Singh Amarjeet

2010-01-01

130

Ridge splitting technique in atrophic anterior maxilla with immediate implants, bone regeneration and immediate temporisation: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrow alveolar ridges remain a serious challenge for the successful placement of endosseous implants. This article reports a technique for widening the atrophic ridge by splitting the alveolar bone longitudinally and filling the bone gap with collagenised pig bone, treatment of ridges as thin as 2.5mm at the alveolar crest and simultaneous placement of dental implants. Treatment of a 22-year-old female patient with a severely resorbed anterior maxilla is described. 4mm wide by 13mm long threaded Osseotite implants were immediately placed within the split ridge and surrounded with a mixture of autogenous tuberosity and collagenised pig bone. The advantages of this technique for patients include less surgical trauma and reduced treatment time. PMID:18201023

Calvo Guirado, Jose Luis; Pardo Zamora, Guillermo; Saez Yuguero, Maria Rosario

2007-01-01

131

A maxillary ridge-splitting technique followed by immediate placement of implants: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillary alveolar atrophy often limits the placement of dental implants. This article reports on a refinement of a technique for widening the atrophic ridge by splitting the alveolar bone longitudinally. Treatment of a patient with a severely resorbed edentulous maxilla is described. Six 4-mm wide by 13-mm long threaded Osseotite implants were placed immediately within the split ridge and surrounded with a mixture of autogenous tuberosity and bovine bone. The advantages of this technique for patients include less surgical trauma and condensed treatment time. PMID:15764940

Guirado, Jose Luis Calvo; Yuguero, Maria Rosario Saez; Carrión del Valle, Maria Jose; Zamora, Guillermo Pardo

2005-03-01

132

Distracción osteogénica alveolar por medio de dispositivos yuxtaoseos: Revisión de literatura y reporte de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo: A reconstrução dos rebordos alveolares atroficos por meio da técnica de distração osteogênica alveolar (DOA) oferece um resultado previsível com baixas taxas de morbilidade e uma ganância notável de tecido ósseo e tecidos moles, em comparação com as técnicas tradicionalmente utilizadas. Foi [...] atendido um paciente masculino de 21 anos de idade o qual apressentaba afrofia severa do rebordo alveolar na região anterior da maxila por meio de DOA, utilizando um dispositivo yuxtaoseo (Conexão Implant System® - SP-Brasil), começando a ativação do aparelho aos 7 dias após a instalação, com uma padronização de 1mm diários ate lograr os comprimentos ósseos desejado, retirando-se o distrator e colocando-se os implantes osseointegrados às 10 semanas posteriores. Pudo-se comprovar clinica e radiográficamente o incremento em comprimento e volume ósseo necessário para a reabilitação com implantes Abstract in spanish La reconstrucción de rebordes alveolares atróficos por medio de la técnica de distracción osteogénica alveolar (DOA) ofrece un resultado previsible con bajas tasas de morbilidad y una ganancia notable de tejido óseo y tejidos blandos, en comparación con las técnicas tradicionalmente utilizadas. Fue [...] atendido un paciente masculino de 21 años de edad quien presentaba atrofia severa del reborde alveolar en región anterior del maxilar por medio de DOA, utilizando un dispositivo yuxtaoseo (Conexão Implant System® - SP-Brasil). Comenzando la activación del dispositivo a los 7 días posteriores a la instalación, con un patrón de activación de 1 mm. diarios hasta alcanzar la altura ósea deseada, retirándose el distractor y colocando los implantes oseointegrados a las 10 semanas posteriores, pudo comprobarse clínica y radiográficamente el incremento en altura y volumen óseo necesario para la rehabilitación por medio de implantes Abstract in english Abstract: The reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges by means of the technique of alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) offers a foregone result with small morbidity rates and a remarkable gain of bony and soft tissues, in comparison with the traditionally used techniques. A masculine patient [...] of 21 years old who presented a severe atrophy of alveolar ridge in the region anterior of the maxillary was assisted by means of ADO, using a juxtaosseous device (Connection Implant System® - SP-Brazil), beginning the activation from the device to the 7 days later to the installation, with a pattern of activation 1 mm. per day until reaching the wanted bony height, being carried out the retirement of the distractor and the placement of the implants 10 weeks later. It could be proven clinic and radiographic the gain of the height and necessary bony volume for the rehabilitation by implants

Maurette, Paul E; de Maurette, Marvis Allais; Mazzonetto, Msc, PhD, Renato.

133

IL-17 is involved in bone resorption in mouse periapical lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periapical lesions are induced by bacterial infection of the dental pulp and result in destruction of the surrounding alveolar bone. Although various immunological studies concerning periapical bone resorption have been reported, the role of cytokines in the formation of periapical lesions remains unclear. In this study, the role of IL-17A in periapical lesions in mice was investigated. Normal C57BL/6, IFN-gamma(-/-), TNF-alpha(-/-), and IL-17A(-/-) mice were subjected to pulp exposure and infected with Prevotella intermedia (ATCC25611) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) in the mandibular first molar. Periapical lesions were determined by muCT on day 21 after infection, and 3D visual construction was performed using 3D picture quantification software. The expression of IL-17A mRNA in periapical lesions was determined by the RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR method. Periapical lesions developed in wild-type, IFN-gamma(-/-), and TNF-alpha(-/-) mice after infection with P. intermedia and P. gingivalis. However, periapical lesions were not observed in IL-17A(-/-) mice. The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significantly induced in periapical lesions of wild-type mice after infection. These results suggest that IL-17A, but not IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, plays an important role in the formation of periapical lesions. PMID:19457170

Oseko, Fumishige; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Akamatsu, Yuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Imanishi, Jiro; Kita, Masakazu

2009-05-01

134

Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco") possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL A [...] ND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily); ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily). Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

Benatti, Bruno B.; Campos-Júnior, Jozafá C.; Silva-Filho, Vilmar J.; Alves, Polyanna M.; Rodrigues, Isabela R.; Uber-Bucek, Elizabeth; Vieira, Silvio M.; Napimoga, Marcelo H..

135

Multiple Congenital Epulis of the Mandibular Ridge: A Case Report  

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Congenital epulis is a very rare benign soft-tissue tumor of uncertain histogenesis, which is also known as “gingival granular cell tumor of the newborn”. It occurs almost exclusively as a single tumor along the alveolar ridge of the maxilla in newborn females. Although congenital epulis is strikingly similar to the more common adult granular cell tumor histologically, in contrast to the latter congenital epulis cells are negative for S-100 protein. This case report describes a 15-day-old...

Mehran Hiradfar; Nona Zabolinejad; Mohammad Gharavi; Sadaf Sebt

2011-01-01

136

B Cell IgD Deletion Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss Following Murine Oral Infection  

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Full Text Available Periodontal disease is one of the most common infectious diseases of humans. Immune responses to infection trigger loss of alveolar bone from the jaw and eventual tooth loss. We investigated the contribution of B cell IgD to alveolar bone loss by comparing the response of B cell normal BALB/cJ mice and IgD deficient BALB/c-Igh-5?/?J mice to oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative periodontopathic bacterium from humans. P. gingivalis-infected normal mice lost bone. Specific antibody to P. gingivalis was lower and oral colonization was higher in IgD deficient mice; yet bone loss was completely absent. Infection increased the proportion of CD69+ activated B cells and CD4+ T cells in immune normal mice compared to IgD deficient mice. These data suggest that IgD is an important mediator of alveolar bone resorption, possibly through antigen-specific coactivation of B cells and CD4+ T cells.

Pamela J. Baker

2009-01-01

137

Alveolar adenoma: A rare lung tumor  

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Full Text Available Introduction Alveolar adenoma belongs to the group of benign epithelial tumors. Histogenesis of alveolar adenoma is a combination of proliferation of alveolar pneumocytes and fibrous tissue originating from septal mesenchyma. Case outline A sixty-nine-year old female patient was hospitalized for clinical examination and surgery of well defined and homogenous timorous lesion in the right middle lobe causing pleural pain. Bronchoscopic examination with biopsy did not resolve etiology of the disease. Tumorectomy was performed. Timorous nodule had a multicystic appearance and histologically, histochemically and immunohistochemically, an alveolar adenoma was estimated. Five years after surgery, the patient feels well, without respiratory symptoms and signs of recurrence or malignant alteration, respectively. Conclusion Alveolar adenoma is a rare benign lung tumor, most frequently presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule. After complete surgery, the tumor neither relapses nor malignantly alters. Surgical excision is curative. It is necessary to take into consideration alveolar adenoma, too, when a solitary pulmonary nodule is diagnosed.

Stojši? Jelena

2007-01-01

138

Effect of Nasal Floor Closure on the Size of Alveolar Cleft in Complete Unilateral or Bilateral Primary Cleft Palate  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip (CL and cleft palate (CP are among the most common congenital anomalies. Constituting 65% of head and neck anomalies in isolated or syndromic forms, they are considered as the most common head and neck congenital deformities in children. Methods: 15 children from the Tabriz Children Hospital were evaluated in this descriptive-analytic cross sectional study that possessed unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with inclusion criteria. The effect of nasal floor reconstruction on the size of alveolar cleft and palatal anterior fistula formation were evaluated in primary unilateral and bilateral cleft palate. Results: There were 11 (73.3% male and only 4 (26.7% female patients in the sample group. The mean duration from first consult to reconstructive surgery was 3.4±1.8 months (1 to 9 months range. The width of alveolar cleft and alveolar ridge angle on cleft side compared to normal side in sagittal and coronal axis was significant after nasal floor reconstruction (P=0.001, P=0.02, while septal angle changes were not significant (P=0.26, which means no increase in septal deviation has been documented. Conclusion: Considering the significant changes of alveolar cleft width and alveolar ridge angle on cleft side compared to normal side in sagittal and coronal axis after nasal floor closure, this method can be applied as a new interventional surgery in primary unilateral and bilateral cleft palate.

M Moghadaszadeh

2012-10-01

139

Chemical modulation of alveolar epithelial permeability.  

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The volume and composition of fluid on the surface of the alveoli can affect alveolar ventilation, gas diffusion, and macrophage function. The passive permeability and active processes of the alveolar epithelial lining play a role in regulating surface fluid and are a potential site of damage by airborne chemicals. Like other epithelial barriers, the alveolar lining is permeable to lipophilic substances but restricts the transmural flow of small ions and hydrophilic nonelectrolytes (equivalen...

Gatzy, J. T.; Stutts, M. J.

1980-01-01

140

Alveolar adenoma: A rare lung tumor  

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Introduction Alveolar adenoma belongs to the group of benign epithelial tumors. Histogenesis of alveolar adenoma is a combination of proliferation of alveolar pneumocytes and fibrous tissue originating from septal mesenchyma. Case outline A sixty-nine-year old female patient was hospitalized for clinical examination and surgery of well defined and homogenous timorous lesion in the right middle lobe causing pleural pain. Bronchoscopic examination with biopsy did not resolve etiology of the dis...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Heat shock induces rapid resorption of primary cilia  

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Summary Primary cilia are involved in important developmental and disease pathways, such as the regulation of neurogenesis and tumorigenesis. They function as sensory antennae and are essential in the regulation of key extracellular signalling systems. We have investigated the effects of cell stress on primary cilia. Exposure of mammalian cells in vitro, and zebrafish cells in vivo, to elevated temperature resulted in the rapid loss of cilia by resorption. In mammalian cells loss of cilia correlated with a reduction in hedgehog signalling. Heat-shock-dependent loss of cilia was decreased in cells where histone deacetylases (HDACs) were inhibited, suggesting resorption is mediated by the axoneme-localised tubulin deacetylase HDAC6. In thermotolerant cells the rate of ciliary resorption was reduced. This implies a role for molecular chaperones in the maintenance of primary cilia. The cytosolic chaperone Hsp90 localises to the ciliary axoneme and its inhibition resulted in cilia loss. In the cytoplasm of unstressed cells, Hsp90 is known to exist in a complex with HDAC6. Moreover, immediately after heat shock Hsp90 levels were reduced in the remaining cilia. We hypothesise that ciliary resorption serves to attenuate cilia-mediated signalling pathways in response to extracellular stress, and that this mechanism is regulated in part by HDAC6 and Hsp90.

Prodromou, Natalia V.; Thompson, Clare L.; Osborn, Daniel P. S.; Cogger, Kathryn F.; Ashworth, Rachel; Knight, Martin M.; Beales, Philip L.; Chapple, J. Paul

2012-01-01

142

In vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced bone resorption by polymyxin B.  

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans stimulates resorption and inhibits collagen synthesis in mouse calvaria bones in vitro. Addition of polymyxin B caused a dose-related inhibition of LPS-stimulated bone resorption and reversal of the inhibition of collagen synthesis. A polymyxin B to LPS ratio of 2:1 prevented bone resorption and restored collagen synthesis to control levels. The activity of polymyxin B was specific for LPS as bone resorption induced by p...

Harvey, W.; Wilson, M.; Meghji, S.

1986-01-01

143

Identification of A Novel Root Resorptive Function of Osteopontin Gene  

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Full Text Available Objective: Osteopontin (OPN has been proposed to play a role in bone resorption. With regard to bone and cementum/dentin structural and histological similarities, it was hy-pothesized that expression of this gene might be increased in resorptive lacunae during orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: Fixed Nickel-Titanium closed coil springs (Dentaurum® capa-ble of delivering approximately 60 gf were applied for mesial movement of maxillary left first molars in 26 male 8-week-old Wistar rats. The right maxillary molar served as inter-nal control for each subject. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed. Tissues from 13 rats were examined by histomorphometric analysis and the scratched material from resorptive lacunae on mesial sides of the roots was used for extracting messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA in RT-PCR reactions. T-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test served for statistical analyses.Results: Histomorphometric analysis of histologic sections revealed an increased resorbed area in test group compared to control animals (P<0.001. The integrity of mRNA con-firmed by RT-PCR for housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Densitometric analysis of OPN mRNA on electrophoresis gel showed an in-crease in background levels of OPN in resorptive lacunae of test group (P<0.001.Conclusion: Data indicates that in the controlled environment of this study, an increase in OPN expression is associated with root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth move-ment.

M. Seifi

2008-12-01

144

Effect of fish oil on lipopolysaccharide-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone: A Preliminary Study  

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Full Text Available Dietary fish oil has been shown to inhibit bone resorption and, therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fish oil alters lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone. Rats were divided into four groups. The animals injected with saline or Escherichia coli-derived LPS into the maxillary alveolar mucosa on the buccoapical site of the molar region daily for 8 days were served as a negative or positive control, respectively. Other groups of animals were injected with LPS and orally treated with fish oil at the same day with or after LPS injection. The results of the present study showed that the hydroxyapatite contents of alveolar bone in rats treated with fish oil at the same day with or before LPS injection were significantly higher than those in rats injected with LPS alone, but still lower than those in untreated animals. Therefore, the present study suggests that oral treatment with fish oil may reduce LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone

Didin E. Indahyani

2009-02-01

145

Postoperative assessment of secondary bone grafting to the alveolar cleft using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1995 and 2004, 282 alveolar bone grafts were performed in our department using particle cancellous bone from the iliac bone. To evaluate postoperative results the height of bone bridging was measured in a two-dimensional evaluation using dental radiographs. However, recently, with the development of three-dimension CT (3-D CT), three-dimensional evaluation of bone bridging is recommended. Therefore, since last year, we have been evaluating bone bridging using dental CT. In this paper, we report a diagnostic imaging method for bone grafting to the alveolar cleft. First, a horizontal line passing along the inferior border of the piriform aperture of the normal side on the 3-D picture is drawn and then a horizontal line passing through the tip of the labial alveolar ridge of the central incisor of the upper jaw of the normal side is drawn. Then the distance between these two horizontal lines is measured. Next, this distance is equally divided into five segments by four horizontal lines. The labial lingual width of the bone bridge of the alveolar cleft part from the axial view of the height of these four horizontal lines is compared to that of the alveolar bone of the normal side. These four compared values are called the progression of the alveolar cleft, and the results of the bone grafting are judged by these numbers. We are convinced that the results of bone grafting can be more easily understood using this progression than from the many axial views of 3-D CT. (author)

2006-01-01

146

Autogenous bone harvesting and grafting in advanced jaw resorption: Morbidity, resorption and implant survival.  

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Aim: To analyse the morbidity arising from autogenous bone graft harvesting, graft resorption and implant survival in grafted sites. Materials and methods: Only comparative clinical trials on the harvest of autogenous bone grafts were selected. Studies were excluded if they compared autogenous bone grafts to bone substitutes or vascularised free bone grafts. Results: A total of 24 studies were included in the review. Six intraoral or distant donor sites were identified. The highest level of evidence was reached by a randomised controlled trial. The mandibular ramus was the source of bone that was preferred by the patients. From this intraoral donor site bone was harvested under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis. Patients' acceptance of chin bone harvesting was low. It led to a considerable morbidity that included pain, superficial skin sensitivity disorders and wound healing problems at the donor site. Patients even preferred iliac crest bone harvesting over bone harvesting from the chin, although this distant donor site required general anaesthesia and a hospital stay. The harvest of posterior iliac crest block led to less morbidity than the harvest of anterior iliac crest block grafts. When only cancellous bone was needed, percutaneous bone harvesting from the iliac crest led to less morbidity than an open approach to the iliac crest. Conclusions: Dependent on the required graft structure and amount of bone needed, ramus grafts, block bone grafts from the posterior iliac crest and cancellous bone grafts harvested with a trephine from the anterior iliac crest should be chosen. Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. PMID:24977256

Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich W

2014-01-01

147

Metastatic angiosarcoma presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage  

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Full Text Available Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the vascular or lymphatic endothe-lium. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare presenting manifestation of angiosar-coma. We describe a case of pulmonary metastasis of angiosarcoma who presented with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as initial manifestation.

Rai S

2008-01-01

148

Metastatic angiosarcoma presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the vascular or lymphatic endothelium. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare presenting manifestation of angiosarcoma. We describe a case of pulmonary metastasis of angiosarcoma who presented with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as initial manifestation. PMID:20396655

Rai, Sp; Barthwal, Ms; Bhattacharya, P; Bhargava, S; Pethe, M

2008-01-01

149

Metastatic angiosarcoma presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage  

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Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the vascular or lymphatic endothe-lium. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare presenting manifestation of angiosar-coma. We describe a case of pulmonary metastasis of angiosarcoma who presented with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as initial manifestation.

Rai S; Barthwal M; Bhattacharya P; Bhargava S; Pethe M

2008-01-01

150

Liquid supported denture-management of flabby ridges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ideal properties of a denture are adequate rigidity on polished surface to bear masticatory forces and at the same time, flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of masticatory forces. The problem with conventional denture is rigidity of tissue surface; leads to uneven distribution of load. This drawback even worsens in the case of flabby, atrophic and unemployed ridges with excessive bone resorption. The liquid supported denture allows continued adaptation and eliminates the disadvantages of denture designs based on the application of temporary tissue conditioners or soft liners. PMID:23293491

Mody, Pranav V; Kumar, Girish; Kumar, Manish; Shetty, Brijesh

2012-07-01

151

Experimental study of diamond resorption during mantle metasomatism  

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Many of kimberlite-derived diamonds are partially dissolved to various degree but show similar resorption style. This resorption style has been observed in experiments with aqueous fluid at the conditions corresponding to kimberlite emplacement (1-2 GPa). At the same time, each diamond population has more than ten percent of diamond crystals with several drastically different resorption styles, which have not been observed in experiments, and may represent partial dissolution of diamonds during metasomatism in different mantle domains. Metasomatic processes modify the composition of subcratonic mantle, may trigger the formation of kimberlite magma, and result in the growth and partial dissolution of diamonds. Composition of metasomatic agents as constrained from studies of the reaction rims on mantle minerals (garnet, clinopyroxene) and experimental studies vary between carbonatitic melt, aqueous silicate melt, and CHO fluid. However, complex chemical pattern of mantle minerals and estimates of redox regime in subcratonic mantle allow different interpretations. Here we explore diamond dissolution morphology as an indicator of the composition of mantle metasomatic agents. Towards this end we examine diamond dissolution morphologies developed in experiments at the conditions of mantle metasomatism in different reacting media and compare them to the mantle-derived dissolution features of natural diamonds. The experiments were conducted in multi-anvil (Walker-Type) apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200-1500oC. Dissolution morphology of natural octahedral diamond crystals (0.5 mg) was examined in various compositions in synthetic system MgO-CaO- SiO2-CO2-H2O. The runs had the following phases present: solid crystals with fluid (various ratio of H2O-CO2-SiO2, and in the air), carbonate melt, carbonate-silicate melt, and carbonate melt with CHO fluid. Experiments produced three different styles of diamond resorption. In the presence of a fluid phase with variable proportions of H2O and CO2 diamond crystals develop ditrigonal outline of {111} faces, striation or hillocks along the edges, and shallow negatively oriented trigonal etch pits with flat or pointed bottom. Presence of SiO2 in the fluid resulted in multi-corner morphology, layering and / or more intensive etching of {111} faces. Dissolution in carbonate melt in the absence of water produced deep stepped-wall hexagonal and trigonal etch pits with negative orientation. The three resorption styles show strong resemblance to the secondary morphology of natural diamonds. This suggests that CHO fluid, aqueous silicate melt, and carbonatatitic melt are metasomatic agents reacting with natural diamonds in subcratonic mantle. The comparison of the experimentally-induced resorption styles to those on natural diamonds show that mantle metasomatism induced by CHO fluid develop morphologies similar to those developed in kimberlite magma. This indicates that significant proportion of kimberlite-hosted diamonds may show resorption features of mantle origin. Aqueous silicate melt induces step-faced multi-corner resorption morphology, similar to natural diamonds with nitrogen aggregation corresponding to eclogitic diamonds. Dissolution in carbonatitic melt results in complex morphologies with deep hexagonal pits similar to natural diamonds with nitrogen data corresponding to peridotitic diamonds.

Fedorchuk, Yana; Schmidt, Max W.; Liebske, Christian

2014-05-01

152

Apoptotic osteocytes and the control of targeted bone resorption.  

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Studies from the 1950s and 1960s already recognize the fact that osteocytes, although long living cells, die, as evidenced by accumulation of osteocytic lacunae devoid of cells. More recently, it was demonstrated that these cells die by apoptosis. The rate of osteocyte apoptosis is regulated by the age of the bone, as well as by systemic hormones, local growth factors, cytokines, pharmacological agents, and mechanical forces. Apoptotic osteocytes, in turn, recruit osteoclasts to initiate targeted bone resorption. This results in the removal of "dead" bone and may improve the mechanical properties of the skeleton. However, the molecular regulators of osteocyte survival and targeted bone remodeling are not completely known. In this review, the current knowledge on the molecular mechanism that lead to osteocyte death or survival, and the signals that mediate targeted bone resorption is discussed. PMID:24470254

Plotkin, Lilian I

2014-03-01

153

Lymphokine-mediated bone resorption requires endogenous prostaglandin synthesis  

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Enhanced synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E by explanted fetal rat bones was initiated by lymphocyte-conditioned media but not by physiological levels of parathyroid hormone. Rapid release of PGE from bone occurred only when the lymphokine was present. Synthesis of PGE preceded and was necessary for the bone resorption caused by the lymphokine preparation. Local production of prostaglandins in response to inflammatory cell or tumor-derived factors may in part be responsible for the localized b...

1981-01-01

154

Conservative Management of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a condition that affects the root surface area below the epithelial attachment. Multiple treatment modalities are advocated, involving exposure of the invasive defect, removal of the granulation tissue and sealing with various restorative materials. This report demonstrates conservative treatment of a patient presenting with peri-apical periodontitis in upper right central and lateral incisors, along with Class II invasive resorption defect cervically on the mesial aspect of the central incisor, as a result of trauma. As the patient was not willing for any surgical intervention, only ortho-grade root canal treatment was carried out in both teeth, with Calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medicament. At three year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic demonstrating radiographic evidence of infilling of defect with bone-like tissue.Within the limitations of this report, it was seen that this conservative method for halting the progression of invasive cervical resorption could be under taken in patients who are un-willing for surgical intervention or in whom surgery is contra-indicated.

Farhan Raza Khan

2013-01-01

155

Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)  

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During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PData suggest that soil type, at least in part, helps explain N:P resorption patterns across tropical latitudes: plants on more weathered soils (Oxisols and Ultisols) resorbed much more P relative to N and weathered soils were proportionally more abundant at the lowest latitudes. In our assessment of nutrient resorption along an Amazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species-specific patterns in resorption, data support the idea that lowland tropical forest plants on highly weathered soils resorb more P relative to N. Together, these data highlight how stoichiometric perspectives can help distill the complexity of coupled biogeochemical cycles and suggest that nutrient resorption ratios offer a complementary metric for assessing nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems.

Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

2013-12-01

156

Human alveolar echinococcosis in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 2001 and December 2005, 1263 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). IHA-positive patient sera were then retested by western blot for confirmation and differentiation between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Of 43 sera confirmed as Echinococcus-positive, nine appeared to be specific for alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by E. multilocularis. AE-positive serological results corresponded to the clinical and/or imaging findings concerning the patients' liver cysts. The detected incidence of AE was 0.45/10(5) inhabitants, which suggests that clinicians and health authorities in Slovenia should give greater attention to AE in the future. PMID:17371540

Logar, J; Soba, B; Lejko-Zupanc, T; Kotar, T

2007-05-01

157

A radiologic study of the teeth resorption in the area of a ameloblastoma  

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An ameloblastoma produces more extensive resorption of the teeth on which it encroaches than do most of the other lesions. In this study, intraoral and extraoral radiographs of 78 cases of ameloblastoma were observed and the root resorption associated with ameloblastoma was classified into four types of resorption. With these, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The root resorption was observed in 72 cases of ameloblastoma. (92.3%) 2. In the aspect of resorptive changes of 424 roots observed, 342 roots showed smooth resorption. (80.6%) 3. The 424 roots associated with ameloblastoma revealed the following radiographic features. a) Root apex resorption in contact with the lesion appeared in 189 roots. (44.5%) b) The resorption of roots projected into the lesion appeared in 147 roots. (34.5%) c) Slight resorption of root surface in contact with the lesion was observed in 56 roots. (13.2%) d) Loss of lamina dura and periodontal space without root resorption were observed in 32 roots. (7.7%)

Yee, Choon Aei; Park, Tae Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1980-11-15

158

A radiologic study of the teeth resorption in the area of a ameloblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ameloblastoma produces more extensive resorption of the teeth on which it encroaches than do most of the other lesions. In this study, intraoral and extraoral radiographs of 78 cases of ameloblastoma were observed and the root resorption associated with ameloblastoma was classified into four types of resorption. With these, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The root resorption was observed in 72 cases of ameloblastoma. (92.3%) 2. In the aspect of resorptive changes of 424 roots observed, 342 roots showed smooth resorption. (80.6%) 3. The 424 roots associated with ameloblastoma revealed the following radiographic features. a) Root apex resorption in contact with the lesion appeared in 189 roots. (44.5%) b) The resorption of roots projected into the lesion appeared in 147 roots. (34.5%) c) Slight resorption of root surface in contact with the lesion was observed in 56 roots. (13.2%) d) Loss of lamina dura and periodontal space without root resorption were observed in 32 roots. (7.7%)

1980-11-01

159

A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A [...] total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 20x to 1000x. Group I: 10 primary molars exfoliated due to physiologic root resorption; Group II: 10 permanent teeth with periapical granulomas showing signs of resorption; Group III:10 permanent teeth therapeutically extracted during the course of orthodontic therapy with evidence of resorption, and Group IV: 10 permanent teeth associated with odontogenic tumors that showed evidence of resorption. RESULTS: In Group I, the primary teeth undergoing resorption showed smooth extensive and predominantly regular areas reflecting the slow ongoing physiologic process. In Group II, the teeth with periapical granulomas showed the resorption was localized to apex with a funnel shaped appearance in most cases. Teeth in Group III, which had been subjected to a short period of light orthodontic force, showed the presence of numerous resorption craters with adjoining areas of cemental repair in some cases. Teeth associated with odontogenic tumors in Group IV showed many variations in the patterns of resorption with extensive loss of root length and a sharp cut appearance of the root in most cases. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the patterns of external root resorption among the studied groups of primary and permanent teeth under physiologic and pathological conditions.

Sreeja, Ravindran; Minal, Chaudhary; Madhuri, Tumsare; Swati, Patil; Vijay, Wadhwan.

160

The Systemic Inflammation of Alveolar Hypoxia Is Initiated by Alveolar Macrophage–Borne Mediator(s)  

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Alveolar hypoxia produces widespread systemic inflammation in rats. The inflammation appears to be triggered by activation of mast cells by a mediator released from alveolar macrophages, not by the reduced systemic partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). If this is correct, the following should apply: (1) neither mast cells nor tissue macrophages should be directly activated by hypoxia; and (2) mast cells should be activated when in contact with hypoxic alveolar macrophages, but not with hypoxic ti...

Chao, Jie; Wood, John G.; Blanco, Victor Gustavo; Gonzalez, Norberto C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Characteristic aspects of alveolar proteinosis diagnosis Aspectos característicos do diagnóstico da proteinose alveolar  

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Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon pulmonary disease characterized by an accumulation of surfactant in terminal airway and alveoli, thereby impairing gas exchange and engendering respiratory insufficiency in some cases. Three clinically and etiologically distinct forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are recognized: congenital, secondary and idiopathic, the latter corresponding to 90% of the cases. In this case report we present a young male patient that was diagnosed with alveolar protein...

Thiago Prudente Bártholo; José Gustavo Pugliese; Luiz Carlos Aguiar Vaz; Cláudia Henrique da Costa; Rogério Rufino

2012-01-01

162

Age-dependent changes in porcine alveolar macrophage function during the postnatal period of alveolarization  

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During early postnatal ontogeny in most mammals, the lung is structurally and functionally immature. In some species with relatively altricial lung morphology, there is evidence of a coupling between functional maturity of the pulmonary cellular immune system and alveolar maturation. Herein, we examine changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) number and function occurring during alveolarization in a more precocial species, the pig, to determine if heightened oxidative metabolism and phagocytic abi...

2009-01-01

163

Treatment of Internal Resorption with Mineral Trioxide Aggregates: A Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Tooth resorption is a common sequel which follows injuries or irritation to the periodontal ligament and/or tooth pulp. The course of tooth resorption involves an elaborate interaction among inflammatory cells, resorbing cells, and hard tissue structures. The key cells which are involved in resorption are multi–nucleated giant cells. Internal root resorptions are usually non–symptomatic and they are discovered occasionally through periapical radiographs, which reveal very defined and regular outlines. Many techniques and materials have been used to fill internal resorptive defects. Among them, Mineral Trioxide Aggregates (MTAs) have satisfactory properties, which include: biocompatibility, a favourable sealing ability, mechanical strength and a capacity to promote a periradicular tissue healing. Thus, a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) repair of a maxillary left central incisor tooth with an inflammatory resorptive defect, in the middle third of the root canal, has been reported here.

Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Jain, Anurag; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Sandeep

2013-01-01

164

Membrane transport of clindamycin in alveolar macrophages.  

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The use of antibiotics which can penetrate phagocytic cells and kill intracellular organisms is desirable in the treatment of chronic facultative bacterial infections. Recently, we reported that several antibiotics were selectively concentrated by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Clindamycin accumulation was especially marked. In the present study we evaluated the plasma membrane transport (initial uptake) of clindamycin in alveolar macrophages. The transport of clindamycin is an active process, ...

1982-01-01

165

Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan  

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Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician?s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects...

Jayakumar A; Rohini S; Naveen A; Haritha A; Reddy Krishnanjeneya

2010-01-01

166

Albendazole and alveolar disease: A case report  

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Hydatidsis is a zoonosis transmitted by domestic and wild animals. Two distinct clinical presentations are as followes: unilocular of cystic hydatid disease and the more malignant form, called alveolar hydatid disease.This case report presents a patient who complained of chest pain and hemoptysis and his lung CT scan suggested solid tumor. He was found to have alveolar diseae which responded to albendazole medical therapy

Daneshjou Kh.; Haghshenas Z

2002-01-01

167

Albendazole and alveolar disease: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydatidsis is a zoonosis transmitted by domestic and wild animals. Two distinct clinical presentations are as followes: unilocular of cystic hydatid disease and the more malignant form, called alveolar hydatid disease.This case report presents a patient who complained of chest pain and hemoptysis and his lung CT scan suggested solid tumor. He was found to have alveolar diseae which responded to albendazole medical therapy

Daneshjou Kh

2002-06-01

168

Stresses in implant-supported overdentures with bone resorption: a 3-D finite element analysis / Tensões em sobredentaduras com reabsorção óssea: análise por elementos finitos tridimensional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar, através da análise por elementos finitos com modelo tridimensional, o efeito da reabsorção óssea na distribuição de tensões em prótese tipo overdenture, em situações de perda óssea ao redor dos implantes e reabsorção do rebordo posterior. METODOLOGIA: Foram construídos modelos tri [...] dimensionais de uma mandíbula e de intermediários protéticos, prótese total, placa resiliente e implante. Os modelos geométricos dos implantes e intermediários protéticos foram montados na região dos caninos, constituindo o modelo 1. Para a construção dos modelos experimentais, o contorno do modelo geométrico da mandíbula foi alterado para simular a perda óssea nos implantes (modelo 2) e a reabsorção do rebordo posterior associada à perda óssea marginal nos implantes (modelo 3). Para gerar a malha de elementos finitos os materiais foram considerados homogêneos, isotrópicos e linearmente elásticos. Uma carga de 100 N foi aplicada indiretamente, sobre uma simulação de bolo alimentar, na região de primeiro molar inferior direito em cada um dos três modelos. Foram analisadas as distribuições de tensão de von Mises em pontos pré-determinados. RESULTADOS: A reabsorção óssea do rebordo posterior associada à perda óssea do osso periimplantar promoveu maior concentração de tensões nos implantes, nos componentes protéticos e no tecido ósseo marginal. Houve maior concentração de tensões no osso periimplantar e nos implantes no mesmo lado de aplicação da carga. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a perda óssea periimplantar aumenta a concentração de tensões nos implantes, pilares e osso marginal independentemente da reabsorção óssea na crista distal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This 3D-finite elements method study evaluated the effect of bone resorption on the stress distribution in overdentures with bone loss surrounding implants and resorption of the distal ridge. METHODS: Tridimensional models were built from the images of a computerized tomography of a mandibl [...] e and 3D laser digitalization of implants, abutments, mucosa, and complete denture. The geometric models of implants and abutments were mounted at the canine region to build reference model 1 - absence of bone resorption. To build the test models the mandible geometric solid was modified to simulate 2-mm vertical bone loss surrounding the implants (model 2) and resorption of the distal ridge (model 3). Finite elements models were generated, and a 100 N static load was applied at the first molar region of each model to compare the von Mises stress distributions in selected points. RESULTS: Von Mises stresses increased on the bone surrounding implants and on the prosthetic components in the model with 2-mm vertical bone loss. The combination of 2-mm vertical bone loss and resorption of the distal ridge did not increase the stresses compared with the model with only bone loss surrounding implants. The highest stress concentration at marginal bone and implants occurred on the same side of the vertical load application for all models. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the bone loss surrounding implants increases stress concentration in dental implants, abutments, and marginal bone independently from the bone resorption of the distal ridge.

Mariano, Luiz Oscar Honorato; Sartori, Evandro Afonso; Broilo, Josué Ricardo; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami; Corso, Leandro; Marczak, Rogério José.

169

Expression of bone resorption genes in osteoarthritis and in osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cathepsin K and MMP-9 are considered to be the most abundant proteases in osteoclasts. TRAP is a marker for osteoclasts, and there is increasing evidence of its proteolytic role in bone resorption. RANKL is a recently discovered regulator of osteoclast maturation and activity and induces expression of many genes. This study compared cathepsin K, MMP-9, TRAP, RANKL, OPG, and osteocalcin gene expression in the proximal femur of patients with osteoarthritis with that of patients with femoral neck fracture. Fifty-six patients undergoing arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis or femoral neck fracture were included in the study. Total mRNA was extracted from the bone samples obtained from the intertrochanteric region of the proximal femur. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify CTSK (cathepsin K), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9), ACP5 (TRAP), TNFSF11 (RANKL), TNFRSF11B (OPG), and BGLAP (osteocalcin) mRNAs. The levels of mRNAs coding for MMP-9 and osteocalcin indicated higher expression in the osteoarthritic group (P = 0.011, P = 0.001, respectively), whereas RANKL expression and the ratio RANKL/OPG were both significantly lower in the osteoarthritic group than in the fracture group. Expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, and TRAP relative to RANKL was significantly higher in the osteoarthritic group. Ratios of all three proteolytic enzymes relative to formation marker osteocalcin were higher in the fracture group. Gene expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, TRAP, RANKL, OPG, and osteocalcin and the association between their mRNA levels pointed to higher bone resorption and bone formation in osteoarthritis, differences in balance between them, and differences in regulation of bone resorption in osteoarthritic and osteoporotic bone. PMID:17593491

Logar, Darja Bitenc; Komadina, Radko; Prezelj, Janez; Ostanek, Barbara; Trost, Zoran; Marc, Janja

2007-01-01

170

Protection against endotoxin-induced foetal resorption in mice by desferrioxamine and ebselen.  

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Endotoxin was administered to mice on their 13th day of pregnancy at doses which caused the resorption of approximately 50% of the implanted foetuses. The iron chelator desferrioxamine was found to significantly inhibit the percentage of resorptions induced by endotoxin in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose of desferrioxamine (5 mg) given intravenously 30 min prior to, immediately after, and 4 and 24 h after endotoxin inoculation, reduced the percentage of resorptions from 56.9 to 17.9...

Gower, J. D.; Baldock, R. J.; O Sullivan, A. M.; Dore?, C. J.; Coid, C. R.; Green, C. J.

1990-01-01

171

TGF-?1-induced Migration of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Couples Bone Resorption and Formation  

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Bone remodeling depends on the precise coordination of bone resorption and subsequent bone formation. Disturbances of this process are associated with skeletal diseases, such as Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED). We show using in vitro and animal models that active TGF-?1 released during bone resorption coordinates bone formation by inducing migration of bone marrow stromal cells, also known as bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to the bone resorptive sites and that this process is mediated ...

Tang, Yi; Wu, Xiangwei; Lei, Weiqi; Pang, Lijuan; Wan, Chao; Shi, Zhenqi; Zhao, Ling; Nagy, Timothy R.; Peng, Xinyu; Hu, Junbo; Feng, Xu; Hul, Wim; Wan, Mei; Cao, Xu

2009-01-01

172

Voxel Size and Measures of Individual Resorption Cavities in Three-Dimensional Images of Cancellous Bone  

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Cavities formed by osteoclasts on the surface of cancellous bone during bone remodeling (resorption cavities) are believed to act as stress risers and impair cancellous bone strength and stiffness. Although resorption cavities are readily detected as eroded surfaces in histology sections, identification of resorption cavities in three-dimensional images of cancellous bone has been rare. Here we use sub-micron resolution images of rat lumbar vertebral cancellous bone obtained through serial mi...

Tkachenko, E. V.; Slyfield, C. R.; Tomlinson, R. E.; Daggett, J. R.; Wilson, D. L.; Hernandez, C. J.

2009-01-01

173

Unusually quick resorption of an intracerebral hemorrhage in congenital afibrinogenemia  

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Neuroimaging diagnostics of cerebral hemorrhage in congenitally afibrinogenic patients may be compromised by different pitfalls. We describe the case of a 28-year-old patient with the diagnosis of congenital afibrinogenemia who suffered a large intracerebral hemorrhage. Initial cerebral computed tomography showed typical bleeding, but follow-up cerebral CT scans 1 and 2 weeks later revealed an unusually quick and subtotal resorption of hemorrhage with only a small hypodense lesion within the former bleeding area left. Imaging findings and differential diagnosis are discussed with respect to previous reports about intracerebral hemorrhage in afibrinogenemia. (orig.)

Boetefuer, Ingolf C.; Kassubek, Jan [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Schumacher, Martin [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

2002-11-01

174

Healing of external root resorption associated with odontogenic keratocyst: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: A case of external root resorption associated to an odontogenic keratocyst is presented. Case report and conclusion: A review of the pertinent literature revealed that this cyst is not considered a common etiological factor for external root resorption. X-ray examinations showed root resorption in the teeth involved in an odontogenic keratocyst.Root canal treatment with calcium hydroxide mixed with propylenglicol was performed. The paste was applied at definite intervals during a 10 month period. X-rays were taken at each interval. At final X-ray examinations showed no signs of root resorption and the filling was completed.

Bernardino Isaac Cerda CRISTERNA

2009-03-01

175

Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil  

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In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, a...

José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

2005-01-01

176

Surgical management of invasive cervical resorption using resin-modified glass ionomer cement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive cervical resorption is an external resorption that begins below the epithelial attachment. It is caused primarily by dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, or dental bleaching. This case report involved an invasive Class III cervical resorption resulting from trauma to the superior right central incisor. Root canal treatment was followed by surgical intervention. The resorptive defect was debrided, and part of the tooth was restored with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Postoperative follow-up revealed complete healing and healthy gingival attachment. PMID:24192742

Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Lopes, Renata Carvalho Portes; Oliveira, Ricardo Reis; Souza, Rodrigo Goncalves de; Henriques, Luiz Carlos Feitosa; Ribeiro-Sobrinho, Antonio Paulino

2013-01-01

177

Dendritic cell-mediated in vivo bone resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclasts are resident cells of the bone that are primarily involved in the physiological and pathological remodeling of this tissue. Mature osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that are generated from the fusion of circulating precursors originating from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. During inflammatory bone conditions in vivo, de novo osteoclastogenesis is observed but it is currently unknown whether, besides increased osteoclast differentiation from undifferentiated precursors, other cell types can generate a multinucleated giant cell phenotype with bone resorbing activity. In this study, an animal model of calvaria-induced aseptic osteolysis was used to analyze possible bone resorption capabilities of dendritic cells (DCs). We determined by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy that injected GFP-labeled immature DCs were readily recruited to the site of osteolysis. Upon recruitment, the cathepsin K-positive DCs were observed in bone-resorbing pits. Additionally, chromosomal painting identified nuclei from female DCs, previously injected into a male recipient, among the nuclei of giant cells at sites of osteolysis. Finally, osteolysis was also observed upon recruitment of CD11c-GFP conventional DCs in Csf1r(-/-) mice, which exhibit a severe depletion of resident osteoclasts and tissue macrophages. Altogether, our analysis indicates that DCs may have an important role in bone resorption associated with various inflammatory diseases. PMID:20581147

Maitra, Radhashree; Follenzi, Antonia; Yaghoobian, Arash; Montagna, Cristina; Merlin, Simone; Cannizzo, Elvira S; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil; Stanley, E Richard; Santambrogio, Laura

2010-08-01

178

A New Device for Alveolar Bone Transportation  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a retrospective review of a new technique for the transportation of alveolar bone using a Hyrax device modified by the principal author (O.A.V.). There were seven patients (five males and two females), including five patients with cleft palate and lip diagnosis, one patient with a high-speed gunshot wound, and one patient with facial trauma sequel due to mandibular fracture. They were all treated with an alveolar bone transportation technique (ABT) through the use of the modified Hyrax device (VEGAX). Before surgery, distraction osteogenesis of the bifocal type was performed on four patients, and the trifocal type was performed on the other three patients. However, in one case, direct dental anchorage was not used, only orthodontic appliances. In all the cases, new bone formation and gingival tissue around the defect were obtained, posterior to the alveolar distraction process; no complications were observed in any patient. In one case, two teeth involved in the disk of the ABT were extracted, due to a previous condition of periodontal disease. The alveolar bone transport with the VEGAX device is an accessible technique for almost every patient with alveolar defects due to diverse causes. In all the presented cases, predictability and success were demonstrated.

Vega, Omar; Perez, Daniel; Paramo, Viviana; Falcon, Jocelyn

2011-01-01

179

The Bone Resorption Inhibitors Odanacatib and Alendronate Affect Post-Osteoclastic Events Differently in Ovariectomized Rabbits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Odanacatib (ODN) is a bone resorption inhibitor which differs from standard antiresorptives by its ability to reduce bone resorption without decreasing bone formation. What is the reason for this difference? In contrast with other antiresorptives, such as alendronate (ALN), ODN targets only the very last step of the resorption process. We hypothesize that ODN may therefore modify the remodeling events immediately following osteoclastic resorption. These events belong to the reversal phase and include recruitment of osteoblasts, which is critical for connecting bone resorption to formation. We performed a histomorphometric study of trabecular remodeling in vertebrae of estrogen-deficient rabbits treated or not with ODN or ALN, a model where ODN, but not ALN, was previously shown to preserve bone formation. In line with our hypothesis, we found that ODN treatment compared to ALN results in a shorter reversal phase, faster initiation of osteoid deposition on the eroded surfaces, and higher osteoblast recruitment. The latter is reflected by higher densities of mature bone forming osteoblasts and an increased subpopulation of cuboidal osteoblasts. Furthermore, we found an increase in the interface between osteoclasts and surrounding osteoblast-lineage cells. This increase is expected to favor the osteoclast-osteoblast interactions required for bone formation. Regarding bone resorption itself, we show that ODN, but not ALN, treatment results in shallower resorption lacunae, a geometry favoring bone stiffness. We conclude that, compared to standard antiresorptives, ODN shows distinctive effects on resorption geometry and on reversal phase activities which positively affect osteoblast recruitment and may therefore favor bone formation.

Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin

2014-01-01

180

Calcitonin causes a sustained inhibition of protein kinase C-stimulated bone resorption in contrast to the transient inhibition of parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcitonin is a well known inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resortion, both in vivo and in vitro. However, it is also known that calcitonin has only a transient inhibitory effect on bone resorption. The mechanism for this so-called ''escape from inhibition'' phenomenon is not clear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of calcitonin on phorbol ester-induced bone resorption was examined in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. Bone resorption was assessed as the release of radioactivity from bones prelabelled in vivo with 45Ca. Two proteon kinase C-activating phorbol esters, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, both stimulated 45Ca release in 120-h cultures at a concentration of 10 nmul/l. Calcitonin (30 nmol/l) inhibited phorbol esterstimulated bone resorption without any ''escape from inhibition''. This was in contrast to the transient inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10 nmol/l), prostaglandin E2 (2 ?mol/l), and bradykinin (1 ?mol/l). Our results suggest that activation of protein kinase C produces a sustained inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption. (author)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Long Mountain Ridge Landscape  

...paramount to local landscape character on the upland ridge top. Peat cutting, windfarms, pylons and telecommunication masts are pressures for change in this moorland area. The estate woodlands on the...

182

Impairment of Alveolar Macrophage Transcription in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis  

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Rationale: Alveolar macrophages are inflammatory cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which is characterized by excessive alveolar aggregation of cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

Ren, Ping; Rosas, Ivan O.; Macdonald, Sandra D.; Wu, Hai-ping; Billings, Eric M.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

2007-01-01

183

DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages.  

Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian ding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Authors Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian A. Publication Free Radic

184

Non-Surgical Repair of Internal Resorption with MTA: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internal resorption is rare in permanent teeth. Treatment is usually performed through warm gutta-percha technique. If the resorptive process perforates the root, treatment may be more difficult and is usually performed via surgical approach. Non-surgical repair of a perforating internal root resorption with MTA was conducted in this case. Before repairing the resorption, a master gutta-percha point was placed in the canal to maintain negotiability of the original canal path. Then, MTA was prepared and applied with a small carrier in the resorption area and compacted. Thereafter gutta-percha was retrieved and the access cavity was closed with a temporary filling material. In the second visit, the root canal was obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique and subsequently, the crown was restored. The symptoms and signs ceased and the result was satisfactory at the 18 month follow-up visit.

Zahed Mohammadi

2012-10-01

185

Systemic alendronate prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. A bone chamber study in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Avascular necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis can cause structural failure and subsequent deformation, leading to joint dysfunction and pain. Structural failure is the result of resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization, before new bone has formed or consolidated enough for loadbearing. Bone resorption can be reduced by bisphosphonates. If resorption of the necrotic bone could be reduced during the revascularization phase until sufficient new bone has formed, it would appear that structural failure could be avoided. Methods To test whether resorption of necrotic bone can be prevented, structural grafts were subjected to new bone ingrowth during systemic bisphosphonate treatment in a rat model. Results In rats treated with alendronate the necrotic bone was not resorbed, whereas it was almost entirely resorbed in the controls. Conclusion Systemic alendronate treatment prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. In patients with osteonecrosis, bisphosphonates may therefore prevent collapse of the necrotic bone.

Aspenberg Per

2002-08-01

186

Non-Surgical Repair of Internal Resorption with MTA: A Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal resorption is rare in permanent teeth. Treatment is usually performed through warm gutta-percha technique. If the resorptive process perforates the root, treatment may be more difficult and is usually performed via surgical approach. Non-surgical repair of a perforating internal root resorption with MTA was conducted in this case. Before repairing the resorption, a master gutta-percha point was placed in the canal to maintain negotiability of the original canal path. Then, MTA was prepared and applied with a small carrier in the resorption area and compacted. Thereafter gutta-percha was retrieved and the access cavity was closed with a temporary filling material. In the second visit, the root canal was obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique and subsequently, the crown was restored. The symptoms and signs ceased and the result was satisfactory at the 18 month follow-up visit. PMID:23130082

Mohammadi, Zahed; Yazdizadeh, Mohammad; Shalavi, Sousan

2012-01-01

187

Whole lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented with complaints of dry cough of six months and progressive breathlessness of three months duration. He was coughing out milky white sputum for two months and had lost 12 kg weight in two months. He had an evening rise in temperature of one month duration. Clinically, the patient was in respiratory distress and the respiratory system examination revealed bilateral velcro crackles. High resolution computed tomography chest showed bilateral diffuse reticulonodular opacities and "Crazy Paving" pattern suggestive of alveolar proteinosis. Broncho alveolar lavage showed eosinophilic granular material, which was periodic acid-Schiff positive. Open lung biopsy was done to confirm the diagnosis and the histopathologic examination revealed eosinophilic secretions with granular appearance suggestive of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Subsequently, patient underwent bilateral sequential whole lung lavage under general anesthesia. Patient showed marked clinical and radiological improvement after sequential whole lung lavage.

Jayaraman S

2010-01-01

188

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children with histomorphological review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS are aggressive malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, related to skeletal muscle lineage. These are the most common soft tissue tumors in children. The diagnosis is made by microscopic analysis and ancillary techniques like immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, cytogenetics and molecular biology. We encountered a case of a 03 years old child who presented with a tender, reddish, soft swelling over cheek for three weeks. The FNAC was reported as a small round cell tumor, Probably Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET. The biopsy of tumor revealed a small round cell tumor with an alveolar pattern. Tumor giant cells were absent and mitotic figures were infrequent. Hence, differentials of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and PNET were rendered. Immunohistochemistry (IHC demonstrated desmin positivity. Thus, a final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was offered. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 775-778

S. K. Nema

2014-04-01

189

Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis: A Rare Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an uncommon infiltrative pulmonary disease characterized by deposition of microliths in the alveoli. We present the case of a young adult with complaints of shortness of breath on exertion. Chest radiograph showed innumerable small, dense nodules, diffusely involving both the lungs - predominantly in the lower zones. High-resolution CT scan illustrated widespread intra-alveolar microliths, diffuse ground-glass attenuation areas, septal thickening, and black pleural lines - predominantly in the basal regions. Transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.

Kaleem Ahmad

2013-09-01

190

Histological and morphometric aspects of ridge preservation with a moldable, in situ hardening bone graft substitute  

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Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) are widely used in alveolar ridge regeneration as a porous scaffold for new bone formation. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the regenerative effect of the combination of BCP and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) which can serve as a barrier membrane during bone regeneration. The study included five patients. Four months into the healing period, bone samples were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. The results of morphometric ...

Juriši? M.; Manojlovi?-Stojanoski Milica; Andri? M.; Kokovi? V.; Danilovi? Vesna; Juriši? Tamara; Brkovi? B.

