Sample records for allocations

  1. ESG Allocations

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  2. Residency Allocation Database

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  3. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru


    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig

  4. Associated Health Allocation

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...

  5. Dynamic channel allocation

    Kaminsky, Andrew D.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...

  6. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant...

  7. Risk capital allocation

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set of......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than the...... new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  8. Stable Allocations of Risk

    Csóka, Péter; Herings, Jean-Jacques; Kóczy, László Á.


    The measurement and the allocation of risk are fundamental problems of portfolio management. Coherent measures of risk provide an axiomatic approach to the former problem. In an environment given by a coherent measure of risk and the various portfolios’ realization vectors, risk allocation games aim at solving the second problem: How to distribute the diversification benefits of the various portfolios? Understanding these cooperative games helps us to find stable, efficient, and fair allocati...

  9. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    Slikker, M.


    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo

  10. Aid allocation and fragile states

    McGillivray, Mark


    This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...

  11. Applied cost allocation

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs


    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set of...... assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  12. PMSI and budget allocation

    Marty M; Toselli A; Vincke B


    The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM) in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study...

  13. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner


    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  14. Cost allocation with limited information

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  15. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    Alves, J.


    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  16. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    Cattorini, P


    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  17. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Wisor, Scott


    International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs) face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophe...

  18. PMSI and budget allocation

    Marty M


    Full Text Available The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study of the numerous correlations between the cost of an ISA point and various calculated indicators in these structures proves that the scale does not succeed in adjusting this cost as a function of the patient population requesting care. The findings indicate that certain types of patients are more “profitable” than others. We must be careful not to allow this new method for determining budgets to induce patient selection or to a diverted use of PMSI data.

  19. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.


    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  20. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...

  1. Resource Allocation using Virtual Clusters

    Stillwell, Mark; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri


    In this report we demonstrate the potential utility of resource allocation management systems that use virtual machine technology for sharing parallel computing resources among competing jobs. We formalize the resource allocation problem with a number of underlying assumptions, determine its complexity, propose several heuristic algorithms to find near-optimal solutions, and evaluate these algorithms in simulation. We find that among our algorithms one is very efficient and also leads to the best resource allocations. We then describe how our approach can be made more general by removing several of the underlying assumptions.

  2. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester


    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  3. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  4. Collective credit allocation in science

    Shen, Hua-Wei


    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...

  5. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  6. Loss Allocation in Securitization Transactions

    Günter Franke; Markus Herrmann; Thomas Weber


    This paper analyses the loss allocation to First, Second and Third Loss Positions in European collateralized debt obligation transactions. The quality of the underlying asset pool plays a predominant role for the loss allocation. A lower asset pool quality induces the originator to take a higher First Loss Position, but, in a synthetic transaction, a smaller Third Loss Position. The share of expected default losses, borne by the First Loss Position, is largely independent of asset pool qualit...

  7. Asset Allocation in Transition Economies.

    Jondeau, E.; Rockinger, M.


    Designing an investment strategy in transition economies is a difficult task, because stock markets opened through time, time series are short, and there is little guidance how to obtain expected returns and covariance matrices necessary for mean-variance asset allocation. Moments of market returns can be expected to be time varying as structural changes occur in nascent market economies. We develop an ad-hoc optimal asset-allocation strategy with a flavor of Bayesian learning adapted to thes...

  8. Advertising Budget Allocation under Uncertainty

    Duncan M. Holthausen, Jr.; Gert Assmus


    This article presents a model for the allocation of an advertising budget to geographic market segments, or territories, when the sales response to advertising in each segment is characterized by a probability distribution. It is shown that allocation decisions that are based on the expected sales response may be associated with a relatively large degree of risk and, therefore, non-optimal to a risk-averse manager. The model derives an "efficient frontier" in terms of the expected profit and ...

  9. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Scott Wisor


    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  10. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  11. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Engevall, S.


    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  12. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... capital has to be shared among the subunits. The problem is modeled as a TU game based on suitable measures of risk, which are applied to estimate the associated value of any possible coalition. The paper suggests the use of Lorenz undominated core selections for allocation of risk capital. It is argued...... that such a solution satisfies a number of desirable properties violated by the conventional alternatives. The second paper is concerned with computational aspects of determining the set of Lorenz undominated core selections. The paper develops an algorithm. The third paper uses the cooperative game...

  13. Three Essays on Time Allocation

    Gonz??lez Chapela, Jorge


    This thesis studies from the theoretical and empirical points of view the allocation of time by part of rational individuals motivated by technological changes in the economy. Drawing upon the labor market viewpoint of Lucas and Rapping (1969), the first two chapters are respectively concerned with the life-cycle allocation of labor effort by part of prime-age males and females, and they seek to ask for the attention over a topic of research that seemed closed from the mid 1980's: the importa...

  14. Application of an allocation methodology

    Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.


    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Optimal allocation of inspection resources

    Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references

  16. Optimal allocation in balanced sampling

    Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine


    The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.

  17. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric


    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  18. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    Petzel, Todd E.


    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  19. Operational risk economic capital allocation

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.


    In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.

  20. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.


    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  1. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  2. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient and...

  3. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  4. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy... Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information, as described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  5. Game theory and cost allocation problems

    Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.


    Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost all

  6. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  7. Allocation decisions in network industries

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  8. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo


    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  9. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd


    Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met by...

  10. Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations

    Quisumbing, Agnes R; Maluccio, John A.


    The paper reviews recent theory and empirical evidence testing unitary versus collective models of the household. In contrast to the unitary model, the collective model posits that individuals within households have different preferences and do not pool their income. Moreover, the collective model predicts that intrahousehold allocations reflect differences in preferences and "bargaining power" of individuals within the household. Using new household data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethi...

  11. Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks

    Jordan, Scott


    Wireless services are one of the strongest growth areas in telecommunications today. Dynamic channel allocation schemes have garnered a considerable amount of attention as methods for achieving efficient use of system resources. Various combinations of permanent channel assignment, channel borrowing, shared pools of channels, channel ordering, channel reassignment, and dynamic adjustment of parameters have been suggested. In this paper, we suggest a categorization of dynamic channel allocatio...

  12. Game Theory and Cost Allocation Problems

    Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.


    Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost allocation methods based on the nucleolus and the Shapley value, and introduce also a new one, the so-called cost gap allocation method which is based on the \\tau -value. It is shown that for some lar...

  13. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  14. On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem

    Xia, Qinglan


    This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...

  15. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  16. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume


    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  17. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.


