Sample records for almanacs

  1. Almanac

    Walsh, Dan


    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "The original idea for Almanac was to make a diary or "book of hours" that would reflect on my father's life, and his passing. I chose a format concentrating on marking time : the 52-week calendar, the equinox and solstice, the punctuation of the beginning, middle, and end, etc. While the graphic and symmetrical imaging of sacrificial altars, movie screens, and deco lighting propose an odd symbolic orientation, the pairing of projected platonic shapes a...

  2. The Einstein almanac

    Calaprice, Alice


    Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...

  3. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    Urban, Sean E


    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  4. Indians in Almanacs (1793-1815)

    Wenrick, Jon S.


    The American Indian appeared frequently in the almanac literature of 1783-1815 and was used as a source of humor, political comment, romanticism, etc, much of which contributed to the cultural conflict of the times. (JC)

  5. Multiyear interactive computer almanac, 1800-2050

    United States. Naval Observatory


    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA Version 2.2.2 ) is a software system that runs on modern versions of Windows and Macintosh computers created by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department, especially for astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA produces high-precision astronomical data in tabular form, tailored for the times and locations specified by the user. Unlike traditional almanacs, MICA computes these data in real time, eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA tables can be saved as standard text files, enabling their use in other applications. Several important new features have been added to this edition of MICA, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppo...

  6. Development of Nautical Almanac at Korea Astronomy Observatory

    Han, In-Woo; Shin, Junho


    In Korea Astronomy Observatory, we developed a S/W package to compile the Korean Nautical Almanac. We describe the motivation to develop the S/W and explain the S/W package in general terms. In appendix, we describe the procedure to calculate the polaris table in more detail. When we developed the S/W, we paid much attention to produce accurate data. We also made great effort to automate the compilation of Nautical Almanac as far as possible, since the compilation is time consuming labour extensive. As a result, the S/W we developed turns out to be very accurate and efficient to compile Nautical Almanac. In fact, we could compile a Korean Nautical Almanac in a few days.

  7. The future of almanac services --- an HMNAO perspective

    Bell, S.; Nelmes, S.; Prema, P.; Whittaker, J.


    This talk will explore the means for delivering almanac data currently under consideration by HM Nautical Almanac Office in the near to medium future. While there will be a need to continue printed almanacs, almanac data must be available in a variety of forms ranging from paper almanacs to traditional web services through to applications for mobile devices and smartphones. The supply of data using applications may call for a different philosophy in supplying ephemeris data, one that differentiates between an application that calls on a web server for its data and one that has built-in ephemerides. These ephemerides need to be of a reasonably high precision while maintaining a modest machine footprint. These services also need to provide a wide range of applications ranging from traditional sunrise/set data though to more specialized services such as celestial navigation. The work necessary to meet these goals involves efficient programming, intuitive user interfaces, compact and efficient ephemerides and a suitable range of tools to meet the user's needs.

  8. 150 Years of the American Nautical Almanac Office

    Dick, S. J.


    In 1849, 50 years before the founding of the American Astronomical Society, the American Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although the British had published a Nautical Almanac since 1767, both patriotic and practical reasons lay behind the founding of an American Nautical Almanac Office in the context of the growth of science in the United States. Lt. Charles Henry Davis served as the first Superintendent. In 1866 the Office moved to Washington, D. C., and beginning in 1893 it was physically located at the new (present) site of the U. S. Naval Observatory, of which it became a part over the next few years, and where it has since remained. >From its beginning the work of the Office was much broader than the publication of data for navigation. The Office also sought to improve the theories of motion of the Sun, Moon and planets, and the astronomical constants on which the Almanac was based. Under Simon Newcomb, Superintendent of the Office from 1877 until his retirement in 1897, a consistent system of constants was devised; some of these constants remained unchanged until 1984. The American Nautical Almanac Office was dominated before World War II by its Directors William S. Eichelberger (1910-1929) and A. James Robertson (1929-1939). During the War years Wallace J. Eckert introduced punched card techniques to the Office. Gerald Clemence used these techniques to improve planetary theories during his years as Director (1945-1958), and also ushered in the era of the electronic computer for both research and production. International collaboration was a hallmark of the tenures of Clemence, Edgar Woolard, Raynor Duncombe and P. K. Seidelmann, who also implemented changes necessitated by the Space Age. Since 1990 the Nautical Almanac Office has been part of the Astronomical Applications Department of the Naval Observatory.

  9. The Liberating Role of Astronomy in an Old Farmer's Almanac: David Rittenhouse's "Useful Knowledge" and a Benjamin Banneker Almanac for 1792

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.


    Traditionally, astronomy met theology and political ethics in almanacs. As presented in early New England almanacs of the farmer's type, astronomy was deity-affirming and liberty-oriented. The old English label for astronomy that affirms theology was "Astro-theology" (William Derham, 1715). The New England rendering of astro-theology was so strongly oriented towards liberty that it can now be labeled astro-liberation theology. This 21st century label is appropriate because 18th century New England printers and astronomers used astronomy to demonstrate the glory of the Creator (astro-theology) and to encourage liberation from colonialism and slavery (astro-liberation theology). A philosophy of astronomy as "useful knowledge' expressed by David Rittenhouse in 1775 - and implicit in a Benjamin Banneker almanac for 1792 - included liberty-oriented visions of planet Earth as seen from outer space, and liberty-oriented visions of intelligent life on other planets orbiting other stars.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of the ALMANAC Model's Input Variables

    XIE Yun; James R.Kiniry; Jimmy R.Williams; CHEN You-min; LIN Er-da


    Crop models often require extensive input data sets to realistically simulate crop growth. Development of such input data sets can be difficult for some model users. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of variables in input data sets for crop modeling. Based on published hybrid performance trials in eight Texas counties, we developed standard data sets of 10-year simulations of maize and sorghum for these eight counties with the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternatives with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model. The simulation results were close to the measured county yields with relative error only 2.6%for maize, and - 0.6% for sorghum. We then analyzed the sensitivity of grain yield to solar radiation, rainfall, soil depth, soil plant available water, and runoff curve number, comparing simulated yields to those with the original, standard data sets. Runoff curve number changes had the greatest impact on simulated maize and sorghum yields for all the counties. The next most critical input was rainfall, and then solar radiation for both maize and sorghum, especially for the dryland condition. For irrigated sorghum, solar radiation was the second most critical input instead of rainfall. The degree of sensitivity of yield to all variables for maize was larger than for sorghum except for solar radiation. Many models use a USDA curve number approach to represent soil water redistribution, so it will be important to have accurate curve numbers, rainfall, and soil depth to realistically simulate yields.

  11. Ceque System of Cuzco: A Yearly Calendar-Almanac in Space and Time

    Zuidema, R. Tom

    The Incas used for the administration of Cuzco, the capital of their empire, and its valley a system of 41 directions, called ceque, as viewed from their central temple of the Sun. This system registered their concerns with space, including ritual space, hierarchy, and time, the latter in the form of a detailed calendar-almanac of weekly, monthly, seasonal, and yearly activities. From Inca times are also preserved some textiles that represent different regular calendars concerning the sun, moon, and stars. Detailed ethnohistoric evidence allows the reconstruction of the Ceque calendar-almanac.

  12. Almanacs and schedules for teachers Almanaques y calendarios para maestros

    Miryam CARREÑO


    Full Text Available In this article we analise the contents of the almanacs for school teachers published in the second half of the 19th century (after the enactment of the first Ley de Instrucción Pública and the first decades of the 20th century. These little books, specially written for teachers, played an important role in the making of the school time. They were a good instrument for teachers in organising school work, synchronizying it with the requirements of the Central Administration through the spreading or educational legislation. They were used as well in divulgating professional matters for the teacher's interest: grammar, literature, geography, science... They also have some pages in which textbooks and teaching material are advertised.En este artículo analizamos los contenidos de los almanaques para maestros publicados en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX (después de la puesta en marcha de la primera ley de Instrucción pública y primeras décadas del siglo XX. Estos libritos, especialmente escritos para maestros, juegan un papel muy importante en la construcción del tiempo escolar. Constituyeron un excelente instrumento para los maestros en lo que respecta a la organización del trabajo escolar, sincornizándola con las demandas de la administración central en el desarrollo de la legislación educativa. También se utilizaron para difundir temas de interés para los maestros referentes a diversas disciplinas: gramática, literatura, geografía, ciencias... Dedican, además, algunas páginas para anunciar manuales escolares y material de enseñanza.

  13. Almanac W22340a from Uruk: the Latest Datable Cuneiform Tablet

    H. Hunger; T. de Jong


    In this article we present a transliteration and translation of Tablet W22340a, an astronomical Almanac from Uruk. Based on the astronomical predictions in the text we suggest that it must be dated to the year 326 in the Arsacid Era, equivalent to 79/80 AD. This makes W22340a the latest datable cune

  14. China Education Almanac (1949 - 1981): The Planned Administration of Education, Educational Funds, and Wage System.

    Rosen, Stanley, Ed.


    This issue provides topics and titles of contemporary reference works on Chinese education. Most of the material provided is translated from pages 88 through 114 of the China Education Almanac, and describes the administration and funding of general education in China. (JDH)

  15. Expanding Materially-Instantiated Social & Spatial Relations: Almanac of the Dead as a Reconceptualization of History & Modernity

    Laurie Rodrigues


    My study engages Leslie Marmon Silko’s Almanac of the Dead (1991) with Thomas Edison’s short film, “Sioux Ghost Dance,” from Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show (c.1894). I will demonstrate how Almanac re-imagines traditional social and spatial arrangements, revealing the historically-specific space of social relations and re-announcing the spatial and temporal proportions of that space. The novel’s re-mappi...