2013-01-01

191

Evaluation of the posterior superior alveolar artery and the maxillary sinus with CBCT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of the maxillary sinus anatomy before sinus augmentation is important for avoiding surgical complications, because of the close anatomical relationship between the posterior maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinus. The posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is the branch of the maxillary artery that supplies the lateral sinus wall and overlying membrane. We evaluated the location of the PSAA and its relationship to the alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study group consisted of 135 CBCT scans (270 sinuses) obtained from the archive of the dentomaxillofacial radiology department at Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. The distance between the lower border of the artery and the alveolar crest, bone height from the sinus floor to the ridge crest, distance from the artery to the medial sinus wall, and the diameter and location of the artery were determined. The occurrence of septa and pathology were recorded from CBCT scans. The PSAA was observed in 89.3% of sinuses, and 71.1% of arteries were intraosseous with diameters mostly < 1 mm (68.9%). The prevalence of sinus septa was 55.2%, and that of sinus pathology was 57.4%. The mean age was 43.07 ± 17.55 years. There was a statistically significant difference between the location of the artery and gender (p < 0.05). The prevalence of sinus membrane thickening was 57.4%. Detailed knowledge about the location of the PSAA and sinus morphology may be obtained with CBCT before maxillary sinus surgery. PMID:24036981

Ilgüy, Dilhan; Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dolekoglu, Semanur; Fisekcioglu, Erdogan

2013-01-01

192

Pre-surgical Alveolar Molding in A Newborn Patient with Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate-A Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) are the most common congenital malformations seen in the head and neck region. Children with CLAP face a vast variety of problems like feeding difficulties, hearing loss (ear infections), missing or malformed teeth and speech defects, along with psychosocial stigma which influences the social development and rehabilitation of such patients. Management of CLAP has been recognized as a unique challenge for parents as well as medical team. Pre-surgical alveolar molding has shown promising results in solving the problems which are associated with CLAP, to a great extent. We are reporting a case of a newborn patient with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, who had inability in suckling and nasal regurgitation of oral fluids since birth, which were aided by providing a Pre-surgical alveolar molding to facilitate feeding and also to improve future facial appearance. This article highlights the effectiveness of alveolar molding appliance which was used to direct growth of the alveolar ridges and lips in the pre surgical treatment of cleft lip and palate. As a result of this appliance, the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip which was done, healed under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the aesthetic results. PMID:24995251

Tiwari, Shilpi; Nandlal, B; Reddy, Sudhakar

2014-05-01

193

Pre-surgical Alveolar Molding in A Newborn Patient with Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate-A Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) are the most common congenital malformations seen in the head and neck region. Children with CLAP face a vast variety of problems like feeding difficulties, hearing loss (ear infections), missing or malformed teeth and speech defects, along with psychosocial stigma which influences the social development and rehabilitation of such patients. Management of CLAP has been recognized as a unique challenge for parents as well as medical team. Pre-surgical alveolar molding has shown promising results in solving the problems which are associated with CLAP, to a great extent. We are reporting a case of a newborn patient with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, who had inability in suckling and nasal regurgitation of oral fluids since birth, which were aided by providing a Pre-surgical alveolar molding to facilitate feeding and also to improve future facial appearance. This article highlights the effectiveness of alveolar molding appliance which was used to direct growth of the alveolar ridges and lips in the pre surgical treatment of cleft lip and palate. As a result of this appliance, the primary surgical repair of the nose and lip which was done, healed under minimal tension, thereby reducing scar formation and improving the aesthetic results.

Nandlal, B; Reddy, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

194

Alveolar adenoma resected by thoracoscopic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar adenoma, a rare benign pulmonary neoplasm, usually presents as asymptomatic. Since first described in 1986, no more than 35 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here we report a case of 48-year-old woman who suffered from this tumor, the patient is doing well 4 years after thoracoscopic lobectomy. PMID:24200660

Wang, Luming; Wang, Xiaoling; Rustam, Azmat; Hu, Jian

2013-01-01

195

Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models  

Science.gov (United States)

When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2008-01-01

196

Strontium ranelate: a physiological approach for optimizing bone formation and resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis associated with estrogen deficiency results from an imbalance between bone resorption and formation, causing deterioration of bone architecture and decreased bone mass. Anti-osteoporotic therapies that have been developed so far include either anticatabolic or anabolic drugs. Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug that induces opposite effects on bone resorption and formation. This dual original mode of action was demonstrated in experimental studies on bone cells and pharmacological studies in animals. In vitro, strontium ranelate was shown to decrease bone resorption. This effect resulted from a decreased differentiation and resorbing activity of osteoclasts and increased osteoclast apoptosis. In contrast, strontium ranelate was shown to enhance preosteoblastic cell replication and collagen synthesis in culture without affecting bone mineralization. In vivo, strontium ranelate promoted bone formation and reduced bone resorption in intact mice, an effect which resulted in increased vertebral bone mass. Additionally, strontium ranelate was found to reduce resorption and long bone loss induced by hind limb immobilization in rats. Finally, strontium ranelate administration decreased bone resorption and maintained bone formation in adult ovariectomized rats, which resulted in prevention of bone loss. In clinical trials (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI]), bone alkaline phosphatase levels increased, whereas C cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels decreased in patients treated with strontium ranelate compared with placebo at all time points. These pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that strontium ranelate acts by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption and that these effects result in improved bone mass in vivo. PMID:16439191

Marie, P J

2006-02-01

197

Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute pericoronitis (AP arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A, the proximal surface (B, and distal surface (C in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.Keywords: bone resorption, pericoronitis, mandible, acute inflammation, elderly

Minoru Yamaoka

2009-04-01

198

Stereological analysis of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of placentas of young and older pregnant women  

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Full Text Available Aim To determine quantitative parameters of volume density and absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of control and experimental group, compare the results and search for correlation between structural parameters of resorption villi and pregnancy age. Metods The research was performed on 60 human placentas of term pregnancy: 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 20 - 34 (control group, and 30 placentas of pregnant women of age 35 and older (experimental group. Stereological analysis was performed on multipurpose testing system M42 with 40 times objective magnification. Results Average volume density of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of experimental and control group was Vvss = (0,489 ± 0,032 mm0 and Vvsm = (0,389 ± 0,078 mm0 , respectively. Statistical analysis of results using Student t-test indicated a significantly higher volume density of syncytiotrophoblast of resorption villi in the experimental than in the control group (p<0,001. Absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of the experimental and control groups was Vss =(205,250±40,894 cm3 and Vsm = (178,386 ± 44,413 cm3, respectively. We have found a significantly higher absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi in the experimental than in the control group (p<0,005. Conclusion Statistically significant higher values of volume density and absolute volume of syncytiotrophoblast in resorption villi of placentas in older pregnant women represent a compensatory mechanism as a response to decreased metabolic exchange between a mother and a fetus.

Sergije Markovi?

2010-08-01

199

Técnica de Separación de Reborde Alveolar en Región Posterior de Mandíbula con Implante Inmediato / Splint Crest Technique for Alveolar Bone in Posterior Region of Mandible with Immediate Implant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La implantología actual ha evolucionado rápidamente diseñando nuevas técnicas para tratar situaciones clínicas criticas; la reabsorción ósea presenta un constante desafío para la instalación de implantes dentales. Se presenta un caso clínico donde se utilizo la técnica de separación alveolar en el s [...] ector posterior de mandíbula en conjunto con la instalación de implantes dentales; la cirugía se desarrollo con anestesia local de forma exitosa. Con un seguimiento de 10 meses se presenta de forma optima demostrando la eficiencia de la técnica. Son discutidos aspectos relevantes de la cirugía así como también los elementos que podrían ayudar a optimizar los resultados postquirúrgicos. Abstract in english Nowadays, dental implantology presents an evolution with new techniques for treatment of critical situation; bone resorption is a challenge for dental implant installation.This paper presents a case with the splint crest technique in the posterior area of mandible with installation of dental implant [...] ; the surgery was done with local anesthesia with success of procedure. A 10 month follow-up show good results presenting the efficiency of this technique.We discussed relevant aspects of the technique and other situations to improve surgical options and results.

Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Luca; Olate, Sergio; Albergaria Barbosa, Jose; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Marcio.

200

Oak Ridge national reservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation is located on 37 000 acres in east Tennessee. The Oak Ridge facilities include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP - originally built as a uranium enrichment facility for defence programmes and originally named 'The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant'. After World War II this plant was renamed Oak Ridge K-25 Site and produced enriched uranium for the commercial nuclear power industry from 1945 to 1985. It was renamed ETTP in 1987. The situation at this site is characterized by hundreds of contaminated buildings in deteriorating conditions. The water table is shallow at the site implying a short travel time of the contaminants. The overall strategy for cleanup of the Reservation is based on surface water considerations as the Reservation encompasses five distinct watersheds. The cleanup strategy is a risk-based approach that focuses first on those contaminant sources that are the greatest contributors of risk. The watershed approach is used to determine which sources are the worst contributors and therefore should be cleaned up as early as possible. At the end of site cleanup, planned by 2015, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will continue to operate as a world-class research facility. Y-12 will continue to operate, fulfilling its national security mission. As cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park is completed DOE will transfer ownership of the uncontaminated buildings to the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) which in turn will lease this property for immediate private industrial use. To further refine the overall cleanup strategy, a prioritization system has been developed to help guide decisions where investments should be made. The general priorities are as follows: (a) Mitigate immediate onsite and offsite risks; (b) Reduce offsite migration of contaminants; (c) Remediate sources of surface water and groundwater contamination; (d) Remediate remaining onsite contamination; (e) Demolish excess facilities

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Biology of root resorption process in deciduous teeth. Review of the literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this paper, is to examine, with a review of the literature the different aspects of physiological process of root resorption of deciduous teeth. The process of development of mouth and teeth and their structure is also described. Studies made during the last period, in most part by Japanese authors, improved our knowledge about the process of root resorption of deciduous teeth, even if many aspects are still unknown. The involvement of the pulp and the periodontal ligament and the presence of enzimatic activity and immunologic cells have been confirmed; all these elements seem to have a definite role in the process of root resorption of the deciduous teeth. PMID:11420565

Scarola, V; Galmozzi, A

2001-05-01

202

The mode of progression of subperiosteal resorption in the hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subperiosteal resorption in finger phalanges is usually thought to be the result of osteoclastic bone resorption on the periosteal surface of bone, progressive centripetally with creation of the serrated appearances and ''lace-like'' patterns in periosteal cortical bone. Our longitudinal microradioscopic observations in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure have revealed evidence of another pathogenetic mechanism: by the enlargement of intracortical juxtaperiosteal resorption spaces, the remaining thin layer of bone is broken down from inside the bone, i.e., a centrifugal rather then centripetal process. (orig.)

1983-09-01

203

Selective resorption in nutritive phagocytes of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phagocytic resorption during spermatogenesis was studied in the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina. Nutritive phagocytes in gonad absorbed both waste sperm cells and residual bodies discarded from maturing spermatids, and these materials were subsequently compartmented in heterophagosomes. Based on 180 heterophagosomes examined by transmission electron microscopy, over 99% of heterophagosomes contained either residual bodies or sperm cells only. Simultaneous resorption of sperm cells and residual bodies in a heterophagosome was uncommon, with only approximately 0.56% occurrence, suggesting that heterophagosomes have a selective resorption ability in nutritive phagocytes. PMID:15214583

Reunov, Arkadiy A; Kalachev, Alexander V; Yurchenko, Olga V; Au, Doris W T

2004-02-01

204

Quantitative determination of enteral calcium resorption with enriched stable 46Ca  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of a Ca-resorption test without the use of radioisotopes, which can therefore be used for babies, children and pregnant women, was investigated on 14 adult patients. In place of a radioisotope, an enriched form of the stable isotope 46Ca was administered orally, and the proportion of the applied dose of 46Ca appearing in the serum and urine was measured. 46Ca was measured by neutron activation over 47Sc. The clinical picture showed a close correlation with the determined resorption capacities. On the basis of the results, patients were classified into three groups: those with normal, increased, and decreased Ca-resorption. (orig.)

1975-09-01

205

Comparison of different techniques for obturating experimental internal resorptive cavities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty extracted maxillary central incisors were instrumented at the working length to a #50 file. The roots were sectioned transversely with a diamond disk at 7 mm from the anatomical apex. At the opening of the root canal of each section, hemicircular cavities were drilled with a specially designed bur. The corresponding root sections were cemented with glue, thus obtaining root canals with similar cavities that simulated internal resorptions. Teeth were embedded in plaster casts to facilitate their handling. The specimens were randomly separated into four groups of 10. The following obturation techniques were evaluated: lateral compaction (group A), hybrid technique (group B), Obtura II (group C), and Thermafil (group D). AH26 was used as the sealer. After obturation, the plaster was removed and the teeth were radiographed in buccolingual and mesiodistal directions to evaluate the quality of the obturation at the IRC. The incisors were then cut with a scalpel at the same level as the previous section, to examine, under a stereomicroscope, the type of material that filled the IRC. Obtura II gave the best results and in most of the specimens obturated with this technique, the IRC were filled mainly with gutta-percha. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the differences between group C and the other groups were significant (P < 0.05). PMID:11202867

Goldberg, F; Massone, E J; Esmoris, M; Alfie, D

2000-06-01

206

Ridge from Strings  

CERN Document Server

In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte-Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comarison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Also a good agreement is found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles.

Braun, M A; Vechernin, V V

2014-01-01

207

Influence of diphenylhydantoin on lysosomal enzyme release during bone resorption in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) on the release of lysosomal enzymes during resorption of cultured mouse calvarial bone was studied. The enzyme activities of ?-glucuronidase and ?-galactosidase in the culture medium was taken as indicators for lysosomal enzyme release. In concentrations 50 ?g/ml or higher, DPH inhibited the release of ?-glucuronidase and ?-galactosidase in parallel with bone resorption as indicated by reduced release of 4Ca, Ca2, Psub(i) and hydroxyproline. The release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was not influenced by concentrations of DPH up to 50 ?g/ml but higher concentrations caused an increased release indicating cell injury. When bone resorption was stimulated by prostaglandin E2, DPH(50 ?g/ml) also reduced the mobilization of bone mineral and the release of ?- glucuronidase without influencing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. It is suggested that DPH by interfering with cellular release processes reduces the resorption on bone. (author)

1980-01-01

208

A combined double-way chemisorption refrigeration cycle based on adsorption and resorption processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An innovative combined double-way chemisorption refrigeration cycle based on adsorption and resorption processes is presented. Two different reactive salts were used as sorbents and ammonia was utilized as the refrigerant in the proposed cycle. The useful cold was obtained from the evaporation heat of the refrigerant during the adsorption process and from the reaction heat of the low-temperature salt during the resorption process. The proposed combined double-way cycle has a distinct advantage of higher coefficient of performance (COP) in comparison with conventional adsorption cycle or resorption cycle. Experimental verification indicated that the advanced combined double-way cycle is feasible for refrigeration application, and the ideal COP of the basic cycle was about 1.24. Theoretical results showed that the proposed combined double-way cycle could improve COP by 167% and 60% when compared with conventional adsorption cycle and resorption cycle, respectively. (author)

Li, T.X.; Wang, R.Z.; Oliveira, R.G.; Kiplagat, J.K.; Wang, L.W. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2009-01-15

209

Resorption of radionuclides through the surface of thermal burns and problems of decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resorption of sup(137)Cs, sup(89)Sr, sup(131)I, sup(241)Am during thermal burns of 1-3 degrees and choice of a decontamination method used simultaneously for decontamination and disinfection of burn wounds were studied. It is shown that a degree of burns effects in a certain form on skin penetrability: through burns of 1-2 degrees the resorption increases 1 5-3 times, through burns of the thir degree the resorption decreases slightly as compared to the resorption through intact skin. High efficiency of 3% soap solution for removing radionuclides from burn csurfae of skin has been established. For burns accompanied with the disturbance of epidermis integrality, when considerable absorption of radionuclides is possible, decontamination must be accomplished as soon and complete as possible

1981-04-01

210

Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1?g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots. PMID:24876833

Benarba, Bachir; Meddah, Boumedienne; Tir Touil, Aicha

2014-01-01

211

Mechanisms of EGF-induced stimulation of sodium reabsorption by alveolar epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on active Na+ absorption by alveolar epithelium. Rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) were isolated and cultivated in serum-free medium on tissue culture-treated polycarbonate filters. mRNA for rat epithelial Na+ channel (rENaC) alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits and Na+ pump alpha1- and beta1-subunits were detected in day 4 monolayers by Northern analysis and were unchanged in abundance in day 5 monolayers in the absence of EGF. Monolayers cultivated in the presence of EGF (20 ng/ml) for 24 h from day 4 to day 5 showed an increase in both alpha1 and beta1 Na+ pump subunit mRNA but no increase in rENaC subunit mRNA. EGF-treated monolayers showed parallel increases in Na+ pump alpha1- and beta1-subunit protein by immunoblot relative to untreated monolayers. Fixed AEC monolayers demonstrated predominantly membrane-associated immunofluorescent labeling with anti-Na+ pump alpha1- and beta1-subunit antibodies, with increased intensity of cell labeling for both subunits seen at 24 h following exposure to EGF. These changes in Na+ pump mRNA and protein preceded a delayed (>12 h) increase in short-current circuit (measure of active transepithelial Na+ transport) across monolayers treated with EGF compared with untreated monolayers. We conclude that EGF increases active Na+ resorption across AEC monolayers primarily via direct effects on Na+ pump subunit mRNA expression and protein synthesis, leading to increased numbers of functional Na+ pumps in the basolateral membranes. PMID:9688838

Danto, S I; Borok, Z; Zhang, X L; Lopez, M Z; Patel, P; Crandall, E D; Lubman, R L

1998-07-01

212

Strontium ranelate: a novel mode of action optimizing bone formation and resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strontium ranelate has been shown to decrease the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women. Its efficacy in clinical studies results from its unique mode of action, on both bone resorption and bone formation. Pharmacological studies in animals have shown that strontium ranelate decreases bone resorption and increases bone formation, resulting in increased bone mass. In ovariectomized rats, strontium ranelate prevented the reduction in bone mineral content and the decrease in trabecular bone volume induced by estrogen deficiency. In this model, strontium ranelate decreased bone resorption, whereas bone formation was maintained at a high level as documented by plasma biochemical markers and histomorphometric indices of bone formation. In the model of osteopenia induced by hind-limb immobilization in rats, strontium ranelate reduced histomorphometric parameters of bone resorption and partially prevented long-bone loss, as assessed by bone mineral content, bone volume, and biochemical indices of bone resorption. In intact mice, strontium ranelate increased bone formation and vertebral bone mass. In intact growing rats, strontium ranelate increased the bone trabecular volume without alteration of mineralization. The unique mode of action of strontium ranelate on bone formation and resorption was supported by in vitro studies. In rat calvaria culture systems and rat osteoblastic cell cultures, strontium ranelate enhanced preosteoblastic cell replication and increased collagen synthesis by osteoblasts. Moreover, strontium ranelate decreased bone resorption in organ cultures and decreased the resorbing activity of isolated mouse osteoclasts. The assessment of bone markers in a clinical trial [Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI)] supports the mode of action of strontium ranelate: bone alkaline phosphatase levels increased and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels decreased in treated patients compared with the placebo group at all time points. Thus, pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that strontium ranelate optimizes bone resorption and bone formation, resulting in increased bone mass, which may be of great value in the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:15578159

Marie, P J

2005-01-01

213

Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (M...

Gracemia Vasconcelos Picanço; Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas; Rodrigo Hermont Cançado; Fabricio Pinelli Valarelli; Paulo Roberto Barroso Picanço; Camila Pontes Feijão

2013-01-01

214

Sharp Curvature of Premolar Resulting in External Apical Root Resorption of the Neighbouring Molar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case report describes an external apical root resorption resulted from the unusual root morphology of the neighbouring tooth. A 28-year-old female was referred to the department of endodontics with a complaint of intense pain in her maxillary second premolar tooth. The clinical and radiographical evaluation revealed an external apical resorption in the mesial root of the maxillary first molar, which shows close proximity to the severely curved root of the premolar. A successful root cana...

Lke Atasoy Ulusoy, Zg R.

2011-01-01

215

Bone resorption and remodeling in murine collagenase-induced osteoarthritis after administration of glucosamine.  

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Glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide and precursor of glycosaminoglycans, major components of joint cartilage. Glucosamine has been clinically introduced for the treatment of osteoarthritis but the data about its protective role in disease are insufficient. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of long term administration of glucosamine on bone resorption and remodeling. METHODS: The effect of glucosamine on bone resorption and remodeling was studied in a model of collagenase...

Ivanovska, Nina; Dimitrova, Petya

2011-01-01

216

Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive...

Antonio Geraldo de Oliveira; Fabiana Guilhermina Ferreira Castro

2012-01-01

217

Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

2009-01-01

218

Effects of berberine on differentiation and bone resorption of osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of berberine on osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption action in vitro, and to investigate the cellular mechanism of its inhibitory effects on bone resorption.Methods: The multinucleated osteoclasts (MNCs were derived by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone from bone marrow cells in the coculture system with primary osteoblastic cells. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining and image analysis of bone resorption pit on dental slices were used to identify osteoclast. The activity of TRAP was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The bone resorption pit area on the bone slices formed by osteoclasts was measured by computer image processing.Results: At the concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 ?mol/L, berberine dose-dependently suppressed the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, the TRAP activity and the osteoclastic bone resorption. The strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited at the concentration of 10 ?mol/L, with the inhibiting rate of 60.45%, 42.12% and 72.69% respectively.Conclusion: Berberine can decrease bone loss through inhibition of osteoclast formation, differentiation and bone resorption.

Peng WEI

2009-04-01

219

The effect of resorption cavities on bone stiffness is site dependent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resorption cavities formed during the bone remodelling cycle change the structure and thus the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. We tested the hypotheses that bone stiffness loss due to resorption cavities depends on anatomical location, and that for identical eroded bone volumes, cavities would cause more stiffness loss than homogeneous erosion. For this purpose, we used beam-shell finite element models. This new approach was validated against voxel-based FE models. We found an excellent agreement for the elastic stiffness behaviour of individual trabeculae in axial compression (R(2) = 1.00) and in bending (R(2)>0.98), as well as for entire trabecular bone samples to which resorption cavities were digitally added (R(2) = 0.96, RMSE = 5.2%). After validation, this new method was used to model discrete cavities, with dimensions taken from a statistical distribution, on a dataset of 120 trabecular bone samples from three anatomical sites (4th lumbar vertebra, femoral head, iliac crest). Resorption cavities led to significant reductions in bone stiffness. The largest stiffness loss was found for samples from the 4th lumbar vertebra, the lowest for femoral head samples. For all anatomical sites, resorption cavities caused significantly more stiffness loss than homogeneous erosion did. This novel technique can be used further to evaluate the impact of resorption cavities, which are known to change in several metabolic bone diseases and due to treatment, on bone competence. PMID:23282095

Vanderoost, Jef; van Lenthe, G Harry

2014-10-01

220

External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

222

The complexity of nectar: secretion and resorption dynamically regulate nectar features  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we review the phenomenon of nectar resorption, focusing on its physiological and ecological meaning. Nectar resorption is a phenomenon that has long been known but was rarely reported until the1990s. It has more recently been demonstrated in several species by various direct and indirect methodologies. It has generally been demonstrated in senescent flowers as a phenomenon separate in time from, and independent of, nectar secretion. The significance of this type of resorption is generally recognized as a resource-recovery strategy, recycling at least some materials invested in nectar production. Nevertheless, nectar resorption can occur concomitantly with nectar secretion. Nectar production is therefore best considered as a unified process comprising nectar secretion and resorption. The modulation of these two opposite phases allows nectar concentration to be maintained in a range suitable for pollinators (nectar homeostasis). The mechanism of nectar resorption at the cell level has received little attention, and its molecular basis can only be hypothesized on the basis of recent studies concerning sugar sensing.

Nepi, Massimo; Stpiczy?ska, Ma?gorzata

2008-03-01

223

Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone remodelling, the mechanism by which vertebrates regulate bone mass, comprises two phases, namely resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts; osteoblasts are multifunctional cells also controlling osteoclast differentiation. Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin. Here we show, by analysing Adrb2-deficient mice, that the sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast differentiation factor Rankl. This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by protein kinase A) of ATF4, a cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and function. That bone resorption cannot increase in gonadectomized Adrb2-deficient mice highlights the biological importance of this regulation, but also contrasts sharply with the increase in bone resorption characterizing another hypogonadic mouse with low sympathetic tone, the ob/ob mouse. This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression. Our study establishes that leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling, and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failure. PMID:15724149

Elefteriou, Florent; Ahn, Jong Deok; Takeda, Shu; Starbuck, Michael; Yang, Xiangli; Liu, Xiuyun; Kondo, Hisataka; Richards, William G; Bannon, Tony W; Noda, Masaki; Clement, Karine; Vaisse, Christian; Karsenty, Gerard

2005-03-24

224

Experiment K-310: The effect of space flight on ostenogenesis and dentinogenesis in the mandible of rats. Supplement 1: The effects of space flight on alveolar bone modeling and remodeling in the rat mandible  

Science.gov (United States)

The histomorphometric study of alveolar bone, a non-weight-bearing bone submitted mainly to the mechanical stimulations of mastication, showed that space flight decreases the remodeling activity but does not induce a negative balance between resorption and formation. The most dramatic effect of space flight has been observed along the periosteal surface, and especially in areas not covered with masticatory muscles, where bone formation almost stopped completely during the flight period. This bone, having been submitted to the same mechanical forces in the flight animals and the controls, leads to the conclusion that factors other than mechanical loading might be involved in the decreased bone formation during flight.

Van, P. T.; Vignery, A.; Bacon, R.

1981-01-01

225

Management of maxillary alveolar process fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incidence of maxillofacial traumas is reported steadily increasing, maxillary fractures being extremely severe. Maxillary alveolar process (AP and front teeth are traumatized more frequently than any other parts of the maxilla. Deprivation of teeth and AP post-traumatic flaw as well as loss of alveolar height not only create a cosmetic defect but also complicate subsequent prosthetics of the patients. The work was initiated to assess efficacy of “CollapAn L” in comparison with a combination of “Osteon”, an osteoplastic material, and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane in prevention of AP post-traumatic flaws and deformities. 60 patients aged from 16 to 47 with the comminuted fractures of maxillary AP emergently hospitalized were examined and treated. The findings showed that Combination of “Osteon” and “Colla Guide” resorbable membrane is the one to increase efficacy of the treatment, facilitating preservation of and alveolar crest height and shape. In addition, preservation of bone tissue mineralization helps avoid risk of the bone wound inflammatory morbidity.