    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  18. Nonlinear and Adaptive Dynamic Control Allocation

    Tjønnås, Johannes


    This work addresses the control allocation problem for a nonlinear over-actuated time-varying system where parameters a¢ ne in the actuator dynamics and actuator force model may be assumed unknown. Instead of optimizing the control allocation at each time instant, a dynamic approach is considered by constructing update-laws that represent asymptotically optimal allocation search and adaptation. A previous result on uniform global asymptotic stability (UGAS) of the equilibrium of cascaded time...

  19. Water allocation mechanisms : principles and examples

    Dinar, Ariel; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth


    From the earliest times, water resources have been allocated on the basis of social criteria -maintaining the community by ensuring that water is available for human consumption, for sanitation, and for food production. Societies have invested capital in infrastructure to maintain this allocation. Yet social change, including changes in (and more understanding of) how goods are distributed, has produced new issues in water allocation. Population growth has made water scarcity a major problem ...

  20. The allocation of attention: theory and evidence

    Gabaix, Xavier; Laibson, David Isaac; Moloche, Guillermo; Stephen, Weinberg


    A host of recent studies show that attention allocation has important economic consequences. This paper reports the first empirical test of a cost-benefit model of the endogenous allocation of attention. The model assumes that economic agents have finite mental processing speeds and cannot analyze all of the elements in complex problems. The model makes tractable predictions about attention allocation, despite the high level of complexity in our environment. The model successfully predicts th...

  1. Optimization of resource allocation in computational grids

    Debashreet Das


    Full Text Available The resource allocation in Grid computing system needs to be scalable, reliable and smart. It should also be adaptable to change its allocation mechanism depending upon the environment and user’s requirements. Therefore, a scalable and optimized approach for resource allocation where the system can adapt itself to the changing environment and the fluctuating resources is essentially needed. In this paper, a Teaching Learning based optimization approach for resource allocation in Computational Grids is proposed. The proposed algorithm is found to outperform the existing ones in terms of execution time and cost. The algorithm is simulated using GRIDSIM and the simulation results are presented.

  2. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    Wang, Shaowei


    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  3. Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search

    Andy M. Connor


    Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation

    Inoue, Jun-ichi


    We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.

  5. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

  6. Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model

    Javid Shabbir


    Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.

  7. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.


    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  8. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...

  9. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  10. Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks

    WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie


    To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.

  11. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  12. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.


    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,

  13. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina


    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  14. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Rouse, William B.


    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  15. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin


    worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution......In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine the...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption of...

  16. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  17. Liability valuation and optimal asset allocation

    Inkmann, Joachim; Blake, David


    Current approaches to asset-liability management employ a sequence of distinct procedures to value liabilities and determine the asset allocation. First, a discount rate that is usually dic-tated by accounting standards is used to value liabilities. Second, the asset allocation is determined by maximizing some objective function in the surplus of assets over liabilities, taken as given the valuation of liabilities. We introduce a model that allows for the joint valuation of liabilities and th...

  18. Efficient and fair allocation of aid.

    Patrick Guillaumont; Phu Nguyen-Van; Thi Kim Cuong Pham; Laurent Wagner


    This paper proposes a model of aid allocating which aims to equalize the opportunity between recipient countries to reduce the poverty, in particular the millennium development goal of reducing the poverty by half. The model also takes into account the natural deficit which is defined by the gap between the growth rate required to reach this millennium goal and the actual growth rate observed in the recipient country. The resulting optimal aid allocation is computed using the estimation of th...

  19. Optimal Portfolio Allocation for Corporate Pension Funds

    McCarthy, David; Miles, David K


    We model the asset allocation decision of a defined benefit pension fund using a stochastic dynamic programming approach. Our model recognizes the fact that asset allocation decisions are made by trustees who are mandated to act in the best interests of beneficiaries - not by sponsoring employers - and that trustees face payoffs that are linked in an indirect way to the value of the underlying assets. This is because of the presence of pension insurance - which may cover a portion of deficits...

  20. Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units

    Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf


    We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.

  1. On The Allocative Effects of Rent Seeking

    Corchón, Luis C.


    We consider the effects of rent-seeking activities on resource allocation. Before rent-seeking activities take place, there are prior probabilities that an object will be given to one of several agents. The posterior probability depends on prior probabilities and the expenses incurred by all agents. In the case of two agents who equally value the object, prior and posterior probabilities coincide, and thus rent seeking has no effect on resource allocation. If there are two agents ...

  2. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani


    Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...

  3. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh


    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  4. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam


    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  5. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  6. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  7. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  8. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  9. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs


    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three...

  10. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Ebbers, Johnathan [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Price, Nicholas W. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Swank, Matthew [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Feer, Stefan P. [3M Health Information Systems, Inc., Wallingford, CT; Rhodes, Zachary D. [Allstate Corporation, Northbrook, IL


    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  11. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff


    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  12. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius


    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844

  13. Media content allocation based on insisting indices

    M.Krishnamoorthy, 2 P.Deepa, 3 R.Rajasekar


    Full Text Available Media content allocation using insist indices is to attain a given average delay target with lowest possible utilization of the central server by using the hybrid scheme. The analysis is carried out in an order scaling depending on the total potential mass of customers in the market. The study explains the relative performance of peer-to-peer and centralized client–server schemes, as well as a hybrid of the two: both from the point of view of consumers as well as the media content allocation. The allocation is totally based on the insisting indices. The necessary insists can be used to take provisioning decisions. It can be exceptionally responsive to bursty insist by increasing their service capacity exponentially, while exhibiting nice performance scaling to the offered loads during stationary regimes

  14. Allocating environmental liabilities within a facilities agreement

    Some environmental issues at jointly owned oil and gas facilities in Alberta are examined, including ways to allocate liability for those issues among the facility's owners, and between the facility's owners and custom users. Causes of environmental contamination, the scope of clean-up costs and some industry initiatives to sort out the question of who pays the environmental costs are also discussed. Some aspects of the legislation in Alberta imposing environmental liabilities on parties to a construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreement, and relevant provisions of the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA)'s Model Operating Procedure are also explained. The author concludes by regretting the industry's failure to develop adequate mechanisms to allocate the costs of environmental damage resulting from operations, and by recommending that agreements pertaining to joint ownership of a facility should address the issues involved in allocating environmental liabilities

  15. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    ZLACKÝ Daniel


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  16. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;


    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  17. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  18. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    Diaw, K.


    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo

  19. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    I.B. Vermeulen; S.M. Bohte; S.G. Elkhuizen; H. Lameris; P.J.M. Bakker; H. La Poutre


    Objective: Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in

  20. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.


    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  1. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking and...

  2. Axioms for health care resource allocation

    Østerdal, Lars Peter


    This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...

  3. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Nierste, Deborah


    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  4. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.



  5. Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks

    Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Wessing, Henrik; Smolorz, S.


    Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth...

  6. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority...

  7. Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.