  16. Book review: "Astronomical almanac", 2016, vol. 62. Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev. ISBN 978-966-02-7765-6,2015, 286 p.

    Vidmachenko, A. P.


    The first part of the almanac gives the 2016 calendar, description of calendar systems used by various peoples in the world, ephemerides for the Sun, the Moon, and planets, moments of rising and setting for the Sun and the Moon, planetary configurations, the visibility of planets and Jupiter's satellites on the sky, some data on variable stars, comets, occultations of stars by the Moon and asteroids, meteor showers, eclipses, and other celestial phenomena. The second part informs us on the current state of investigations in some fields of astronomy, and gives some memorable dates in history of astronomy and cosmonautics. The almanac may be used as a handbook by specialists in astronomy and related sciences, by school teachers, students, pupils, amateur astronomers etc.

  17. Angelita La Escapía e a fotografia viva de Marx: feminismo e passados presentes em Almanac of the Dead Angelita La Escapía and the Live Photograph of Marx: Feminism and Present-Pasts in Almanac of the Dead



    Full Text Available Análise de Almanac of the Dead à luz de teorias feministas e de uma perspectiva pós-moderna segundo a qual a noção de passados presentes é enfatizada através da exploração da metáfora da fotografia viva de Marx, mostrada no romance. A paixão da personagem Angelita pela fotografia de Marx é vista como uma forma de síntese entre a percepção indígena do tempo como eternos presentes - que é também resistência à opressão, uma vez que o passado não é jamais esquecido - e os conceitos marxistas de tempo e história.This article offers an analysis of Almanac of the Dead, by Angelita La Escapía, in light of feminist theories and of a post-modern perspective on time, emphasizing the notion of present pasts through the exploration of the metaphor of a live photograph of Marx, shown in the novel. The passion the character Angelita demonstrates for the photograph of Marx is seen as form of synthesis between the Native American perception of time as eternal presents -- which is also resistance against oppression insofar as the past is never forgotten --, and the Marxist concepts of time and history.

  18. 简析美国《老农夫年鉴》的产业经营与创新%The Business Innovation of The Old Farmer’s Almanac



    美国《老农夫年鉴》是世界上连续出版最久的年鉴。从1792起一直坚持每年连续出版,至今已有200多年的历史。本文介绍了美国《老农夫年鉴》在销售、广告、推广等方面的手段,研究了《老农夫年鉴》在产业经营方面的创新策略———多媒体发展、衍生产品开发以及品牌营销策略等,并结合中国年鉴的实际情况,提出打造名鉴、强鉴的产业经营策略。%The Old Farmer’s Almanac is the oldest continuously published periodical since 1792. The article introduces the retail, advertisement, and public relations of The Old Farmer’s Almanac, and studies its innovation strategy: multi-media de-velopment, derivative products and brand strategy. The article also suggests business strategy of Chinese almanacs and year-books.

  19. Angelita La Escapía e a fotografia viva de Marx: feminismo e passados presentes em Almanac of the Dead Angelita La Escapía and the Live Photograph of Marx: Feminism and Present-Pasts in Almanac of the Dead



    Análise de Almanac of the Dead à luz de teorias feministas e de uma perspectiva pós-moderna segundo a qual a noção de passados presentes é enfatizada através da exploração da metáfora da fotografia viva de Marx, mostrada no romance. A paixão da personagem Angelita pela fotografia de Marx é vista como uma forma de síntese entre a percepção indígena do tempo como eternos presentes - que é também resistência à opressão, uma vez que o passado não é jamais esquecido - e os conceitos marxistas de t...

  20. Almanaque da Dengue: leituras e narrativas de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Almanaque de Dengue: lecturas y narraciones de Agentes Comunitarios de Salud Dengue Almanac: readings and narratives of Community Health Agents

    Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal David


    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um estudo de leitura e apropriação como metodologia de aproximação ao universo narrativo de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS, usando um dispositivo de informação e comunicação - o Almanaque da Dengue (AD. O objetivo foi o de perceber as formas de construção e apropriação de saberes sobre dengue e saúde por parte dos ACS, além de avaliar a serventia do AD como um dispositivo info-comunicacional. Foram realizadas oficinas com agentes do Rio de Janeiro, com vistas à desconstrução e leitura relacional do AD. A análise das narrativas gerou três categorias temáticas: abundância informacional nos ciclos epidêmicos; culpabilização da vítima; contradições e ambiguidades no trabalho dos ACS como mediadores. O AD mostrou-se um instrumento útil na discussão e apropriação de informações sobre a saúde, devido ao caráter textual relacional e não linear dos seus conteúdos, e ao seu formato interativo e não impositivo de formulações sobre a dengue e saúde.Presentase un estudio de lectura y apropiación como método de acercamiento al universo narrativo de los agentes comunitarios de salud (ACS, utilizando un dispositivo de información y comunicación, el Almanaque de Dengue (AD. Objetivó-se ampliar la comprensión acerca de las formas de construcción y apropiación de conocimientos sobre dengue y salud, y evaluar el Almanac como un dispositivo info-comunicacional. La metodología cualitativa se desarrolló por medio de talleres con ACS de Río de Janeiro, para la deconstrucción y lectura relacional del AD. Los resultados se clasificaron en tres temas: la abundancia de información en ciclos epidémicos, culpa de la víctima, las contradicciones y ambigüedades en la labor de la ACS. El AD ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para el debate y la propiedad de la información de salud, debido al carácter relacional y no lineal de su contenido y su formato interactivo, no prescriptivo sobre dengue y

  1. Almanac of the sustainable development

    Climatic change, greenhouse gases, energy, water, wastes, natural and industrial risks, poverty, all theses are debated in this book. The politicians, industrialists and experts point of view and concrete recommendations are illustrated by children drawings. (A.L.B.)

  2. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira


    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  3. ANUARIO 2012: CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Congenital Heart Disease. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Nathalie Dedieu


    Full Text Available Resumen Este Anuario destaca trabajos recientes sobre cardiopatías congénitas que han sido publicados en las principales revistas de Cardiología. Se citan más de 100 artículos. Los subtítulos se utilizan para agrupar los trabajos relevantes y permitir que los lectores se concentren en sus temas de interés, pero no pretenden abarcar todos los aspectos de las cardiopatías congénitas./ Abstract This Almanac highlights recent papers on congenital heart disease in the major cardiac journals. Over 100 articles are cited. Subheadings are used to group relevant papers and allow readers to focus on their areas of interest, but are not meant to be comprehensive for all aspects of congenital cardiac disease.

  4. Almanac 2015: atrial fibrillation research in Heart.

    Jawad-Ul-Qamar, Muhammad; Kirchhof, Paulus


    Atrial fibrillation continues to attract interest in the cardiovascular community and inHeart Over 60 original research and review papers published inHeartin 2014-2015 cover various aspects of atrial fibrillation, from associated conditions and precipitating factors to new approaches to management. Here, we provide an overview of articles on atrial fibrillation published inHeartin 2014-2015, highlighting new developments, emerging concepts and novel approaches to treatment. PMID:26791994

  5. 基于天文年历算法的7.5kW聚光光伏追日系统研制%Development of the 7.5 kW Concentrating Photovoltaics Sun Tracker System Based on the Astronomic Almanac's Algorithm

    程新党; 李宏; 陈静; 毛军


    For studying the application of concentrator photovoltaic technology, a new low cost double axis sun tracker system based on the astronomical almanac's algorithm was designed. The controller using a 32 bit MCU STM32F103RC, with motor encoder position feedback, a closed-loop system was constructed. By local time, longitude and latitude, sun's position was worked out, and corresponding action was taken by the tracker to control push rod and reverse turning dish. The influences caused by all kinds of errors to system were analyzed, and the system was worked in long term and was checked by method of shadow of a pole. The results show that the sun tracker system runs stably with precise tracking, and satisfies the multi-time needs of CPV electric generator system.%为了研究聚光光伏发电技术的应用,提出并研制了一种基于天文年历算法的低成本双轴追日系统.追日系统采用STM32F103RC微控制器,与电机编码器位置反馈构成闭环系统,根据时间、经纬度计算出太阳的位置,控制推杆和回转盘动作实施跟踪.分析了各种误差对系统的影响,并通过圭测法检测和长时间运行.结果表明:该追日系统运行稳定,跟踪精确,满足高倍聚光光伏发电系统的需求.

  6. ANUARIO 2012: LA TERAPIA CELULAR EN LA ENFERMEDAD CARDIOVASCULAR. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Anthony Mathur


    engineered´ cell-that have been developed to display a phenotype that will fur-ther enhance the myocardial repair/salvage process. This almanac review covers the latest basic research that may soon have application to humans as well as the results of the latest clinical trials.