Shukhrat Boymuradov

2011-04-01

226

Ridge network in crumpled paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

The network formed by ridges in a straightened sheet of crumpled paper is studied using a laser profilometer. Square sheets of paper were crumpled into balls, unfolded, and their height profile measured. From these profiles the imposed ridges were extracted as networks. Nodes were defined as intersections between ridges, and links as the various ridges connecting the nodes. Many network and spatial properties have been investigated. The tail of the ridge length distribution was found to follow a power law, whereas the shorter ridges followed a log-normal distribution. The degree distribution was found to have an exponentially decaying tail, and the degree correlation was found to be disassortative. The facets created by the ridges and the Voronoi diagram formed by the nodes have also been investigated. PMID:17930105

Andresen, Christian André; Hansen, Alex; Schmittbuhl, Jean

2007-08-01

227

Retinoic acid in alveolar development, maintenance and regeneration.  

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Recent data suggest that exogenous retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, can induce alveolar regeneration in a rat model of experimental emphysema. Here, we describe a mouse model of disrupted alveolar development using dexamethasone administered postnatally. We show that the effects of dexamethasone are concentration dependent, dose dependent, long lasting and result in a severe loss of alveolar surface area. When RA is administered to these animals as adults, ...

Maden, Malcolm; Hind, Matthew

2004-01-01

228

Evolución en el tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la evolución del tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar se realiza una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de 25 referencias, se destacan las vestibuloplastias, injertos óseos, biomateriales, implantes endóseos, regeneración ósea guiada y la distracción ósea, que corrigen o compensan la atrofia alveolar con sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas.An updated literature review of 25 references was made to describe the development in the treatment of dental alveolar atrophy. Some procedures that correct or compensate alveolar atrophies such as vestibuloplasty, bone grafting, biomaterials, endo-bone implants, guided bone regeneration and bone distraction. Their indications, advantages and disadvantages are set forth.

Oscar García-Roco Pérez

2002-08-01

229

Buccal bone resorption around posterior implants after surgery: a 1-year prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This prospective study aimed to examine postoperative dimensional changes in the buccal bone and mucosa around single-stage implants placed in the posterior region. Materials and Methods: The dimensions of peri-implant tissue around screw-type implants placed in the posterior region were examined at surgery (baseline) and 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The lateral contour of the buccal bone and mucosa was horizontally measured at five vertical heights at 1-mm intervals (+1 to -3 mm from the implant platform) using custom-designed instruments. Bone resorption on the proximal sides was assessed on radiographs. Mucosal recession was measured on plaster casts of the dentition. Results: Sixty-six implants placed in 30 patients were examined. All implants were clinically osseointegrated and stable throughout the study period. The buccal bone exhibited horizontal resorption throughout the study period, even at the most apical height measured. Assessed at each height, thicker bone (> 2 mm thick) tended to exhibit horizontal resorption during the first 6 months after surgery. However, the bone resorbed horizontally by approximately 0.4 mm during the final 6 months, irrespective of its contour. Vertical resorption of the buccal marginal bone was approximately 1 mm during the period from 6 months to 1 year. The bone-retaining group at the 1-year time point was found to have thicker bone walls at baseline compared with the bone-loss group. The thickness of the buccal mucosa showed little change. There was no obvious correlation between buccal bone resorption and mucosal recession. Conclusions: The buccal bone exhibited both horizontal and vertical resorption over the year after surgery. The initial contour of the bone was significantly associated with bone retention or loss at 1 year. However, mucosal recession was not directly affected by buccal bone resorption. PMID:24818202

Takuma, Toshio; Oishi, Keiji; Manabe, Tomofusa; Yoneda, Satoshi; Nagata, Toshihiko

2014-01-01

230

External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

2012-09-01

231

External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

2012-09-15

232

PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. LA PERFORACION DEL NERVIO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR POR LA ARTERIA MAXILAR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

2011-01-01

233

Vertical root fracture: preservation of the alveolar ridge using immediate implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teeth with vertical root fracture (VRF) have complete or incomplete fractures that begin in the root and extend toward the occlusal surface. The most frequent causes of VRF originate from physical trauma, occlusal prematurity, inadequate endodontic treatment, and iatrogenic causes. Diagnose is difficult and delay can cause stomatognathic system problem. The purpose of this case report was to evaluate immediate implant placement after extraction of teeth with vertical root fracture. For the 1st case, the VRF in 1st left lower molar was confirmed during surgical flap and at the same time, the tooth was removed and immediate implant was placed. For the 2nd case, the VRF 1st left lower molar was confirmed during endodontic access and at the same appointment, the tooth was removed and the immediate implant is placed. Several studies have shown that immediate implants have similar success rates when compared with late implants. Consider that this approach is a safe procedure with favorable prognosis. In cases of VRF, the main factor to be considered is the presence of adequate bone support and immediate implants can preserve the vertical bone height, adding the fact that good patient compliance reduces the number of surgical interventions and promotes the functionality of stomatognathic system. PMID:24715996

Oya, Edmar de Oliveira; Pallos, Debora; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Brandt, William Cunha; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Roman-Torres, Caio Vinicius Gonçalves

2014-01-01

234

Investigation of the diurnal variation in bone resorption for optimal drug delivery and efficacy in osteoporosis with oral calcitonin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Bone resorption displays marked diurnal variation. Reversible inhibition of bone resorption may result in best possible efficacy when bone resorption peaks. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of 0.8 mg of oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) and the effect of timing of drug intake. Methods The study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, phase I study to assess the ...

Ma, Karsdal; Byrjalsen I; Bj, Riis; Christiansen C

2008-01-01

235

A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

2013-01-01

236

Hemorragia alveolar associada a nefrite lúpica Alveolar hemorrhage associated with lupus nephritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hemorragia alveolar, como causa de insuficiência respiratória, é pouco freqüente, com diversas etiologias possíveis. Entre elas, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que se apresenta geralmente como síndrome pulmão-rim, possui alta morbimortalidade. Acredita-se que a patogênese da microangiopatia, tanto renal como pulmonar, esteja associada ao depósito de imunocomplexos, que ativariam as vias de apoptose celular. Relatam-se dois casos de pacientes com nefrite lúpica que evoluíram com hemorragia alveolar associada à insuficiência respiratória necessitando de ventilação mecânica com evoluções totalmente distintas frente às terapias farmacológicas. O achado de anticorpos antimembrana basal em um dos casos evidencia a multiplicidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos possivelmente envolvidos, que poderiam justificar as respostas heterogêneas frente aos tratamentos disponíveis.Alveolar hemorrhage leading to respiratory failure is uncommon. Various etiologies have been reported, including systemic lupus erythematosus, which generally presents as pulmonary-renal syndrome. It is believed that the pathogenesis of microangiopathy is related to deposits of immune complexes that lead to activation of cellular apoptosis. The authors report two cases of alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure, both requiring mechanical ventilation. The two cases had opposite outcomes after pharmacological therapy. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in one of the cases demonstrates the multiplicity of physiopathological mechanisms that may be involved. This multiplicity of mechanisms provides a possible explanation for the heterogeneous responses to the available treatments.

Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

2003-12-01

237

Hemorragia alveolar associada a nefrite lúpica / Alveolar hemorrhage associated with lupus nephritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Hemorragia alveolar, como causa de insuficiência respiratória, é pouco freqüente, com diversas etiologias possíveis. Entre elas, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que se apresenta geralmente como síndrome pulmão-rim, possui alta morbimortalidade. Acredita-se que a patogênese da microangiopatia, tanto r [...] enal como pulmonar, esteja associada ao depósito de imunocomplexos, que ativariam as vias de apoptose celular. Relatam-se dois casos de pacientes com nefrite lúpica que evoluíram com hemorragia alveolar associada à insuficiência respiratória necessitando de ventilação mecânica com evoluções totalmente distintas frente às terapias farmacológicas. O achado de anticorpos antimembrana basal em um dos casos evidencia a multiplicidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos possivelmente envolvidos, que poderiam justificar as respostas heterogêneas frente aos tratamentos disponíveis. Abstract in english Alveolar hemorrhage leading to respiratory failure is uncommon. Various etiologies have been reported, including systemic lupus erythematosus, which generally presents as pulmonary-renal syndrome. It is believed that the pathogenesis of microangiopathy is related to deposits of immune complexes that [...] lead to activation of cellular apoptosis. The authors report two cases of alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure, both requiring mechanical ventilation. The two cases had opposite outcomes after pharmacological therapy. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in one of the cases demonstrates the multiplicity of physiopathological mechanisms that may be involved. This multiplicity of mechanisms provides a possible explanation for the heterogeneous responses to the available treatments.

Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga, Teixeira; Marcel, Hiratsuka; Flávia Calderini, Rosa; Rogério, Souza; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de, Carvalho.

238

Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro by selective inhibitors of gelatinase and collagenase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two low-molecular-mass inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), CT1166, a concentration-dependent selective inhibitor of gelatinases A and B, and Ro 31-7467, a concentration-dependent selective inhibitor of collagenase, were examined for their effects on bone resorption and type-I collagenolysis. The test systems consisted of measuring (1) the release of [3H]proline from prelabelled mouse calvarial explants; (2) the release of 14C from prelabelled type-I collagen films by mouse calvarial osteoblasts; and (3) lacunar resorption by isolated rat osteoclasts cultured on ivory slices. In 24 h cultures, CT1166 and Ro 31-7467 inhibited both interleukin-1 alpha- (IL-1 alpha; 10(-10) M) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (10(-8) M)-stimulated bone resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae at concentration selective for the inhibition of gelatinase (10(-9) M for CT1166) and collagenase (10(-8) M for Ro 31-7467) respectively. For each compound the inhibition was dose-dependent, reversible, and complete at a 10(-7) M concentration. However, CT1166 (10(-9) M) and Ro 31-7467 (10(-8) M) in combination were required to completely abolish IL-1 alpha-stimulated bone resorption in mouse calvariae throughout a 96 h culture period. Neither of the inhibitors affected protein synthesis, DNA synthesis nor the IL-1 alpha-stimulated secretion of the lysosomal enzyme, beta-glucuronidase. Both CT1166 and Ro 31-7467 partially inhibited IL-1 alpha-stimulated lacunar resorption by isolated osteoclasts, but were without effect on unstimulated lacunar resorption. Rodent osteoclasts produced collagenase and gelatinases-A and -B activity. In contrast the substrate used to assess osteoclast lacunar resorption contained no detectable collagenase or gelatinase activity. Both compounds dose-dependently inhibited 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (10(-8) M)-stimulated degradation of type-I collagen by mouse calvarial osteoblasts; however, complete inhibition of collagenolysis was only achieved at concentrations at which CT1166 and Ro 31-7467 act as general MMP inhibitors. This study demonstrates that collagenase and gelatinases A and/or B participate in bone resorption. While these MMPs may be primarily involved in osteoid removal, we conclude that they may also be released by osteoclasts, where they participate in bone collagen degradation within the resorption lacunae. PMID:7755562

Hill, P A; Docherty, A J; Bottomley, K M; O'Connell, J P; Morphy, J R; Reynolds, J J; Meikle, M C

1995-05-15

239

Soil nitrogen drives community-level phosphorus resorption in a co-limited system: evidence from a northern hardwood forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilization studies in northeastern forests suggest that forest productivity may be co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Foliar nutrient resorption is a crucial conservation mechanism for plants. Resorption controls litterfall nutrient concentration, and litterfall is the largest aboveground nutrient flux in this system. Previous studies have attempted to link the foliar resorption of P to soil P status with mixed results. We propose that in an N and P co-limited system, foliar resorption of P may be linked to N availability. Here we compare the foliar chemistry of six hardwood tree species to soil chemistry across 18 plots in 6 stands in Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Resorption efficiency was calculated by species as the percent difference between green and senesced leaves. We weighted the resorption efficiencies for dominant tree species in each plot by their litterfall mass to create a community-level estimate of resorption for each plot. Estimates of soil N content to 30 centimeters in the mineral soil were strongly correlated with community-level estimates of both P resorption efficiency (p=0.002) and proficiency (p=0.006). At the population level, this trend was observed in four of the six tree species sampled. Neither N nor P resorption was correlated with any of the soil P fractions we examined. If N availability drives biological P conservation, it would provide an important mechanism for the coupled cycling of N and P in co-limited systems.

See, C. R.; Yanai, R. D.

2013-12-01

240

Scintigraphical evaluation of alveolar clearance in horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposed a standardized method for measuring alveolar epithelium membrane permeability in the horse. The normal rate of clearance (%.min-1) from lung into blood of nebulized 99mTc-DTPA has been established for healthy horses (Group A) compared with values obtained with horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; Group B). The 99mTc-DTPA clearance was measured in the caudoventral (R1) and in the half caudal (R2) parts of the left lung during different time intervals. The two regions aimed to define the influence of the airways on measured clearance (R2 contained proportionally more conducting airways than R1). It was concluded that a comparison of groups of subjects may be performed in R2 and on data collected during a 20 min period. The normal clearance rate in R2 was 1.80 +/- 0.46%.min-1 (T1/2R2 = 40.99 +/- 12.45 min) in Group A. In Group B, a significantly faster 99mTc-DTPA transfer rate was found (4.17 +/- 0.83%.min-1 or T1/2R2 = 17.17 +/- 3.38min). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) suggested that the increased permeability measured in Group B could be the result of lung inflammatory responses. Our results have demonstrated the ability of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance test to detect alveolar epithelial damage in horses. Furthermore, we were able to show that a regional analysis of the alveolar-capillary barrier integrity may be performed satisfactorily in the equine patient. PMID:9691851

Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Lambert, P; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Alveolar proteinosis: a cause of immunodeficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease, characterized by accumulation of surfactant in alveoli. Various forms have been identified (congenital, secondary or auto-immune). Treatment is to be reserved for patients that experience moderate to severe symptoms. It requires whole lung lavages, in order to clear the alveoli from the proteinaceous material. Macrophages dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of the disease and causes immunodeficiency, which in turn can promote opportunistic infections, in patients a priori thought to be immunocompetent. PMID:24383280

Ben Hammoud, Leila; Dessimoz, Cédric; Rudaz, Daniel; Ravussin, Patrick; Oggier, Stéphane; Tschopp, Jean-Marie

2013-11-13

242

Decreased alveolar oxygen induces lung inflammation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Molecular mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction in hypoxia-induced lung injury are not well defined. Therefore, effects of alveolar hypoxia were studied in rat lungs, exposing rats to 10% oxygen over periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. An increase in the number of macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of hypoxic animals was shown between 1 and 8 h. Extravasation of albumin was enhanced after 1 h and remained increased throughout the study period. NF-kappaB-binding activity as well as mRNA...

Madjdpour, C.; Jewell, U. R.; Kneller, S.; Ziegler, U.; Schwendener, R.; Booy, C.; Kla?usli, L.; Pasch, T.; Schimmer, R. C.; Beck-schimmer, B.

2003-01-01

243

Role of alveolar topology on acinar flows and convective mixing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids, and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced by the specific morphological structures. We have assessed a range of acinar models under self-similar breathing conditions with respect to alveolar flow patterns, convective flow mixing, and deposition of fine particles (1.3??m diameter). By tracking passive tracers over cumulative breathing cycles, we find that irreversible flow mixing correlates with the location and strength of the recirculating vortex inside the cavity. Such effects are strongest in proximal acinar generations where the ratio of alveolar to ductal flow rates is low and interalveolar disparities are most apparent. Our results for multi-alveolated acinar ducts highlight that fine 1??m inhaled particles subject to alveolar flows are sensitive to the alveolar topology, underlining interalveolar disparities in particle deposition patterns. Despite the simplicity of the acinar models investigated, our findings suggest that alveolar topologies influence more significantly local flow patterns and deposition sites of fine particles for upper generations emphasizing the importance of the selected acinar model. In distal acinar generations, however, the alveolar geometry primarily needs to mimic the space-filling alveolar arrangement dictated by lung morphology. PMID:24686842

Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

2014-06-01

244

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with aerosol propellant use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome resulting from injury to the alveolar microcirculation, most commonly associated with not only autoimmune disorders or connective tissue disease, but also a variety of infections, neoplasms and toxins. We report here a case of an otherwise healthy young man with DAH attributable to an inhalation injury resulting from use of aerosol spray paint. PMID:23955981

Kelchen, Phillip; Jamous, Fady; Huntington, Mark K

2013-01-01

245

Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep  

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Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE) was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of ...

Filby Caitlin E; Hooper Stuart B; Wallace Megan J

2010-01-01

246

Restricted replication of respiratory syncytial virus in human alveolar macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cellular factors that regulate infection and replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in human alveolar macrophages were examined. RSV-exposed alveolar macrophages demonstrated a time-dependent expression of viral glycoproteins, maximal by 24 h post-infection resulting in infection of approx. 38% of the cells. Essentially all (33%) of these freshly isolated alveolar macrophages replicated RSV as shown by infectious centre assays. This RSV-permissive subpopulation of alveolar macrophages consisted primarily of major histocompatibility class II-expressing cells as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Re-infection of alveolar macrophages did not significantly alter the number of cells infected or capable of replicating RSV. However, in vitro differentiation of alveolar macrophages prior to infection resulted in a significant (P < 0.05), time-dependent decrease (approx. sevenfold) in the number of cells that replicated virus. The mechanism by which cellular differentiation restricted RSV replication is unknown. Production of defective interfering particles did not account for this decrease. Alveolar macrophages infected with RSV produce a variety of cytokines potentially contributing to this restricted viral replication. Pretreatment with several of these cytokines did not affect viral infection or replication. However, tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased viral replication but only by 30 to 60%. Thus RSV replication is reduced by in vitro differentiation of alveolar macrophages and, to a lesser degree, by pretreatment with TNF. PMID:8345347

Cirino, N M; Panuska, J R; Villani, A; Taraf, H; Rebert, N A; Merolla, R; Tsivitse, P; Gilbert, I A

1993-08-01

247

Relative effects of asbestos and wollastonite on alveolar macrophages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rabbit alveolar macrophages were exposed in culture to chrysotile asbestos, wollastonite, or latex, and the effects on various biochemical and physiological parameters related to cellular viability and fibrogenicity were determined. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to asbestos, wollastonite, or latex for 3 d has no effect on oxygen consumption or cellular volume. However, treatment of alveolar macrophages with as little as 25 ..mu..g asbestos/ml for 1 d increases lysosomal enzyme release and decreases membrane integrity, i.e., decreases trypan blue exclusion and increases leakage of cytosolic enzymes. In contrast, exposure of alveolar macrophages to wollastonite or latex at 250 ..mu..g/ml does not induce lysosomal enzyme release or alter membrane integrity even after 3 d of exposure in culture. These data suggest that chrysotile asbestos damages rabbit alveolar macrophages, while wollastonite, a potential substitute for asbestos, is far less cyctotoxic. 35 references, 8 figures.

Pailes, W.H.; Judy, D.J.; Resnick, H.; Castranova, V.

1984-01-01

248

Theoretical calculation of bending stiffness of alveolar wall.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bending stiffness of the alveolar wall is theoretically analyzed in this study through analytical modeling. First, the alveolar wall facet and its characteristics were geometrically simplified and then modeled using known physical laws. Bending stiffness is shown to be dependent on alveolar wall thickness, density, Poisson's ratio and speed of the longitudinal wave. The normal bending stiffness of the alveolar wall was further determined. For the adult human, the normal bending stiffness is calculated to be 71.0-414.7 nNm, while for the adult mouse it is 1.9-30.0 nNm. The results of this study can be used as a reference for future pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis studies, as the bending stiffness of alveolar wall will be lower and higher, respectively; than the theoretically determined normal values. PMID:24121628

Jabaraj, D John; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi

2013-12-01

249

Carbonic Anhydrase II and Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption during Hypercapnia  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) plays an important role in carbon dioxide metabolism and intracellular pH regulation. In this study, we provide evidence that CAII is expressed in both type I (AECI) and type II (AECII) alveolar epithelial cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting in freshly isolated rat cells. These results were further confirmed by double immunostaining with CAII antibodies and AECI- or AECII-specific markers in freshly isolated alveolar epithelial cells and rat lung tissues. Inhibition of CAII by acetazolamide or methazolamide delayed the decrease in the intracellular pH observed during hypercapnia in cultured AECI, AECII, and AECI-like cells. In an isolated-perfused rat lung model, alveolar fluid reabsorption significantly decreased during high CO2 exposure, which was not prevented by carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Thus, we provide evidence that CAII is expressed in rat alveolar epithelial cells and does not regulate lung alveolar fluid reabsorption during hypercapnia.

Chen, Jiwang; Lecuona, Emilia; Briva, Arturo; Welch, Lynn C.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

2008-01-01

250

Reversible transdifferentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells have been thought to be the progenitors of terminally differentiated type I (AT1) cells in the adult animal in vivo. In this study, we used an AT1 cell-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb VIII B2) to investigate expression of the AT1 cell phenotype accompanying reversible changes in expression of the AT2 cell phenotype. AT2 cells were isolated and cultured either on attached collagen gels or on gels detached 1 or 4 days after plating and maintained thereafter as floating gels. Monolayers on both attached and floating gels were harvested on days 4 and 8 and analyzed by electron microscopy for changes in morphology and binding of mAb VIII B2. Results indicate that: (1) alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) on attached gels develop characteristics of the AT1 cell phenotype, (2) AEC on gels detached on day 1 maintain features of the AT2 cell phenotype (and do not react with mAb VIII B2), and (3) the expression of AT1 cell phenotypic traits seen by day 4 on attached gels is reversed after detachment. We conclude that commitment to the AT1 and AT2 cell lineages requires continuous regulatory input to maintain the differentiated states, and that transdifferentiation between AT2 and AT1 cells may be reversible. PMID:7742013

Danto, S I; Shannon, J M; Borok, Z; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

1995-05-01

251

Association between root resorption incident to orthodontic treatment and treatment factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in association with treatment factors. The files of 243 patients (72 males and 171 females) aged 9-51 years were randomly selected from subjects treated with multi-bracket appliances. The severity of root resorption was classified into five categories on radiographs taken before and after treatment. The subjects were divided into extraction (n = 113 patients, 2805 teeth) and non-extraction (n = 130 patients, 3616 teeth) groups and surgical (n = 56 patients, 1503 teeth) and non-surgical treatment (n = 187 patients, 4918 teeth) groups. These subjects were also divided into two or three groups based on the duration of multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) treatment, elastic use, and total treatment time: 0 month (T1; n = 184 patients, 4831 teeth), range 1-6 months (T2; n = 37 patients, 994 teeth), more than 6 months (T3; n = 22 patients, 596 teeth); range 0-6 months (n = 114 patients, 3016 teeth) more than 6 months (n = 129 patients, 3405 teeth); range 1-30 months (n = 148 patients, 3913 teeth) and more than 30 months (n = 95 patients, 2508 teeth). The prevalence of overall and severe root resorption evaluated by the number of subjects and teeth was compared with a chi-square test. A Student's t-test for unpaired data was used to determine any statistically significant differences. The prevalence of severe root resorption based on the number of teeth was significantly higher in the group with extractions (P MEAW appliance and elastics also produced a significantly higher prevalence of root resorption (P MEAW appliance and elastics, treatment time, and distance of tooth movement are risk factors for severe root resorption. PMID:21811005

Motokawa, Masahide; Sasamoto, Tomoko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Matsuda, Yayoi; Terao, Akiko; Tanne, Kazuo

2012-06-01

252

Consideraciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior / Anatomical considerations of the inferior alveolar canal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: el conocimiento de variantes anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior es necesario para la realización de procedimientos que involucren la mandíbula. El objetivo fue determinar las relaciones y variaciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior MÉTODOS: se hizo un estudio descripti [...] vo, en 50 hemimandíbulas humanas secas, midiendo distancias del foramen mandibular con respecto a los bordes anterior, posterior, inferior y escotadura sigmoidea, las distancias del agujero mentoniano al borde basal y la cresta alveolar. Se hicieron cortes en la rama y el cuerpo, para determinar las relaciones con estructuras anatómicas próximas. RESULTADOS: el foramen mandibular fue encontrado en el 88% en el tercio medio de rama. La distancia del foramen a la escotadura fue 19,78 ± 3,3 mm, al borde anterior 17,46 ± 3,04, al borde posterior 12,2 ± 1,9 y al borde basal 26,4 ± 3,8 mm. La ubicación del conducto alveolar inferior a nivel de rama respecto a los bordes anterior, posterior, lateral y medial fue 11,1 ± 2,6, 15,8 ± 2,7, 3,5 ± 1,0 y 1,9 ± 0,7 mm respectivamente. En el cuerpo mandibular la distancias respecto a los bordes basal, lateral, medial y alveolar fueron 10,1 ± 2,3, 4,7 ± 1,4, 2,5 ± 1,0 y 13,7 ± 2,7 mm respectivamente distal al tercer molar, 7,6 ± 1,7, 6,4 ± 1,4, 2,8 ± 1,0 y 16,4 ± 2,2 mm distal al segundo molar, 7,1 ± 1,5, 6,1 ± 1,3, 2,6 ± 0,8 y 17,0 ± 2,3 mm distal al primer molar, y 7,9 ± 1,7, 4,7 ± 1,2, 3,4 ± 1,2 y 18.3±2.7 mm distal al segundo premolar. El diámetro fue 2,82 ± 0,6 mm. La distancia del agujero mentoniano al borde basal fue 14,2 ± 1,59 mm, a la cresta alveolar 15,97 ± 2,87 mm, y se relacionó con el segundo premolar. CONCLUSIONES: los datos obtenidos, si bien, no infieren en la totalidad de la población colombiana, confirma que existen variaciones anatómicas del conducto alveolar inferior diferentes a las descritas en otras poblaciones. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the knowledge of anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar canal is necessary for surgical procedures involving the mandible. The purpose was to determine the relationships and anatomical variations of the mandibular canal. METHODS: a descriptive study was performed using 50 dry m [...] andibles measuring distances of the mandibular foramen with respect to the anterior posterior and lower borders and the sigmoid notch, distances from the mental foramen to the basal border and the alveolar crest. Cuts were done in ramus and body to determine the relationship with close anatomical structures. RESULTS: The mandibular foramen was found in 88% of the cases in the middle third of ramus. The distance from the foramen to the sigmoid notch was 19.78 ± 3.3 mm, to the anterior border was 17.46 ± 3.04 mm, to the posterior border was 12.2 ± 1.9 mm and to the inferior border was 26.4 ± 3.8 mm. The location of the inferior alveolar canal on the mandibular ramus with respect to the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial borders were 11.1 ± 2.6 mm, 15.8 ± 2.7 mm, 3.5 ±1.0 mm y 1.9 ± 0.7 mm respectively. On the mandibular body, the distances from the inferior alveolar canal to the inferior, lateral, medial and alveolar borders were 10.1 ± 2.3 mm, 4.7 ± 1.4 mm, 2.5 ± 1.0 mm and 13.7±2.7 mm respectively distal to the third molar, 7.6 ± 1.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.4 mm, 2.8 ± 1.0 mm and 16.4 ± 2.2 mm distal to the second molar, 7.1 ± 1.5 mm, 6.1 ± 1.3 mm, 2.6 ± 0.8 mm and 17.0 ± 2.3 mm distal to the first molar, and 7.9 ± 1.7 mm, 4.7 ± 1.2 mm, 3.4 ± 1.2 mm and 18.3 ± 2.7 mm distal to the second bicuspid. The diameter was 2.82 ± 0.6 mm. The distance from the mental foramen to the inferior border was 14.2 ± 1.59 mm, to the alveolar crest was 15.97 ± 2.87 mm, and it was directly related to the second bicuspid. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained, even though, do not infer in the totality of the Colombian population, confirms that there are anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar canal different from the ones

Omar Yamid, Ruge Jiménez; Oscar Andrés, Camargo Cañón; Yudy, Patricia Ortiz.