    McGuire, A


    This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector. PMID:3092362

  8. Carbon allowance allocation in the transportation industry

    This study proposes models for projecting reductions in CO2 emissions of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% compared to business as usual (BAU), using a carbon allowance allocation policy and both unimodal and intermodal modes of transportation. The results show that for 10% to 80% decreases in free carbon allowance, the intermodal ratio increased from 1.01% to 53.44%, which led to decreases in carbon emissions and demand ranging from 10.41% to 48.19% and 8.45% to 7.57%, respectively. When free carbon allowances are decreased, the demand for intermodal systems increases accordingly. These results suggest that a carbon allowance allocation policy could mitigate transportation carbon emissions with a relatively small negative impact on economic activity. - Highlights: • This study proposes models for CO2 reduction by using carbon allowance policy. • This study found decreases in carbon allowance allocation, the intermodal ratio increased. • Truck-only transport will be replaced by intermodal transport. • The carbon allowance allocation policy cause small negative impact on economic activity

  9. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.


    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  10. Allocating Faculty in the Budgeting Process.

    Kemper, Gene A.


    The University of North Dakota conducted a feasibility study to develop a faculty funding formula that would serve as an internally acceptable guideline and an externally justifiable procedure for allocating faculty in the budgeting process. The current formula is reviewed, and appropriate formula revisions are suggested. (MLW)

  11. Financial development and allocation of external finance

    Bena, Jan; Ondko, Peter

    -, č. 398 (2009), s. 1-49. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial development * external finance * allocative efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. The drivers to product allocation management: A managerial perspective to allocation decision-making

    Lyytinen Otayza, Paulo


    Objective of the study The research objective of this study is to determine what are the drivers of product allocation decision making among Multinational Corporations' (MNC) headquarters. Academic background and methodology The topic of product allocation management has multiple facets in extant academic literature, with the most directly related being supply chain management under order fulfillment and push & pull- based Available-To-Promise (ATP) methods. Due to the increasingl...

  13. Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi


    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...

  14. An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON


    This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.

  15. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    Bordignon, Kenneth A


    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  16. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.


    ... State which administers the National School Lunch, School Breakfast or Special Milk Programs an amount... allocations: (1) Allocate $30,000 to each State which administers the Child and Adult Care Food Program (7 CFR... September 30, 1980. (4) Funds which remain after the allocations required in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2),...

  17. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  18. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...


    Zhao Yahong; Zhang Zhongpei; Wu Weiling


    Adaptive modulation and power allocation is introduced into the multicarrier DS-CDMA system to improve the system performance and bandwidth efficiency. First, the systemdesign appropriate for adaptive modulation and power allocation is given, then the algorithmof adaptive modulation and power allocation is applied. Simulation results demonstrate greatperformance improvement compared with the fixed modulated one.

  20. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in amounts determined by the formula described in this section. (b) Allocation to states that are...

  1. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any...

  2. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  3. Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses

    Schippers, P.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Sterck, F.J.


    Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model, an

  4. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  5. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  6. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance

    Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986


    With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.

  8. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains on a rai......Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  9. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives. (author)

  10. Cost Allocation in Water Resources Development

    Young, H. P.; Okada, N.; Hashimoto, T.


    Different methods for allocating the joint costs of water supply projects among users are compared on the basis of certain commonsense principles of equity. We contrast the separable costs-remaining benefits (SCRB) method with simple proportional allocation schemes and more sophisticated methods from cooperative game theory, including the Shapley value and variants of the core. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods in practice are examined using a regional water supply system in Sweden. It is argued that these principles provide a useful framework for choosing intelligently among methods. The appropriateness of a method depends on the context, especially on the reliability of information about costs and demands. The conclusion is that there is no one best method, although from a normative standpoint the SCRB method may be one of the worst.

  11. Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising

    Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver


    We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.

  12. Irreplaceability of Neuronal Ensembles after Memory Allocation

    Naoki Matsuo


    Full Text Available Lesion studies suggest that an alternative system can compensate for damage to the primary region employed when animals acquire a memory. However, it is unclear whether functional compensation occurs at the cellular ensemble level. Here, we inhibited the activities of a specific subset of neurons activated during initial learning by utilizing a transgenic mouse that expresses tetanus toxin (TeNT under the control of the c-fos promoter. Notably, suppression interfered with relearning while sparing the ability to acquire and express fear memory for a distinct context. These results suggest that the activity of the initial ensemble is preferentially dedicated to the same learning and that it is not replaceable once it is allocated. Our results provide substantial insights into the machinery underlying how the brain allocates individual memories to discrete neuronal ensembles and how it ensures that repetitive learning strengthens memory by reactivating the same neuronal ensembles.

  13. The Asset Allocation of Private Pension Plans

    Papke, Leslie E.


    This paper summarizes the Form 5500 data on private pension fund investment. Using Form 5500 data from 1981 to 1987, the asset allocation of single employer and mu1tiemp1oyer defined benefit and defined contribution plans is reported, as well as the asset mix of the following subgroups: defined benefit plans categorized by plan funding ratio, sole and multiple defined contribution plans, savings or thrift, money purchase, ESOP, and 401(k) defined contribution plans. A brief survey of the lite...

  14. Developing a Weighted Collection Development Allocation Formula

    Bailey, Jeff; Creibaum, Linda


    In this session the presenters demonstrated and discussed how to create a spreadsheet‐based library collection development allocation formula to help acquisitions personnel better manage their library’s limited collection development resources. The presenters demonstrated and led participants through Arkansas State University’s process of creating an Excel‐based formula that utilizes criteria relevant to their specific library and institution. Key to the success of this formula is the use of ...

  15. Flexible resources allocation techniques: characteristics and modelling

    Attia, El-Awady; Edi, Kouassi Hilaire; Duquenne, Philippe


    International audience At the interface between engineering, economics, social sciences and humanities, industrial engineering aims to provide answers to various sectors of business problems. One of these problems is the adjustment between the workload needed by the work to be realised and the availability of the company resources. The objective of this work is to help to find a methodology for the allocation of flexible human resources in industrial activities planning and scheduling. Thi...

  16. Optimizing Ad Allocation in Social Advertising

    Tang, Shaojie; Yuan, Jing


    Social advertising (or social promotion) is an effective approach that produces a significant cascade of adoption through influence in the online social networks. The goal of this work is to optimize the ad allocation from the platform's perspective. On the one hand, the platform would like to maximize revenue earned from each advertiser by exposing their ads to as many people as possible, one the other hand, the platform wants to reduce free-riding to ensure the truthfulness of the advertise...

  17. Resource allocation for delay constrained wireless communications

    Chen, J.