  7. Almanac of the contributions of the 49. meeting of the chemical societies. Selected papers from Vol. 1,2,3

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry; (B) Inorganic chemistry. The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (C) Physical chemistry; (D) History of the chemistry; (E) Food chemistry and technology; (D) Environmental chemistry; (E) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology; (H) Synthetic polymers. The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (I) Fibres, Textile and foil materials; (J) Wood, pulp, paper; (K) Organic Chemistry; (L) Bio-organic chemistry; (M) Didactic of the chemistry

  8. 51. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of Contributions, Vol. Program, 1, 2, 3, 4 Molecular Models (Workshop)

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: All-plenary lectures (9 papers); (D) History of the chemistry (14); (K) Didactics of chemistry (32); The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry (48); (B) Inorganic chemistry (75); (C) Physical chemistry (27); (F) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology (12); (L) Environmental chemistry and toxicology (33); (M) Agricultural chemistry (20). The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (E) Wood, pulp, paper (15); (G) Macromolecular chemistry (42); (H) Organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry (96); (I) Food chemistry and biochemistry (34); (J) Textile, fibres and foil materials (9). The book (Vol. 4) consists of the workshop Molecular models (3 papers)

  9. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    Plunkett, Jack W


    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  10. Vision, Voice, and Intertribal Metanarrative: The American Indian Visual-Rhetorical Tradition and Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    Roppolo, Kimberly


    American Indian cultures tend to be right hemispheric because of the ways in which they acquire knowledge. Over the thousands of years that American Indian peoples have lived in this hemisphere, strong visual rhetorics were developed, because of this tendency to engage in visual thinking and the socioeconomic need to communicate with others who…

  11. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of the contributions of the fifty-third meeting of the chemical societies, Vol. 3

    The publication has been set up as the abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (F) Chemistry of polymers, organic materials, textile, fibres, foil materials (63 papers); (I) Organic and pharmaceutical chemistry (59 papers); (J) Food chemistry and biotechnology (26 papers); (M) Environment, Toxicology (51 papers)

  12. Dictionnaires et encyclopedies (Dictionaries and Encyclopedias).

    Ferran, Pierre


    Eight French dictionaries and encyclopedic reference books are reviewed, focusing on their formats, characteristics, and intended uses. They include references for language, geopolitics and economics, economic history, signs and symbols, and an almanac. (MSE)

  13. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Small Text Medium Text Large Text Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder According ...

  14. Progeria

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Progeria Small Text Medium Text Large Text Progeria YESTERDAY Thirty years ...

  15. Moore, Francis (1657-c. 1715)

    Murdin, P.


    Astrologer, born in Bridgnorth, Shropshire. In 1700 he began to publish Vox Stellarum (Voice of the Stars), which under the name Old Moore's Almanac still attempts to predict annually the events of the following year....

  16. Ask a Scientist: What Is Colorblindness?

    Full Text Available ... The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research You are here Home News & Events News & Events News Releases Videos Images Social Media & Outreach Events NIH Research Matters NIH News ...

  17. ANUARIO 2012: CARDIOLOGÍA INTERVENCIONISTA. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Interventional Cardiology. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Pascal Meier


    Full Text Available Resumen: El campo de la cardiología intervencionista sigue avanzando rápidamente. La eficacia de las intervenciones percutáneas con las nuevas generaciones de stents liberadores de fármacos ha avanzado mucho en la última década. Esta mejora en el rendimiento del stent ha ampliado el nivel de indicación hacia intervenciones más complejas tales como intervencionismo del tronco coronario izquierdo y de múltiples vasos. En el campo del tratamiento médico coadyuvante continúan los grandes avances, como lo es el tratamiento antiplaquetario (bivalirudina, prasugrel, ticagrelor que mejorará aún más los resultados del intervencionismo coronario percutáneo. Lo mismo ocurre para la imagenología intravascular como es el caso del ultrasonido intravascular y la tomografía de coherencia óptica. Sin embargo, la cardiología intervencionista se ha convertido en un campo bastante amplio, que incluye también la ablación septal con alcohol para la miocardiopatía hipertrófica obstructiva, etc. En la actualidad, las intervenciones estructurales constituyen el área de mayor crecimiento, sobre todo para la estenosis válvular aórtica (implantación de válvula aórtica transcatéter y la regurgitación mitral (clipping mitral. En esta revisión se tratan los avances recientes en todos estos diferentes campos de la cardiología intervencionista / Abstract: The field of interventional cardiology continues to progress quickly. The efficacy of percutaneous interventions with newer generation drug-eluting stents has advanced a lot over the last decade. This improvement in stent performance has broadened the level of indication towards more complex interventions such as left main and multi-vessel PCI. Major improvements continue in the field of medical co-therapy such as antiplatelet therapies (bivalirudin, prasugrel, ticagrelor and this will further improve outcomes of PCI. The same is true for intravascular imaging such as ultrasound IVUS and optical coherence tomography OCT. However, interventional cardiology has become a rather broad field, also including alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, etc. At the moment, the fastest growing area is the structural interventions, especially for aortic valve stenosis (transcatheter aortic valve implantation TAVI and for mitral regurgitation (mitral clipping. This review covers recent advances in all these different fields of interventional cardiology.

  18. ANUARIO 2012: CIRUGÍA CARDÍACA EN ADULTOS. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Adult cardiac surgery. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Ben Bridgewater


    Full Text Available Resumen Esta revisión abarca las más importantes publicaciones sobre cirugía cardíaca en adultos en los últimos años, incluida la base de la evidencia actual para la revascularización quirúrgica y el uso de la cirugía sin circulación extracorpórea, las arterias mamarias internas bilaterales y la extracción endoscópica de la vena. Se describen los cambios en la cirugía convencional de la válvula aórtica junto a los resultados de los ensayos clínicos y los registros para la implantación de válvula aórtica transcatéter, así como la introducción de métodos novedosos y menos cruentos de la cirugía convencional de reemplazo valvular aórtico. Se considera también la cirugía para la valvulopatía mitral, con énfasis en la cirugía para la insuficiencia mitral degenerativa asintomática. / Abstract This review covers the important publications in adult cardiac surgery in the last few years, including the current evidence base for surgical revascularisation and the use of off-pump surgery, bilateral internal mammary arteries and endoscopic vein harvesting. The changes in conventional aortic valve surgery are described alongside the outcomes of clinical trials and registries for transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and the introduction of less invasive and novel approaches of conventional aortic valve replacement surgery. Surgery for mitral valve disease is also considered, with particular reference to surgery for asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation.

  19. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Full Text Available ... of Institutes, Centers & Offices NIH Office of the Director Directors of NIH Institutes and Centers Mailing Addresses for ... Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  20. Talking to Your Doctor

    Full Text Available ... of Institutes, Centers & Offices NIH Office of the Director Directors of NIH Institutes and Centers Mailing Addresses for ... Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  1. Marius [Mayr], Simon (1573-1624)

    Murdin, P.


    Astronomer, born in Gunzenhausen, Bavaria, Germany, competitor of GALILEO. Educated in astronomy and meteorology, he was appointed mathematician of the Margrave of Ansbach in 1601, printing an annual almanac as part of his duties. Went to Prague to study with TYCHO BRAHE, moved to Padua to study medicine. Observed the nova of 1604 with BALDESSAR CAPRA and helped Capra published a book on it. ...

  2. Ravimitest 18. ja 19. sajandi eestikeelses kalendrikirjanduses

    Stella Martsoo


    Full Text Available How could "pharmaceuticals" like elecampane root, asaphoetida resin, nitric, etc. be used as remedies in folk medicine? One route was the local manor lords and their wives, who disseminated the knowledge they had acquired both from the literature published in Germany as well as from personal experimentation. Another weighty source may have been the late 18th-century almanacs that were published in the Estonian language and the popular medical literature, the publication of which escalated in the late 19th century and which introduced recent news on medicine. The almanacs were the first literary sources for peasants to acquire medical wisdom from. Since their popularity, the almanacs had a profound influence on the population. This paper discusses the advices on medicines and treatment published in medical texts in the almanacs of the period. Since drugs used for treatment were not medicines in the contemporary sense of the word, the term “medicament” should be defined more generally. The most common food products used as remedies were salt, milk, and meal. A subtopic of the paper concerns various herbs, whereas a closer look is taken at herbs for home remedy and the possible usages. The most common herbs were camomile, blackcurrant and tobacco. Another subtopic discusses major drugs – water, vinegar and alcohol. The third subtopic explores the bestial remedies in calendar medicine, the most popular of which were fat, dung, and honey.

  3. Domestic Resistance: Gardening, Mothering, and Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silko's "Gardens in the Dunes"

    Li, Stephanie


    Leslie Marmon Silko began her most recent work, "Gardens in the Dunes" (1999), intending to write a novel that would not be political. Following the publication of "Almanac of the Dead" (1992), which was simultaneously hailed as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and condemned for its angry self-righteousness, Silko…

  4. Talking to Your Doctor

    Full Text Available ... Do Jobs at NIH Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research You are here Home » Institutes at NIH » NIH ...

  5. May/June Activity Notebook.

    Clarke, Jacqueline, Ed.


    Presents hand-on, standards-based activities in language arts, math, science, and social studies, including a daily almanac; bookmark buddies; word palettes; bowling for numbers; math thought teasers; plant puzzles; fingerprint fun; a travel bureau; and an end-of-the-year bulletin board of people involved in interesting activities. Reproducible…

  6. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Full Text Available ... at NIH Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research You are here Home » Health Information » NIH Clinical Research Trials and You NIH Clinical Research Trials and You ...

  7. FCJ-183 iHootenanny: A Folk Archeology of Social Media

    Henry Adam Svec


    Full Text Available This paper excavates two models of communication that can be found littered across the intertwining histories of folk revivalism and digital culture in the United States. First I examine the Hootenanny, initially a form of rent party made popular in New York City in the 1940s by the group the Almanac Singers, which constituted a complex site of convergence of a range interests, styles, media, and performance genres. Second, I explore how the utopian vision of a community joined in song has been taken up recently by ‘social music’ iPhone apps made by the developer Smule. I will ultimately consider how the mediation idealised by the Almanacs has trickled down to a narcissistic will-to-be-‘in touch’ in mainstream digital culture, making the Hootenanny a virtual path untaken in the history of mobile communication.

  8. An Ecological Probe into Land Ethics by Aldo Leopold



    Aldo Leopold has gained considerable repute as the initiator of eco-conservationism and been globally known as the father of American wilderness governance.“Land ethics”,which possesses paramount importance to eco-systems,is brought forth in his Sand Country Almanac.This thesis mainly touches upon the engendering,contents and significance of the thoughts to nowadays society by means of which the contemporary values of ecological civilization embodied in“land ethics”can be concluded provokingly.

  9. An Ecological Probe into Land Ethics by Aldo Leopold



    Aldo Leopold has gained considerable repute as the initiator of eco-conservationism and been globally known as the father of American wilderness governance."Land ethics",which possesses paramount importance to eco-systems,is brought forth in his Sand Country Almanac.This thesis mainly touches upon the engendering,contents and significance of the thoughts to nowadays society by means of which the contemporary values of ecological civilization embodied in"land ethics"can be concluded provokingly.

  10. Accurate Geodetic Coordinates for Observatories on Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon

    Mamajek, Eric E.


    As the 50th anniversary of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) draws near, the author was surprised to learn that the published latitude and longitude for CTIO in the Astronomical Almanac and iraf observatory database appears to differ from modern GPS-measured geodetic positions by nearly a kilometer. Surely, the position for CTIO could not be in error after five decades? The source of the discrepancy appears to be due to the ~30" difference between the astronomical and geodeti...

  11. Human relations in nursing care towards cancer patients submitted to antineoplastic chemotherapy La relación humana en el cuidado de enfermería al cliente con cáncer sometido a la terapia antineoplásica A relação humana no cuidado de enfermagem junto ao cliente com câncer submetido à terapêutica antineoplásica

    Conceição Adriana Sales Fontes; Neide Aparecida Titonelli Alvim


    OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between nurses and cancer patients, in the context of chemotherapy, according to the client's perception; to analyze nursing practice in oncology, based on human healthcare principles. METHODS: This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research. Ten clients undergoing chemotherapy treatment took part in the study. The "Almanac" techniques of creativity and sensitivity were associated to semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The subjects' discou...

  12. Estimation of evapotranspiration by reed canarygrass using field observations and model simulations

    Schilling, K.E.; Kiniry, J.R.


    Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) commonly invades meadow wetlands, effectively dominating water use and outcompeting native plants. Objectives of this study were to (i) estimate daily, seasonal and annual water use by reed canarygrass using shallow water table fluctuations; and (ii) calibrate the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternative with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model to accurately simulate water uptake by this grass. Using a groundwater well, the water table under an area in Iowa dominated by reed canarygrass was monitored hourly. Differences between water level measurements taken each hour were averaged to determine the hourly water table change in each month. Using these estimates of water use, the ALMANAC model was then calibrated to simulate plant transpiration values close to these water table use rates. Average monthly calculated daily plant water use rates were 3.3 mm d-1 in July and 2.3-2.8 mm d-1 in May, June, August, and September. Simulated bimonthly values for measured water use and plant transpiration simulated by the ALMANAC model differed by 14% or less. From May to October the mean ratio of measured to simulated values was 94%. Thus, the similarity between simulated plant transpiration and water use from the water table showed promise that this process-based model can realistically simulate water use under such grassland systems. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sport Management and Marketing: Overview and Recommendation for Future Research. [Gestión y marketing deportivo: Revisión y recomendación para investigaciones futuras].

    Yong Jae Ko


    The sport industry is a large and fast growing industry. The U.S. market only counted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012 (Plunkett’s Sport Industry Almanac). The conventional definition of the industry includes “the products offered to its buyers are sport, fitness, recreation, or leisure-related and may be activities, goods, services, people, places, or ideas” (Pitts & Stotlar, 1996, p.3). However, today’s sport market is extending its border by engulfing the entertainment industry and ...

  14. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta

    Islam Sana; Sadiq Muhammad; Qureshi Muhammad Shahid


    The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta ( ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial approximations have been developed to obtain the values of for any time of a year for the period AD 1620 to AD 2000 (Meeu 2000) as no dynamical theories describe the variations in . In this work, a new set of polynomials for is obtained for the period AD 1620 to AD 2007 that is found to produce better results compared to previous attempts.

  15. Colonial American Astronomy

    Yeomans, Donald K.


    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  16. Analysis of physical flows in primary commodity trade. A case study in China

    How globalization and international trade affect sustainable development and environment has attracted worldwide attention. Associated with the import and export of primary commodities, ecologically important materials have been exchanged among regions and countries. China, having the largest population in the world and the highest economic growth rate in last decades, may have an important influence on global sustainable development through the trade of primary commodities. Using the data from Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, we analyzed material flows in the trade of primary commodity in China from 1950 to 2001. Our analysis shows that: (1) China has turned from a net exporter of primary commodities to a net importer; (2) minerals and fuels have been the major imports of primary commodities since 1992, just as well as foods and minerals did in 1980s; (3) most of the net imported primary commodities come from Oceania, Africa and Latin America. (author)

  17. Accurate Geodetic Coordinates for Observatories on Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon

    Mamajek, Eric E


    As the 50th anniversary of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) draws near, the author was surprised to learn that the published latitude and longitude for CTIO in the Astronomical Almanac and iraf observatory database appears to differ from modern GPS-measured geodetic positions by nearly a kilometer. Surely, the position for CTIO could not be in error after five decades? The source of the discrepancy appears to be due to the ~30" difference between the astronomical and geodetic positions -- a systematic effect due to vertical deflection first reported by Harrington, Mintz Blanco, & Blanco (1972). Since the astronomical position is not necessarily the desired quantity for some calculations, and since the number of facilities on Cerro Tololo and neighboring Cerro Pachon has grown considerably over the years, I decided to measure accurate geodetic positions for all of the observatories and some select landmarks on the two peaks using GPS and Google Earth. Both sets of measurements were inter-...

  18. Promoting good health in the age of reform: the medical publications of Henry H. Porter of Philadelphia, 1829-32.

    Horrocks, T A


    In the early 1830s, the Philadelphia publisher Henry H. Porter rapidly published five journals, six books, and an almanac, works having a particular emphasis on health and personal hygiene. Porter's health publications linked the traditional message about the importance of personal hygiene to health to the messages conveyed by the flourishing American reform movements at the time, and his Journal of Health was among the first American medically oriented periodicals published for the layperson. Yet Porter did not survive in the intensely competitive and financially unstable book trade. This study examines Porter's health publications, attempting to explain why he chose to publish what he did, the message(s) his works contained, the audience(s) he tried to reach, and the failure of his business. PMID:11609080

  19. Processos de inserção de analfabetos e semi-alfabetizados no mundo da cultura escrita (1930-1950

    Ana Maria Galvão de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This work is part of a broader research effort that aims to (reconstruct the reading/listening public of “cordel” literature, between 1930 and 1950, in the State of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil. In particular, it has the objective of identifying how was the insertion of illiterate or semi-illiterate people in literacy practices. The “ABC letters”, school textbooks, comic books, police novels and almanacs were the most popular readings of the majority of the public investigated in the research. Some factors seem to contribute for the diversity of forms of contact with the objects of the lettered culture world and their usage, among them, the urban experience, gender, professional occupation and the basic domain of reading ability.

  20. 290 years of gravitation

    The origins of Newton's theory of gravitation are presented and its applications in celestial mechanics are discussed. The three-body problem and various attempts to solve it, and Sundman's solution, are also presented. The nature of gravitation is discussed, from Descartes' theory of elastic collisions, through the electromagnetic concepts culminating in Thomson's theoretical study, to special and general relativity. It is pointed out that, despite its successes, relativity theory is not of practical use. Almanacs and satellite orbits are calculated by Newtonian mechanics. Nor can relativity lead to a practical solution of the three-body problem. Finally the author maintains that the solutions to physical problems should be sought in numbers and not in geometry, and proposes an 'antigeometric algebra'. (JIW)

  1. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010)

    Kaplan, George


    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was

  2. On Three'Types of Days'in Wheel of Time Calendar Suolangsangmu,Gelang%浅析时轮历中的“三种日”理论

    索郎桑姆; 格朗


    Wheel of time calendar is the core of Tibetan almanac,the theory of'three types of days"are the foundation of wheel of time calendar.From three aspects of solar days and solar days move-ment,space year and solar years movement,and lunar months and lunar movement,the article dis-cusses the Tibetan astronomy and almanac embodied in the theory of'three types of days',analyzes the embodied planetary movement rules represented by the sun and the moon.Based on the relationship of solar days,lunar month and space years,the article analyzes the ideas behind extra days,skip days and 13th months (intercalary ones)in Tibetan calendar.The combination of solar days and lunar days produce the unique structure of extra days and skip days in Tibetan calendar,and the accumulation of extra days and skip days bring about big and small months.The 13th month is caused by the combina-tion of space month and lunar month,the intercalary cycle is the 24th intercalary month of 65th year.%时轮历是藏族天文历算的核心部分,“三种日”理论则是时轮历的基础。从太阳日与太阳的周日视运动、宫年与太阳的周年视运动、太阴月与月亮视运动三个方面论述“三种日”理论所体现的藏族天文历算之天文观,分析该理论所体现的以太阳和月亮为典型代表的天体运动规律,根据太阳日、太阴月和宫年之间的关系分析藏历历法中重日、缺日和闰月的设置思想。太阳日与太阴日之间日序的相互配合产生了重日与缺日这种藏历中独有的结构,重日与缺日的积累便形成大小月份,闰月则是按宫月与太阴月的配合关系产生,闰章为65年24闰。

  3. A C++ class library for telescope pointing

    Terrett, David L.


    tpk is a C++ class library, layered on TCSpk and slalib that implements virtual telescope objects for generating mount and rotator position (and optionally, velocity and acceleration) demands, predicting the position of guide probes etc. in the focal plane and tip and tilt for steerable optics. These objects allocate and manage storage for the kernel context in a thread safe manner enabling a pointing kernel for a specific telescope configuration to be constructed simply by creating the necessary objects and calling their "fast", "medium" and "slow" update methods at the appropriate rates. Additional facilities include: Tracking of solar system objects using orbital elements as tabulated by the Minor Planet Center, the JPL Horizons system and the Astronomical Almanac or the for the major planets, built-in ephemeredes due to Chapront and Francou - Management of pointing models including the logging of pointing test data capable of being read into TPOINT, catalogues of pointing reference stars and pointing adjustments from handsets and guiders including the necessary digital filters - Generation of world coordinate system mappings and FITS keywords for instruments. The library can be tailored for a particular operating environment by replacing the mutex and clock classes. For "off-line" or otherwise non time-critical application the existing Posix and Windows implementations can be used.

  4. A Role of «Ruthenian trinity» in National Consciousness Awakening in Western Ukraine

    N. Palamarchuk


    Full Text Available While analyzing materials from the encyclopedic guides, scientific and publicist works, and periodical issues, the author examines historical roots (origin of the half-legal democratic, educational and literary group the «Ruthenian Trinity» («Ruska Triytsia». He shows the significance of study and popularization of the major mission seen by the Trinity members in: elevation of the Ukrainian language status and authority; introducing revolutionary changes to the literature of that time by incorporation of folk language; desire to enlighten people and promote awakening of their national consciousness to the greatest possible extent. The article shows the specific results of the «Ruthenian Trinity» activity: «walking to the people», publication of «The Ruthenian Son» manuscript collection (1833; preparation of «The Star» («Zoria» to printing (1834, as well as the reason why its publication was forbidden by both the Viennese and the Lvivian censorship. The analysis of grounding for the official prohibition to spread «Rusalka Dnistrovaia» («The Nymth of the Dniester» almanac (1836 among readers is provided. It is about the sense of studying history of your nation in the people’s unity, recognition of collective nature of their historical destiny, in development of national consciousness and ardent love to the native language and the native land.

  5. Proposals for the masses of the three largest asteroids, the Moon-Earth mass ratio and the Astronomical Unit

    Pitjeva, E. V.; Standish, E. M.


    We propose to the NSFA (the IAU Working Group on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy) the following representative values and realistic uncertainties for the masses of the three largest asteroids (Ceres, Pallas, Vesta), to be used as the current best estimates: begin{array}{ll}M_Ceres/M_odot = 4.72(3)\\cdot 10^{-10},\\ M_Pallas/M_odot = 1.03(3)\\cdot 10^{-10},\\ M_Vesta/M_odot = 1.35(3)\\cdot 10^{-10}. Unlike the values previously adopted in the Astronomical Almanac, these are consistent with nearly all of the twenty or so modern accurate determinations from various authors. We also have proposed the following values for the Moon-Earth mass ratio and the astronomical unit in meters obtained from the ephemeris improvement processes at JPL in Pasadena and at IAA RAS in St.Petersburg: M Moon/ M Earth = 0.0123000371(4) and AU = 149597870700(3) m. The numerical value of the AU in meters is identical in both the TDB-based and the TCB-based systems of units if one uses the conversion proposed by Irwin and Fukushima, Brumberg and Groten, Brumberg and Simon.

  6. Sport Management and Marketing: Overview and Recommendation for Future Research. [Gestión y marketing deportivo: Revisión y recomendación para investigaciones futuras].

    Yong Jae Ko


    Full Text Available The sport industry is a large and fast growing industry. The U.S. market only counted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012 (Plunkett’s Sport Industry Almanac. The conventional definition of the industry includes “the products offered to its buyers are sport, fitness, recreation, or leisure-related and may be activities, goods, services, people, places, or ideas” (Pitts & Stotlar, 1996, p.3. However, today’s sport market is extending its border by engulfing the entertainment industry and becoming a global cultural phenomenon (Gillentine, 2012.Reflecting the industry’s growth, the academic field of sport management is now in strong demand to educate professionals in the sport industry. Specifically, the special task force of the U.S. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE and North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM defined sport management as “the field of study offering the specialization training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry.” Since the Journal of Sport Management was first published in 1987, 15 scholarly journals emerged to accommodate the demand for effective communication specifically targeted toward sport management and marketing. At the same time, the growing market size of the sport industry as a cultural phenomenon received scholarly attention from other disciplines such as management, marketing and economics (Gillentine, 2012.

  7. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan


    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  8. SUPL support for mobile devices

    Narisetty, Jayanthi; Soghoyan, Arpine; Sundaramurthy, Mohanapriya; Akopian, David


    Conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers operate well in open-sky environments. But their performance degrades in urban canyons, indoors and underground due to multipath, foliage, dissipation, etc. To overcome such situations, several enhancements have been suggested such as Assisted GPS (A-GPS). Using this approach, orbital parameters including ephemeris and almanac along with reference time and coarse location information are provided to GPS receivers to assist in acquisition of weak signals. To test A-GPS enabled receivers high-end simulators are used, which are not affordable by many academic institutions. This paper presents an economical A-GPS supplement for inexpensive simulators which operates on application layer. Particularly proposed solution is integrated with National Instruments' (NI) GPS Simulation Toolkit and implemented using NI's Labview environment. This A-GPS support works for J2ME and Android platforms. The communication between the simulator and the receiver is in accordance with the Secure User Plane Location (SUPL) protocol encapsulated with Radio Resource Location Protocol (RRLP) applies to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cellular networks.

  9. The Impact of The Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin on American Soci-ety and Literature

    JIANG Ai-ping


    Franklin is an earliest writer in American history and he is the most important writers during American colonial period. The most important works of him are Poor Richard's Almanac and his Autobiography. His works have a tremendous impact on American literature later. What more important is that in his Autobiography he wrote out American dream, the spirit of business and good qualities, and some others. Franklin explained that everyone can get rich by hard work and thrift, and he called on people to come to America to make money. The American dream then became an important theme in American literature. It occurred in many works of many writers in his later time. Since Franklin was such a successful person in many areas, world-renowned inventor, writer, diplomat and one of the leaders of the American war of independence, he brought a tremendous im⁃pact on American society. And because of his success, many Americans later took him as an example and his works were popular and read widely. Both Franklin and his works affected American society deeply.

  10. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014.

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V; Popowich, Fred


    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms. PMID:27271937

  11. Kritická místa v matematice u českých žáků na základě výsledků šetření TIMSS 2007 / Critical areas of mathematics for Czech pupils based on TIMSS 2007 data

    Miroslav Rendl


    Full Text Available The goal of the empirical study is to describe critical areas of primary mathematics as can be found from the Czech Grade 8 pupils’ results in TIMSS 2007 and to identify possible causes of their difficulty for pupils. In the first part, a research background is briefly given – international comparative research in mathematics and possibilities of the secondary analyses of its data. The second part describes methodology in detail. We analysed data from so called TIMSS almanacs (results of Czech pupils at the level of concrete mathematical items from TIMSS and answers of the teacher questionnaire. To interpret possible causes we also used curricular documents and the analysis of the apparently most used primary mathematics textbooks. We set up a criterion for deciding whether the Czech pupils’ results for the given item is below their standard which we determined by comparing their average success rate with that of the international sample. Thus so called weak and very weak items were identified. They were divided into three areas which can be considered critical areas for Czech pupils: Algebra (with subareas of Functions, Substitution, Equations and inequalities, Expressions, Sequences, Shapes and solids. For each of the areas, weak and very weak items are presented together with their results and an outline of the nature of their difficulty for Czech pupils and possible causes of Czech pupils’ failure to solve them. It transpires that it is necessary to get a deeper insight into the nature of problems by clinical interviews with pupils. This will be a topic of further articles.

  12. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL


    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  13. 宋代历法中的置闰算法%Algorithm of intercalary months arrangement in the calendars of the Song Dynasty

    滕艳辉; 唐泉


    讨论了由平气定朔注历的宋代历法中,闰月的安排。根据太阳和月亮运动不均匀性改正,建立了朔望月长度的数值模型。通过比较分析2中气间距和朔望月长度,指出由于中气与定朔同日,在4种情况下使得闰月被提前1个月,在极少数的情况下会使闰月提前2个月。这为中国古代历谱的复原与考证提供了直接依据。%The arrangement of intercalary months in the calendars of the Song Dynasty using the method of the level Qi and the real new moon is discussed.According to the corrections of the non-uniform motions of the sun and moon,the numerical model of the lunation length is established.Through comparing and analyzing the lunation length and the interval between one Qi and the following Qi,it is pointed out that since the Qi and the new moon were on the same day,the intercalary month was arranged a month earlier in 4 cases and it was rare to arrange the intercalary month two months ahead of schedule.The direct basis for the restoration and textual research on the ancient Chinese almanac is provided.

  14. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Harmel, D.


    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  15. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Farzana Perveen


    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  16. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.


    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  17. A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids

    Marco Fagiani


    Full Text Available In the last few years, due to the technological improvement of advanced metering infrastructures, water and natural gas grids can be regarded as smart-grids, similarly to power ones. However, considering the number of studies related to the application of computational intelligence to distribution grids, the gap between power grids and water/gas grids is notably wide. For this purpose, in this paper, a framework for leakage identification is presented. The framework is composed of three sections aimed at the extraction and the selection of features and at the detection of leakages. A variation of the Sequential Feature Selection (SFS algorithm is used to select the best performing features within a set, including, also, innovative temporal ones. The leakage identification is based on novelty detection and exploits the characterization of a normality model. Three statistical approaches, The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, Hidden Markov Model (HMM and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM, are adopted, under a comparative perspective. Both residential and office building environments are investigated by means of two datasets. One is the Almanac of Minutely Power dataset (AMPds, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 1, 10 and 30 min of time resolution; the other is the Department of International Development (DFID dataset, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 30 min of time resolution. The achieved performance, computed by means of the Area Under the Curve (AUC, reaches 90 % in the office building case study, thus confirming the suitability of the proposed approach for applications in smart water and gas grids.

  18. A pilot integrative genomics study of GABA and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in suicide, suicidal behavior, and major depressive disorder.

    Yin, Honglei; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Galfalvy, Hanga; Huang, Yung-Yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, Joseph John


    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system, respectively, and have been associated with suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined the relationship between genotype, brain transcriptome, and MDD/suicide for 24 genes involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. In part 1 of the study, 119 candidate SNPs in 24 genes (4 transporters, 4 enzymes, and 16 receptors) were tested for associations with MDD and suicidal behavior in 276 live participants (86 nonfatal suicide attempters with MDD and 190 non-attempters of whom 70% had MDD) and 209 postmortem cases (121 suicide deaths of whom 62% had MDD and 88 sudden death from other causes of whom 11% had MDD) using logistic regression adjusting for sex and age. In part 2, RNA-seq was used to assay isoform-level expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 59 postmortem samples (21 with MDD and suicide, 9 MDD without suicide, and 29 sudden death non-suicides and no psychiatric illness) using robust regression adjusting for sex, age, and RIN score. In part 3, SNPs with subthreshold (uncorrected) significance levels below 0.05 for an association with suicidal behavior and/or MDD in part 1 were tested for eQTL effects in prefrontal cortex using the Brain eQTL Almanac ( No SNPs or transcripts were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. However, a protein coding transcript (ENST00000414552) of the GABA A receptor, gamma 2 (GABRG2) had lower brain expression postmortem in suicide (P = 0.01) and evidence for association with suicide death (P = 0.03) in a SNP that may be an eQTL in prefrontal cortex (rs424740, P = 0.02). These preliminary results implicate GABRG2 in suicide and warrant further investigation and replication in larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26892569

  19. Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) Version 3.1:Fortran, C, and Python Editions

    Kaplan, G. H.; Bangert, J. A.; Barron, E. G.; Bartlett, J. L.; Puatua, W.; Harris, W.; Barrett, P.


    The Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) is a source - code library that provides common astrometric quantities and transformations to high precision. The library can supply, in one or two subroutine or function calls, the instantaneous celestial position of any star or planet in a variety of coordinate systems. NOVAS also provides access to all of the building blocks that go into such computations. NOVAS is used for a wide variety of applications, including the U.S. portions of The Astronomical Almanac and a number of telescope control systems. NOVAS uses IAU recommended models for Earth orientation, including the IAU 2006 precession theory, the IAU 2000A and 2000B nutation series, and diurnal rotation based on the celestial and terrestrial intermediate origins. Equinox - based quantities, such as sidereal time, are also supported. NOVAS Earth orientation calculations match those from SOFA at the sub - microarcsecond level for comparable transformations. NOVAS algorithms for aberration an d gravitational light deflection are equivalent, at the microarcsecond level, to those inherent in the current consensus VLBI delay algorithm. NOVAS can be easily connected to the JPL planetary/lunar ephemerides (e.g., DE405), and connections to IMCCE and IAA planetary ephemerides are planned. NOVAS Version 3.1 introduces a Python edition alongside the Fortran and C editions. The Python edition uses the computational code from the C edition and currently mimics the function calls of the C edition. Future versions will expand the functionality of the Python edition to exploit the object - oriented features of Python. In the Version 3.1 C edition, the ephemeris - access functions have been revised for use on 64 - bit systems and for improved performance in general. NOVAS source code, auxiliary files, and documentation are available from the USNO website (

  20. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve


    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available ( The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page ( consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  1. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1994, the city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named the most livable city in America by Places Rated Almanac (Clark, 1993. Couched within this distinction is the variance of perceived categorizations as the building blocks of a utopian-esque society such as a robust job market, low cost of living, affordable housing, highly educated populous, high arts and recreation and low crime rates. What happened within under a decade that transformed the national perception of the queen city from the most livable city in 1994 to the most recent and largest urban hot bed of racial and civil unrest since the Los Angeles riots? However, no study has explicitly assessed the perceptions of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions about crime in the local community since the 2001 Cincinnati riots. Methods: We surveyed 71 participants as part of a cross-sectional study designed to assess perception of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. We conducted a questionnaire of a random sample of African American residents in Cincinnati, Ohio. The city of Cincinnati was chosen because of its large African American community and in part due to its long lasting history of police violence and riots in the African American community.  Analyses: Most participants felt the level of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was a very serious problem. However, a large majority of both males (22.6% and females (10% believed crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was somewhat serious. The remaining respondents perceived crime in Cincinnati as serious (males: 16.1%, females: 12.5% or not at all serious (males 3.2%, females: 0%. A larger portion of the males (54.8% than females (40% responded that in the last 3- year’s crime in Cincinnati, Ohio relatively stayed the same.  Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in

  2. Noor-Eesti ja kunstnikud. Young Estonia’s Artists

    Tiiu Talvistu


    Full Text Available In Estonian art history, the beginning of the 20th century is the era of the birth of nationalist art. This is the time when the first artists to study abroad, the brothers Paul and Kristjan Raud, and Ants Laikmaa return home from their studies in Düsseldorf and Munich. In the homeland, these artists’ cultural and political spirit brought them into contact with the Young Estonians, one generation younger than they were, whose overall world-view and artistic views they came to shape. The program of the Young Estonians included the furthering of cultural life as a whole; therefore they participated enthusiastically in discussions about the visual arts, and ways in which to advance art in the homeland. Through the mediation of Ants Laikmaa, they made contact with Nikolai Triik, an artist of their own generation, who in turn engaged his former fellow students from the Stieglitz School of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg – Aleksander Tassa, Jaan Koort, and Konrad Mägi. The interests and travel destinations of writers and artists were similar: they found themselves drawn primarily to Scandinavia, then Paris. Young Estonia’s almanacs and magazines were illustrated and adorned by reproductions of these same artists’ works, and artists contributed their writings on art to the publication. Nikolai Triik was artistic editor for the Young Estonia magazine, thanks to his stronger ties with the homeland and his greater authority. In the years 1909 and 1914 Young Estonia organized art exhibits, in which several artists studying abroad found their first reception among a homeland public. Young Estonia created a new standard in Estonian book design. Discussions began around the question of ”nationalism” in art. The Young Estonia period 1905–1915 was an era of great change in Estonian art, and the artists connected with the movement played a major role in subsequent developments. Together they established the art association ”Pallas” in 1918

  3. Deductive Coordination of Multiple Geospatial Knowledge Sources

    Waldinger, R.; Reddy, M.; Culy, C.; Hobbs, J.; Jarvis, P.; Dungan, J. L.


    Deductive inference is applied to choreograph the cooperation of multiple knowledge sources to respond to geospatial queries. When no one source can provide an answer, the response may be deduced from pieces of the answer provided by many sources. Examples of sources include (1) The Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, a repository that gives the locations for almost six million place names, (2) The Cia World Factbook, an online almanac with basic information about more than 200 countries. (3) The SRI TerraVision 3D Terrain Visualization System, which displays a flight-simulator-like interactive display of geographic data held in a database, (4) The NASA GDACC WebGIS client for searching satellite and other geographic data available through OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Map Servers, and (5) The Northern Arizona University Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator. Queries are phrased in English and are translated into logical theorems by the Gemini Natural Language Parser. The theorems are proved by SNARK, a first-order-logic theorem prover, in the context of an axiomatic geospatial theory. The theory embodies a representational scheme that takes into account the fact that the same place may have many names, and the same name may refer to many places. SNARK has built-in procedures (RCC8 and the Allen calculus, respectively) for reasoning about spatial and temporal concepts. External knowledge sources may be consulted by SNARK as the proof is in progress, so that most knowledge need not be stored axiomatically. The Open Agent Architecture (OAA) facilitates communication between sources that may be implemented on different machines in different computer languages. An answer to the query, in the form of text or an image, is extracted from the proof. Currently, three-dimensional images are displayed by TerraVision but other displays are possible. The combined system is called Geo-Logica. Some example queries that can be handled by Geo-Logica include: (1) show the

  4. O Centro de Documentação Musical da UFPel no horizonte da multidisciplinaridade: articulações entre musicologia histórica, gestão patrimonial e memória institucional

    Fábio Vergara Cerqueira


    Full Text Available Esse artigo pretende apresentar o programa de memória do Centro de Documentação Musical da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (CDM-UFPEL, no qual se articulam a pesquisa em musicologia histórica, a gestão do acervo histórico do Conservatório de Música de Pelotas (CM-UFPEL e o estudo de memória institucional. A pesquisa e organização dos suportes de memória incluem a documentação institucional, o acervo de fotografias antigas, o levantamento de fontes orais e a pesquisa junto a fontes primárias escritas (jornais, revistas, almanaques. Através da formação de um banco de dados digital, as informações resultantes dos projetos de pesquisa são organizadas e sistematizadas, visando à disponibilização pela internet. A articulação entre pesquisa em musicologia histórica e procedimentos adotados para gestão de acervos reverte para aproximação entre a memória institucional e a comunidade científica, numa abordagem essencialmente multidisciplinar.This article aims to present the institutional memory program of the Centre ofMusic Documentation of the Federal University of Pelotas (CDM-UFPEL, which integrates historical musicology research, the organization of historical collections of the Conservatory of Music of Pelotas and the institutional memory studies. The research and organization of the memory sources include institutional documentation, the ancient photography collection, the analysis of oral sources and the primary research sources (newspapers, magazines, and almanacs. Through the creation of a digital database, the resulting information from the research projects is organized and systematized, aimed at enabling public access through the web. The integration of historic musicology research and the procedures adopted in the management of historic collections resulted in the drawing together of the institutional memory and the scientific community, through an essentially multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Chapter No.11. Public information

    pursuant to Act No 211/2000 of Coll. was published on UJD web site ( From January 2001, 56 requests were registered asking for the information (by phone, e-mail, letter or personally). One written request from Greenpeace was not satisfied since the information is a matter of business secret. The matter is in the proceeding of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic. The Slovak press agencies, daily newspapers and electronic media were provided with 63 contributions on domestic and foreign UJD activities. UJD, together with SUJB, issues the expert journal 'Bezpecnost jadrovej energetiky (Nuclear Sector Safety)'. Two important articles on UJD legislative activities and on informing the public were published in monthly 'Verejna sprava (Public Administration)'. Contributions on supervisory activity and on UJD international co-operation are published regularly in 'Spravodajstvo SE (SE Information Service)', company journals 'Mochovce' and 'Bohunice'. Domestic and foreign UJD activities were presented in 5 issues of 'Bulletin Slovenskej nuklearnej spolocnosti (Slovak Nuclear Society Bulletin)'. This year, the report on nuclear facilities safety and on handling with spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic was published in European Nuclear Society journal 'Nuclear Europe Worldscan No 7-8/2001'. Several important contributions were published in journal 'Energia (Energy)'. Contributions on UJD tasks and mission in the Slovak Republic were published in 'Energia almanach (Energy Almanac 2001/2002)' and in 'Euro Nuclear'. Three contributions on domestic and foreign UJD activities were prepared for the world information Agency NucNet. Slovak-English additional information document on UJD was elaborated and issued for the public in December 2001. The 2001 Yearbook on UJD activities and on nuclear facilities safety in the Slovak Republic was prepared and issued in Slovak and English version. Four press conferences took place in 2001 in UJD followed

  6. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor


    Georgetown University studying astronomy. On July 6, 1963, Tom Van Flandern married Barbara Ann Weber in Kentucky. They remained together until his passing 46 years later. They had four children, Michael, Constance, Brian, and Kevin. Also in 1963, Tom began work in the Nautical Almanac Office of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He became an expert on refining the lunar orbit from timings of lunar occultations, then the best observations for that purpose. He encouraged observations by providing observers with predictions of occultations for their locations. He designed a cable system connecting all observers timing a grazing occultation, to record their observations at a central station. After a 1964 success, four amateur astronomical societies built similar cable systems. Tom Van Flandern relished efforts to simplify computer calculations. He and Henry Fliegel developed an algorithm to calculate a Julian date from a Gregorian date that would fit on a single IBM card. They published this in a paper, "A machine algorithm for processing calendar dates" in 1968 in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. This was used in countless business applications worldwide. With Kenneth Pulkkinen, he published "Low precision formulae for planetary positions", in Ap. J. Supp. in 1979. The paper set a record for the number of reprints requested from that journal. Tom Van Flandern earned a PhD in astronomy from Yale University in 1969. His thesis was "A discussion of 1950-1968 occultations of stars by the Moon," advised by Prof. G. M. Clemence. In 1976 Van Flandern asserted that the orbits of 60 long-period comets traced to a common origin, supporting Michael Ovenden's exploded planet hypothesis. He founded the non-profit Meta Research, Inc. in 1990 to provide support for alternative theories in astronomy. The Meta Research Bulletin reported the newest discoveries and how they presented difficulties to accepted astronomical theories, such as the Big Bang and

  7. Galileo OS SIS ICD导航电文设计解析%Navigation Message Designing in Galileo OS SIS ICD

    李作虎; 郝金明; 李建文; 吕志伟


    The first official release of an updated “Galileo ()pen Service Signal-In-Space Interface Control Document” (Galileo OS SIS ICD) from European Union on April 13 meant great progress of Galileo establishment from concept designing to orbit test and to system construction, which would be of great significance for the development of GNSS. Compared to GPS Interface Specification Document on LI C/A code, the ideas and characteristics in the designing on message structure and contents from Galileo OS SIS ICD were analyzed. The analysis showed that the message designing of Galileo OS not only took over the designing partly from GPS but also acquired innovation. The overall designing is open and flexible, specially, such aspects as the flow of pages, the diversity of almanac source, compatibility and interoperability, and integrity represent the development of GNSS as well as the advancement of designing ideas of GNSS. The ideas of Galileo message designing will be helpful not only for guidance to the designing of Beidou navigation message but also for the study on the interoperation between our GNSS and Galileo.%欧盟在2010-04-13首次正式发布了Galileo公开服务空间信号接口控制文档(Galileo OS SIS ICD),标志着Galileo系统建设从概念设计、在轨验证到系统实施又迈进了重要一步,对全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)的发展具有重要意义.通过与GPS接口说明文档比较,解析了Galileo OS SIS ICD中导航电文结构设计和内容设计方面的思路和特点.解析表明,与GPS L1 C/A码导航电文设计相比,Galileo OS在导航电文设计上既有继承、亦有创新.整体设计体现了开放和灵活的特点,特别是在电文页流结构、电文星间交叉播发、兼容和互操作以及完好性方面的设计既体现了GNSS技术的发展,又体现了GNSS设计理念的进步.Galileo导航电文的设计理念不仅可为我国北斗卫星导航系统电文的设计提供参考,而且有利于加强

  8. Improved model of regional flood disaster risk assessment based on remote sensing data%基于遥感数据的区域洪涝风险评估改进模型

    段光耀; 赵文吉; 宫辉力


    灾害风险评估是最简单有效的防灾减灾措施之一。以松花江流域为研究区域,提出了一种基于遥感实时监测数据和历史洪涝灾害数据的洪涝风险评估改进模型。选取中国气象科学数据共享服务网的降雨数据、NASA的SRTM90mDEM地形数据、河网数据以及对2007年全国统计年鉴进行空间化所得的人口和GDP数据作为因子,应用层次分析法计算了各因子的权重,基于洪涝灾害形成机制计算了初始的松花江洪涝风险指数。在此基础上,获取历史洪涝灾情频次数据和HJ-1实时遥感影像提取的水体淹没范围数据,利用地图代数法来对初始的风险指数进行改进。考虑历史洪涝风险的规律性和风险评测时的具体水体范围信息,使得所得结果能够反映松花江流域洪涝灾害的综合风险,具有一定的现势性,为防灾减灾提供了依据。%Disaster risk assessment is one of the simplest and most effective measures of disaster prevention and reduction. This paper proposed a method to improve the traditional model of regional flood risk assessment based on real-time remote sensing monitoring data and historical flood disaster data. The studied area is Songhua River Ba- sin. Rainfall data taken from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, 90m digital elevation model (DEM) data from America National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and population density and the gross domestic products (GDP) data from the national statistical almanac of 2007 were selected as influence factors in this research. Weightings of the influence factors were computed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a primary flood risk index was calculated based on the flooding disaster formation Mechanism. Then, the primary risk index was improved using the approach of map algebra based on the historical flood frequency data and the real-time flooding area generated from Huanjing Satellites

  9. Quantitative Research on Sandstorm Effects on Environmental Air Quality%沙尘天气对大气环境质量影响的量化研究

    陈跃浩; 高庆先; 高文康; 马占云; 谷雨; 严茹莎; 刘婷


    利用沙尘天气年鉴资料和颗粒物浓度监测数据,构建了沙尘天气对大气环境质量影响的量化指标(贡献率和绝对贡献),并利用该量化指标分析了沙尘天气对位于沙尘源区和影响区内典型城市大气环境的影响,同时比较了沙尘天气对北京城、郊区的不同影响.结果表明:2001-2009年沙尘天气对沙尘源区城市呼和浩特的贡献率年均值为6.84%,对影响区内的城市北京、天津、济南的贡献率年均值分别为5.96%、3.57%、1.66%;沙尘天气对沙尘源区城市(呼和浩特)和影响区城市(北京、天津和济南)的贡献率最大值均出现在3月,其中,对呼和浩特、北京、天津、济南的贡献率最大值分别达到19.21%、15.02%、9.41%和8.69%;2000年4月和2001年3月沙尘天气对北京ρ(PM10)的绝对贡献较大,分别为0.062和0.077 mg/m3,占GB 3095-2012《环境空气质量标准》ρ(PM10)二级标准限值(0.15 mg/m3)的41.3%和51.3%;沙尘天气过程对于北京城、郊区的影响也不完全一致.%Based on the data of the sandstorm weather almanac and the data of observed paniculate matter concentration, the quantitative index of sandstorm effect on environmental quality was defined. Meanwhile, the sandstorm effect on air quality in source areas and affected areas were analyzed using this quantitative index. Moreover, the difference of impacts in the urban and rural areas in Beijing was analyzed. The results showed that:1 ) The annual average contribution rate of the sandstorm effect on Hohhot which is near the source areas was 6. 84% , on Beijing which is the affected areas was 5. 96% , on Tianjin was 3. 57% and on Jinan was 1. 66% , from 2001 to 2009 respectively. 2) The maximum contribution rate of the sandstorm effect on source areas and affected areas was on March with 19.21% of Hohhot, 15.02% of Beijing, 9. 14% of Tianjin and 8. 69% of Jinan. 3) The absolute contribution of the sandstorm effects on

  10. 2000-2009年长春、吉林城市蔓延特征、效应与驱动力比较研究%Comparative analysis of characteristics, effects and driving factors of urban sprawl in Changchun-Jilin during 2000-2009

    孙平军; 封小平; 孙弘; 修春亮


    经济核心区是国家和地区经济增长、城市化发展的主要空间,也是城市蔓延最为严峻的区域.长(春)吉(林)一体化地区是中国图们江区域合作开发开放的先导区和东北地区的粮食主产区,肩负着“经济增长”、“人口城镇化”和“粮食安全”等多重责任.基于2000、2005、2009年的遥感图像和相关年份的统计年鉴,结合GIS和SPSS统计工具,对长、吉城市蔓延的程度、方式、效应与驱动力因子进行了比较分析.结果表明:用地扩展水平上长春市明显强于吉林市,且吉林市还表现出明显的阶段性特征;蔓延程度上,两市都表现出集约度低下、蔓延程度大的特性;蔓延方式上,长春市以“近域推进”式蔓延为主,吉林市以“轴带扩展”式蔓延为主;蔓延效应上,都带来了一系列负面效应,但长春市程度要重;在蔓延驱动力上,工业化和投资拉动是两者共同的主导影响因子,带有明显的政府导向性特征.文中提倡城市内部土地节约集约利用、区际培育城市群以形成合理的城市规模.%Economic core regions are the main space of national and regional economic growth and urbanization development, but at the same time face the severe problems of urban sprawl. The integrated Changchun-Ji-lin(Chang-Ji) region is an economic core region on a national scale, a pilot of cooperative development and opening in Tumenjiang region, and the major grain producing region in northeastern China. It shoulders multiple responsibilities such as economic growth, urbanization of population and food security. Therefore, selecting Chang-Ji as a research object for the study of urban sprawl is representative and of great practical significance. Based on remote sensing images in 2000, 2005, 2009's and Almanacs of the related years, using GIS and SPSS statistical tools, we conducted a comparative analysis on the extent, process, effects and driving factors of urban

  11. Human relations in nursing care towards cancer patients submitted to antineoplastic chemotherapy La relación humana en el cuidado de enfermería al cliente con cáncer sometido a la terapia antineoplásica A relação humana no cuidado de enfermagem junto ao cliente com câncer submetido à terapêutica antineoplásica

    Conceição Adriana Sales Fontes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between nurses and cancer patients, in the context of chemotherapy, according to the client's perception; to analyze nursing practice in oncology, based on human healthcare principles. METHODS: This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research. Ten clients undergoing chemotherapy treatment took part in the study. The "Almanac" techniques of creativity and sensitivity were associated to semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The subjects' discourses revealed that nursing care is supported on principles that are proper of human relations, such as friendship, affection, attention, tolerance and solidarity. It was also highlighted that the nurse's actions join technical and human attributes together, considering life as a fundamental ethical value in relation to human dignity as the main interaction element in healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: The results contributed for the reflection about nursing care within chemotherapy, collaborating with possible changes in the nurse's oncology healthcare practice with this client, who already is very stigmatized by the social construction of the disease.OBJETIVOS: Describir la relación entre la enfermera y el cliente con cáncer, dentro del contexto de la quimioterapia, según la perspectiva del cliente y analizar la práctica de la enfermera en el área de oncología basada en los preceptos del cuidado humano. MÉTODOS: se trata de una investigación cualitativa, exploratoria y descriptiva. Participaron diez clientes que recibían tratamiento de quimioterapia. Se utilizó la técnica de creatividad y sensibilidad "Almanaque" paralelamente a la entrevista semiestructurada. RESULTADOS: El discurso de los sujetos reveló que el cuidado de enfermería se apoya en los principios propios de la relación humana, como la amistad, el cariño, la atención, la tolerancia y la solidaridad. Además, destaca que las acciones de la enfermera involucran atributos técnicos y humanos

  12. Best Reference Practices are Not Observed in Telephone Ready Reference Services. A review of: Agosto, Denise A. and Holly Anderton. “Whatever Happened to ‘Always Cite the Source?’” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47.1 (2007: 44-54.

    Julie McKenna


    Full Text Available Objective – To study source citing practice in telephone reference service in large public libraries in the United States and Canada. Design – Field simulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Large public libraries in the United States and Canada.Subjects – Telephone reference staff of the 25 largest public libraries in the United States and Canada.Methods – The 2005 World Book Almanac was used to select the 25 largest (in terms of population served public libraries in Canada and the United States. Each system’s Web site was checked to locate the telephone number for reference service. For some systems it was necessary to call the general telephone number for the main library or the first branch listed on the Web site. Five ready reference test questions were developed from a list of questions that students in a graduate library and information science course had previously asked of public library telephone reference services. The selected questions in the order that they were asked were: 1. Can you tell me when Valentine’s Day is?2. Who is the current governor/premier (of the state/province where the library is located?3. What is the population of Montana?4. In which state is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC located?5. What is the French word for “chiropractor”?The authors called each of the 25 libraries during five consecutive weeks at different times of the business day. Each week, one question was asked; once an answer was received, no clarification was requested and the call was ended. The study reports the results of 125 reference transactions. For this study, the following definitions were used to assess complete citation for each type of information resource:• For a Web site – the complete URL (title and sponsor of the site not required.• For a digital database – the database title and the title and year of the specific item (author, publisher, page number not required.• For a print resource – the title

  13. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George


    initio within the relativistic framework presented in the other resolutions (in that regard, there still exist some difficult problems to solve), their relativistic terms are accurate enough for all the current and near-future observational techniques. At that level, the Earth rotation models are consistent with the general relativity framework recommended by the IAU and considered in this book. The chapter presents practical algorithms for implementing the recommended models. The appendices to the book contain a list of astronomical constants and the original text of the relevant IAU resolutions adopted by the IAU General Assemblies in 1997, 2000, 2006, and 2009. Numerous colleagues have contributed to this book in one way or or another. It is a pleasure for us to acknowledge the enlightening discussions which one or more of the authors had on different occasions with Victor A. Brumberg of the Institute of Applied Astronomy (St. Petersburg, Russia); Tianyi Huang and Yi Xie of Nanjing University (China); Edward B. Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (USA); Valeri V. Makarov, William J. Tangren, and James L. Hilton of the US Naval Observatory; Gerhard Schäfer of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Jena, Germany); Clifford M. Will of Washington University (St. Louis, USA); Ignazio Ciufolini of the Università del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); and Patrick Wallace, retired from Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). We also would like to thank Richard G. French of Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA); Michael Soffel and Sergei Klioner of the Technical University of Dresden; Bahram Mashhoon of the University of Missouri-Columbia; John D. Anderson, retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA); the late Giacomo Giampieri, also of JPL; Michael Kramer, Axel Jessner, and Norbert Wex of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany); Alexander F. Zakharov of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow

  14. Obituary: Brian Marsden (1937-2010)

    Williams, Gareth; Marsden, Cynthia


    Brian Geoffrey Marsden was born on 1937 August 5 in Cambridge, England. His father, Thomas, was the senior mathematics teacher at a local high school. It was his mother, Eileen (nee West), however, who introduced him to the study of astronomy, when he returned home on the Thursday during his first week in primary school in 1942 and found her sitting in the back yard watching an eclipse of the sun. Using now frowned-upon candle-smoked glass, they sat watching the changing bite out of the sun. What most impressed the budding astronomer, however, was not that the eclipse could be seen, but the fact that it had been predicted in advance, and it was the idea that one could make successful predictions of events in the sky that eventually led him to his career. When, at the age of 11, he entered the Perse School in Cambridge he was developing primitive methods for calculating the positions of the planets. He soon realized that earlier astronomers had come up with more accurate procedures for doing this over the centuries, and during the next couple of years this led to his introduction to the library of the Cambridge University Observatories and his study of how eclipses, for example, could be precisely computed. Together with a couple of other students he formed a school Astronomical Society, of which he served as the secretary. At the age of 16 he joined and began regularly attending the monthly London meetings of the British Astronomical Association. He quickly became involved with the Association's Computing Section, which was known specifically for making astronomical predictions other than those that were routinely being prepared by professional astronomers for publication in almanacs around the world. Under the watchful eyes of the director and assistant director of the Computing Section, this led him to prepare and publish predictions of the occasions when one of Jupiter's moons could be seen to pass directly in front of another. He also calculated the