253

Dynamics of fibrosis production and resorption in intestinal schistosomiasis of mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A histological, morphometric and immunocytochemical study of schistosomal periovular granulomas in the liver and intestines of mice revealed that intestinal granulomas are smaller and contain less collagen than those in the liver. After curative treatment intestinal granulomas undergo a relatively more rapid resorption, although the general pattern of collagen degradation apparently does not differ from that observed in the liver. Tendency to form scattered, usually isolated granulomas that are only mildly fibrogenic, coupled with a well-balanced process of resorption appear as the explanation why intestinal fibrosis is not an outstanding feature of schistosomiasis as it is in the liver.

Rosella de Oliveira Santos

1992-03-01

254

Cytoplasmic Terminus of Vacuolar Type Proton Pump Accessory Subunit Ac45 Is Required for Proper Interaction with V0 Domain Subunits and Efficient Osteoclastic Bone Resorption*S?  

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Solubilization of mineralized bone by osteoclasts is largely dependent on the acidification of the extracellular resorption lacuna driven by the vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) polarized within the ruffled border membranes. V-ATPases consist of two functionally and structurally distinct domains, V1 and V0. The peripheral cytoplasmically oriented V1 domain drives ATP hydrolysis, which necessitates the translocation of protons across the integral membrane bound V0 ...

Feng, Haotian; Cheng, Taksum; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Yip, Kirk H. M.; Carrello, Amerigo; Seeber, Ruth; Eidne, Karin; Zheng, Ming H.; Xu, Jiake

2008-01-01

255

Amiloride-sensitive fluid resorption in NCI-H441 lung epithelia depends on an apical Cl? conductance  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Proper apical airway surface hydration is essential to maintain lung function. This hydration depends on well?balanced water resorption and secretion. The mechanisms involved in resorption are still a matter of debate, especially as the measurement of transepithelial water transport remains challenging. In this study, we combined classical short circuit current (ISC) measurements with a novel D2O dilution method to correlate ion and water transport in order to reveal basic transport mechanisms in lung epithelia. D2O dilution method enabled precise analysis of water resorption with an unprecedented resolution. NCI?H441 cells cultured at an air–liquid interface resorbed water at a rate of 1.5 ± 0.4 ?L/(h cm2). Water resorption and ISC were reduced by almost 80% in the presence of the bulk Cl? channel inhibitor 5?nitro?2?(3?phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) or amiloride, a specific inhibitor of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). However, water resorption and ISC were only moderately affected by forskolin or cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) channel inhibitors (CFTRinh?172 and glybenclamide). In line with previous studies, we demonstrate that water resorption depends on ENaC, and CFTR channels have only a minor but probably modulating effect on water resorption. However, the major ENaC?mediated water resorption depends on an apical non?CFTR Cl? conductance.

Korbmacher, Jonas P.; Michel, Christiane; Neubauer, Daniel; Thompson, Kristin; Mizaikoff, Boris; Frick, Manfred; Dietl, Paul; Wittekindt, Oliver H.

2014-01-01

256

Amiloride-sensitive fluid resorption in NCI-H441 lung epithelia depends on an apical Cl(-) conductance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper apical airway surface hydration is essential to maintain lung function. This hydration depends on well-balanced water resorption and secretion. The mechanisms involved in resorption are still a matter of debate, especially as the measurement of transepithelial water transport remains challenging. In this study, we combined classical short circuit current (I SC) measurements with a novel D2O dilution method to correlate ion and water transport in order to reveal basic transport mechanisms in lung epithelia. D2O dilution method enabled precise analysis of water resorption with an unprecedented resolution. NCI-H441 cells cultured at an air-liquid interface resorbed water at a rate of 1.5 ± 0.4 ?L/(h cm(2)). Water resorption and I SC were reduced by almost 80% in the presence of the bulk Cl(-) channel inhibitor 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) or amiloride, a specific inhibitor of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). However, water resorption and I SC were only moderately affected by forskolin or cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) channel inhibitors (CFTRinh-172 and glybenclamide). In line with previous studies, we demonstrate that water resorption depends on ENaC, and CFTR channels have only a minor but probably modulating effect on water resorption. However, the major ENaC-mediated water resorption depends on an apical non-CFTR Cl(-) conductance. PMID:24744880

Korbmacher, Jonas P; Michel, Christiane; Neubauer, Daniel; Thompson, Kristin; Mizaikoff, Boris; Frick, Manfred; Dietl, Paul; Wittekindt, Oliver H

2014-01-01

257

Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts.

Sørensen, Mette G; Karsdal, Morten A

2010-01-01

258

Effect of ridge-ridge interactions in crumpled thin sheets  

Science.gov (United States)

We study whether and how the energy scaling based on the single-ridge approximation is revised in an actual crumpled sheet, namely, in the presence of ridge-ridge interactions. Molecular dynamics simulation is employed for this purpose. In order to improve the data quality, modifications are introduced to the common protocol. As crumpling proceeds, we find that the average storing energy changes from being proportional to one-third of the ridge length to a linear relation, while the ratio of bending and stretching energies decreases from 5 to 2. The discrepancy between previous simulations and experiments on the material-dependence for the power-law exponent is resolved. We further determine the average ridge length to scale as 1/D1/3, the ridge number as D2/3, and the average storing energy per unit ridge length as D0.881 where D denotes the volume density of the crumpled ball. These results are accompanied by experimental proofs and are consistent with mean-field predictions. Finally, we extend the existent simulations to the high-pressure region and verify the existence of a scaling relation that is more general than the familiar power law at covering the whole density range.

Liou, Shiuan-Fan; Lo, Chun-Chao; Chou, Ming-Han; Hsiao, Pai-Yi; Hong, Tzay-Ming

2014-02-01

259

[Atrophic ridge augmentation using intra-oral onlay bone grafts--expanding the limits].  

Science.gov (United States)

Placement of an endosseous implant requires sufficient bone volume for complete bone coverage. There is a growing use of intraoral block bone grafts from intraoral sources. The use of bone from the mandibular symphysis, retromolar area, mandibular ramus, and the maxillary tuberosity can serve as a good treatment alternative for alveolar ridge augmentation with a high success rate for long span augmentation, up to complete jaw augmentation or extensive bone reconstruction. The intraoral block bone graft procedure can be combined with other surgical procedures, such as sinus lift elevation or nasal floor elevation. PMID:16599331

Levin, L; Ophir, S; Schwartz-Arad, D

2006-01-01

260

On the assessment of radionuclide resorption from the gastro-intestinal tract of the blood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the resorption rates measured for the radionuclides Ce, Co, Pu, Ru, Sr and Zn as well as the vitamin B12 with the recommendations for calculation given by the SSK showed that the values used by the SSK partly are too low by orders of magnitude. The dose factors therefore no longer correspond to the international level of science. (DG)

1980-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

A tri-phasic mixture model of bone resorption: theoretical investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, for the first time, a tri-phasic model of bone resorption using a mixture with chemical reactions is proposed. Three constituents (matrix, fluid, and cells) are considered. Conservation equations and entropy inequality are provided. The dependent variables in the constitutive equations, such as the rate of resorption, are assumed to be a function of temperature, deformation gradient, and the extent of the chemical reactions. Using constitutive equations in the second law of thermodynamics, a criterion for the thermodynamic equilibrium state is obtained which contains a bio-chemo-mechanical affinity. Using the proposed model, one can find a theoretical explanation for some clinically observed behavior of bone, for instance for the greater rate of bone resorption in cortical than cancellous bone, using the conservation equations and/or consistency requirements of continuum mixture theory. This work can be seen as a first step towards establishing a new theoretical framework which could be developed in the future by collaborative work, and with the hope of shedding some light on the multidisciplinary and complex process of bone resorption. PMID:22098893

Rouhi, Gholamreza

2011-11-01

262

The influence of modifying factors on radioactive beryllium resorption from rat digestive tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In experiments with rats a study was made of the influence of pregnancy and lactation as well as of trivalent and bivalent iron on the resorption of 7BeCl2 from the digestive tract and distribution there of among organs and tissues

1989-01-01

263

Identifying enamel diffusion properties in feline teeth affected with resorptive lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various factors have been suggested in the pathogenesis of feline resorptive lesions, such as periodontal disease, dietary factors, mechanical stress, developmental tooth defects, breed and viral disease, although none of these factors have been definitively proven to be the direct cause. It was recently published that normally enamel in cats is significantly thinner at the cemento-enamel junction, and both enamel and dentine are significantly less mineralized than elsewhere on the tooth. However, it is still unclear what anatomical features of the tooth surface are associated with a predisposition for resorptive lesions, and what is the initiating cause for the clastic activity afterwards. The present study was undertaken with the aim to describe enamel properties of transport and distribution of organic molecules in intact feline teeth and teeth affected with resorptive lesions. The results indicate that damaged enamel is prone to a greater bilateral diffusion process, leading to continuous disruption of the enamel structure. Also, teeth that are subjected to occlusal stress are at greater risk of destruction because micro fractures produce disarrangements in feline dental tissue diffusion homeostasis. The relationship between these features with feline dental resorptive lesions requires further studies.

Živkovi? R.

2011-01-01

264

Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1, under planted trees (CF2, and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP. The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry systems. The N NUE at the ecosystem scale (N NUEES for the cacao agroforestry systems were compared with the natural forest. The results showed that CP produced the highest litterfall and cacao foliar nitrogen. CP and CF1 produced litterfall and the nitrogen resorption that not were significantly different. In contrast, CF2 produced the lowest litterfall, hence required lower nitrogen supply. The nitrogen resorption of CF2 was less than that of CF1 and CP. However, N NUE in cacao plant (N NUEC of CF2 was higher than that of the CP. The N NUEES of either CF1 or CF2 were similar to that of the natural forest, but higher than that of the CP. Using shade trees in cacao plantations increased foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen resorption, N NUEC and N NUEES; thus, might be one reason for a higher productivity of cacao in unshaded systems.

TRIADIATI

2007-12-01

265

Osteoclast resorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate controlled by surface architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A resorbable bone graft substitute should mimic native bone in its capacity to support bone formation and be remodeled by osteoclasts (OCl) or other multinucleated cells such as foreign body giant cells (FBGC). We hypothesize that by changing the scale of surface architecture of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), cellular resorption can be influenced. CD14(+) monocyte precursors were isolated from human peripheral blood (n = 4 independent donors) and differentiated into OCl or FBGC on the surface of TCP discs comprising either submicron- or micron-scale surface topographical features (TCPs and TCPb, respectively). On submicrostructured TCPs, OCl survived, fused, differentiated, and extensively resorbed the substrate; however, on microstructured TCPb, OCl survival, TRAP activation, and fusion were attenuated. Importantly, no resorption was observed on microstructured TCPb. By confocal microscopy, OCl formed on TCPs contained numerous actin rings allowing for resorption, but not on TCPb. In comparison, FBGC could not resorb either TCP material, suggesting that osteoclast-specific machinery is necessary to resorb TCP. By tuning surface architecture, it appears possible to control osteoclast resorption of calcium phosphate. This approach presents a useful strategy in the design of resorbable bone graft substitutes. PMID:24927681

Davison, Noel L; Ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Luo, Xiaoman; Yuan, Huipin; Everts, Vincent; Barrère-de Groot, Florence; de Bruijn, Joost D

2014-08-01

266

An experimental study on the tooth root resorption for digital radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluated experimental tooth root resorption for digital radiography. For this study, experimentally three root sites were used, and radiograms were taken with standardized apparatus. Digital imaging system were consisted of NEC PC-9801 (computer), TRINITRON (monitor), SONY XC-711 CCD camera. The display monitor had a resolution of 512 X 512 pixels. The following results were obtained: 1. In the difference of the four X-ray film of the contrast correction, the contrast difference was one gray scale variation at mean value. 2. Viewing of the view box of the periapical radiographs, experimental tooth root resorption of the periapical area of the first premolar, middle of mesial surface of the first molar mesial root, middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root were recognized by increased diameter. 3. On the analysis by histogram, the periapical area of the first premolar, the middle surface of the first molar mesial root were each recognized tooth root resorption of the 5,6,7 pixel, 2,4,5 pixel by increased diameter. 4. On the analysis by histogram, the middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root was each recognized tooth root resorption of the none, 3,6, pixel by increased diameter.

1995-08-01

267

An experimental study on the tooth root resorption for digital radiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluated experimental tooth root resorption for digital radiography. For this study, experimentally three root sites were used, and radiograms were taken with standardized apparatus. Digital imaging system were consisted of NEC PC-9801 (computer), TRINITRON (monitor), SONY XC-711 CCD camera. The display monitor had a resolution of 512 X 512 pixels. The following results were obtained: 1. In the difference of the four X-ray film of the contrast correction, the contrast difference was one gray scale variation at mean value. 2. Viewing of the view box of the periapical radiographs, experimental tooth root resorption of the periapical area of the first premolar, middle of mesial surface of the first molar mesial root, middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root were recognized by increased diameter. 3. On the analysis by histogram, the periapical area of the first premolar, the middle surface of the first molar mesial root were each recognized tooth root resorption of the 5,6,7 pixel, 2,4,5 pixel by increased diameter. 4. On the analysis by histogram, the middle of lingual surface of the first molar distal root was each recognized tooth root resorption of the none, 3,6, pixel by increased diameter.

Oh, Phill Gyo; Kim, Jae Duk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

1995-08-15

268

Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities. Specifically, we found that in the presence of GC osteoclasts (OCs) cultured on bone slices make more trenchlike cavities, compared to rather round cavities in the absence of GCs, while the total eroded surface remained constant. For this study, we hypothesized that trenchlike cavities affect bone strength differently compared to round cavities. To test this hypothesis, we cultured OCs on bone slices in the presence and absence of GC and quantified their dimensions. These data were used to model the effects of OC resorption cavities on bone mechanical properties using a validated beam-shell finite element model of trabecular bone. We demonstrated that a change in the geometry of resorption cavities is sufficient toaffect bone competence. After correcting for the increased EV/BV with GCs, the difference to the control condition was no longer significant, indicating that the GC-induced increase in EV/BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures.

Vanderoost, Jef; Søe, Kent

2012-01-01

269

A novel resorption assay for osteoclast functionality based on an osteoblast-derived native extracellular matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclasts are large, mobile, bone-resorbing cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling and catabolic bone diseases. The major function of osteoclasts is to hydrolyze inorganic hydroxyapatite and degrade organic bone matrix, mainly collagen. For evaluation of differentiation to fully functional osteoclasts in vitro, a quantitative functional resorption assay is essential. Currently available commercial test systems are either based on the organic or the inorganic part of the bone matrix. The novel resorption assay presented here is based on decellularized osteoblast-derived matrix. SaOS-2 cells were used for the synthesis of a densely mineralized extracellular bone matrix (ECM) in alpha-MEM medium, which strongly accelerates their matrix synthesis. After removal of the SaOS-2 cells, osteoclast precursors are plated on the osteoblast-derived matrix and stained by von Kossa. Subsequently, resorption pits were quantified by densitometry using an imaging program. Using this novel assay, we show that (i) RAW 264.7 cells resorbed the osteoblast-derived matrix continuously from day 6 until day 9 of culture, a process that is dose dependent on the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) concentration, (ii) the resorption performance of RAW 264.7 was dose-dependently inhibited by IFN-gamma, and (iii) the assay is working with primary human and mouse osteoclast precursors as well. In conclusion, this quantitative, functional, easy-to-use, inexpensive assay will advance analysis of osteoclast biology. PMID:20108253

Lutter, Anne-Helen; Hempel, Ute; Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Garbe, Annette I; Goettsch, Claudia; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Jessberger, Rolf; Dieter, Peter

2010-04-01

270

A Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Resorption Cavities on Cancellous Bone Strength  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the effects of resorption cavities on cancellous bone strength using computational methods. Adding cavities to cancellous bone caused reductions in strength and stiffness that were greater than expected from the associated changes in bone volume and more pronounced when cavities were targeted to regions of high tissue strain.

2006-01-01

271

Voxel size and measures of individual resorption cavities in three-dimensional images of cancellous bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cavities formed by osteoclasts on the surface of cancellous bone during bone remodeling (resorption cavities) are believed to act as stress risers and impair cancellous bone strength and stiffness. Although resorption cavities are readily detected as eroded surfaces in histology sections, identification of resorption cavities in three-dimensional images of cancellous bone has been rare. Here we use sub-micrometer resolution images of rat lumbar vertebral cancellous bone obtained through serial milling (n=5) to determine how measures of the number and surface area of resorption cavities are influenced by image resolution. Three-dimensional images of a 1 mm cube of cancellous bone were collected at 0.7x0.7x5.0 microm/voxel using fluorescence based serial milling and uniformly coarsened to four other resolutions ranging from 1.4x1.4x5.0 to 11.2x11.2x10 microm/voxel. Cavities were identified in the three-dimensional image as an indentation on the cancellous bone surface and were confirmed as eroded surfaces by viewing two-dimensional cross-sections (mimicking histology techniques). The number of cavities observed in the 0.7x0.7x5.0 microm/voxel images (22.0+/-1.43, mean+/-SD) was not significantly different from that in the 1.4x1.4x5.0 microm/voxel images (19.2+/-2.59) and an average of 79% of the cavities observed at both of these resolutions were coincident. However, at lower resolutions, cavity detection was confounded by low sensitivity (40%). Our results demonstrate that when image voxel size exceeds 1.4x1.4x5.0 microm/voxel identification of resorption cavities by bone surface morphology is highly inaccurate. Experimental and computational studies of resorption cavities in three-dimensional images of cancellous bone may therefore require images to be collected at resolutions of 1.4 microm/pixel in-plane or better to ensure consistent identification of resorption cavities. PMID:19482097

Tkachenko, Evgeniy V; Slyfield, Craig R; Tomlinson, Ryan E; Daggett, Justin R; Wilson, David L; Hernandez, Christopher John

2009-09-01

272

Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT)-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP) II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of in...

Chen Yao; Legan Susan K; Mahan Anne; Thornton Janet; Xu Haiming; Schwarz Margaret A

2012-01-01

273

Role of collagenase in mediating in vitro alveolar epithelial wound repair.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Type II pneumocytes are essential for repair of the injured alveolar epithelium. The effect of two MMP collagenases, MMP-1 and MMP-13 on alveolar epithelial repair was studied in vitro. The A549 alveolar epithelial cell line and primary rat alveolar epithelial cell cultures were used. Cell adhesion and cell migration were measured with and without exogenous MMP-1. Wound healing of a cell monolayer of rat alveolar epithelial cell after a mechanical injury was evaluated by time lapse video anal...

Planus, Emmanuelle; Galiacy, Ste?phane; Matthay, Michael; Laurent, Vale?rie; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Murphy, Gillian; Cle?rici, Christine; Isabey, Daniel; Lafuma, Chantal; D Ortho, Marie-pia

1999-01-01

274

Parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption does not occur in the absence of osteopontin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteopontin is an RGDS-containing protein that acts as a ligand for the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, which is abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, cells responsible for bone resorption in osteopenic diseases such as osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism. However, the role of osteopontin in the process of bone resorption has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the direct function of osteopontin in bone resorption using an organ culture system. The amount of (45)Ca released from the osteopontin-deficient bones was not significantly different from the basal release from wild type bones. However, in contrast to the parathyroid hormone (PTH) enhancement of the (45)Ca release from wild type bones, PTH had no effect on (45)Ca release from organ cultures of osteopontin-deficient bones. Because PTH is located upstream of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), that directly promotes bone resorption, we also examined the effect of RANKL. Soluble RANKL with macrophage-colony stimulating factor enhanced (45)Ca release from the bones of wild type fetal mice but not from the bones of osteopontin-deficient mice. To obtain insight into the cellular mechanism underlying the phenomena observed in osteopontin-deficient bone, we investigated the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in the bones subjected to PTH treatment in cultures. The number of TRAP-positive cells was increased significantly by PTH in wild type bone; however, no such PTH-induced increase in TRAP-positive cells was observed in osteopontin-deficient bones. These results indicate that the absence of osteopontin suppressed PTH-induced increase in bone resorption via preventing the increase in the number of osteoclasts in the local milieu of bone. PMID:11278791

Ihara, H; Denhardt, D T; Furuya, K; Yamashita, T; Muguruma, Y; Tsuji, K; Hruska, K A; Higashio, K; Enomoto, S; Nifuji, A; Rittling, S R; Noda, M

2001-04-20

275

Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure  

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Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium.

Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-jin; Crandall, Edward D.

2010-01-01

276

Leflunomide Prevents Alveolar Fluid Clearance Inhibition by Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale: Previously, we demonstrated that intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) resulted in an early 40% reduction in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), an effect mediated via P2Y purinergic receptors.

Davis, Ian C.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Hickman-davis, Judy M.; Fortenberry, James A.; Chen, Fu-ping; Zhao, Xiaodong; Sorscher, Eric; Graves, Lee M.; Sullender, Wayne M.; Matalon, Sadis

2006-01-01

277

Evolución en el tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de describir la evolución del tratamiento de la atrofia alveolar se realiza una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de 25 referencias, se destacan las vestibuloplastias, injertos óseos, biomateriales, implantes endóseos, regeneración ósea guiada y la distracción ósea, que corrigen o c [...] ompensan la atrofia alveolar con sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas. Abstract in english An updated literature review of 25 references was made to describe the development in the treatment of dental alveolar atrophy. Some procedures that correct or compensate alveolar atrophies such as vestibuloplasty, bone grafting, biomaterials, endo-bone implants, guided bone regeneration and bone di [...] straction. Their indications, advantages and disadvantages are set forth.

García-Roco Pérez, Oscar; Arredondo López, Miguel.

278

Radionuclide study of the action of cadmium on alveolar macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental toxicity of cadmium was studied on the lung, using cadmium sulfate, cadmium acetate and the radioactive isotope cadmium 109 in chloride or acetate form. The results are given in the following order: part one is devoted to the results of investigations on chronic cadmium poisoning and the role of alveolar macrophages in this poisoning; in part two the uptake of cadmium on alveolar macrophages is studied with cadmium 109, administered intraperitoneally; in part three the action of cadmium on the phospholipid metabolism of alveolar macrophages is examined. The cadmium, as sulfate or acetate, is administered in several ways: by intraperitoneal injection; or by inhalation of cadmium dusts or aerosols. The effect of cadmium on the oxidative metabolism of alveolar macrophages is studied in part four. This work is carried out 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' after cadmium oxide dusting of the air

1976-01-01

279

Endothelin-1 Impairs Alveolar Epithelial Function via Endothelial ETB Receptor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rationale: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with high-altitude pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and these patients have decreased alveolar fluid reabsorption (AFR).

2009-01-01

280

Acute alveolar sarcoidosis presenting with hypoxaemic respiratory failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar sarcoidosis is a less commonly seen pulmonary manifestation of the disease. An acute presentation of this radiological pattern with hypoxaemic respiratory failure has been documented only once, four decades ago. A 30-year-old man presented with acute onset of progressive and persistent dyspnoea over 20 days ago with hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Imaging demonstrated mediastinal lymphadenopathy and coalescent parenchymal alveolar opacities having ill-defined margins along with air bronchograms in the mid and lower zones bilaterally, suggestive of alveolar sarcoidosis. A restrictive pattern with a diffusion defect was seen on pulmonary function testing. Bronchoscopic evaluation revealed non-caseating granulomas on histopathology confirming pulmonary sarcoidosis. This was further supported by an elevated serum ACE level and negative Mantoux test. Oral prednisolone elicited a rapid clinical and radiological response. Alveolar sarcoidosis can rarely present acutely with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, which can respond remarkably and expeditiously to appropriate therapy. PMID:24789154

Gera, Kamal; Gupta, Nitesh; Ahuja, Anuradha; Shah, Ashok

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Glucocorticoids reduce alveolar and trabecular bone in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is the main cause of secondary osteoporosis. There are some controversies about the relationships between alveolar bone loss and bone loss at the appendicular and axial skeleton. Objective: To assess, in parallel, the effects of GCs on alveolar bone and on the tibia in a mice model. Methods: 5-month-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomized into two groups. Pellets releasing 5mg/kg/day of prednisolone or control pellets were subcutaneously implanted for 28 days...

Bouvard, Be?atrice; Gallois, Yves; Legrand, Erick; Audran, Maurice; Chappard, Daniel

2013-01-01

282

Effect of growth hormone on human alveolar macrophage oxidative metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has diverse immunological actions and has been shown to augment oxidative metabolism in rat peritoneal and porcine alveolar macrophages and both human and animal neutrophils. A study was performed to determine the effects of GH on human alveolar macrophages in vitro. METHODS: Macrophages were harvested from 10 patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage and incubated with 0, 10 and 100 nmol/ml GH for four hours. Oxidative metabolism was assessed by means o...

Keane, M. P.; Coakley, R.; Costello, R.; O Neill, S. J.