    The ultimate goal of future generation wireless communications is to provide ubiquitous seamless connections between mobile terminals such as mobile phones and computers so that users can enjoy high-quality services at anytime anywhere without wires. The feature to provide a wide range of delay constrained applications with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, such as delay and data rate requirements, will require QoS-driven wireless resource allocation mechanisms to efficiently ...

  18. Register allocation for programs in SSA Form

    Hack, Sebastian


    This book investigates register allocation for programs in static single-assignment form. Its main result is that the interference graphs of SSA-form programs are chordal. This gives the compiler precise knowledge over the register demand and allows for separating spilling, assignment and coalescing. For each of these phases, we present methods specially tailored to the SSA setting and provide a first evaluation.

  19. Taxation and the Allocation of Talent

    Eric Weyl; Charles Nathanson; Ben Lockwood


    Taxation affects the allocation of talented individuals across industries by blunting material incentives and thus relatively magnifying the non-pecuniary benefits of pursuing a "calling". If higher-paying industries (e.g. finance and management) generate less positive net externalities than lower-paying professions (e.g. public service and education) this may enhance efficiency. We develop a theory of income taxation as implicit Pigouvian taxation of these externalities and calibrate it usin...

  20. The allocation of authority under limited liability

    Puschke, Kerstin


    Authority is modelled as the right to undertake a non-contractible decision in a joint project. We show that the allocation of authority depends on bargaining power and differences in both parties cost functions. The decision-maker is assumed to exert an externality on the other parties. Overall surplus is shared according to generalized Nash bargaining. Under limited liability, the agent with the larger cost parameter receives authority if the agents' cost parameters are very different. If t...

  1. Financial development and allocation of external finance

    Bena, J.; Ondko, Peter

    Prague : Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 2009 - (Brožová, H.), s. 19-23 ISBN 978-80-213-1963-9. [27th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2009. Kostelec nad Černými lesy (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : financial system * allocation of resources * external finance Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  2. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  3. Impact of emission allocation in maritime transportation

    Zhu, Wenting


    The rapid growth in the maritime sector has raised concern about its environmental impact. It is essential and important to improve the environmental performance of maritime transportation without increasing cost. An emission allocation scheme is a prerequisite for the correct measurement of emissions, serving as a basis for the improvement. It can be described as the distribution of the emissions from transport activities to different elements of the transport chain (e.g., leg...

  4. Purchase Price Allocations: Do they Matter?

    Astolfi, Pierre; Paugam, Luc; Ramond, Olivier


    Standards setters support that purchase price allocations (PPAs) enhance financial statement decision-usefulness whereas academics and practitioners challenge this statement. We test the consequences of the quality of PPAs, subsequent to business combinations, on change in market expectations. Using the concept of abnormal goodwill - as a proxy for PPAs' quality - we test the association between PPAs' quality and analyst forecasts revisions, change in forecasts dispersion, and analysts' accur...

  5. Student time allocation and educational production functions

    Bratti, Massimiliano; Stefano STAFFOLANI


    In this paper we investigate the effect of lecture attendance and self-study on undergraduate students' academic performance. We first introduce a simple theoretical model in which students decide the optimal allocation of their time between lecture attendance, self-study and leisure. Under some assumptions, we find a positive relationship between lecture attendance and time devoted to self-study in each course, from which we infer that estimates of the elasticity of student performance with ...

  6. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    Sakander, Zeeshan


    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  7. Procedural Justice in Public Healthcare Resource Allocation

    Aki Tsuchiya; Luis Silva Miguel; Richard Edlin; Allan Wailoo; Paul Dolan


    Introduction: The legal studies literature on procedural justice identifies six key characteristics of procedural justice: accuracy, consistency, impartiality, reversibility, transparency and voice. However, the relative importance of these in the context of public healthcare resource allocation is unclear, as is whether they are valuable instrumentally (because it contributes to better outcomes) or inherently (for its own sake). Methods: A survey of 80-odd members of the UK public determined...

  8. Optimal risk in marketing resource allocation

    Vidal-Sanz, Jose M.; Esteban-Bravo, Mercedes; Balbás, Alejandro


    Marketing resource allocation is increasingly based on the optimization of expected returns on investment. If the investment is implemented in a large number of repetitive and relatively independent simple decisions, it is an acceptable method, but risk must be considered otherwise. The Markowitz classical mean-deviation approach to value marketing activities is of limited use when the probability distributions of the returns are asymmetric (a common case in marketing). In this paper we consi...


    Vanina Macowski Durski Silva; Antônio Sérgio Coelho


    The purpose of this article is to verify the available scientific research in one of the prevalent problems associated with port services. Most of the studies about ports focus on strategic and tactical problems, thus, there exists a large volume of papers with operational research applications about container operations. Since the majority of the berths are managed and operated by private shipping companies, few studies have been conducted on berth allocation. Therefore, the m...

  10. Institutions and the Allocation of Talent

    Natkhov Timur; Polishchuk Leonid


    Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 9...

  11. Financial development and allocation of external finance

    Bena, Jan; Ondko, P.

    Prague : Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 2009 - (Brožová, H.), s. 19-23 ISBN 978-80-213-1963-9. [27th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2009. Kostelec nad Černými lesy (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial system * allocation of resources * external finance Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Stability and resource allocation in project planning

    Leus, Roel; Herroelen, Willy


    The majority of resource-constrained project scheduling efforts assumes perfect information about the scheduling problem to be solved and a static deterministic environment within which the pre-computed baseline schedule is executed. In reality, project activities are subject to considerable uncertainty, which generally leads to numerous schedule disruptions. In this paper, we present a resource allocation model that protects a given baseline schedule against activity duration variability. A ...

  13. Education and the allocation of talent

    Hans K. Hvide


    This paper considers a two-sector education model with two novel features. First, contracts have an independent role in sorting workers into different sectors of the economy. Second, education improves workers’ awareness of their abilities, and hence can improve the allocation of talent by making workers’ choice of sector better informed. The implication is that the most able skip education, which stands in contrast to results from established theories of education. In the extension, we consi...

  14. Aggregate expenditure ceilings and allocative flexibility

    Marc Robinson


    This article shows how to combine top-down budgeting – in the core sense of the establishment of a hard aggregate expenditure ceiling at the start of the budget preparation process – with flexibility in the allocation of the aggregate ceiling between spending ministries during budget preparation. It argues strongly against determining spending ministry shares of the aggregate expenditure ceiling without any prior opportunity for them to present formal new spending proposals. The keys to recon...

  15. International equity portfolio allocations and transaction costs

    Thapa, Chandra; Poshakwale, Sunil S.


    In spite of the critical role of transaction cost, there are not many papers that explicitly examine its influence on international equity portfolio allocation decisions. Using bilateral cross-country equity portfolio investment data and three direct measures of transaction costs for 36 countries, we provide evidence that markets where transaction costs are lower attract greater equity portfolio investments. The results imply that future research on international equity portfolio diversificat...