1997-01-01

283

Dynamic thermal performance of alveolar brick construction system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Even though U-value does not measure thermal inertia, it is the commonly used parameter. ? The thermal performance analysis of buildings must include the evaluation of transient parameters. ? Transient parameters of alveolar brick constructive system show good agreement with its low energy consumption. -- Abstract: Alveolar bricks are being introduced in building sector due to the simplicity of their construction system and to the elimination of the insulation material. Nevertheless, it is not clear if this new system is energetically efficient and which is its thermal behaviour. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study to evaluate the thermal behaviour of the alveolar brick construction system, compared with a traditional Mediterranean brick system with insulation. The experimental study consists of measuring the thermal performance of four real house-like cubicles. The thermal transmittance in steady-state, also known as U-value, is calculated theoretically and experimentally for each cubicle, presenting the insulated cubicles as the best construction system, with differences around 45% in comparison to the alveolar one. On the other hand, experimental results show significantly smaller differences on the energy consumption between the alveolar and insulated construction systems during summer period (around 13% higher for the alveolar cubicle). These values demonstrate the high thermal efficiency of the alveolar system. In addition, the lack of agreement between the measured energy consumption and the calculated U-values, guides the authors to analyze the thermal inertia of the different building components. Therefore, several transient parameters, extracted from the heat transfer matrix and from experimental data, are also evaluated. It can be concluded that the alveolar brick construction system presents higher thermal inertia than the insulated one, justifying the low measured energy consumption.

2011-07-01

284

Alterations in alveolar basement membranes during postnatal lung growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the ultrastructural characteristics of alveolar basement membranes (ABM) and capillary basement membranes (CBM) in rat lungs at birth, at 8-10 d of age, during alveolar formation, and at 6-10 wk of age, after most alveoli have formed. We also measured in vitro lung proteoglycan and heparan sulfate synthesis at each age. We noted three major age-related changes in pulmonary basement membranes. (a) Discontinuities in the ABM through which basilar cytoplasmic foot processes extend are...

1982-01-01

285

Update on diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a clinical syndrome that can be a manifestation of multiple different causes. Identification of the underlying etiology is of utmost importance and dictates treatment. Pulmonary vasculitis including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a common cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. For AAV, treatment includes induction followed by maintenance therapy. Rituximab has an increasing role in the treatment of AAV. PMID:23102067

Krause, Megan L; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Specks, Ulrich; Peikert, Tobias

2012-11-01

286

PDGFR-A is a Therapeutic Target in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive skeletal muscle cancer of childhood. Our initial studies of rhabdomyosarcoma gene expression for patients enrolled in a national clinical trial suggested that Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor A (PDGFR-A) may be a mediator of disease progression and metastasis. Using our conditional mouse tumor models that authentically recapitulate the primary mutations and metastatic progression of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas in humans, we found by immunoblott...

Taniguchi, E.; Nishijo, K.; Mccleish, A. T.; Michalek, J. E.; Grayson, M. H.; Infante, A. J.; Abboud, H. E.; Legallo, R. D.; Qualman, S. J.; Rubin, B. P.; Keller, C.

2008-01-01

287

Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

FitzGerald, Kirsten

2012-02-01

288

Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

FitzGerald, Kirsten

2009-06-01

289

Carbonic Anhydrase II and Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption during Hypercapnia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) plays an important role in carbon dioxide metabolism and intracellular pH regulation. In this study, we provide evidence that CAII is expressed in both type I (AECI) and type II (AECII) alveolar epithelial cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting in freshly isolated rat cells. These results were further confirmed by double immunostaining with CAII antibodies and AECI- or AECII-specific markers in freshly isolated alveolar epithelial cells and rat lung tissues. Inhibit...

2008-01-01

290

Alveolar proteinosis and nocardiosis: a patient treated by bronchopulmonary lavage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar proteinosis is a relatively rare disease of unclear pathogenesis associated with opportunistic-infections. Although nocardiosis is the most frequent one, only 22 cases have been reported previously and are reviewed here. We present a patient with alveolar proteinosis with nocardiosis treated as an emergency with bilateral bronchopulmonary lavage and antibiotics. No previous cases of this association have been successfully managed in this way. Images Figure 1

Pascual, J.; Gomez Aguinaga, M. A.; Vidal, R.; Maudes, A.; Sureda, A.; Gomez Mampaso, E.; Fogue, L.

1989-01-01

291

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in Wegener?s granulomatosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a life-threatening though rare manifestation of Wegener?s granulomatosis (WG. An active diagnostic workup, intensive observation, and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment are cornerstones of the management. The treatment modalities available for such complications are pulse cyclophosphamide therapy with steroids. We report here a case of WG with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as the first manifestation of the disease in life that responded to steroids and cyclophosphamide.

Mahajan Vineet

2011-01-01

292

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in Wegener?s granulomatosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a life-threatening though rare manifestation of Wegener?s granulomatosis (WG). An active diagnostic workup, intensive observation, and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment are cornerstones of the management. The treatment modalities available for such complications are pulse cyclophosphamide therapy with steroids. We report here a case of WG with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as the first manifestation of the disease in life that responded to steroids and...

Mahajan Vineet; Whig Jagdeep; Kashyap Anil; Gupta Sushil

2011-01-01

293

A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling : Lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs.

Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin

2013-01-01

294

A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling : lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs.

Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin

2014-01-01

295

Sinuous Ridges in Peta Crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Peta Crater (21°S,351°E) contains a system of sinuous ridges similar to, but smaller than, the well-known Dorsa Argyre and Dorsa Argentea ridges. Recent CTX and HiRISE images of the Peta crater ridges is enabling a detailed examination of this confined system of ridges.

Parker, T. J.

2011-03-01

296

[Alveolar microlithiasis with severe interstitial fibrosis leading to lung transplantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease, characterized by extensive phosphocalcic concretions within the alveolar spaces. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is usually asymptomatic and is incidentally found because radiologic findings are characteristic. In about half of the cases, it is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the SLC34A2 gene. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis can easily be diagnosed by bronchioloalveolar lavage or transbronchial biopsy. The clinical course is usually stable during several years and lung transplantation is the only effective treatment when a respiratory failure occurs. A 49-year-old woman was referred with a restrictive respiratory failure due to a pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis incidentally discovered on a chest radiography when she was 11 and was confirmed by surgical lung biopsy. She was asymptomatic until she was 43 when she presented a progressive dyspnea leading to continuous oxygen administration 4 years later. Laboratory findings only showed a polyglobulia related to hypoxemia. Chest radiography and computed tomography chest scan revealed a bilateral symmetric micronodular pattern. She underwent a lung transplantation when she was 49. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with interstitial fibrosis. The patient died 3 months after surgery in an infectious context. PMID:19619834

Coulibaly, Béma; Fernandez, Carla; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; D'Journo, Xavier; Doddoli, Christophe; Taséi, Anne-Marie

2009-06-01

297

Activation of alveolar macrophages after lower respiratory tract infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar macrophage function has been studied in relation to bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract. First, LRT macrophages were examined after exposure of rabbits to Listeria monocytogenes aerosols. Macrophages obtained from the LRT of animals 10 to 48 days after infection were activated, as evidenced by greater adherence to culture dishes and increased ability to ingest and kill both the original infecting organism and unrelated organisms, when compared to normal alveolar macrophages. Next, the in vitro effects on normal alveolar macrophages of incubation supernatants of control and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes (LRT and lymph node) from animals infected with L. monocytogenes or Streptococcus pneumoniae were evaluated. As manifested by increased adherence and phagocytosis, and an enhanced nonspecific bactericidal activity, alveolar macrophages were activated by the antigen-stimulated supernatants. These stimulated lymphocyte supernatants contain lymphokines (MIF), but the exact nature of the alveolar macrophage activating factor(s) remains to be determined. These observations, together with recent evidence that alveolar macrophages respond to lymphokines (MIF), suggest that the effector mechanism for cell-mediated immunity in the LRT is intact. PMID:239059

Johnson, J D; Hand, W L; King, N L; Hughes, C G

1975-07-01

298

Alterations in osteoclast function and phenotype induced by different inhibitors of bone resorption - implications for osteoclast quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal osteoclasts resorb bone by secretion of acid and proteases. Recent studies of patients with loss of function mutations affecting either of these processes have indicated a divergence in osteoclastic phenotypes. These difference in osteoclast phenotypes may directly or indirectly have secondary effects on bone remodeling, a process which is of importance for the pathogenesis of both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We treated human osteoclasts with different inhibitors and characterized their resulting function. Methods Human CD14 + monocytes were differentiated into mature osteoclasts using RANKL and M-CSF. The osteoclasts were cultured on bone in the presence or absence of various inhibitors: Inhibitors of acidification (bafilomycin A1, diphyllin, ethoxyzolamide, inhibitors of proteolysis (E64, GM6001, or a bisphosphonate (ibandronate. Osteoclast numbers and bone resorption were monitored by measurements of TRACP activity, the release of calcium, CTX-I and ICTP, as well as by counting resorption pits. Results All inhibitors of acidification were equally potent with respect to inhibition of both organic and inorganic resorption. In contrast, inhibition of proteolysis by E64 potently reduced organic resorption, but only modestly suppressed inorganic resorption. GM6001 alone did not greatly affect bone resorption. However, when GM6001 and E64 were combined, a complete abrogation of organic bone resorption was observed, without a great effect on inorganic resorption. Ibandronate abrogated both organic and inorganic resorption at all concentrations tested [0.3-100 ?M], however, this treatment dramatically reduced TRACP activity. Conclusions We present evidence highlighting important differences with respect to osteoclast function, when comparing the different types of osteoclast inhibitors. Each class of osteoclast inhibitors will lead to different alterations in osteoclast quality, which secondarily may lead to different bone qualities.

Leeming Diana J

2010-06-01

299

Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician?s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ?45° and defect depth was ?3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for this type of bone loss. This study should be an impetus for greater attention to an otherwise ubiquitous periodontal challenge.

Jayakumar A

2010-01-01

300

The angiogenic factor midkine is regulated by dexamethasone and retinoic acid during alveolarization and in alveolar epithelial cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A precise balance exists between the actions of endogenous glucocorticoids (GC and retinoids to promote normal lung development, in particular during alveolarization. The mechanisms controlling this balance are largely unknown, but recent evidence suggests that midkine (MK, a retinoic acid-regulated, pro-angiogenic growth factor, may function as a critical regulator. The purpose of this study was to examine regulation of MK by GC and RA during postnatal alveolar formation in rats. Methods Newborn rats were treated with dexamethasone (DEX and/or all-trans-retinoic acid (RA during the first two weeks of life. Lung morphology was assessed by light microscopy and radial alveolar counts. MK mRNA and protein expression in response to different treatment were determined by Northern and Western blots. In addition, MK protein expression in cultured human alveolar type 2-like cells treated with DEX and RA was also determined. Results Lung histology confirmed that DEX treatment inhibited and RA treatment stimulated alveolar formation, whereas concurrent administration of RA with DEX prevented the DEX effects. During normal development, MK expression was maximal during the period of alveolarization from postnatal day 5 (PN5 to PN15. DEX treatment of rat pups decreased, and RA treatment increased lung MK expression, whereas concurrent DEX+RA treatment prevented the DEX-induced decrease in MK expression. Using human alveolar type 2 (AT2-like cells differentiated in culture, we confirmed that DEX and cAMP decreased, and RA increased MK expression. Conclusion We conclude that MK is expressed by AT2 cells, and is differentially regulated by corticosteroid and retinoid treatment in a manner consistent with hormonal effects on alveolarization during postnatal lung development.

Sweezey Neil B

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lung alveolar proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage from a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis patient using high-resolution FTICR mass spectrometry  

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High-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry was developed and applied to the proteome analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. With use of 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and other surfactant-related lung alveolar proteins were efficiently separated and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization FTICR mass spectrometry . Low molecular mass BALF protein...

Bai, Yu; Galetskiy, Dmitry; Damoc, Eugen; Ripper, Jan; Woischnik, Markus; Griese, Matthias; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying; Przybylski, Michael

2007-01-01

302

Alveolar macrophage catabolism of Micropolyspora faeni.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary histologic abnormalities resolve despite continuing intratracheal injections of Micropolyspora faeni in a rabbit model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We examined in vitro alveolar macrophage (AM) metabolism to determine if increased efficiency of M. faeni degradation by AMs was associated with resolution of pulmonary abnormalities. Rabbits were exposed to M. faeni with three sensitizing and two, four, or eight weekly intratracheal challenge injections. Bronchoalveolar cells (BAC) were obtained by lavage 4 to 6 days after the last intratracheal injection. We determined the fate of 125I-labeled M. faeni added to 48-hour cultures of BAC derived from naive and M. faeni-exposed animals. Label was transported from the pellet to the supernatant fraction of BAC cultures, and the proportion of supernatant label that was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid decreased. These phenomena were dependent on time, viable cells, and temperature. They were not altered by puromycin and were caused by AM. BAC from M. faeni-treated rabbits were slightly more effective in transport of label from pellet to supernatant than BAC from naive rabbits during the first 4 hours of culture but not thereafter. There was no difference between BAC from rabbits challenged two, four and eight times. We conclude that resolution of pulmonary histologic abnormalities in this model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is not associated with evidence of enhanced AM particulate M. faeni catabolism. PMID:4056249

Schuyler, M R; Schmitt, D

1985-10-01

303

Toward functional proteomics of alveolar macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alveolar macrophages (AM) belong to a phenotype of macrophages with distinct biological functions and important pathophysiological roles in lung health and disease. The molecular details determining AM differentiation from blood monocytes and AM roles in lung homeostasis are largely unknown. With the use of different technological platforms, advances in the field of proteomics have made it possible to search for differences in protein expression between AM and their precursor monocytes. Proteome features of each cell type provide new clues into understanding mononuclear phagocyte biology. In-depth analyses using subproteomics and subcellular proteomics offer additional information by providing greater protein resolution and detection sensitivity. With the use of proteomic techniques, large-scale mapping of phosphorylation differences between the cell types have become possible. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel proteomics can detect germline protein variants and evaluate the impact of protein polymorphisms on an individual's susceptibility to disease. Finally, surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization (SELDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry offers an alternative method to recognizing differences in protein patterns between AM and monocytes or between AM under different pathological conditions. This review details the current status of this field and outlines future directions in functional proteomic analyses of AM and monocytes. Furthermore, this review presents viewpoints of integrating proteomics with translational topics in lung diseases to define the mechanisms of disease and to uncover new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:15757951

Wu, Haifeng M; Jin, Ming; Marsh, Clay B

2005-04-01

304

Changes of hard dental and bone tissue of alveolar process in rats on the orthodontic tooth movement on the background of an experimental goiter  

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Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the state of dental hard and bone tissues of alveolar process in rats with the model of orthodontic tooth movement at the experimental goiter based on the analysis of bone phosphatases and proteases activity. Material and Methods —Experimental study with the model of goiter and orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The experiment was carried out with 30 Wistar rats of gregarious breeding. During the first stage of the experiment the goitre was being simulated by giving 1% solution of potassium perchlorate with drinking water for 20 days. During the second experimental stage using thiopental the orthodontic model of tooth movement (OMtM was being reproduced for 21 days. The lower jaw in rats served to reveal carious cavities and atrophy rate of alveolar process, the upper jaw served for determining the common activity of alkaline, acid phosphatase, elastase and total proteolytic activity (OPA, the pulp of incisors served to determine the activity of bone phosphatases. Statistical analysis — One way analysis of variance (ANOVA. ?omparison between experimental groups was carried out with the help of t-Student U and Mann-Whitney test (p.asymp.sig<0.05 was considered significant. Results — in animals under experiment the orthodontic tooth movement together with thyroid disorders is accompanied by increased proteases activity of bone tissue and impaired activity of bone phosphatases. Conclusions — sudden aggravation in the resorption processes of bone tissue of alveolar process, demineralization of hard dental tissue during the orthodontic tooth movement in relation to experimental goiter show that child with the thyroid gland disorders are in need of active treatment and preventive measures during active apparatus treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies.

Kamila A. Kolesnik

2014-03-01

305

Influencing of resorption and side-effects of salicylic acid by complexing with ?-cyclodextrin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After oral administration of 14C-labelled salicylic acid and its ?-cyclodextrin complex to rats, the radioactivity level of the blood reached its maximum during the first 2 h. The blood level obtained with the complex is somewhat but not significantly lower than with free acid. Since the resorption of cyclodextrin is a considerably slower process, it is very likely that the resorption of salicylic acid takes place in the form of free acid after dissociation of the complex. The urinary excretion cumulative curves showed that the free salicylic acid was completely excreted, while about 10% of the salicylic acid administered in the form of complex is lost. The cyclodextrin complex formation increased the pK values of all hydroxybenzoic acids. Direct observations revealed that complex formation decreased the stomach-irritating effect of salicylic acid. The ratio of radioactivity was nearly the same in the organs of animals treated by both free salicylic and cyclodextrin complex. (author)

1981-01-01

306

Role of mineral trioxide aggregate in management of external root resorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

External root resorption (ERR) is a lytic process occurring in the cementum or cementum and dentin of the roots of teeth. Here we report a case of inflammatory ERR in a mandibular right molar in a 22-year-old male patient with history of incomplete root canal treatment with the same. Considering the biological properties of mineral trioxide aggregate cement, especially its alkalinity and sustained calcium hydroxide release, this material was used for the treatment of ERR, followed by permanent prosthesis. The clinical and radiographic follow-up for 24 months revealed that treated teeth were functional, the progression of the ERR had ceased, the resorptive area were replaced with newly formed bone and periapical radiolucencies was healed. PMID:24347899

Ashwini, Ts; Hosmani, Namrata; Patil, Chetan R; Yalgi, Viraj S

2013-11-01

307

Spontaneous resorption of extruded iliac crest graft ina case of high cervical myelopathy  

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Full Text Available AbstractA 38 year old male patient presented to us with complaints of parasthesias in all four limbs with spastic quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine revealed central disc herniation at C2-C3 level with significant cord compression. He was operated for C2-C3 Smith-Robinson anterior cervical discectomy. An autogenous tricortical iliac crest graft of 1.5×1.0 cm was snugly fitted into the disc space. Postoperative check X-ray of the cervical spine showed extrusion of the graft. The patient was managed conservatively. Repeat X-ray of the cervical spine after follow-up of 6 weeks showed resorption of the graft. The distinct strategy of management in this case along with a brief review of literature is discussed.Key words: High cervical myelopathy: Extruded graft: Resorption

Chatleya A,

2008-01-01

308

Etiology and prevention of external cervical root resorption associated to teeth bleaching  

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Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Esthetic dentistry has been prioritizedand the desire for whiter teeth has been increasingly present in dental offices, since whiter teeth tend to indicate health, beauty, youth and a more attractive smile. Teeth bleaching is a conservative method widely used to restore the original color of darkened teeth. However, possible relations with the external cervical root resorption have concerned many researchers and clinicians. Literature review: There are many mechanisms that can activate the external cervical root resorption, such as: chemical and physical action of the bleaching materials used, morphology of the cementoenamel junction associated to the immune system, material concentration, traumas and bleaching technique used. Conclusion: Therefore, considering many factors that are still not conclusive, preventing deleterious effects on teeth and support structures, care must be taken when choosing bleaching agent and bleaching technique, as well as when selecting each case, beyond a proper restoration after teeth bleaching.

Eliane Mendes da SILVA

2010-03-01

309

Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estu [...] dio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de nutrientes. En 30 muestras del suelo superficial (10 cm) de tres sitios de la selva no perturbada, se analizó entre otras características físicas y químicas, la concentración de N total y P extraíble. A través de la concentración de N y P en hojas seniles, se determinó la reabsorción real de 11 especies dominantes de arboles de esta selva. El N se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el P se analizó por digestión con ácido nítrico y destilación con perclórico. El suelo fue rico en N total (0.50%, n = 30) y P extraíble (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30). Tal como se esperaba, los arboles mostraron una reabsorción incompleta para el N (1.13%, n = 11) y P (0.11%, n = 11). Abstract in english In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree?s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropic [...] al rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at ?Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas? on the east coast of Mexico (18°34? - 18°36? N, 95°04? - 95°09? W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 11) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis.

310

Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex post  

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Full Text Available The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

Hariharan V

2010-01-01

311

Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO  

Science.gov (United States)

The ~1,000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff (CRT), erupted at 27.55 Ma during the mid-tertiary ignimbrite flare-up in the western USA, is among the largest known strongly zoned ash-flow tuffs. It consists primarily of densely welded crystal-poor rhyolite with a pronounced, highly evolved chemical signature (high Rb/Sr, low Ba, Zr, Eu), but thickly ponded intracaldera CRT is capped by a more crystal-rich, less silicic facies. In the outflow ignimbrite, this upper zone is defined mainly by densely welded crystal-rich juvenile clasts of trachydacite composition, with higher Fe-Ti oxide temperatures, and is characterized by extremely high Ba (to 7,500 ppm), Zr, Sr, and positive Eu anomalies. Rare mafic clasts (51-53 wt% SiO2) with Ba contents to 4,000-5,000 ppm and positive Eu anomalies are also present. Much of the major and trace-element variations in the CRT juvenile clasts can be reproduced via in situ differentiation by interstitial melt extraction from a crystal-rich, upper-crustal mush zone, with the trachydacite, crystal-rich clasts representing the remobilized crystal cumulate left behind by the melt extraction process. Late recharge events, represented by the rare mafic clasts and high-Al amphiboles in some samples, mixed in with parts of the crystal cumulate and generated additional scatter in the whole-rock data. Recharge was important in thermally remobilizing the silicic crystal cumulate by partially melting the near-solidus phases, as supported by: (1) ubiquitous wormy/sieve textures and reverse zoning patterns in feldspars and biotites, (2) absence of quartz in this very silicic unit stored at depths of >4-5 km, and (3) heterogeneous melt compositions in the trachydacite fiamme and mafic clasts, particularly in Ba, indicating local enrichment of this element due mostly to sanidine and biotite melting. The injection of hot, juvenile magma into the upper-crustal cumulate also imparted the observed thermal gradient to the deposits and the mixing overprint that partly masks the in situ differentiation process. The CRT provides a particularly clear perspective on processes of in situ crystal-liquid separation into a lower crystal-rich zone and an upper eruptible cap, which appears common in incrementally built upper-crustal magma reservoirs of high-flux magmatic provinces.

Bachmann, Olivier; Deering, Chad D.; Lipman, Peter W.; Plummer, Charles

2014-06-01

312

Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. Methods Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres into the left pulmonary artery for 1 day (1d PPE; 115d gestational age; GA or 5 days (5d PPE; 110-115d GA. Control fetuses received vehicle injections. Lung morphology, secondary septal crests, elastin, collagen, myofibroblast, PECAM1 and HIF1? abundance and localization were determined histologically. VEGF-A, Flk-1, PDGF-A and PDGF-R? mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. Results At 130d GA (term ~147d, in embolized regions of the lung the percentage of lung occupied by tissue was increased from 29 ± 1% in controls to 35 ± 1% in 1d PPE and 44 ± 1% in 5d PPE fetuses (p VEGF and Flk-1, although a small increase in PDGF-R? expression at 116d GA, from 1.00 ± 0.12 in control fetuses to 1.61 ± 0.18 in 5d PPE fetuses may account for impaired differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts and alveolar development. Conclusions PPE impairs alveolarization without adverse systemic effects and is a novel model for investigating the role of pulmonary capillaries and alveolar myofibroblasts in alveolar formation.

Hooper Stuart B

2010-04-01

313

Relationship between renal stone formation, mitral annular calcification and bone resorption markers  

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Background and Objectives : Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with osteoporosis and there is evidence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with renal stone formation (RSF). Therefore, we designed this study to test if RSF was associated with MAC and if this association could be linked to bone resorption. Methods : Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 41.5 years) with RSF and 40 healthy subjects (mean age, 44.2 years) underwent screening for MAC and BMD, a...

2010-01-01

314

Tibolone inhibits bone resorption without secondary positive effects on cartilage degradation  

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Abstract Background Osteoarthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and increased cartilage degradation in the subchondral bone and joint. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic properties, would have similar dual actions on both bone and cartilage turnover, as reported previously with some SERMS and HRT. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of ni...

Ma, Karsdal; Byrjalsen I; Dj, Leeming; Christiansen C

2008-01-01

315

Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. (Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (USA)); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

316

Dasatinib as a bone-modifying agent: Anabolic and anti-resorptive effects  

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[Background]: Bone loss, in malignant or non-malignant diseases, is caused by increased osteoclast resorption and/or reduced osteoblast bone formation, and is commonly associated with skeletal complications. Thus, there is a need to identify new agents capable of influencing bone remodeling. We aimed to further pre-clinically evaluate the effects of dasatinib (BMS-354825), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function. [Methods]: For stud...

Garcia-gomez, Antonio; Ocio, Enrique M.; Crusoe, Edvan; Santamari?a, Carlos; Sa?nchez-guijo, Fermi?n M.; Herna?ndez, Teresa; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesu?s F.; Garayoa, Mercedes

2012-01-01

317

Osteopontin facilitates angiogenesis, accumulation of osteoclasts, and resorption in ectopic bone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclastic bone resorption requires a number of complex steps that are under the control of local regulatory molecules. Osteopontin is expressed in osteoclasts and is also present in bone matrix; however, its biological function has not been fully understood. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in the process of osteoclastic bone resorption, we conducted ectopic bone implantation experiments using wild-type and osteopontin knockout mouse. In the wild-type group, bone discs from calvariae implanted ectopically in muscle were resorbed, and their mass was reduced by 25% within 4 weeks. In contrast, the mass of the bone discs from calvariae of osteopontin knockout mice was reduced by only 5% when implanted in osteopontin knockout mice. Histological analyses indicated that the number of osteoclasts associated with the implanted bones was reduced in the osteopontin knockout mice. As osteopontin deficiency does not suppress osteoclastogenesis per se, we further examined vascularization immunohistologically and found that the number of vessels containing CD31-positive endothelial cells around the bone discs implanted in muscle was reduced in the osteopontin knockout mice. Furthermore, sc implantation assays indicated that the length and branching points of the newly formed vasculatures associated with the bone discs were also reduced in the absence of osteopontin. In this assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive area of the bone discs was also reduced in the osteopontin knockout mice, indicating further the link between the osteopontin-dependent vascularization and osteoclast accumulation. The bone resorption defect could be rescued by topical administration of recombinant osteopontin to the bones implanted in muscle. These observations indicate that osteopontin is required for efficient vascularization by the hemangiogenic endothelial cells and subsequent osteoclastic resorption of bones. PMID:11181551

Asou, Y; Rittling, S R; Yoshitake, H; Tsuji, K; Shinomiya, K; Nifuji, A; Denhardt, D T; Noda, M

2001-03-01

318

Claudin 18 is a novel negative regulator of bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation  

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Claudin 18 (Cldn-18) belongs to a large family of transmembrane proteins that are important components of tight junction strands. Although several claudin members are expressed in bone, the functional role for any claudin member in bone is unknown. Here we demonstrate that disruption of Cldn-18 in mice markedly decreased total body bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and cortical thickness in Cldn-18 ?/? mice. Histomorphometric studies revealed that bone resorption parameters we...