  16. Cost Allocation Revisited: An Optimality Result

    Seungjin Whang


    The resource manager of a firm is faced with capacity and pricing decisions with regard to a congestion-prone system such as computer/communication facilities. Difficulties arise since the manager is uninformed of the system demand when the capacity decision is to be made. A game-theoretic model is developed to analyze the effects of different accounting rules on the elicitation of relevant information and ex-post efficiency in acquisition and allocation decisions. The key result is that the ...

  17. Laddering in Initial Public Offering Allocations

    Fjesme, Sturla Lyngnes


    Tying Initial Public Offering (IPO) allocations of common stock to after-listing purchases in the IPO shares, a process referred to as IPO laddering, has resulted in large-scale investigations of the major investment banks by the SEC and the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD). This process is claimed to drive after-listing share prices above their fundamental values, and is illegal un- der the laws against market manipulation and fraud. As a result, investment ...

  18. National plan of quotas allocations and territories

    The european system of quotas exchange has been developed to encourage the heavy industry to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions, as the steel industry, the refining or the chemical industry. Meanwhile, the National Plan for the Quotas Allocations (PNAQ) includes also a great number of more little installations. This document aims to present the french PNAQ in the european context, and to realize a deep study in order to more detail the territorial actors. (A.L.B.)

  19. Exploring local service allocation in Community Networks

    Davide, Vega; Meseguer, Roc; Cabrera, Guillem; Marques, Joan Manuel


    Community Cloud computing is a new trend on cloud computing that aims to build service infrastructures upon Wireless Community Networks taking advantage of underused community physical resources. Service allocation protocols are a key design challenge that all cloud systems must properly address to optimize resource utilization. They are specially important when cloud services require a Quality of Service (QoS) and network stability or performance (delay, jitter, minimum bandwidth) cannot be ...

  20. Fault and the allocation of spare organs.

    Smart, B.(SUPA - School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)


    This paper argues that rectificatory justice should supplement distributive justice in allocating priority of access to scarce medical resources. Where a patient is at fault for the scarcity of healthy organs a principle of restitution requires that she should give priority to the faultless. Such restitution is non-punitive, and is akin to reparation in civil law, not criminal law. However, it is doubtful whether such a principle can be fairly applied within the present culture of governmenta...

  1. Road Capacity and the Allocation of Time

    David Levinson; Seshasai Kanchi


    Additional highway capacity, by increasing travel speed, affects the individual share of time within a 24-hour budget allocated to various activities (time spent at and traveling to home, shop, work and other). Some activities will be undertaken more, others less. This paper extends previous research that identified and quantified induced demand in terms of vehicle miles traveled, by considering what type of demand is induced and which activities are consequently reduced, using the 1990 and 1...

  2. Carbon allocation in underground storage organs

    Turesson, Helle


    By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve such crops, the competitiveness of these types of storage organs can be strengthened. Starch is the most common storage compound in tubers and roots, but some crops accumulate compounds other than starch. This thesis examined representative underground storage organs accumulating starch, oil and sugars. These were: the oil-accumulating nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), a half-grass whic...

  3. Modeling Word Relatedness in Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Wang, Xun


    Standard LDA model suffers the problem that the topic assignment of each word is independent and word correlation hence is neglected. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a model called Word Related Latent Dirichlet Allocation (WR-LDA) by incorporating word correlation into LDA topic models. This leads to new capabilities that standard LDA model does not have such as estimating infrequently occurring words or multi-language topic modeling. Experimental results demonstrate the ef...

  4. The Optimal Allocation of Prizes in Contests

    Moldovanu, Benny; Sela, Aner


    We study a contest with multiple (not necessarily equal) prizes. Contestants have private information about an ability parameter that affects their costs of bidding. The contestant with the highest bid wins the first prize, the contestant with the second-highest bid wins the second prize, and so on until all the prizes are allocated. All contestants incur their respective costs of bidding. The contest's designer maximizes the expected sum of bids. Our main results are: 1) We display bidding e...

  5. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    P. Giacomelli


    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  6. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.


    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  7. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy


    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  8. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason


    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  9. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  10. Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology

    Ion BOGDAN


    Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.

  11. Pricing in combinatorial double auction-based grid allocation model

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; LIU Kai-ming; MA Xiao-lei; YANG Ming


    This article proposes a novel grid resource allocation model, in which the users and the grid service providers participate in the combinatorial double auction for the resource allocation. To obtain the detailed resource allocation status and the price information, a novel pricing algorithm is designed for the allocation model. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm completes the resource allocation and pricing efficiently, and exhibits incentive compatible characteristic. Moreover,users with the higher average price and providers with the lower average price get compensation during the pricing process.

  12. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang


    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  13. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  14. Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.

    Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh


    The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571

  15. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.


    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  16. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control


    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  17. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Schwartz, S.


    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  18. Optimal Register Allocation by Augmented Left-Edge Algorithm on Arbitrary Control-Flow Structures

    Ruvald Pedersen, Mark; Madsen, Jan


    for allocation to be done using only quasi-local and local allocation - avoiding the complexity of true global allocation. As local allocation is much simpler than global allocation, this approach emphasizes efficiency and ease of implementation - at a cost of an increased number of register transfers...... compared to other allocators. Experiments show that runtime is linear for all practical purposes....

  19. FAME - a function allocation design tool

    Bye, Andreas; Hoffmann, Mario


    Function allocation between man and machine is a key issue when designing automation systems. One should allocate functions in order to maximise the operator's understanding of the situation and ability to handle unexpected events. This should be done by optimising his/her possibility to observe the state of the plant and to control the plant. Thus function allocation cannot be separated from an analysis of the human system interaction, since the information presented to the operators and the controls available for them to manipulate the process significantly affect their tasks and thus influence their role. FAME is a design support tool for analysis of these issues at an early stage in the design process. Simulations in FAME, utilising analytical models, provide a useful supplement to empirical data when studying the effects of automation on the performance of control room operators. FAME consists of components simulating the behaviour of the operator and the automation, as well as a component for the interaction with a process simulator. The Contextual Control Model, COCOM, is chosen as the basis for the operator component in FAME. A goal-oriented approach is taken, and Goals-Means Task Analysis, GMTA, is used to represent the relations between the goals and the means in the simulation of the scenarios. This report discusses how FAME can support the design process through a series of simulations analysing the operator's ability to control the system and their situation understanding during dynamic plant operation. This is done by emphasizing the fulfilment of goals when evaluating input and selecting actions for output. FAME thus puts the operator in the centre of the analysis, and a comparison between human and machine capabilities is not included in this approach. This report describes the underlying principles of FAME and the main requirements to operator simulation in this context. (Author)

  20. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini


    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  1. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    Benmammar , Badr


    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  2. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh


    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  3. Multi-product allocation and distribution

    D.C. Currin


    Full Text Available This paper describes techniques used by a beer company to optimise the allocation and distribution of their beer. These techniques are also applicable to other manufacturing and distribution environments. Of particular interest is a two-phase model that allows a "look-ahead" to future sales, the decomposition of the problem into a large number of sub-problems (to reduce solution time, and the equitable distribution of material when stocks are over- or undersupplied. The optimisation is part of an interactive planning system, and the relationship between the optimisation module and the rest of the system is briefly described.

  4. Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time

    David Levinson; Ajay Kumar


    This study investigates the allocation of time and trip-making across time-of-day, day-of-week, and month-of-year, as well as over the past forty years. Some interesting findings result. People are working much more, shopping somewhat more on weekends, and stay at home less today than forty years ago. Time spent in travel on each weekend day (Saturday or Sunday) exceeds that on any weekday, as it did forty years ago. Time spent shopping on a typical day in the busiest month (December) is more...

  5. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation at the...... crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  6. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set of...... handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...

  7. Negotiating Socially Optimal Allocations of Resources

    Endriss, U; Sadri, F; Toni, F; 10.1613/jair.1870


    A multiagent system may be thought of as an artificial society of autonomous software agents and we can apply concepts borrowed from welfare economics and social choice theory to assess the social welfare of such an agent society. In this paper, we study an abstract negotiation framework where agents can agree on multilateral deals to exchange bundles of indivisible resources. We then analyse how these deals affect social welfare for different instances of the basic framework and different interpretations of the concept of social welfare itself. In particular, we show how certain classes of deals are both sufficient and necessary to guarantee that a socially optimal allocation of resources will be reached eventually.

  8. Submodular Cost Allocation Problem and Applications

    Chekuri, Chandra; Ene, Alina


    We study the Minimum Submodular-Cost Allocation problem (MSCA). In this problem we are given a finite ground set $V$ and $k$ non-negative submodular set functions $f_1 ,..., f_k$ on $V$. The objective is to partition $V$ into $k$ (possibly empty) sets $A_1 ,..., A_k$ such that the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^k f_i(A_i)$ is minimized. Several well-studied problems such as the non-metric facility location problem, multiway-cut in graphs and hypergraphs, and uniform metric labeling and its generalizations c...


    Han Guodong; Wen Jianhua; Wu Jiangxing


    A kind of Dynamic Full Bandwidth Utilized (DFBU) allocation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm allows a single link to use bandwidth far beyond its fair share bandwidth in a multi-service packet transporting system. Three important parameters as the bound on maximum and minimum bandwidth, the maximum packet delay and the minimum band width utilization are discussed and analyzed. Results of experiments show that the DFBU-algorithm is capable of making a single link in the system to use all the spare bandwidth (up to full-bandwidth) while the performance of fairness and QoS requirement is still guaranteed.

  10. Resource allocation in multiuser multicarrier wireless systems

    Wong, Ian C


    Many algorithms have already been proposed in the past to solve the problem of allocating resources in a multi-user multicarrier wireless system. Due to the difficulty of the problem, most of the previous work in this area has focused on developing suboptimal heuristics without performance guarantees. This book proposes a unified algorithmic framework based on dual optimization techniques that have complexities that are linear in the number of subcarriers and users, and that achieve negligible optimality gaps in standards-based numerical simulations. Adaptive algorithms based on stochastic app

  11. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang


    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  12. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...


    ... published by the CDFI Fund on how an entity may apply to become certified as a CDE (66 FR 65806, December 20... Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit Program Announcement Type: Initial.... L. 109-432), and section 733 of the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and...


    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi


    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  14. Emmissions trading and the national allocation plan

    The introduction of emissions trading is arousing a lively public debate. A permanent battle has been started between the federal ministers for the environment and for economics. Industry on the receiving side is expecting dire consequences for its plants and for the economic development in Germany. The Climate Framework Convention was put into more specific terms at the Third Conference of Contracting States in December 1997 by the 1992 Kyoto Protocol, which had been adopted unanimously. For the first time, it obliges the industrialized countries in a legally binding way to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a total of at least 5% from the 1990 level in the period of 2008 to 2012, with different obligations to reduce applying to different countries. To obligations to reduce are to be met by means of flexible instruments: - projects for cutting emissions in developing countries (clean development mechanism),- joint projects carried out among industrialized countries (joint implementation), - emissions trading (Article 17). An intra-EU system of emissions trading is being introduced in accordance with an EU directive. According to that directive, national plans for allocating emission rights (national allocation plan, NAP) are to be publicized. These also have a decisive impact on long-term investment decisions in the power industry. The Kyoto Protocol has yet to enter into force. (orig.)

  15. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei


    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  16. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA

    Ghorbel, Mahdi


    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  17. On the allocation of functions between human and machine

    The idea of allocating functions between human and machine was proceduralized early through aids like Fitts' List which describes the relative advantages of men and machines. Although the principle is clear, function allocation has never worked in practice. Some conditions for function allocations are discussed; adequate logic, a common man-machine system language, usable human engineering guides and data and professional habits and attitudes. Trends which will influence ergonomics procedures are described; influence from technology, increasing work environment requirements and user participation requirements. A procedural structure for human engineering or ergonomics in control system design is suggested. This does not include a separate function allocation activity but a number of activities, the result of which will be a systematic function allocation. A case study on ergonomics techniques for systematic function allocation in a control system is described in an appendix to the report. (author)

  18. Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D


    The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.

  19. Factors of Selection of the Stock Allocation Method

    Rohov Heorhii K.


    The article describes results of the author's study of factors of making strategic decisions on selection of methods of stock allocation by public joint stock companies in Ukraine. The author used the Random forest mathematical apparatus of classification trees building and also informal methods. The article analyses the reasons that restrain public allocation of stock. It shows significant influence upon selection of a method of stock allocation of such factors as capital concentration, bala...

  20. Optimizing Public Expenditure Allocations between Secondary and Higher Education

    Vijay P. Ojha; Joydeep Ghosh


    With a view to define a balance in the allocation of public expenditure across secondary education and higher education, we compare, in this paper, the relative contributions of public expenditures on secondary and higher education to growth as well as equity, employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of India. Our policy simulations show that reducing allocations for secondary education and correspondingly increasing allocations of public education expenditure for higher educati...

  1. Bank heterogeneity and capital allocation: Evidence from "fracking" shocks

    Plosser, Matthew C.


    This paper empirically investigates banks’ investment allocations over the recent business cycle. I identify unsolicited deposit shocks resulting from unconventional energy development and estimate bank allocations of these deposits. In the pre-recession period, banks lend 38 percent of incremental deposits; however, during the downturn, banks favor liquid assets and lending allocations fall to 22 percent. Banks with low risk tolerance or less access to liquidity are particularly sensitive to...

  2. Supplier asset allocation in a pool-based electricity market

    Zhong, J.; Ni, Y; Feng, D.; Gan, D


    A power supplier in a pool-based market needs to allocate his generation capacities to participate in contract and spot markets. In this paper, the optimal portfolio selection theory is introduced for this purpose. A model applying this theory is proposed to solve the supplier asset allocation problem. Real market data are used in a numerical study to test the proposed model. The results show that different asset allocation solutions can yield very different risk-return tradeoffs for a suppli...

  3. Efficient Egalitarian Equivalent Allocations over a Single Good

    Marco LiCalzi; Antonio Nicolò


    This paper studies efficient and egalitarian allocations over a single heterogeneous and infinitely divisible good. We prove the existence of such allocations using only measure-theoretic arguments. Under the additional assumption of complete information, we identify a sufficient condition on agents’ preferences that makes it possible to apply the Pazner-Schmeidler rule for uniquely selecting an efficient egalitarian equivalent allocation. Finally, we exhibit a simple procedure that implement...

  4. A Bandwidth Allocation Model Provisioning Framework with Autonomic Characteristics

    Rafael F. Reale; Romildo M. da S. Bezerra; Martins, Joberto S. B.


    The Bandwidth Allocation Models (MAM, RDM, G-RDM and AllocTC-Sharing) are managementalternatives currently available which propose different resource (bandwidth) allocation strategies inmultiservice networks. The BAM adoption by a network is typically a management choice andconfiguration task executed by the network operations and management system setup in a static or nearlystatic way. This paper proposes and explores the alternative ofallowing BAM definition and configurationon a more dynam...

  5. Resource allocation in health care processes: A case study

    Kauhanen, Antti; Kulvik, Martti; Kulvik, Silja; Maijanen, Sirpa; Martikainen, Olli; Ranta, Paula


    This paper utilizes queuing models to analyze health care processes. We extend previous queuing models to allow for i) heterogeneous resources, ii) resource allocation to various tasks, and iii) teams (complementary resources). We model a process of one clinical unit. We use the model to analyze how resource allocation affects both process performance and utilization of resources. This approach emphasizes how allocation of resources to tasks affects process performance. We illustrate how the ...

  6. Lorenz and lexicographic maximal allocations for bankruptcy problems

    Arin, Javier; Benito Ostolaza, Juan Miguel


    This paper investigates the use of egalitarian criteria to select allocations in bankruptcy problems. In our work, we characterize the sets of Lorenz maximal elements for these problems. We show that the allocation selected by the Proportional Rule is the only allocation that belongs to all these Lorenz maximal sets. We prove that the Talmud Rule selects the lexicographic maximal element within a certain set. We introduce and analyze a new sharing rule for bankruptcy problems that shares stro...

  7. Public-Private Partnerships: Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.


    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and public sector perspective. Both the private and public sector consider risk allocation to be a critical issue with respect to PPPs and VfM generation, although governments adopt a less complex approa...

  8. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives



    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  9. Online Stochastic Packing Applied to Display Ad Allocation

    Feldman, Jon; Henzinger, Monika; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S.; Stein, Cliff


    Inspired by online ad allocation, we study online stochastic packing linear programs from theoretical and practical standpoints. We first present a near-optimal online algorithm for a general class of packing linear programs which model various online resource allocation problems including online variants of routing, ad allocations, generalized assignment, and combinatorial auctions. As our main theoretical result, we prove that a simple primal-dual training-based algorithm achieves a (1 - o(...

  10. 4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management

    Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming


    This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation.

  11. If Not Only Numbers Count: Allocation of Equal Chances

    Marlies Ahlert


    Full Text Available It is assumed that medical guidelines specify the appropriate amount of a divisible good which each individual should receive. Individual requirements and probabilities that the treatment is successful if an appropriate amount is received differ. The same applies to the success probabilities if individuals are inadequately treated. If supply is insufficient to serve all with appropriate amounts an allocation decision is necessary. We define probabilistic allocation rules that allocate chances of successful treatment to all individuals. We analyse a specific random allocation rule that assigns maximal equal gains of chances. We characterize the equal gain rule axiomatically.

  12. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.


    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  13. Variable Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Kim, Dongwoo; Oh, Alice


    In latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), topics are multinomial distributions over the entire vocabulary. However, the vocabulary usually contains many words that are not relevant in forming the topics. We adopt a variable selection method widely used in statistical modeling as a dimension reduction tool and combine it with LDA. In this variable selection model for LDA (vsLDA), topics are multinomial distributions over a subset of the vocabulary, and by excluding words that are not informative for finding the latent topic structure of the corpus, vsLDA finds topics that are more robust and discriminative. We compare three models, vsLDA, LDA with symmetric priors, and LDA with asymmetric priors, on heldout likelihood, MCMC chain consistency, and document classification. The performance of vsLDA is better than symmetric LDA for likelihood and classification, better than asymmetric LDA for consistency and classification, and about the same in the other comparisons.

  14. Dynamic asset allocation and latent variables

    Sørensen, Carsten; Trolle, Anders Bjerre

    We derive an explicit solution to the portfolio problem of a power utility investorwith preferences for wealth at a ¯nite investment horizon. The investor can investin assets with return dynamics described as part of a general multivariate model.The modeling framework encompasses discrete-time VAR......-models where some ofthe state-variables (e.g. expected excess returns) may not be directly observable.A realistic multivariate model is estimated and applied to analyze the portfolioimplications of investment horizon and return predictability when real interest ratesand expected excess returns on stock and...... bonds are not directly observed but mustbe estimated as part of the problem faced by the investor. The solution exhibitssmall variability in portfolio allocations over time compared to the case when excessreturns are assumed observable.JEL Classification: G11Keywords: Portfolio choice, predictability...

  15. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail


    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  16. Rationality and allocating scarce medical resources.