Linares, Gabriel R.; Brommage, Robert; Powell, David R.; Xing, Weirong; Chen, Shin-tai; Alshbool, Fatima Z.; Lau, Kh William; Wergedal, Jon E.; Mohan, Subburaman

2012-01-01

319

Identifying enamel diffusion properties in feline teeth affected with resorptive lesions  

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Various factors have been suggested in the pathogenesis of feline resorptive lesions, such as periodontal disease, dietary factors, mechanical stress, developmental tooth defects, breed and viral disease, although none of these factors have been definitively proven to be the direct cause. It was recently published that normally enamel in cats is significantly thinner at the cemento-enamel junction, and both enamel and dentine are significantly less mineralized than elsewhere on the toot...

2011-01-01

320

[Current possibilities of correcting subchondral bone resorption as a major pathogenetic factor for progressive osteoarthrosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper considers the current pathogenesis, by choosing the actual targets of pharmacotherapy with available drugs. It reflects the cytokine mechanisms responsible for lesion of the synovial membranes, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Particular emphasis is laid on the role of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, vitamin D3 as drugs that affect the key components of pathogenesis, including the volume of resorptive cavities in the subchondral bone. PMID:24754071

Naumov, A V

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi  

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Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1), under planted trees (CF2), and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP). The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE) and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry...

2007-01-01

322

Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia.  

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Approximately two-thirds of patients who receive the anticancer drug gallium nitrate develop mild hypocalcemia. To evaluate the mechanism of drug-induced hypocalcemia, we tested the effects of gallium nitrate upon in vitro release of 45Ca++ from explanted fetal rat bones. The drug significantly inhibited 45Ca++ release in response to stimulation with both parathyroid hormone and a lymphokine preparation with osteoclast activating factor activity. The inhibitory effects on bone resorption were...

Warrell, R. P.; Bockman, R. S.; Coonley, C. J.; Isaacs, M.; Staszewski, H.

1984-01-01

323

Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig

1990-05-16

324

Embryo resorption following administration of steroidal compounds to rats in mid pregnancy.  

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In the course of experiments on the effects of anabolic steroids on the myocardium of rat conceptuses, we found that subcutaneous implantation of 10 mg of estradiol, Dianabol or testosterone to rats in mid pregnancy, resulted in embryo resorption. Placental tissue was identified only in estradiol-treated rats which also demonstrated a large amount of serosanguineous fluid that dilated the horns considerably. The yellow nodules of placental attachment sites were represented histologically by c...

Sarkar, K.; Kinson, G. A.; Rowsell, H. C.

1986-01-01

325

Estrogen directly attenuates human osteoclastogenesis, but has no effect on resorption by mature osteoclasts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Estrogen deficiency arising with the menopause promotes marked acceleration of bone resorption, which can be restored by hormone replacement therapy. The inhibitory effects of estrogen seem to involve indirect cytokine- mediated effects via supporting bone marrow cells, but direct estrogen-receptor mediated effects on the bone-resorbing osteoclasts have also been proposed. Little information is available on whether estrogens modulate human osteoclastogenesis or merely inhibit the functional activity of osteoclasts. To clarify whether estrogens directly modulate osteoclastic activities human CD14+ monocytes were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL to induce osteoclast differentiation. Addition of 0.1-10 nM 17beta-estradiol to differentiating osteoclasts resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity reaching 60% at 0.1 nM. In addition, 17beta-estradiol inhibited bone resorption, as measured by the release of the C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide (CTX), by 60% at 0.1 nM, but had no effect on the overall cell viability. In contrast to the results obtained with differentiating osteoclasts, addition of 17beta-estradiol (0.001-10 nM) to mature osteoclasts did not affect bone resorption or TRACP activity. We investigated expression of the estrogen receptors, using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We found that ER-alpha is expressed in osteoclast precursors, whereas ER- beta is expressed at all stages, indicating that the inhibitory effect of estrogen on osteoclastogenesis is mediated by ER-alpha for the major part. In conclusion, these results suggest that the in vivo effects of estrogen are mediated by reduction of osteoclastogenesis rather than direct inhibition of the resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts.

Sørensen, M G; Henriksen, K

2006-01-01

326

Bisphosphonates suppress periosteal osteoblast activity independently of resorption in rat femur and tibia.  

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Recent studies demonstrate that bisphosphonates suppress bone resorption by leading to apoptosis of the osteoclast and inhibiting the differentiation to mature osteoclasts. The influence of bisphosphonates on bone formation is unknown, although it has been hypothesized that bisphosphonates inhibit osteoblast apoptosis and stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro, leading to increased bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bisphosphona...

Iwata, Ken; Li, Jiliang; Follet, He?le?ne; Phipps, Roger; Burr, David

2006-01-01

327

Mechanisms of TNF-?– and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in psoriatic arthritis  

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Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by extensive bone resorption. The mechanisms underlying this matrix loss have not been elucidated. We report here that blood samples from PsA patients, particularly those with bone erosions visible on plain radiographs, exhibit a marked increase in osteoclast precursors (OCPs) compared with those from healthy controls. Moreover, PsA PBMCs readily formed osteoclasts in vitro without exogenous receptor activator of NF-?B ...

Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Haas-smith, Sally A.; Li, Ping; Hicks, David G.; Schwarz, Edward M.

2003-01-01

328

Dynamics of fibrosis production and resorption in intestinal schistosomiasis of mice  

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A histological, morphometric and immunocytochemical study of schistosomal periovular granulomas in the liver and intestines of mice revealed that intestinal granulomas are smaller and contain less collagen than those in the liver. After curative treatment intestinal granulomas undergo a relatively more rapid resorption, although the general pattern of collagen degradation apparently does not differ from that observed in the liver. Tendency to form scattered, usually isolated granulomas that a...

Rosella de Oliveira Santos; Barbosa Ju?nior, Aryon A.; Andrade, Zilton A.

1992-01-01

329

Hemorragia alveolar como complicación del uso de trombolíticos Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of thrombolytic therapy  

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Full Text Available La trombolisis se usa como estrategia de reperfusión coronaria en el infarto agudo de miocardio. El sangrado es su principal complicación; la mayoría ocurre en los sitios de accesos venosos y es leve, pero también pueden presentarse hemorragia gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinaria, pulmonar y a nivel del sistema nervioso central, episodios estos generalmente de mayor gravedad y a veces fatales. Se describe aquí el caso de un paciente que recibió terapia trombolítica con estreptoquinasa como tratamiento por un infarto de miocardio, y que posteriormente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, caída del hematocrito y aumento de la difusión de monóxido de carbono, cuadro compatible con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar.Coronary thrombolysis is used as a strategy for coronary reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Bleeding is the main complication described. Although most of these events occur at sites of vascular access and are mild, in some cases gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinary, lung and central nervous system bleeding may occur. These episodes are usually serious and sometimes fatal. The following report describes the case of a patient who received thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase as a treatment for myocardial infarction. Subsequently he developed acute respiratory failure, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fall of hematocrit compatible with diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage.

Alejandra González

2011-12-01

330

Hemorragia alveolar como complicación del uso de trombolíticos / Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of thrombolytic therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La trombolisis se usa como estrategia de reperfusión coronaria en el infarto agudo de miocardio. El sangrado es su principal complicación; la mayoría ocurre en los sitios de accesos venosos y es leve, pero también pueden presentarse hemorragia gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinaria, pulmo [...] nar y a nivel del sistema nervioso central, episodios estos generalmente de mayor gravedad y a veces fatales. Se describe aquí el caso de un paciente que recibió terapia trombolítica con estreptoquinasa como tratamiento por un infarto de miocardio, y que posteriormente desarrolló insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, infiltrados pulmonares bilaterales, caída del hematocrito y aumento de la difusión de monóxido de carbono, cuadro compatible con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar. Abstract in english Coronary thrombolysis is used as a strategy for coronary reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Bleeding is the main complication described. Although most of these events occur at sites of vascular access and are mild, in some cases gastrointestinal, retroperitoneal, genitourinary, lung and ce [...] ntral nervous system bleeding may occur. These episodes are usually serious and sometimes fatal. The following report describes the case of a patient who received thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase as a treatment for myocardial infarction. Subsequently he developed acute respiratory failure, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fall of hematocrit compatible with diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage.

Alejandra, González; Judith, Sagardía; Amorina, Redondo; Marcelo, Villaverde; Alfredo, Monteverde.

331

Comparison of growth-induced resorption and denervation-induced resorption on the release of [3H]tetracycline, 45calcium, and [3H]collagen from whole bones of growing rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major effect of immobilization during growth is a smaller bone mass induced by either an increased bone resorption or a decreased bone formation. Using a method of analyzing radioisotopic loss of [3H]tetracycline and [3H]collagen from bone prelabeled in vivo, we compared the amount of bone resorption due to immobilization with bone resorption induced by growth. One hind limb was denervated in growing male rats, 6 weeks of age, that had been chronically prelabeled with [3H]tetracycline, 45calcium, and [3H]proline. The total radioactivity of the whole femur and tibia/fibula from the denervated limb was compared with that from bones of the control limb at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after denervation. The effect of growth on bone formation was measured by net increases in bone length, volume, and mass of matrix and mineral. Experimental bones had a significantly smaller volume and mass. Bone resorption was much greater during growth modeling than during denervation. The additional bone resorption induced by denervation was a small fraction (one-fourth) of the resorption induced by growth. Denervation during growth resulted in less bone being formed due to a smaller gain in matrix and mineral mass as a result of a reduction in bone formation

1983-01-01

332

Investigation of microscopic bone resorption in cortical Bone Multicellular Units using a lattice-based computational model  

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Bone resorption by osteoclasts is an essential phase in the bone remodelling cycle as it creates the physiological conditions for subsequent bone formation. While several properties of osteoclastic bone resorption in cortical Bone Multicellular Units (BMU) have been assessed experimentally, the precise spatio-temporal dynamics, movement pattern, apoptotic state (single nuclei vs. whole cell) of the osteoclasts remain to be eludicated. Furthermore, the individual effects that these behaviours confer on the shape and extent of the resorption cavity are unclear. In this paper, we develop a lattice-based computational model focused on bone resorption in cortical BMUs to address these questions. Our model takes into account the interaction of osteoclasts with the bone matrix, the interaction of osteoclasts with each other, the production of osteoclasts from the tip of a growing blood vessel, and the renewal of osteoclasts' nuclei by cell fusion. All these features are shown to strongly affect the geometrical prope...

Buenzli, P R; Pivonka, P; Smith, D W; Cummings, P T

2011-01-01

333

Foliar Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P Dynamics, and Foliar Resorption of Corylus avellana var. avellana  

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Full Text Available Corylus avellana var. avellana (Corylaceae has a widespread distribution in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey and is very valuable in the food industry and plays an important role in the economy of the Black Sea Region of Turkey. In this study, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations along a topographical gradient (from sea level to 550 m and through the growing season (from April to October were investigated. In addition to this, foliar resorption was also studied as resorption efficiency (RE and resorption proficiency (RP which is defined as the proportion of nutrients withdrawn from leaves and the N and P concentrations in senesced leaves, respectively. Statistically significant differences were not found with respect to leaf N concentration and SLA during the growing season although leaf P concentration, leaf N/P ratio and SLA were significantly changed during the growing season. Except for NRE, PRE, ARP, and PRP all of the leaf traits were significantly changed along the topographic gradient. The N/P ratio which is an indicator of N- and P- limitation decreased during the growing season and along the topographic gradient. The N and P concentrations in the senescent leaves of C. avellana was below 50 ?g cm-2 and 3 ?g cm-2, respectively along the topographic gradient and this species is N and P-proficient according to the threshold values. Soil properties along the topographic gradient also changed.

Tugba Bayrak Ozbucak

2011-12-01

334

Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases

2014-01-10

335

Tibolone inhibits bone resorption without secondary positive effects on cartilage degradation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and increased cartilage degradation in the subchondral bone and joint. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic properties, would have similar dual actions on both bone and cartilage turnover, as reported previously with some SERMS and HRT. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of ninety-one healthy postmenopausal women aged 52–75 yrs entered a 2-yr double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of treatment with either 1.25 mg/day (n = 36, or 2.5 mg/day Tibolone (n = 35, or placebo (n = 20, (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jul;81(7:2419–22 Second void morning urine samples were collected at baseline, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Urine CrossLaps® ELISA (CTX-I and Urine CartiLaps® ELISA (CTX-II was investigated as markers of bone resorption and cartilage degradation, respectively. Results Tibolone significantly (P Conclusion These data suggest uncoupling of the bone and cartilage effects of the synthetic steroid, Tibolone. Bone resorption was significantly decreased, whereas cartilage degradation was unchanged. These effects are in contrast to those observed some SERMs with effects on both bone and cartilage degradation. These effects may in part be described by the complicated pharmacology of Tibolone on testosterone, estrogen and progesterone receptors.

Byrjalsen I

2008-11-01

336

Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on orthodontically induced root resorption in beagle dogs.  

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We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in vivo. Ten beagle dogs were treated with an orthodontic appliance to move the mandibular fourth premolars bodily. The orthodontic movement was carried out for 4 wk with a continuous force of 1 N/side; using a split-mouth model, LIPUS was applied daily for 20 min. Fourth premolar and surrounding periodontal tissue were evaluated with micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We calculated the number, volume and distribution of root resorption lacunae and their percentage relative to total root volume, orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament space. There was no significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the two sides. LIPUS significantly reduced the number of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption initiation areas by 71%, reduced their total volume by 68% and reduced their volume relative to the affected root total volume by 70%. LIPUS induced the formation of a precementum layer, thicker cementum and reparative cellular cementum. PMID:24613212

Al-Daghreer, Saleh; Doschak, Michael; Sloan, Alastair J; Major, Paul W; Heo, Giseon; Scurtescu, Cristian; Tsui, Ying Y; El-Bialy, Tarek

2014-06-01

337

p130Cas, Crk-associated substrate, plays important roles in osteoclastic bone resorption.  

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p130Cas, Crk-associated substrate (Cas), is an adaptor/scaffold protein that plays a central role in actin cytoskeletal reorganization. We previously reported that p130Cas is not tyrosine-phosphorylated in osteoclasts derived from Src-deficient mice, which are congenitally osteopetrotic, suggesting that p130Cas serves as a downstream molecule of c-Src and is involved in osteoclastic bone resorption. However, the physiological role of p130Cas in osteoclasts has not yet been confirmed because the p130Cas-deficient mice displayed embryonic lethality. Osteoclast-specific p130Cas conditional knockout (p130Cas(?OCL-) ) mice exhibit a high bone mass phenotype caused by defect in multinucleation and cytoskeleton organization causing bone resorption deficiency. Bone marrow cells from p130Cas(?OCL-) mice were able to differentiate into osteoclasts and wild-type cells in vitro. However, osteoclasts from p130Cas(?OCL-) mice failed to form actin rings and resorb pits on dentine slices. Although the initial events of osteoclast attachment, such as ?3-integrin or Src phosphorylation, were intact, the Rac1 activity that organizes the actin cytoskeleton was reduced, and its distribution was disrupted in p130Cas(?OCL-) osteoclasts. Dedicator of cytokinesis 5 (Dock5), a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchanger, failed to associate with Src or Pyk2 in osteoclasts in the absence of p130Cas. These results strongly indicate that p130Cas plays pivotal roles in osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:23526406

Nagai, Yoshie; Osawa, Kenji; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Tamura, Yukihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Yasuda, Hisataka; Hikiji, Hisako; Takahashi, Mariko; Seta, Yuji; Seo, Sachiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Kato, Shigeaki; Honda, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Ichiro; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

2013-12-01

338

Serum levels of bone resorption markers are decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

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Previous studies of bone turnover markers in diabetes are limited, and the results are conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate differences in bone turnover markers and i-PTH between T2DM and non-diabetes subjects. Cross-sectional study including 133 subjects (78 T2DM, 55 without diabetes). BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover markers were determined in serum. Serum levels of bone resorption markers (CTX and TRAP5b) were lower in T2DM compared with non-diabetes subjects. There were no differences in bone formation markers. i-PTH serum levels were lower in T2DM: 38.35 ± 18.20 pg/ml versus 50.22 ± 18.99 pg/ml, P < 0.05. TRAP5b and CTX were positively correlated with i-PTH (CTX: r = 0.443, P < 0.001; TRAP5b: r = 0.180, P = 0.047). There was an inverse relationship between TRAP5b levels and diabetes duration (r = -0.269, P = 0.021). T2DM patients have lower levels of bone resorption markers, and i-PTH compared with subjects without diabetes. Lower levels of PTH may induce a low turnover state as reflected by lower levels of bone resorption markers, and this situation may influence the higher risk of fracture of T2DM. PMID:22042129

Reyes-García, Rebeca; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; López-Gallardo, Gema; García-Martín, Antonia; Varsavsky, Mariela; Avilés-Perez, Maria Dolores; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

2013-02-01

339

Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [14C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

2005-07-17

340

Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades  

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Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha (China); Wu, Chuanlong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Guangwang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xuzhou, Affiliated Hospital of Medical Collage of Southeast University, Xuzhou (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dai, Kerong, E-mail: krdai@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

2014-01-10

 
 
 
 
341

Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation : are reversal cells the missing link?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined histomorphometry and IHC on human iliac biopsy specimens, and showed that reversal cells are immunoreactive for factors typically expressed by osteoblasts, but not for monocytic markers. Furthermore, a subpopulation of reversal cells showed several distinctive characteristics suggestive of an arrested physiological status. Their prevalence correlated with decreased trabecular bone volume and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces in postmenopausal osteoporosis. They were, however, virtually absent in primary hyperparathyroidism, in which the transition between bone resorption and formation occurs optimally. Collectively, our observations suggest that arrested reversal cells reflect aborted remodeling cycles that did not progress to the bone formation step. We, therefore, propose that bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis does not only result from a failure of the bone formation step, as commonly believed, but also from a failure at the reversal step.

Andersen, Thomas L; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim

2013-01-01

342

Pre-Eruptive Coronal Resorption and Congenitally Missing Teeth in a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report  

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This clinical report describes a male with autosomal recessive generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. This case is unusual in coronal resorptions prior to tooth eruption. This finding has been reported in some cases of autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). In reported cases, the defects were usually small and occurred in a maximum of 2 teeth per person. In our case, pre-eruptive coronal resorptions affected three second molar teeth from b...

Miloglu, Ozkan; Karaalioglu, Osman Fatih; Caglayan, Fatma; Yesil, Zeynep Duymus

2009-01-01

343

A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT Method  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials and Method: In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0.Results: In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT, mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise tech-nique (p< .05. Male patients had higher rate of root resorption,statistically significant (p< .05. Age at onset of treatment, duration of treatment, type of dental occlusion, premolar extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics had no significant effect on the root resorption in this study.Conclusion: Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

Zahed Zahedani SM.

2013-09-01

344

Two distinct effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-. alpha. on osteoclast development and subsequent resorption of mineralized matrix  

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The multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF {alpha}) stimulates osteoclastic resorption. It is not known which steps in osteoclast formation are affected by TNF {alpha}. The authors have investigated the effects of recombinant human TNF {alpha} (rhTNF {alpha}) on osteoclast development and osteoclastic resorption in two different in vitro resorption systems which are each characterized by a different stage of development of the osteoclast. The effects were further compared to those of bovine PTH-(1-84). rhTNF {alpha} at concentrations between 0.01-50 ng/ml (3 {times} 10(-13) to 1.5 {times} 10(-9) M) did not alter the activity of mature osteoclasts, measured as 45Ca release in fetal mouse radii. In the osteoclast precursor-dependent system (fetal mouse metacarpals) rhTNF {alpha} had a biphasic effect. It stimulated resorption dose-dependently from 0.01 ng/ml onward, with a maximal response at 0.5 ng/ml. At concentrations above 10 ng/ml rhTNF {alpha}, resorption was inhibited. In experiments in which irradiation was used to block replication, it was found that TNF {alpha} stimulates the proliferation of osteoclast progenitors at both low and high concentrations. As a result, at relatively low concentrations, more osteoclasts were formed in the calcified matrix, coinciding with an increased release of 45Ca. However, at relatively high concentrations, the increase in osteoclast progenitors did not lead to increased resorption, since the putative osteoclast progenitors were arrested in the periosteum. In comparison, bovine PTH-(1-84) stimulated resorption independent of proliferation by enhancing the differentiation of postmitotic osteoclast precursors and activating mature osteoclasts. In conclusion, the effects of TNF {alpha} on osteoclastic resorption are dependent on the stage of osteoclast development and the concentrations applied.

van der Pluijm, G.; Most, W.; van der Wee-Pals, L.; de Groot, H.; Papapoulos, S.; Loewik, C. (Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

1991-09-01

345

Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

Boutin Jean A

2010-10-01

346

Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

The calvaria of 5-to-6-day-old mice treated with 1 x 10 to the -8th M of 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro for 48 hours are examined in order to study the function of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption. Calcium concentrations in the culture were measured to assess bone resorption. It is observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively stimulates bone resorption in vitro and the resorption is dose-dependent. The effects of azetazolamide on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption are investigated. The data reveal that 1,25(OH)2D3-induced calcium release is associated with an increase in the carbonic anhydrase activity of bone, and bone alkaline phosphatase activity is decreased and acid phosphatase activity is increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. A two-fold mechanism for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption is proposed; the first mechanism is an indirect activation of osteoclasts and the second involves an interaction between hormone and osteoclast precursors.

Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

1985-01-01

347

Chronic pneumonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and impaired alveolar fluid clearance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While the functional consequences of acute pulmonary infections are widely documented, few studies focused on chronic pneumonia. We evaluated the consequences of chronic Pseudomonas lung infection on alveolar function. Methods P. aeruginosa, included in agar beads, was instilled intratracheally in Sprague Dawley rats. Analysis was performed from day 2 to 21, a control group received only sterile agar beads. Alveolar-capillary barrier permeability, lung liquid clearance (LLC and distal alveolar fluid clearance (DAFC were measured using a vascular (131I-Albumin and an alveolar tracer (125I-Albumin. Results The increase in permeability and LLC peaked on the second day, to return to baseline on the fifth. DAFC increased independently of TNF-? or endogenous catecholamine production. Despite the persistence of the pathogen within the alveoli, DAFC returned to baseline on the 5th day. Stimulation with terbutaline failed to increase DAFC. Eradication of the pathogen with ceftazidime did not restore DAFC response. Conclusions From these results, we observe an adequate initial alveolar response to increased permeability with an increase of DAFC. However, DAFC increase does not persist after the 5th day and remains unresponsive to stimulation. This impairment of DAFC may partly explain the higher susceptibility of chronically infected patients to subsequent lung injury.

Prangere Thierry

2005-02-01

348

Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T1/2). Mean T1/2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T1/2, arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

1985-01-01

349

Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine 99mTcDTPA biologic half-life (T1/2). Mean T1/2 minimum (i.e., the smallest T1/2 observed) was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. We observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values (% baseline) for T1/2, arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by 99mTcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane. PMID:3896080

Witten, M L; Lemen, R J; Quan, S F; Sobonya, R E; Roseberry, H; Stevenson, J L; Clayton, J

1985-08-01

350

Comparison of Ridges on Triton and Europa  

Science.gov (United States)

Triton and Europa each display a variety of ridges and associated troughs. The resemblance of double ridges on these two satellites has been previously noted [R. Kirk, pers. comm.], but as yet, the similarities and differences between these feature types have not been examined in any detail. Triton s ridges, and Europa s, exhibit an evolutionary sequence ranging from isolated troughs, through doublet ridges, to complex ridge swaths [1, 2]. Comparison of ridges on Europa to those on Triton may provide insight into their formation on both satellites, and thereby have implications for the satellites' histories.

Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. .

2003-01-01

351

Heart rate, alveolar gases and blood lactate during synchronized swimming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart rate, alveolar gas partial pressures and blood lactate (BLa) concentration were measured during synchronized swimming in six subjects. During upside-down breath-holding lasting 50 s, heart rate fell progressively from 98 +/- 14 to 70 +/- 7 beats min-1 (mean +/- S.D.). While breath-holding during the compulsory figures, the subjects' heart rate increased to 142 +/- 5 beats min-1 and then fell to 72 +/- 10 beats min-1. At the end of breath-holding, alveolar oxygen pressure had fallen significantly (60 mmHg), whereas alveolar carbon dioxide pressure showed only minor changes (48 mmHg). The increase in BLa concentration due to the execution of compulsory figures was approximately 1 mM; in the free routines, BLa concentration increased by 3.4 +/- 0.5 mM. The net energy cost of completing a compulsory figures lasting 45 s was 34.6 kJ. PMID:8497011

Figura, F; Cama, G; Guidetti, L

1993-04-01

352

Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive malignant soft tissue tumor that arises from primitive striated muscle cells called rhabdomyoblasts. RMS is a rare tumor in adults, and involvement of the sinonasal area is extremely rare, comprising only 1.5% of all reported head and neck RMSs. Alveolar RMS, mainly seen in adults, has the worst prognosis. Incidence of lymph node metastases is more common in this type compared with the other forms. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the diagnosis of metastatic malignancies. However, metastatic soft tissue sarcomas are often overlooked, primarily due to the low frequency with which they occur. Here, we report a rare case of metastatic alveolar RMS in the cervical lymph nodes of an 18-year-old girl that was detected by FNAC. After 6 months, the patient came with a huge mass involving the nasal vestibule and the upper lip. Histology of both the main mass and the lymph nodes revealed alveolar RMS.