    Forsberg, R P


    In an article titled, "Who Shall Live When Not All Can?", James Childress proposes a system for allocating scarce lifesaving medical resources based on random selection procedures. Childress writes of random selection procedures, [They] "cannot be dismissed as a 'non-rational' and 'non-human' ...without an inquiry into the reasons, including human values which might justify it." My thesis is that once we concentrate on determining the rationality of random selection procedures, we will see that Childress's claim that we cannot dismiss such procedures as 'non-rational' is open to question. My claim will be that while both random selection and social worth procedures are rationally defensible systems, random selection procedures easily lead to specific choices that are objectively irrational, apart from the limited perspective of the random selection process itself. PMID:7738457

  17. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    D. Mocková


    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  18. Unsupervised Feature Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Xu Weiran; Du Gang; Chen Guang; Guo Jun; Yang Jie


    As a generative model Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model,which lacks optimization of topics' discrimination capability focuses on how to generate data,This paper aims to improve the discrimination capability through unsupervised feature selection.Theoretical analysis shows that the discrimination capability of a topic is limited by the discrimination capability of its representative words.The discrimination capability of a word is approximated by the Information Gain of the word for topics,which is used to distinguish between “general word” and “special word” in LDA topics.Therefore,we add a constraint to the LDA objective function to let the “general words” only happen in “general topics”other than “special topics”.Then a heuristic algorithm is presented to get the solution.Experiments show that this method can not only improve the information gain of topics,but also make the topics easier to understand by human.

  19. Resource Allocation in Multiple Access Channels

    ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel


    We consider the problem of rate allocation in a Gaussian multiple-access channel, with the goal of maximizing a utility function over transmission rates. In contrast to the literature which focuses on linear utility functions, we study general concave utility functions. We present a gradient projection algorithm for this problem. Since the constraint set of the problem is described by exponentially many constraints, methods that use exact projections are computationally intractable. Therefore, we develop a new method that uses approximate projections. We use the polymatroid structure of the capacity region to show that the approximate projection can be implemented by a recursive algorithm in time polynomial in the number of users. We further propose another algorithm for implementing the approximate projections using rate-splitting and show improved bounds on its convergence time.

  20. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira


    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  1. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin


    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  2. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess


    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.


    Ahmet Vecdi CAN


    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, one of the most popular methodologies used to allocate manufacturing overhead cost (MOCs on products is “Step-down Allocation Method”. In this methodology, transferring of manufacturing overhead costs from supplementary cost centers to primary cost centers are made considering specific rules (Can,2003:92. Also, after manufacturing overhead costs accrued in one of the supplementary cost centers are allocated to other cost centers, they can not again be allocated again (Üstün,1994:251. Consequently, sum of manufacturing overhead costs is gathered all together in primary cost centers to be allocated (Altuğ, 2001:225. However, in these situations, from which of cost center to start allocation becomes an important subject. Here, the sequence of allocation plays two important roles and has two different effects. The first effect of sequence of allocation is on cost centers by means of cost planning and control. The second effect is on product parties by means of production planning and product costing&pricing.In this study, the sequence of allocation of manufacturing overhead costs is tried to be presented by a hypothetical application.

  4. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.


    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  5. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin


    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  6. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-3 - Procedures for allocation.


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM ACT OF 1986 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-3 Procedures for... receiving fiduciary; (2) Set forth the duties and responsibilities allocated, either in the body of...


    Vranken, Liesbet; Mathijs, Erik


    This paper examines the functioning of the Hungarian land rental market. The allocative inefficiency of the land rental market is determined by calculating the marginal value productivity of land and using rental prices. Regional differences in allocative inefficiency are then correlated with demographic and socio-economic variables and with labor market-related factors.

  8. Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks

    Ozimkiewicz, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars;


    In this paper, two approaches for Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in GPON networks are proposed, and validated through simulations in the OPNET modeler. One approach address a Status Reporting scheme, where the bandwidth allocation originates from the client request. The second use a centralized Non...... services....

  9. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods


    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG07 Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods... under the simplified production method or the simplified resale method. The proposed regulations provide... allocation of costs under the simplified methods of accounting under section 263A of the Internal...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  11. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  12. 75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... available to public housing agencies (PHAs) which assistance is determined using a formula approach under...: Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0029. Form Numbers: HUD-52722,...

  13. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual individual allocations. 648.70 Section 648.70 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations....

  14. A new analysis of a simple model of fair allocation

    Juan D. Moreno-Ternero


    In a recent article, Fragnelli and Gagliardo [Cooperative models for allocating an object, Economics Letters 117 (2012) 227-229] propose several procedures to solve a basic problem of fair allocation. We scrutinize their proposal and contextualize it into recent developments of the literature on bankruptcy problems. Our analysis supports two of the procedures they propose; namely, the Shapley and Talmud rules.

  15. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian


    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  16. Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;


    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  17. Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison

    Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  18. Barriers to Diversification and Regional Allocation of Capital

    Broll, Udo; Roldán-Ponce, Antonio; Wahl, Jack E.


    In order to evaluate the allocational effectiveness of regional policy when harmonizing regional economic conditions firms? preferences play a pivot role. If harmonization hinders risk diversification of the firm, then instead of regional diversification of capital agglomeration of capital occurs. Hence, regional policy will not achieve its objective to equal the spatial allocation of capital.

  19. 42 CFR 415.60 - Allocation of physician compensation costs.


    ... Physician Services § 415.60 Allocation of physician compensation costs. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... or the carrier. (2) Report the information on which the physician compensation allocation is based to the intermediary or the carrier on an annual basis and promptly notify the intermediary or carrier...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg...

  1. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto


    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  2. Additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems

    Gustavo Bergantiños; Luciano Méndez-Naya


    We study the property of additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems. In bankruptcy problems we use this property to characterize the Talmudic rule proposed by Rabbi Ibn Ezra. Moreover we generalize this rule to every bankruptcy problem. Again, using additivity we characterize the rights egalitarian solution in allocation problems.

  3. Nutritional bias as a new mode of adjusting sex allocation

    Magrath, MJL; van Lieshout, E; Visser, GH; Komdeur, J


    Sex biases in the allocation of resources to offspring occur in a broad range of taxa. Parents have been shown to achieve such biases either by producing numerically more of one sex or by providing the individuals of one sex with a greater quantity of resources. In addition, skews in allocation coul

  4. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Carter Michael W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  5. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc


    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  6. Objective function of cost in optimal tolerance allocation


    An objective function model is proposed for cost in optimizing and allocating tolerance with consideration of manufacturing conditions. With the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a manufacturing difficulty coefficient is derived, which takes into account of several factors affecting the manufacturing cost, including the forming means of the blank, size, machining surface features, operator's skills and machinability of materials.The coefficient is then converted into a weight factor used in the inversed square model representing the relationship between the cost and tolerance, and, hence, an objective function for cost is established in optimizing and allocating tolerance. The higher is the manufacturing difficulty coefficient, the higher is the relative manufacturing cost and the higher is the weight factor of the tolerance allocation, which indicates the increase of the tolerance's effects on the total manufacturing cost and, therefore, a larger tolerance should be allocated. The computer-aided tolerance allocation utilizing this model makes it more convenient, accurate and practicable.

  7. Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Qiufen Ni


    Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.

  8. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Sanam Sadr


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  9. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid


    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  10. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;


    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The...... progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...