Sharma, Abhishek; Bhutoria, Bhawna; Guha, Debasish; Bhattacharya, Subodh; Wasim, Nazir Abdul

2011-01-01

353

A butterfly shaped alveolar hemorrhage caused by cytomegalovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. We report here a 35 year-old immunocompetent male, with a fulminantly lethal diffuse alveolar hemorrhage caused by CMV pneumonia. The patient was admitted with fever, rust colored sputum and exertional dyspnea. A chest x-ray revealed bilateral alveolar infiltration in a butterfly pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed which revealed alveolar hemorrhage. Microscopic findings of the lavage fluid revealed large numbers of erythrocytes and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. The patient did not improve with empiric antibiotic treatment. High CMV IgG and IgM titers were found in the serum. The patient died from respiratory failure after detection of inclusion bodies on BAL before initiation of antiviral therapy. PMID:21073064

Ciledag, Aydin; Karnak, Demet; Kayacan, Oya

2010-07-01

354

Acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to exposure to cotton dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is rare but may occur in association with malignancy, certain infections, and exposure to inorganic or organic dust and some toxic fumes. This case report describes the second recorded case of PAP due to exposure to cotton dust. A 24-year-old man developed PAP after working as a spinner for eight years without respiratory protection. He was admitted as an emergency patient with very severe dyspnea for four months and cough for several years. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse alveolar consolidation. He died 16 days later, and a diagnosis of acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made at autopsy. The histopathology demonstrated alveoli and respiratory bronchioles filled with characteristic periodic acid Schiff-positive material, which also revealed birefringent bodies of cotton dust under polarized light. Secondary PAP can be fatal and present with acute respiratory failure. The occupational history and characteristic pathology can alert clinicians to the diagnosis. PMID:20532003

Thind, Gurcharan Singh

2009-10-01

355

Acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to exposure to cotton dust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is rare but may occur in association with malignancy, certain infections, and exposure to inorganic or organic dust and some toxic fumes. This case report describes the second recorded case of PAP due to exposure to cotton dust. A 24-year-old man developed PAP after working as a spinner for eight years without respiratory protection. He was admitted as an emergency patient with very severe dyspnea for four months and cough for several years. Chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse alveolar consolidation. He died 16 days later, and a diagnosis of acute pulmonary alveolar proteinosis was made at autopsy. The histopathology demonstrated alveoli and respiratory bronchioles filled with characteristic periodic acid Schiff-positive material, which also revealed birefringent bodies of cotton dust under polarized light. Secondary PAP can be fatal and present with acute respiratory failure. The occupational history and characteristic pathology can alert clinicians to the diagnosis.

Thind Gurcharan

2009-01-01

356

A young non-immunocompromised woman with diffuse alveolar opacities  

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Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar opacities (DAO due to pulmonary tuberculosis are usually described in immunocompromised patients. In adult patients residing in high endemic areas such as India, alveolar opacities are not reported frequently in non-immunocompromised pulmonary tuberculosis patients. We describe a twenty-five-year-old woman who presented with bilateral diffuse alveolar opacities and initial diagnostic work up was directed to non-tuberculosis etiologies. Her sputum was not suggestive of tuberculous or any other infective etiology. However, histopathological examination of specimen from fine needle aspiration cytology through percutaneous route suggested chronic granulomatous disease with detection of mycobacterium. Polymerase chain reaction test in BAL and FNAC specimen confirmed tubercular etiology. Though not frequent, pulmonary tuberculous etiology is worth considering in the differential diagnosis of DAO as not only tuberculosis is fully treatable but also early detection shall help to avoid unnecessary invasive tests and cut down transmission to contacts.

Gupta Prem

2010-01-01

357

Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma of Oral Cavity – A Rare Case  

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Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are the malignant tumors of the striated skeletal muscles. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the children, adolescents and young adults. An eleven year old boy who presented with a painless progressive lump in the floor of the mouth since 4 months which was rapidly increasing in size without any systemic symptoms or signs of any metastatic spread. A wide excision of the lump was done and histopathology was reported to be an alveolar variant of rhabdomyosarcoma. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas account for almost 30% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. They have predilection for deep soft tissue of the extremities. The tumor may arise at other places also though they are rare. We report a rare case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in the oral cavity.

Ravi Batra

2010-07-01

358

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the mandibular ramus and its surrounding tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhabdomyosarcoma, when it occurs in the head and neck, is primarily found in children. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is rarely seen in the oral lesion, comparing to the embryonal and the pleomorphic variants. This is a report of a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mandible in a ten-year old girl who complained of a non-painful swelling on the right cheek. The right lower 1st molar was mobile. Her radiographs revealed an extensive radiolucency with somewhat irregular border on the right mandibular ramus. The right mandibular 1st and 2nd molars lost their lamina dura and were floating. CT images revealed smooth-outlined soft tissue mass occupying the pterygomandibular space, the infratemporal space, and the masseteric muscle with thinning and perforation of the right mandibular angle and ramus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings established the final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

2004-06-01

359

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the mandibular ramus and its surrounding tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhabdomyosarcoma, when it occurs in the head and neck, is primarily found in children. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is rarely seen in the oral lesion, comparing to the embryonal and the pleomorphic variants. This is a report of a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mandible in a ten-year old girl who complained of a non-painful swelling on the right cheek. The right lower 1st molar was mobile. Her radiographs revealed an extensive radiolucency with somewhat irregular border on the right mandibular ramus. The right mandibular 1st and 2nd molars lost their lamina dura and were floating. CT images revealed smooth-outlined soft tissue mass occupying the pterygomandibular space, the infratemporal space, and the masseteric muscle with thinning and perforation of the right mandibular angle and ramus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings established the final diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2004-06-15

360

JNK suppresses pulmonary fibroblast elastogenesis during alveolar development  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The formation of discrete elastin bands at the tips of secondary alveolar septa is important for normal alveolar development, but the mechanisms regulating the lung elastogenic program are incompletely understood. JNK suppress elastin synthesis in the aorta and is important in a host of developmental processes. We sought to determine whether JNK suppresses pulmonary fibroblast elastogenesis during lung development. Methods Alveolar size, elastin content, and mRNA of elastin-associated genes were quantitated in wild type and JNK-deficient mouse lungs, and expression profiles were validated in primary lung fibroblasts. Tropoelastin protein was quantitated by Western blot. Changes in lung JNK activity throughout development were quantitated, and pJNK was localized by confocal imaging and lineage tracing. Results By morphometry, alveolar diameters were increased by 7% and lung elastin content increased 2-fold in JNK-deficient mouse lungs compared to wild type. By Western blot, tropoelastin protein was increased 5-fold in JNK-deficient lungs. Postnatal day 14 (PND14) lung JNK activity was 11-fold higher and pJNK:JNK ratio 6-fold higher compared to PN 8 week lung. Lung tropoelastin, emilin-1, fibrillin-1, fibulin-5, and lysyl oxidase mRNAs inversely correlated with lung JNK activity during alveolar development. Phosphorylated JNK localized to pulmonary lipofibroblasts. PND14 JNK-deficient mouse lungs contained 7-fold more tropoelastin, 2,000-fold more emilin-1, 800-fold more fibrillin-1, and 60-fold more fibulin-5 than PND14 wild type lungs. Primarily lung fibroblasts from wild type and JNK-deficient mice showed similar differences in elastogenic mRNAs. Conclusions JNK suppresses fibroblast elastogenesis during the alveolar stage of lung development.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

1991-01-01

362

The Ridge, the Glasma and Flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I discuss the ridge phenomena observed in heavy ion collisions at RHIC. I argue that the ridge may be due to flux tubes formed from the Color Glass Condensate in the early Glasma phase of matter produced in such collisions.

McLerran,L.

2008-09-15

363

Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (kep) in children with bronchial asthma, 99mTc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the kep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high kep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high kep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

1993-02-01

364

Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

1986-01-01

365

Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the retro peritoneum  

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Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma (ASPS), also called Alveolar Soft-Tissue Sarcoma, is a rare type of soft-tissue neoplasm with a poor long term prognosis. Such tumors originating in the retro peritoneal space are extremely rare. In this article we discuss a 34-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital with an increasing mass in her left lower abdomen. Ultrasonography and conventional Computed Tomography revealed a large hard mass occupying the left retroperitoneal space with a clear border. T...

Xin Fan; Rana Netra; Ming Zhang; Lang Yu

2010-01-01

366

Anaphylaxis and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Following Bee Sting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insect stings and subsequent reactions are com-mon occurrences, but life-threatening systemic reactions are quite rare. Diffuse alveolar hemor-rhage is a clinical entity seen in many different disease processes and includes hemoptysis, anemia, diffuse radiographic pulmonary infiltrates, and hypoxemic respiratory failure, which can be severe. Radiologic features may mimic cardiogenic pulmonary edema, severe infection or uremia. We describe a 23-year-old girl who developed symptoms of anaphylactic shock and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage within 30 minutes following a bee sting.

I??l Fatma Uzel

2013-01-01

367

Hypocapnic but Not Metabolic Alkalosis Impairs Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption  

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Acid-base disturbances, such as metabolic or respiratory alkalosis, are relatively common in critically ill patients. We examined the effects of alkalosis (hypocapnic or metabolic alkalosis) on alveolar fluid reabsorption in the isolated and continuously perfused rat lung model. We found that alveolar fluid reabsorption after 1 hour was impaired by low levels of CO2 partial pressure (PCO2; 10 and 20 mm Hg) independent of pH levels (7.7 or 7.4). In addition, PCO2 higher than 30 mm Hg or metabo...

2005-01-01

368

Hemorragia alveolar masiva por citomegalovirus (CMV) e infección por VIH / Massive alveolar hemorrhage due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HIV infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hemorragia alveolar puede ser la complicación de enfermedades con manifestaciones locales y sistémicas, ambas comparten el mismo concepto fisiopatológico: daño a la microcirculación alveolar. Es una entidad clínica que genera un reto diagnóstico para el médico. El reconocimiento oportuno favorece [...] un tratamiento agresivo, con lo que puede mejorar el pronóstico. A pesar de los avances tecnológicos en el diagnóstico y tratamiento, se mantiene como una condición de elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 42 años con diagnóstico de hemorragia alveolar masiva por citomegalovirus (CMV) e infección por VIH. La forma de presentación es atípica debido a que la mayoría de los casos reportados se presentan como proceso neumónico, siendo infrecuentes los episodios de hemorragia masiva. El diagnóstico se documentó mediante broncoscopia con lavado broncoalveolar y el diagnóstico etiológico con técnicas moleculares utilizando la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en transcriptasa reversa. Abstract in english Alveolar hemorrhage may be a complication of diseases with local and systemic manifestations. Both share the same pathophysiological concept: damage to the alveolar microcirculation. It is a clinical entity that generates a diagnostic challenge for the physician. Early recognition favors aggressive [...] treatment, which can improve the outcome. Despite the technological advances in its diagnosis and treatment, it is still a condition having high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 42-year old woman diagnosed of massive alveolar hemorrhage induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HIV infection. Its presentation is atypical because most reported cases have occurred as a pneumonic process, episodes of massive hemorrhage being uncommon. The diagnosis was documented by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and etiological diagnosis with molecular techniques using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

A., Cortés; E., Peña; R., Vega; G., Reyes; E., Bautista.

369

Alveolar osseous defect in rat for cell therapy: preliminary report Defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos para terapia celular: estudo preliminar  

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PURPOSE: To study were to reproduce an alveolar bone defect model in Wistar rats to be used for testing the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Additionally, we also aimed to determine the osteogenesis process of this osseous defect in the 1 month period post-surgery. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 7 animals each. A gingivobuccal incision was made, and a bone defect of 28 mm² of area was performed in the alveolar region. Animals were killed at 2 weeks after surger...

2010-01-01

370

Relationship between renal stone formation, mitral annular calcification and bone resorption markers  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Mitral annular calcification (MAC is associated with osteoporosis and there is evidence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD in patients with renal stone formation (RSF. Therefore, we designed this study to test if RSF was associated with MAC and if this association could be linked to bone resorption. Methods : Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 41.5 years with RSF and 40 healthy subjects (mean age, 44.2 years underwent screening for MAC and BMD, and measuurements were taken of serum and urine electrolytes, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase and urine dypyridoline. Results : MAC was diagnosed in 11 (18% patients with RSF compared with 1 (2.5% control (P=.01. Urine phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride levels were lower (P < .001, P=.02, P < .001, P < .001 and P < .001, respectively, but serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium and potassium levels were higher (P=.008, P=.007 and P=.001, respectively in patients with RSF versus those without RSF. None of these abnormalities were found in patients or subjects with MAC. Urine pyridoline levels were higher and T-scores were more negative (more osteopenic in patients and subjects with MAC than in those without MAC (P=.01 and P=.004, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, only T-scores and urine dipyridoline level were predictive of MAC (P=.03 and P=.04, respectively. Conclusions : Screening for MAC and bone resorption markers in patients with RSF demonstrated a high incidence of MAC in these patients. The presence of MAC in patients with RSF was associated with bone resorption markers. This seemingly complex interrelationship between RSF, MAC and bone loss needs to be clarified in further studies.

Celik Ahmet

2010-01-01

371

Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

1993-01-01

372

Polyphosphoinositides-dependent regulation of the osteoclast actin cytoskeleton and bone resorption  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gelsolin, an actin capping protein of osteoclast podosomes, has a unique function in regulating assembly and disassembly of the podosome actin filament. Previously, we have reported that osteopontin (OPN binding to integrin ?v?3 increased the levels of gelsolin-associated polyphosphoinositides, podosome assembly/disassembly, and actin filament formation. The present study was undertaken to identify the possible role of polyphosphoinositides and phosphoinositides binding domains (PBDs of gelsolin in the osteoclast cytoskeletal structural organization and osteoclast function. Results Transduction of TAT/full-length gelsolin and PBDs containing gelsolin peptides into osteoclasts demonstrated: 1 F-actin enriched patches; 2 disruption of actin ring; 3 an increase in the association polyphosphoinositides (PPIs with the transduced peptides containing PBDs. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced with gelsolin peptide containing 2 tandem repeats of PBDs (PBD (2. Binding of PPIs to the transduced peptides has resulted in reduced levels of PPIs association with the endogenous gelsolin, and thereby disrupted the actin remodeling processes in terms of podosome organization in the clear zone area and actin ring formation. These peptides also exhibited a dominant negative effect in the formation of WASP-Arp2/3 complex indicating the role of phosphoinositides in WASP activation. The TAT-PBD gelsolin peptides transduced osteoclasts are functionally defective in terms of motility and bone resorption. Conclusions Taken together, these data demonstrate that transduction of PBD gelsolin peptides into osteoclasts produced a dominant negative effect on actin assembly, motility, and bone resorption. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide-mediated signaling mechanisms regulate osteoclast cytoskeleton, podosome assembly/disassembly, actin ring formation and bone resorption activity of osteoclasts.

Hruska Keith A

2004-05-01

373

Recrutamento alveolar em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca Alveolar recruitment in patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery  

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Full Text Available Complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca são frequentes, destacando-se a atelectasia e a hipoxemia. As manobras de recrutamento alveolar contribuem significativamente para a prevenção e o tratamento destas complicações. Desta forma, este estudo buscou agrupar e atualizar os conhecimentos relacionados à utilização das manobras de recrutamento alveolar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca. Observou-se a eficácia do recrutamento alveolar por meio de diferentes técnicas específicas e a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas.Lung complications during postoperative period of cardiac surgery are frequently, highlighting atelectasis and hypoxemia. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers have an important role in the prevention and treatment of these complications. Thus, this study reviewed and updated the alveolar recruitment maneuvers performance in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. We noted the efficacy of alveolar recruitment through different specific techniques and the need for development of new studies.

Cauê Padovani

2011-03-01

374

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Chaperonin 10 Stimulates Bone Resorption: A Potential Contributory Factor in Pott's Disease  

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Pott's disease (spinal tuberculosis), a condition characterized by massive resorption of the spinal vertebrae, is one of the most striking pathologies resulting from local infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt; Boachie-Adjei, O., and R.G. Squillante. 1996. Orthop. Clin. North Am. 27:95–103). The pathogenesis of Pott's disease is not established. Here we report for the first time that a protein, identified by a monoclonal antibody to be the Mt heat shock protein (Baird, P.N., L.M...

1997-01-01

375

External resorption presenting as an intracoronal radiolucent lesion in a pre-eruptive tooth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A large intracoronal radiolucent lesion in an unerupted permanent molar was found during the routine assessment of a young male Caucasian prior to orthodontic treatment. The tooth was extracted. Histological examination indicated the lesion was caused by external resorption. The defect extended widely into the enamel and dentine, and was repaired in part by bone. The pulp chamber was not involved. The aetiology of these lesions is often obscure but in this case it appeared to have originated in the floor of two developmental pits on the occlusal surface of the tooth.

McNamara, C M

1997-09-01

376

Effects of human midkine on spontaneous resorption of herniated intervertebral discs  

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This study was performed in 36 rabbits to investigate the role of midkine (MK) in the resorption of herniated intervertebral discs. The L1-2 disc was excised and immersed in one of three kinds of solution for two hours before relocation into the L4 epidural space. In the MK-treated group, the weight of relocated intervertebral discs decreased more over time than in the control group. Newly formed vessels and inflammatory cells were more frequently observed in the MK-treated group than in the ...

Zhou, Guoshun; Dai, Licheng; Jiang, Xuesheng; Ma, Zhihong; Ping, Jinliang; Li, Jianyou; Li, Xiongfeng

2010-01-01

377

Turbo methanol extract inhibits bone resorption through regulation of T cell function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine organisms have bioactive potential which has tremendous pharmaceutical promise. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the interplay between bone and the immune system of which T lymphocytes and their product act as key regulators of bone resorption. In the present investigation we have analyzed the anti-osteoporotic effect of turbo methanol extract (TME) in the reversal of bone resoprtion. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were used and randomly assigned into sham-operated group (sham) and six ovariectomized (OVX) subgroups, i.e. OVX with vehicle (OVX) that received daily oral administration of water ad libitum; OVX with estradiol (2mg/kg/day); and OVX with different doses of TME i.e. TME 100mg/kg, TME 50mg/kg, TME 25mg/kg and TME 12.5mg/kg. Oral administration of TME or estradiol started on the second week after ovariectomy for a period of 4weeks. We observed that the administration of TME increased the trabeculation in tibia and reduced the atrophy in the uterus. TME significantly decreased the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity in OVX mice. Micro CT analysis revealed that the TME administration preserved the bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and trabecular separation in OVX mice. Bone mineralization was measured in different groups of mice by Raman spectroscopy. Reversal of bone resorption was observed in TME treated group of mice. To further investigate the mechanism of action of TME, we analyzed the T lymphocyte proliferation and profiles of cytokine TNF? and sRANKL in TME treated ovariectomized mice. Decrease in the elevation of T cell subsets was observed after the supplementation with TME. The extract significantly lowered the T cell proliferation responses to mitogens, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). A marked reduction in TNF? and sRANKL secretion in serum and TNF? in cell free supernatants of activated T lymphocytes was observed upon TME administration. TME could significantly inhibit the in vitro osteoclastogenesis and the bone resorption observed using artificial calcium coated slides. Collectively, these results indicate that TME has the potential to inhibit bone resorption and may prove to be a potential candidate for the development of an anti-osteoporosis drug. PMID:24140785

Balakrishnan, Babita; Indap, Madhavi M; Singh, Surya P; Krishna, C Murali; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

2014-01-01

378

Alveolar osseous defect in rat for cell therapy: preliminary report Defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos para terapia celular: estudo preliminar  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study were to reproduce an alveolar bone defect model in Wistar rats to be used for testing the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Additionally, we also aimed to determine the osteogenesis process of this osseous defect in the 1 month period post-surgery. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 7 animals each. A gingivobuccal incision was made, and a bone defect of 28 mm² of area was performed in the alveolar region. Animals were killed at 2 weeks after surgery (n=7 and 4 weeks after surgery (n=7. RESULTS: The average area of the alveolar defect at time point of 2 weeks was 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² and the average area of alveolar defect at time point of 4 weeks was 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². The average amount of bone formation at time point of 2 weeks was 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² and the average amount of bone formation at time point of 4 weeks was 19 ± 1.17 mm². Statistically significant differences between the amount of bone formation at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after surgery were seen (p=0.003. CONCLUSION: The highest rate of ossification occurred mostly from 2 to 4 weeks after surgery. This observation suggests that 4 weeks after the bone defect creation should be a satisfactory timing to assess the potential of bone inductive stem cells to accelerate bone regeneration in Wistar rats.OBJETIVO: Reproduzir um novo modelo de defeito ósseo alveolar em ratos Wistar que será utilizado para terapia genética e estudos com células tronco. Adicionalmente, outro objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o pico de regeneração óssea do defeito criado na região alveolar do modelo experimental. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos de sete animais. Através de uma incisão gengivobucal foi criado um defeito ósseo medindo 28 mm² de área na região alveolar dos ratos. Os ratos foram sacrificados após duas semanas (n=7 e quatro semanas (n=7 da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A área média do defeito alveolar após duas semanas de cirurgia foi de 22.27 ± 1.31 mm² e a área média do defeito alveolar após quatro semanas de cirurgia foi de 9.03 ± 1.17 mm². A taxa de formação óssea foi de 5.73 ± 1.31 mm² após duas semanas de cirurgia e de 19 ± 1.17 mm² após quatro semanas de cirurgia. Foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante na taxa de formação óssea entre o grupo dos animais sacrificados com duas e quatro semanas (p=0.003. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a maior taxa de regeneração óssea ocorreu no período entre duas e quatro semanas após a cirurgia de criação do defeito ósseo alveolar, portanto esta observação sugere que o período de tempo de quatro semanas será suficiente para avaliar a capacidade de células tronco em regenerar osso em ratos Wistar com defeito ósseo alveolar.

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

2010-08-01

379

Comparison of live human neutrophil and alveolar macrophage elastolytic activity in vitro. Relative resistance of macrophage elastolytic activity to serum and alveolar proteinase inhibitors.  

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Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein critical to the normal structure and function of human lung. Recently reported data indicate that live human alveolar macrophages can degrade purified elastin in vitro. In this study, we directly compared the elastolytic activity of alveolar macrophages with that of human neutrophils. In the absence of proteinase inhibitors, human neutrophils degrade much more elastin than do human alveolar macrophages. However, macrophages cultured in 10% human seru...

Chapman, H. A.; Stone, O. L.

1984-01-01

380

Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER  

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Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

Mauro Frascisco

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Mannosylated nanoparticulate carriers of rifabutin for alveolar targeting.  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prospective of engineered nanoparticles for selective delivery of an antituberculosis drug, rifabutin, to alveolar tissues. Drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were synthesized and efficiently mannosylated. The formation of uncoated and coated SLNs was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM studies. A variety of physicochemical parameters such as drug loading, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release were determined. The toxicity and targeting potential of the prepared formulation were assessed with alveolar macrophage uptake, hematological studies, and in vivo studies of uncoated and coated SLNs. Ex vivo cellular uptake studies of SLNs formulations in alveolar macrophages depicted almost six times enhanced uptake due to mannose coating. The hematological studies proved mannose-conjugated system to be less immunogenic and suitable for sustained delivery as evaluated against uncoated formulation. Further, the serum level and organ distribution studies demonstrated efficiency of the system for prolonged circulation and spatial delivery of rifabutin to alveolar tissues. Finally, it was concluded that mannose-conjugated SLNs can be exploited for effective and targeted delivery of rifabutin compared to its uncoated formulation and ultimately increasing the therapeutic margin of safety while reducing the side effects. PMID:19938949

Nimje, Navneet; Agarwal, Abhinav; Saraogi, Gaurav Kant; Lariya, Narendra; Rai, Gopal; Agrawal, Himanshu; Agrawal, G P

2009-12-01

382

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and cement dust: a case report.  

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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis developed in a 29-year-old white man within 2 years of working as a cement truck driver. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), an uncommon respiratory disorder characterized by the accumulation of phospholipid material within the alveoli, has been described in association with exposure to silica, aluminum oxide, and a variety of dusts and fumes. Although a link between exposure to Portland cement and PAP has not been previously noted, this type of cement contains nearly 20% silica. Lung biopsy material, originally used to diagnose PAP, was reviewed under electron dispersive spectroscopy. Analysis indicated the presence of silica particles within the alveolar fluid and macrophages. A number of items support a causal relationship between exposure to cement dust and PAP: (1) the temporal sequence between assuming job duties and the development of the illness, (2) improvement following removal from further exposure, (3) dusty, unprotected working conditions, (4) the presence of silica within the cement, and (5) the alveolar fluid from periodic acid-Schiff-positive lung tissue. PMID:2918407

McCunney, R J; Godefroi, R

1989-03-01

383

Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage  

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A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

2006-03-01

384

Reconstruction of alveolar cleft with allogenous bone graft: clinical considerations  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o enxerto ósseo secundário consiste em um procedimento rotineiro no tratamento de pacientes com fissura alveolar. Via de regra, é realizado no final da dentadura mista, na época de erupção do canino permanente, com osso medular autógeno retirado da crista ilíaca. OBJETIVO: o presente art [...] igo discorre sobre a alternativa de enxerto ósseo autógeno realizado com osso alógeno, obtido de banco de ossos humanos, ilustrando o resultado com a apresentação de um caso clínico de fissura alveolar unilateral do lado esquerdo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Secondary bone grafting consists in a routine procedure on the treatment of patients with alveolar cleft. Usually, it is performed by the end of the mixed dentition, when the permanent canine is erupting, with autogenous cancellous bone from the iliac crest. OBJECTIVE: The present arti [...] cle discusses the alternative of autogenous bone grafting with allogeneic bone, obtained from human bone bank, illustrating the result with the presentation of a clinical case of left unilateral alveolar cleft.

Omar Gabriel da, Silva Filho; Terumi Okada, Ozawa; Cláudia, Bachega; Marco Aurélio, Bachega.

385

Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the neck  

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We report a case of alveolar soft-part sarcoma involving the posterior paraspinal musculature of the neck. This rare tumor of uncertain histogenesis typically occurs in the lower extremities in young adults and in the tongue or orbit in infants. (orig.)

Silbergleit, Richard; Agrawal, Rajneesh; Patel, Suresh C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Imaging, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Savera, Adnan T. [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

2002-10-01

386

Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies  

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Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T2-TSE and T2-HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T2-HASTE and T2-TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T2-weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p2-weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar