Systems Sustainability: Implementation of Enhanced Maintenance Programs at the Kurchatov Institute, the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental physics (VNIIEF) and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Technical Physics (VNIITF)
Implementation of quality maintenance programs is essential to enhancing sustainable continuous operations of United States funded Materials Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A) equipment/systems upgrades at various Russian nuclear facilities. An effective maintenance program is expected to provide assurances to both parties for achieving maximum continuous systems operations with minimum down time. To be effective, the program developed must focus on minimum down time for any part of a system. Minimum down time is realized through the implementation of a quality maintenance program that includes preventative maintenance, necessary diagnostic tools, properly trained technical staff, and an in-house inventory of required spare parts for repairing the impacted component of the system. A centralized maintenance management program is logistically essential for the success of this effort because of the large volume of MPC and A equipment/systems installed at those sites. This paper will discuss current programs and conditions at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Technical Physics and the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics and will address those steps necessary to implement an upgraded program at those sites
Full Text Available The paper considers the activities of the All-Russian scientific-research agroforest reclamation institute and shows the importance of agroforestry as a science in control of extensive degradation processes: desertification, ravines formation, decrease in soil fertility. The paper gives the detail characteristics of main research of the institute: technology of landscape planning of adaptive forest ameliorative arrangement of eroded soils, ecological economical effectiveness of agrarian complexes on soils subjected to deflation, problems of forest amelioration of degraded pastures, and afforestation of sands, thematter of agrarian nature use on sloping soils, woody plants assortment for forest ameliorative complexes on degraded landscapes, system of integrated pest and disease control in agroforest ecosystems, and shows the importance of its introduction for protective afforestation development at the current period.
Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System Upgrades and Performance Testing at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF)
The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), founded in 1946 at the historic village of Sarov, in Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast, is the largest nuclear research center in the Rosatom complex. In the framework of international collaboration, the United States (US) Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency, in cooperation with US national laboratories, on the one hand, Rosatom and VNIIEF on the other hand, have focused their cooperative efforts to upgrade the existing material protection control and accountability system to prevent unauthorized access to the nuclear material. In this paper we will discuss the present status of material control and accounting (MC and A) system upgrades and the preliminary results from a pilot program on the MC and A system performance testing that was recently conducted at one technical area.
This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.
The materials of the 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 2-6 October, 2000. A wide range of items connected with uranium enrichment, selection of atoms and molecules by isotopic composition: laser methods, ion cyclotron-resonance method, are discussed. The selection of molecules and atoms by rectification and chemical isotopic exchange methods, the selection in the field of centrifugal forces are treated. The questions of search for the new advanced methods for selection of atoms and molecules were discussed at the conference, the problems of radioisotope production were represented. The subject matter of the use of stable isotopes and radionuclides is demonstrated widely. The subjects connected with experimental and engineering equipment for selection of atoms and molecules are embodied in the paper
The reports of the 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 4-8 October, 1999. Contents of the reports are the following: laser isotope separation of molecules and atoms; isotopic selection of molecules and atoms in the field of centrifugal forces; selection of molecules by means of rectification and isotopic exchange methods; separation of isotopes by ion cyclotron-resonance method, in electric discharge and electromagnetic field; change in physical properties of substances which variation of their natural isotopic composition; use of isotopes in pharmacy preparation; status of experimental and diagnostic technique; certain promising methods of selection of atoms and molecules. The problems of laser separation of uranium isotopes, separation of carbon isotopes by multi-photon selective dissociation are discussed. The procedures permitting production of isotopes with high concentration and efficiency are developed
The materials of the 5. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 2-6 October, 2000. A wide range of items connected with uranium enrichment, selection of atoms and molecules by isotopic composition: laser methods, ion cyclotron-resonance method, are discussed. The paper contains the reports about harnessing radionuclides and stable isotopes in medicine and as a means of diagnostics. The results of investigation into modern and advanced technology for isotope separation are outlined. The selection of molecules by means of rectification methods and chemical isotope exchange are discussed
The materials of the 6. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 1-5 October, 2001. The reports are discussed in the sections: 1)Isotopes in nuclear energetics and fundamental physics; 2)Selection in the field of centrifugal forces; 3)Laser systems for the AVLIS technology, isotope separation by ICR- and electromagnetic methods; 4)Production of radioisotopes, creation of radiopharmacological preparations and their application in medicine; 5)Laser separation of atoms and molecules; 6)Separation of molecules by rectification and chemical isotopic exchange methods. A broad spectrum of the points on the current status in selection of atoms and molecules, optimization and lowering the price of the production are discussed
A.V. PIKUNOVA; S.D. KNYAZEV; A.Yu. BAKHOTSKAYA; A.A. KOCHUMOVA
Black currant is the main berry crop in Russia. The need to improve its assortment requires new effective methods to be involved in breeding. Application of DNA markers as a modern approach in dealing with germplazm is intensively used abroad in works on black currant plants. We are the first in Russia who used SSR DNA markers in studying black currant gene pool. In this paper we report genotyping 27 black currant accessions from the collection of the All-Russian Research Institute of Breedin...
Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan
Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587
Strawn, George O.
As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…
Full Text Available This paper displays the importance of selection research objective and supervisor; In addition this paper suggested the optimal research methods that help researcher to get to optimal results in efficient way. This paper shows the thesis writing style and arrangement in way that to be readable for reader about reality of type and size of the work. The one important result of this paper it's the successful of scientific research must depend about many features that join together and miss one of the research methods that mean unsuccessful research.
Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods. PMID:23923630
Petroleum is one of Malaysia's major commodities. In 1993 alone, Malaysia exported about 21 million tonne crude petroleum and 3.4 million tonne of petroleum products with export value of about RM 9.2 billion. Despite the large local and export market of the fuel, our petroleum industry is facing several difficulties. The supply of petrol will inevitably deplete. The industry faces an increase in the exploration costs and decline in the discovery of large reserves. Petronas research and scientific services Sdn Bhd was established 3 years ago. The company which supports its holding company's needs in R and D started its history as an analytical laboratory in 1978. Today, it is one of the leading upstream and downstream petroleum research institute in this region
... research cruise and in accordance with the applicable scientific research plan. The Regional Administrator... Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, to... appropriate Science and Research Director....
Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…
Pyregov, A V; Burov, A A
The article highlights the most urgent issues of anaesthesia and intensive care in obstetrics presented in the reports of the leading specialists at the 2nd All-Russian Educational Congress "Anaesthesia And Intensive Care In Obstetrics And Neonatology". PMID:21400803
Program and summary of reports of the VIII All-Russian symposium on molecular liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis are performed. The meeting took place 15-19 October, 2001 in Moscow. Many problems of liquid and ion exchange chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography have been discussed extensively. Reports covering properties of sorbents and devices for chromatography are incorporated in the collection
@@ Geological Scientific Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield is a scientific and technological research organization for exploration and development of oil/gas fields in Shengli oil province. The main work of the institute involves program for exploration and development, medium/long term planning,program for productivity construction in the new areas, program for adjustment of the old oilfields and undertaking key task of scientific research assigned by CNPC and Shengli Petroleum Administrative Bureau.
Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research. 300.104 Section 300... REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.104 Scientific research. (a) The management measures... vessel for research purposes, unless otherwise indicated. (b) Catches taken by any vessel for...
Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.
HOU; Jianhua; CHEN; Chaomei; YAN; Jianxin
The aim of this paper was to identify the trends and hot topics in the study of scientific collaboration via scientometric analysis.Information visualization and knowledge domain visualization techniques were adopted to determine how the study of scientific collaboration has evolved.A total of 1,455 articles on scientific cooperation published between 1993 and 2007 were retrieved from the SCI,SSCI and A&HCI databases with a topic search of scientific collaboration or scientific cooperation for the analysis.By using CiteSpace,the knowledge bases,research foci,and research fronts in the field of scientific collaboration were studied.The results indicated that research fronts and research foci are highly consistent in terms of the concept,origin,measurement,and theory of scientific collaboration.It also revealed that research fronts included scientific collaboration networks,international scientific collaboration,social network analysis and techniques,and applications of bibliometrical indicators,webmetrics,and health care related areas.
Okey K. N. Mawussé
This paper examines the macroeconomic determinants of scientific production in Africa by focusing on direct and indirect roles that political and economic institutions may play. A theoretical model of scientific production that integrates the quality of institutions, as well as econometric estimations conducted on a panel of 47 African countries over the period 1994 to 2009, suggest significant direct and indirect effects of institutions on scientific research performance.
@@ Scientific research in China is receiving enhanced support from both the government and the public, as science and technology are playing an increasingly constructive role in the country's social progress and economic growth, states CAS President Lu Yongxiang.
Boody, Robert M.
Socrates and Admetus discuss the value of scientific research in education. They conclude that although RCTs have their place, they are not a panacea for education, and that the push for them by NCLB is not warranted.
"A number of influential scientists have begun to argue that the cost of research publications has grown so large that it impedes the distribution of knowledge... So a coalition led by Dr. Harold Varmus, the former director of the National Institutes of Health, is creating a new model, called the Public Library of Science" (1/2 page).
The 80th anniversary of civil defence in Russia was marked by the All-Russian civil defence exercise attended by representatives of federal executive authorities, regional and local executive authorities. During the exercise performance of the following activities was verified: introduction of increased preparedness mode for local air-defence emergency-response forces, activities of emergency-response and fire safety commissions, information collection and exchange during implementation of top-priority civil defence measures, etc. The paper describes the activities carried out during the exercise
Association of American Universities, 2011
An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…
Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others
This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab.
Hasan Hüseyin Şahan
Full Text Available Present study has been constructed to determine scientific research competencies of prospective teachers and identify the extent of effect of prospective teachers’ attitudes toward scientific research and scientific research methods course on their research skills and attitudes towards research. This study has two dimensions: it is a descriptive study by virtue of identifying prospective teachers’ research skills and attitudes toward research, also an experimental study by virtue of determining the effect of scientificresearch methods course on prospective teachers’ skills and their attitudes toward research. In order to obtain the data related to identified sub-problems “Scale for Identifying Scientific Research Competencies” and “Scale for Identifying the Attitude toward Research” have been utilized. Data collection tools were applied to 445 prospective teachers. It has thus been concluded in this study that scientific research methods course had no significant effect in gaining scientific research competencies to prospective teachers and that this effect demonstrated no differentiation with respect to departments. On the other hand it has been explored that scientific research methods course had a negative effect onthe attitudes of prospective teachers toward research and that there was a differentiation to the disadvantage of prospective teachers studying at Primary Education Mathematics Teaching Department.
Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Plenary reports. Engineering of inorganic substances and materials
In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of inorganic substances and materials. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas
Based on the perception of knowledge management from experts specializing in different fields,and experts at home and abroad,the knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution can build new platform,offer new approach for realization of explicit or tacit knowledge,and promote resilience and innovative ability of scientific research institution.The thesis has introduced functions of knowledge management research of agricultural science.First,it can transform the tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.Second,it can make all the scientific personnel share knowledge.Third,it is beneficial to the development of prototype system of knowledge management.Fourth,it mainly researches the realization of knowledge management system.Fifth,it can manage the external knowledge via competitive intelligence.Sixth,it can foster talents of knowledge management for agricultural scientific research institution.Seventh,it offers the decision-making service for leaders to manage scientific program.The thesis also discusses the content of knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution as follows:production and innovation of knowledge;attainment and organizing of knowledge;dissemination and share of knowledge;management of human resources and the construction and management of infrastructure.We have put forward corresponding countermeasures to further reinforce the knowledge management research of agricultural scientific research institution.
Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes. PMID:27093324
Glazunov, N. M.
During years 2008 to 2011 author gives several courses on Foundations of Scientific Research at Computer Science Faculty of the National Aviation University in Kiev. This text presents material to lectures of the courses. It consists of 18 sections and some ideas of the manual can be seen from their titles. These include: General notions about scientific research. Ontologies and upper ontologies. Ontologies of object domains. Examples of Research Activity. Some Notions of the Theory of Finite...
Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Song, Li-rong
Based on the perception of knowledge management from experts specification in different fields, and experts at home and abroad, the knowledge management of agricultural scientific research institution can build new platform, offer new approach for realization of explicit or tacit knowledge, and promote resilience and innovative ability of scientific research institution. The thesis has introduced functions of knowledge management research of agricultural science. First, it can transform the t...
Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik
We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.
Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Chan, Tiffany
In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.
Full Text Available In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.
"It is hard to believe, but science in America is struggling. Funding for scientific research has been cut back for years, but this year it is so bad that Fermi National Laboratory in the Chicago area, needs to close down for six weeks in 2008 to make ends meet." (1/2 page)
Cases of misconduct in scientific research have enforced a lively public and scientific discussion. The international scientific community has been engaged during the last years in the search for adequate responses to fraud and misconduct. Most of the new guidelines emphasize the responsibility of researchers and scientific institutions for preventive measures; the teaching of research ethics should be included in undergraduate and postgraduate academic education. At the Universities of Ulm and Marburg members of the 'Study group Ethics in Medicine' are developing a teaching program in Research Ethics. They now offer courses: teaching in small groups (7-15 participants) with structured case discussions. These courses are not mandatory. The first steps in the development of the teaching program for young scientists in medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics have been taken. The fields of conflicts in these different fields of science are very similar. We offered five case discussion sessions with mixed groups (postgraduate students, postdocs, head of departments) and the first results are very positive: high acceptance, high motivation, high demand for next courses. PMID:10978672
This paper presents theoretical and scientific findings and practical strategies of a theoretical and empirical research project co-funded by European Social Fund through the Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Priority 1 "Education and training in support for growth and knowledge-based society ", key Area of Intervention 1.5" doctoral and postdoctoral research support. Theme of the project, “Intercultural communication, and diversity management paradigm” is c...
The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritos for the year 1980 are presented in the form of a list of 76 projects giving title, objectives, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 16 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritos NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Scientific Directorate, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications, Radioimmunoassay and Training. (N.C.)
Sergio Bertolucci has become Director for Research and Scientific Computing at the moment when the LHC is almost ready to deliver its first physics data. In this interview, he explains the importance of the perfect mix of collaboration and competition that will make the LHC scientific programme successful. Sergio Bertolucci’s enthusiasm for being at CERN at this historic time is evident from the first minute of the interview and has not waned after an hour speaking with us. Bertolucci’s recipe for a successful start-up of the physics delivery phase of the LHC is "Festina lente", a Latin motto that means something like ‘hasten slowly’. "The LHC is probably the biggest and most complex scientific enterprise ever undertaken by humanity," says Bertolucci. "It will certainly lead us towards a new phase of our understanding of the Universe. Nature is already giving us some indications but only the LHC will allow us to observe the ne...
I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs
I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.
Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572
Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam; Groman, Robert; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Wiebe, Peter; Glover, David
The sum of the parts is greater than the whole, but for scientific research how do we identify the parts when they are curated at distributed locations? Results from environmental research represent an enormous investment and constitute essential knowledge required to understand our planet in this time of rapid change. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) curates data from US NSF Ocean Sciences funded research awards, but BCO-DMO is only one repository in a landscape that includes many other sites that carefully curate results of scientific research. Recent efforts to use persistent identifiers (PIDs), most notably Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCiD) for person, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for publications including data sets, and Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes for research grants and awards are realizing success in unambiguously identifying the pieces that represent results of environmental research. This presentation uses BCO-DMO as a test case for adding PIDs to the locally-curated information published out as standards compliant metadata records. We present a summary of progress made thus far; what has worked and why, and thoughts on logical next steps.
Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.
Web browsers have become a major application interface for participating in scientific experiments such as those in magnetic fusion. The recent advances in web technologies motivated the deployment of interactive web applications with rich features. In the scientific world, web applications have been deployed in portal environments. When used in a scientific research environment, such as fusion experiments, web portals can present diverse sources of information in a unified interface. However, the design and development of a scientific web portal has its own challenges. One such challenge is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite the high volume of information and number of tools it presents. Another challenge is that the visual output of the web portal must not be overwhelming to the end users, despite the high volume of data generated by fusion experiments. Therefore, the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of end users. In order to meet these challenges, the design and implementation of a web portal needs to support high interactivity and user customization. A web portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide by providing multiple services, such as real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access and interactive data visualization. The web portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing a collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant messaging services. The portal's design utilizes the multi-tier software architecture and has been implemented utilizing web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services, which allows users to create a unique, personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. This paper describes the software
Full Text Available Art opera director is considered one of the most difficult types of musical theater. Its main development in the twentieth century is a testament tothis.Thus, the main aim of the work is to examine the problem field of research about the features of an opera director.The article discusses the activities of the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich -Danchenko, who developed the principles of true and artistically convincingtransmission on stage «as the inner life», thereby laying the foundation for the development of directing as a heavy component of the translationstage of the artwork.After researching a number of scientific approaches, we concluded that current research practice requires as generalizations, theoretical studies,as well as new research aimed at understanding the creative contribution of each individual director and artist in the art of the processes that occurat the moment in musical theater and culture.
... research protocol with timetable; (ii) The relationship of such research to the conservation of the species... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for scientific research. 15.22... for scientific research. (a) Application requirements for permits for scientific research....
Full Text Available This is a historical overview of the university institution based on the ternary chronological paradigm– Medieval University (XI-XVIII centuries, Modern University (XIX and XX centuries and Contemporary University (XXI century and on. Then, it takes into account the university purposedetermined nature according to the historical period: Truth (Medieval University, scientific research (Modern University and professional training ( Contemporary University. It also considers the scientist typology as follows: humanist (Medieval University, experimental (Modern University and geonomic (Contemporary University. First and second ternary contemporary models have disregarded the prior models to some extent. Nonetheless, the three purpose-determined models contribute to figure out the university institution identity.
The development of a national nuclear programme for power, scientific and technical applications necessarily involves setting up a research programme. Once the objectives of this programme have been established (goals, long-term plan, finance, methodology, organization), what kind of training programme must be set up? It is essential to devise an action programme and its success is dependent on a sustained and continuous effort. National training resources are useful in various ways in the establishment of such a programme: university technological institutes, specialized courses, research laboratories and integrated programmes. Links between research and training are vital. The contribution from international co-operation agreements is likewise important. How can a developing country benefit from this and evaluate the short- and long-term dividends? Finally, what are the spin-offs of such research programmes for technical training in areas of activity outside the nuclear sector? On the basis of the French experience, the paper attempts to show how research and teaching can go hand in hand and how training in nuclear sciences can serve as an example for training in other advanced technologies. (author)
The Web browser has become one of the major application interfaces for remotely participating in magnetic fusion. Web portals are used to present very diverse sources of information in a unified way. While a web portal has several benefits over other software interfaces, such as providing single point of access for multiple computational services, and eliminating the need for client software installation, the design and development of a web portal has unique challenges. One of the challenges is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite a high volume of tools and information that it presents. Another challenge is the visual output on the web portal often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments; therefore the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of users. An appropriate software architecture and web technologies can meet these problems. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It utilizes a multi-tier software architecture, and web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant message services. Furthermore, the web portal will provide a mechanism to allow users to create their own applications on the web portal as well as bridging capabilities to external applications such as Twitter and other social networks. In this series of slides, we describe the software architecture of this scientific web portal and our experiences in utilizing web 2.0 technologies. A
Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.
This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.
Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung
The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…
Efficient scientific development may promote the solution of all the environmental problems. The way the question is put is new, for science is finally considered to be the source of all environmental disasters and to be blamed for that. Search for the means to solve scientifically induced crisis situation seems to be very interesting. (author)
Materials connected with new tendencies in enrichment of nuclear fuel, development of new calculation methods for separation cascades, optimization of separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures are represented. It is observed great interest isotopically enrichment silicon connected with possibility of it use in microelectronics. Results are represented on creation of unsoldered industrially active elements of lasers on copper vapors with hydrogen addition. Significant part of conference is concerned with problems of isotope production application in different spheres of human activity, particularly in medicine
Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania
In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which
Full Text Available The wide dissemination of scientific research results represents the means for outlining of the prestige and visibility of Romanian scientific research on the global or regional arena and for highlighting the performance and the contribution of Romanian researchers to the scientific progress in their specific scientific interest field. Evaluation of the scientific performances is a complex process, involving quantitative and qualitative methods and approaches. The evaluation of the publications and the ranking of the authors, of the scientific papers and of the research institutions could be a useful instrument for policy makers in order to enhance the management of research activity and for its efficient funding, taking into consideration not only the social and economic priorities of the scientific topics or the relevance of research projects, but also, the performance of the scientific activity of the research teams. Despite of shortcomings and of criticisms drawn by some authors, especially when it comes to the social sciences, the bibliometric assessments are a tool for profiling of the visibility and impact of the research activity and for allowing interesting and relevant international comparisons. Drawing on bibliometric data from the Scimago Journal and Country Rank, this paper aims to evaluate the position of the Romanian scientific research in international hierarchy, and the factors that influenced the current position of research activity from Romania.
The Web browser has become one of the major application interfaces for remotely participating in magnetic fusion experiments. Recently in other areas, web portals have begun to be deployed. These portals are used to present very diverse sources of information in a unified way. While a web portal has several benefits over other software interfaces, such as providing single point of access for multiple computational services, and eliminating the need for client software installation, the design and development of a web portal has unique challenges. One of the challenges is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite a high volume of tools and information that it presents. Another challenge is the visual output on the web portal often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments; therefore the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of users. An appropriate software architecture and web technologies can meet these problems. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It utilizes a multi-tier software architecture, and web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. The users can create a unique personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant message services. Furthermore, the web portal will provide a mechanism to allow users to create their own applications on the web portal as well as bridging capabilities to external applications such as
Hattenberger, Gautier; Bronz, Murat; Gorraz, Michel
This paper presents an overview of the Paparazzi UAV system and its recent use in scientific research. Paparazzi is an open-source project that aims at providing a complete solution to fly fixedwing aircraft and rotorcrafts. Several hardware boards and sensors are also developed within the project. Since several years, it has been used by various institutes for scientific research. The recent use on scientific research for meteorological studies is presented as an example.
Hou Xiaohui; Huang Lei; Li Xuefei
The evaluation of the scientific research projects is an important procedure before the scientific research projects are approved. The BP neural network and linear neural network are adopted to evaluate the scientific research projects in this paper. The evaluation index system with 12 indexes is set up. The basic principle of the neural network is analyzed and then the BP neural network and linear neural network models are constructed and the output error function of the neural networks is i...
The scientific research represents a modern production neo-factor that implies two groups of coordinates: preparation and scientific research. The scientific research represents a complex of elements that confer a new orientation of high performance and is materialized in resources and new availabilities brought in active shape by the contribution of the creators and by the attraction in a specific way in the economic circuit. It is the creator of new ideas, lifting the performance and unders...
We present a method to analyse the scientific contributions between research groups. Given multiple research groups, we construct their journal/proceeding graphs and then compute the similarity/gap between them using network analysis. This analysis can be used for measuring similarity/gap of the topics/qualities between research groups' scientific contributions. We demonstrate the practicality of our method by comparing the scientific contributions by Korean researchers with those by the global researchers for information security in 2006 - 2008. The empirical analysis shows that the current security research in South Korea has been isolated from the global research trend.
This report contains the titles of the publications edited in the year 1983. The scientific and technical-scientific publications of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe are printed as books, as original contributions in scientific or technical specialists' journals, as scripts for habilitation, thesis, scripts for diploma, as patents, as KfK-Reports (KfK=Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe) and are being presented as lectures on scientific meetings. No further separate abstracts of this list of publications were prepared. (orig./HBR)
Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard
A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which
It is hard to believe, but science in America is struggling. Funding for scientific research has been cut back for years, but this year it is so bad that in the Chicago area, needs to in 2008 to make ends meet. Last week Congress failed to provide enough budgetary support for basic scientific research in all fields.
The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……
@@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.
Full Text Available The scientific research represents a modern production neo-factor that implies two groups of coordinates: preparation and scientific research. The scientific research represents a complex of elements that confer a new orientation of high performance and is materialized in resources and new availabilities brought in active shape by the contribution of the creators and by the attraction in a specific way in the economic circuit. It is the creator of new ideas, lifting the performance and understanding to the highest international standards of competitive economic efficiency. In the present, the role of the scientific research stands before some new challenges generated by the stage of society. It.s propose a unitary, coherent scientific research and educational system, created in corresponding proportions, based on the type, level and utility of the system, by the state, the economic-social environment and the citizen himself.
Esteves, Zita; Manuel F. M. Costa
Vocational schools are a resource for many students, with usually low motivation and high learning difficulties. The fact that this type of teaching is of a more practical, experimental, and job oriented type, points to teaching strategies less theoretical and focus on a more practical student involvement. Profiting from those characteristics, the study of the use of scientific projects on vocational teaching was initiated. It was proposed to vocational school st...
Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz
Full Text Available In any scientific research it is very important to achieve an appropriate information management to allow creating and transmitting new knowledge. In the context of the academic scientific activity, we approach the importance of including in the academic syllabus the training in scientific information searching in the Web. The reference to an experience in the medical school “Dr. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta” supports the idea of increasing the abilities and knowledge of students in scientific information searching from the academic years to enhance their research skills.
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…
Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta
The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned
A nationale for the radiobiological research requirements for space is rooted in a national commitment to the exploration of space, mandated in the form of the National Space Act. This research is almost entirely centered on man; more specifically, on the effects of the space radiation environment on man and his protection from them. The research needs discussed in this presentation include the space radiation environment; dosimetry; radiation biology-high LET particles (dose/response); and operational countermeasures
Berezhnaya G. S.
This article considers the structure of research system in Germany. It describes the federal and state levels of research management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) bears primary responsibility for science and technology policy at the federal level. At the state level, this responsible is shared by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Economy. The author emphasizes the role of the National Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina”, whose principal objective ...
The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…
Klasen, E C; Overbeke, A J P M
The incidence of scientific dishonesty in the Netherlands is not known, yet experiences at both the NWO (the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research) and Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine) indicate that there must be several cases per year. For scientific fraud to be prevented students and researchers should receive thorough teaching, and in research laboratories an emphasis should be placed upon integrity. The Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam has published a research protocol which is perfect for internal use. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences publishes brochures on good research practice for researchers, teachers and students. The NWO and the Vereniging van Universiteiten (Dutch Association of Universities) have set up a committee for scientific integrity to function as a fallback mechanism and to assess the institutional procedures or to repeat the inquiries. As healthcare research institutions other than universities are involved since authorities are not always objective, an independent committee has been established to assess complaints about scientific dishonesty, the Scientific Integrity Health Research. Like the Committee on Publication Ethics it will publish its cases anonymously on an annual basis. Its judgments will be communicated to the people involved and the proper authorities. PMID:12233155
applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...... The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI...
It is expected that research conducted by graduate students in science education provide research findings which can be utilized as evidence based foundations for making decisions to improve science education practices in schools. However, lack of credibility of research become one of the factors cause idleness of thesis and dissertation in the context of education improvement. Credibility of a research is constructed by its scientificness. As a result, enhancement of scientific characters of graduate research needs to be done to close the gap between research and practice. A number of guiding principles underlie educational researchs as a scientific inquiry are explored and applied in this paper to identify common shortages of some thesis and dissertation manuscripts on science education reviewed in last two years.
Finkelstein, Noah (University of Colorado)
It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.
Sandra Williams Serrano
Full Text Available Background: The scientific-technological development speed forces a solid meta- cognition development to make a more conscientious and creative use of knowledge. The scientific research of students is an early way to relate them with professional problems and actively contributes to create an analytic and scientific approach. Objective: To determine the relation between achieved results in students' scientific research and academic average. Methods: This study includes 157 students of second course of Medicine Studies divided in two groups. Inclusion criteria: academic average ≥4 and Results: Students with research results had higher academic average and, although the coefficient showed low correlation, ANOVA showed relations between variables and the odd ratio the group number 2, with poor research activity has higher risk (2, 6 of presenting academic problems.
Ms. Nelly A. Finskaya
Full Text Available The paper considers participating of students in the annual electronic Student forums of RANS as motivation to continue their scientific activity and research of cross-cultural communication in the sphere of professional education .
Collaboration is an increasingly important aspect of magnetic fusion energy research. With the increased size and cost of experiments needed to approach reactor conditions, the numbers being constructed has become limited. In order to satisfy the desire for many groups to conduct research on these facilities, we have come to rely more heavily on collaborations. Fortunately, at the same time, development of high performance computers and fast and reliable wide area networks has provided technological solutions necessary to support the increasingly distributed work force without the need for relocation of entire research staffs. Development of collaboratories, collaborative or virtual laboratories, is intended to provide the capability needed to interact from afar with colleagues at multiple sites. These technologies are useful to groups interacting remotely during experimental operations as well as to those involved in the development of analysis codes and large scale simulations The term ''collaboratory'' refers to a center without walls in which researchers can perform their studies without regard to geographical location - interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, and accessing information from digital libraries ,. While it is widely recognized that remote collaboration is not a universal replacement for personal contact, it does afford a means for extending that contact in a manner that minimizes the need for relocation and for travel while more efficiently utilizmg resources and staff that are geographically distant from the central facility location, be it an experiment or design center While the idea of providing a remote environment that is ''as good as being there'' is admirable, it is also important to recognize and capitalize on any differences unique to being remote  Magnetic fusion energy research is not unique in its increased dependence on and need to improve methods for collaborative
Ma, Athen; Latora, Vito
Research projects are primarily collaborative in nature through internal and external partnerships, but what role does funding play in their formation? Here, we examined over 43,000 funded projects in the past three decades, enabling us to characterise changes in the funding landscape and their impacts on the underlying collaboration patterns. We observed rising inequality in the distribution of funding and its effect was most noticeable at the institutional level in which the leading universities diversified their collaborations and increasingly became the knowledge brokers. Furthermore, these universities formed a cohesive core through their close ties, and such reliance appeared to be a key for their research success, with the elites in the core over-attracting resources but in turn rewarding in both research breadth and depth. Our results reveal how collaboration networks undergo previously unknown adaptive organisation in response to external driving forces, which can have far-reaching implications for f...
To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)
Kennedy, Shane J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Polarized neutron scattering has been a feature at ANSTO's HIFAR research reactor since the first polarization analysis (PA) spectrometer Longpol began operation over 30 years ago. Since that time, we have improved performance of Longpol and added new capabilities in several reincarnations of the instrument. Most of the polarized neutron experiments have been in the fields of magnetism and superconductivity, and most of that research has involved PA. Now as we plan our next generation neutron beam facility, at the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR), we intend to continue the tradition of PA but with a far broader scope in mind. Our new capabilities will combine PA and energy analysis with both cold and thermal neutron source spectra. We will also provide capabilities for research with polarized neutrons in small-angle neutron scattering and in neutron reflectometry. The discussion includes a brief historical account of the technical developments with a summary of past and present applications of polarized neutrons at HIFAR, and an outline of the polarized neutron capabilities that will be included in the first suite of instruments, which will begin operation at the new reactor in 2006.
Full Text Available School and university, privileged places of experience and exercise of the mind, with a quality organization pursuing competence and merit, urged to pressure by the data and materials research, as well as under the pressure of the network.
Wheat, Rachel E; Wang, Yiwei; Byrnes, Jarrett E; Ranganathan, Jai
In this article we discuss the utility of crowdfunding from the perspective of individual scientists or laboratory groups looking to fund research. We address some of the main factors determining the success of crowdfunding campaigns, and compare this approach with the use of traditional funding sources. PMID:23219380
The Helix Nebula initiative was presented at EGU 2013 (http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-1510-2.pdf) and has continued to expand with more research organisations, providers and services. The hybrid cloud model deployed by Helix Nebula has grown to become a viable approach for provisioning ICT services for research communities from both public and commercial service providers (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.16001). The relevance of this approach for all those communities facing societal challenges in explained in a recent EIROforum publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.34264). This presentation will describe how this model brings together a range of stakeholders to implement a common platform for data intensive services that builds upon existing public funded e-infrastructures and commercial cloud services to promote open science. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high-level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that will ensure a European Open Science Cloud can innovate, grow and be sustained beyond the current project cycles is described.
Maria Christina L. Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8% belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77% and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62% prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%, Minas Gerais (21%, and Rio Grande do Sul (15%. During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119. Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73 for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.
Full Text Available In the last decades, production of science and technology as well as science-society relationships started changing rapidly. Research is asked to be more effective, fast, accountable, trans-disciplinary, result-oriented, policy-driven and able to generate benefits for people and firms in the short and middle run. While a strong intensification of science-society relationships is occurring, an increasing number of actors and stakeholders are involved in research production. At the same time, pervasiveness of technology is rendering users an active part in technological development; economic and social interests on science and technology are growing on a global scale; new democratic and ethical issues emerge. Despite the European institutions’ efforts, all those trends and phenomena are occurring in an extremely fragmented way. In this scenario, a fairly balanced and consistent co-evolution between science and society can no longer be taken for granted. This is just the starting point of the following comment section that, through the Luciano d’Andrea, Sally Wyatt, Erik Aarden, Jos Lejten and Peter Sekloča’s writings, aims to analyse the different aspects and questions around the socialisation of science and technology’s matter.
Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky
Full Text Available Abstract. The authors continue to explore the issue of practical methodology of research studies (Education and Science No 8, 2014. The aim of the study is to reveal theoretical and practical issues of empirical-research activity at the stages of conceptual problem understanding of pedagogical research, ideas promotion, development of the conception of their practical implementation and formation of scientifically grounded constructive hypotheses. Methods. The applied methods include theoretical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, generalization, specification, comparison, classification, extrapolation, modelling and hermeneutic interpretation. Results. Scientifically grounded description of the process of creative research of educational problems is presented in the paper. The content of such notions as «concept», «creative core», «idea», «plot», and «research hypothesis» is revealed. The creative core of scientific research is considered in close relation to the key aspects of the scientific inquiry: problematics definition, research topic and subject selection, clarification of initial facts and theoretical statements, definition of the conceptual framework, determination of essential novelty. The authors explore the mechanisms of the scientific research through the analysis of the educational situation and initial facts to the formation of a conceptual framework of research and the further working out of its instrumental component. The creative core of research is characterised as its most difficult element including the inception of idea transformation, its realisation into some conception and expansion into productive hypothesis. The authors describe the types of hypotheses, such as working and scientific (ready, functional and explanatory. The logical and gnoseological structure of a scientific hypothesis is shown in the study. The methodological requirements to the formulation of the scientific hypotheses are
Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields
In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas
V. M. Koleshko
Full Text Available The paper analyzes a category of knowledge integrity in philosophical and methodological conception of the intellectual technology. Relationship of knowledge integrity and its uncertainty in the methodology of intellectual scientific research is considered in the paper. The paper reveals a role of purpose uncertainty of intellectual research process in formation of knowledge integrity properties. An analysis of integrity notion functioning has been executed while considering a problem on relationship of general and partial components. The paper shows changes in the given relationship while making transition from value-orientated research process to purpose-orientated scientific investigation. Determination of diffusion, differentiated and integrated knowledge integrity is shown at various stages of intellectual scientific research.
Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew
This whitepaper describes the major IT challenges in scientific research at CERN and several other European and international research laboratories and projects. Each challenge is exemplified through a set of concrete use cases drawn from the requirements of large-scale scientific programs. The paper is based on contributions from many researchers and IT experts of the participating laboratories and also input from the existing CERN openlab industrial sponsors. The views expressed in this document are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates.
Darío Bergel, Salvador
This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205
Internet technologies, including electronic mail, preprint archives, and the World Wide Web, are now ubiquitous parts of scientific practice. After reviewing the full range of these technologies and sketching the history of their development, this paper provides an epistemological appraisal of their contributions to scientific research. It uses Alvin Goldman's epistemic criteria of reliability, power, fecundity, speed and efficiency to evaluate the largely positive impact of Internet technolo...
De Waard, Anita; Kircz, Joost
We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be publishe
Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael
This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…
Marianne E. Krasny
Full Text Available Members of the public participate in scientific research in many different contexts, stemming from traditions as varied as participatory action research and citizen science. Particularly in conservation and natural resource management contexts, where research often addresses complex social–ecological questions, the emphasis on and nature of this participation can significantly affect both the way that projects are designed and the outcomes that projects achieve. We review and integrate recent work in these and other fields, which has converged such that we propose the term public participation in scientific research (PPSR to discuss initiatives from diverse fields and traditions. We describe three predominant models of PPSR and call upon case studies suggesting that—regardless of the research context—project outcomes are influenced by (1 the degree of public participation in the research process and (2 the quality of public participation as negotiated during project design. To illustrate relationships between the quality of participation and outcomes, we offer a framework that considers how scientific and public interests are negotiated for project design toward multiple, integrated goals. We suggest that this framework and models, used in tandem, can support deliberate design of PPSR efforts that will enhance their outcomes for scientific research, individual participants, and social–ecological systems.
The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.
Hongqi Han; Shuo Xu; Jie Gui; Xiaodong Qiao; Lijun Zhu; Han Zhang
In order to improve the quality of applications, such as recommendation or retrieval in knowledge-based service system, it is very helpful to uncover research topics of academic communities in scientific collaboration network (SCN). Previous research mainly focuses on network characteristics measurement and community evolution, but it remains largely understudied on how to uncover research topics of each community. This paper proposes a nonjoint approach, consisting of three simple steps: (1)...
Marianne E. Krasny; Bruce V. Lewenstein; Matthew Minarchek; Ellen McCallie; Rebecca Jordan; Andrea Wiggins; Tina Phillips; Candie C. Wilderman; Heidi L. Ballard; Jennifer L. Shirk; Rick Bonney
Members of the public participate in scientific research in many different contexts, stemming from traditions as varied as participatory action research and citizen science. Particularly in conservation and natural resource management contexts, where research often addresses complex social–ecological questions, the emphasis on and nature of this participation can significantly affect both the way that projects are designed and the outcomes that projects achieve. We review and integrate ...
Full Text Available The scientific research activity in accounting is governed by the principles of logic thinking, is not subject to change and must be conducted according to a strict and rigorous schedule. For these reasons, it is a planned activity, but it shouldn’t be seen as rigid, because it can withstand changes or adjustments during its deployment. Naturally, scientific reasoning is at the foundation of any research undertaking, including in the area of accounting. This paper deals with issues related to the positioning of accounting within the areas of research, the components of the reasoning used in all the stages involved in accounting research, from establishing its objective or research subject to exploiting the obtained results.
CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder
The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...
Full Text Available Research systems are increasingly required to be more practically oriented and to address issues which appear more promising in economic and social results, with special reference to trans-disciplinary research fields, such as nanotechnology or ICTs; policy makers show a sharp tendency to establish research priorities and to drive research systems; universities and research institutions are asked to be more transparent and open to dialogue with social actors on contents, impacts, ethical implications and practical applications of scientific and technological research. These transformations affecting both the ways in which science and technology are produced and their relationships with society pose new challenges to European research. All the aspects of research activities are concerned, including the life of the research groups, the approaches to scientific evaluation, the development of European research policies and the interaction between researchers with their social environment. Continuing a reflection started in the last issue of JCOM, Luisa Prista, Evanthia Kalpazidou-Schmidt, Brigida Blasi, Sandra Romagnosi and Miguel Martínez López offered their contribution in identifying some of the key implications and risks which these changes are bringing about, mainly in the perspective of the construction of the European Research Area.
Existing models for Research Information Systems (RIS) properly address the description of people and organizations, projects, facilities and their outcomes, e.g. papers, reports or patents. While this is adequate for the recording and accountability of research investments, helping researchers in finding relevant people, organizations or results requires considering both the content of research work and also its context. The content is not only related to the domain area, but it requires modeling methodological issues as variables, instruments or scientific methods that can then be used as search criteria. The context of research work is determined by the ongoing projects or scientific interests of an individual or a group, and can be expressed using the same methodological concepts. However, modeling methodological issues is notably complex and dependent on the scientific discipline and research area. This paper sketches the main requirements for those models, providing some motivating examples that could serve as a point of departure for future attempts in developing an upper ontology for research methods and tools.
Among the featured topics: oncolytic immunotherapy, BRAF/MEK inhibition, and a programmed death-1 inhibitor at the Society for Melanoma Research; and anticoagulation therapy, an alternative to statins, and endocarditis in the absence of dental antibiotic prophylaxis at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. PMID:25628510
Hules, John A.; Bashor, Jon; Wang, Ucilia; Yarris, Lynn; Preuss, Paul
This report presents highlights of the research conducted on NERSC computers in a variety of scientific disciplines during the year 2007. It also reports on changes and upgrades to NERSC's systems and services aswell as activities of NERSC staff.
IŞIK YILMAZ, Sultan
Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of the 1st International Scientific Researches Congress Humanity and Social Sciences held on 19-22 May 2016 in Madrid will be mentioned.Keywords. Social Sciences, Humanity Sciences, Technology Awareness, Future Expectations, University Students, Madrid.JEL. O10, L20, L24.
This article presents the author's critique on "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. It also presents a summary of recent work by the Leiden bibliometrics group, which van Raan has led so ably for more than 15 years. The group has established an excellent…
I review my scientific research career for the last 50 years, with emphasis on the issue of 'Poincare recurrences': I stress some ideas of mine which became so popular that they have been taken up (recurred) by others, sometimes forgetting the original source
V. M. Koleshko; A. V. Gulay; V. A. Gulay
The paper analyzes a category of knowledge integrity in philosophical and methodological conception of the intellectual technology. Relationship of knowledge integrity and its uncertainty in the methodology of intellectual scientific research is considered in the paper. The paper reveals a role of purpose uncertainty of intellectual research process in formation of knowledge integrity properties. An analysis of integrity notion functioning has been executed while considering a problem on rel...
Barnes, Deborah; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings from 1980 to ...
Johnson, Richard K.
New information and communications technologies are changing the way publishers and librarians view the dissemination and availability of scholarly research. When research results are available widely and freely, science advances most effectively. Due to this and the fact that journal prices are inordinately high, open access in the scientific journal publishing industry has come to the foreground as a widely anticipated cost-reducing option.
The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.
Full Text Available Basing on the example of a scientific institute, this article shows: – potential areas in which CRM philosophy, procedures and tools could be applied – purpose of applying CRM – outcomes to expect from CRM application The article shows the Customer Relationship Management idea exclusively, along with areas of its use in scientific and research institutions and also a proposal to determine a group of clients for these institutions. The summary of the article consists of information regarding sources of knowledge about CRM philosophy and procedures (mainly bibliographical and also about IT systems which support CRM.
Full Text Available The issue of knowledge transfer within organizations acting in the economic sphere is high on the agenda at this time. The reason is that on the one hand, considerable public funds are spent for different forms of research, but on the other hand, the effectiveness of these resources within the industry is comparatively low. Developing an efficient technology transfer is along-term activity. The concept of technology transfer is a narrowed concept. The wider concept is the transfer of intellectual property. The suggested model would contain substantive, structural, and relationship functional definition of a scientific-research cluster as a new form of knowledge transfer in the industrial sphere. The stated issue is solved within the project of the 7th EU Framework Programme, where the author of the paper participates as a co-project manager. The proposed scientific-research cluster is to serve as a model for countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.
A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this pap...
Fischer, Frank; Kollar, Ingo; Ufer, Stefan; Sodian, Beate; Hussmann, Heinrich; Pekrun, Reinhard; Neuhaus, Birgit; Dorner, Birgit; Pankofer, Sabine; Fischer, Martin; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Heene, Moritz; Eberle, Julia
Scientific reasoning and scientific argumentation are highly valued outcomes of K-12 and higher education. In this article, we first review main topics and key findings of three different strands of research, namely research on the development of scientific reasoning, research on scientific argumentation, and research on approaches to support…
Full Text Available The behavior/structure methodological dichotomy as locus of scientific inquiry is closely related to the issue of modeling and theory change in scientific explanation. Given that the traditional tension between structure and behavior in scientific modeling is likely here to stay, considering the relevant precedents in the history of ideas could help us better understand this theoretical struggle. This better understanding might open up unforeseen possibilities and new instantiations, particularly in what concerns the proposed technological modification of the human condition. The sequential structure of this paper is twofold. The contribution of three philosophers better known in the humanities than in the study of science proper are laid out. The key theoretical notions interweaving the whole narrative are those of mechanization, constructability and simulation. They shall provide the conceptual bridge between these classical thinkers and the following section. Here, a panoramic view of three significant experimental approaches in contemporary scientific research is displayed, suggesting that their undisclosed ontological premises have deep roots in the Western tradition of the humanities. This ontological lock between core humanist ideals and late research in biology and nanoscience is ultimately suggested as responsible for pervasively altering what is canonically understood as “human”.
Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service, which is an important component of intelligence, is the intelligence researcher to select key subjects and major issues and key technology or innovation goals under the actual needs of scientific research personnel issues, using network communication technology and database technology and information retrieval technologies, sustained and in a timely manner to track all kinds of literature for the front-line services, until the completion of research topics or key problem-solving. Library of China Institute of Atomic Energy is struggling to meet the diverse needs of customers, targeted to provide a lot of useful information for scientific researchers to use less time as possible to obtain as much intelligence information, and to research workers and leading to the successful completion of research tasks, and various decisions. The implementation of SDI services to identify clients and scope, to format SDI service team, to determine the SDI service principles and service mode. SDI services Selective demand intelligence researchers have been asked to improve their quality, to improve their interpersonal communication skills. (author)
Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.
The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.
Scientific Utopia: Improving the Openness and Reproducibility of Research An academic scientist’s professional success depends on publishing. Publishing norms emphasize novel, positive results. As such, disciplinary incentives encourage design, analysis, and reporting decisions that elicit positive results and ignore negative results. These incentives inflate the rate of false effects in published science. When incentives favor novelty over replication, false results persist in the literature...
Río, J A; García, E O; Ramírez, A M; Humenik, J A
In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, institutions) of the citing papers as well as their thematic characteristics.
Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.
A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.
This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing polic...
Full Text Available This article presents the challenges that scientific research institutions face in terms of their marketing, which have been divided into two groups of those associated with internal marketing and those linked to external marketing. The most significant and important determinants that constitute challenges to both internal and external marketing were described. The key aspects of each of the identified challenges were indicated, as was their impact on the implementation of the marketing policy at institutions.
Manuel Gregorio Loza-Murguia
Full Text Available At birth the Journal of the Andean Forest Research Society, in September 2008, seeks to make visible to researchers and research, which often are locked in libraries, which spread in tiny, not transcending beyond the laboratory , cabinet or presentation at a local conference. The publications resulting from research, experi ence, methodological reflections or opinions on relevant issues, with collective interest, should be part of an obligation on professional and scientific society. The importance of a manuscript at various stages of evaluation, to its approval, depends on the editorial board, to maintain the frequency, which helps to maintain the prestige and opens doors for writers to see the seriousness it has. At present research has become a cornerstone of the university, institute, governmental or nongovernmental organization, being this is incor porated into the training of human resources for undergraduate and graduate students who are perpet rators of social transformation and bear fruits that are translated into events that transcend borders, which in turn is why the analysis, comment and / or citation in a journal pair, as this gives pa ttern of product quality that is being offered to society. Finally I thank the editorial staff and researchers, professionals, send their manuscripts to rely on the work being done to keep this means of dissem ination of scientific information, which has no political or economic interest, in favor of ge nerating scientific knowledge, being authors, reviewers, editors, and each contributes to th e generations that are being formed with updated information and this is true, and they generate impr ovements in quality of life of our society as a whole
Keyes, D E
Large-scale scientific computation and all of the disciplines that support and help to validate it have been placed at the focus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative of the Office of Science of the Department of Energy (DOE). The maturation of computational simulation as a tool of scientific and engineering research is underscored in the November 2004 statement of the Secretary of Energy that, ''high performance computing is the backbone of the nation's science and technology enterprise''. LLNL operates several of the world's most powerful computers--including today's single most powerful--and has undertaken some of the largest and most compute-intensive simulations ever performed. Ultrascale simulation has been identified as one of the highest priorities in DOE's facilities planning for the next two decades. However, computers at architectural extremes are notoriously difficult to use efficiently. Furthermore, each successful terascale simulation only points out the need for much better ways of interacting with the resulting avalanche of data. Advances in scientific computing research have, therefore, never been more vital to LLNL's core missions than at present. Computational science is evolving so rapidly along every one of its research fronts that to remain on the leading edge, LLNL must engage researchers at many academic centers of excellence. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) served as one of LLNL's main bridges to the academic community with a program of collaborative subcontracts, visiting faculty, student internships, workshops, and an active seminar series. The ISCR identifies researchers from the academic community for computer science and computational science
Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa
Full Text Available Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decisions. Citizen science projects can be classified into five types of models: contractual, contributory, collaborative, co-created and collegial projects. In China, public participation in science related activities has had a long history, but current contributions in citizen science are limited because of relatively low public participation, and the weaknesses in data quality control, data management and analysis. Recently, citizen science has been applied to bird watching and plant monitoring, with some positive and negative experiences. To better increase citizen science activities and enhance such contributions to academic research, improvements are urgently required in financial support, the development of project platforms, the application of new technology, and international collaboration. We believe that the enhancement of citizen science will greatly promote the development of ecological conservation, environmental monitoring and related research fields. To help with this we have established a platform for China citizen science projects (http://www.gongzhongkexue.org to promote communication and cooperation among scientists, governments, other organizations and the public.
Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sourc...
Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Okaya, D.; Kamb, L.; Maechling, P.
Web services offer scientific communities a new paradigm for sharing research codes and communicating results. While there are formal technical definitions of what constitutes a web service, for a user community such as the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we may conceptually consider a web service to be functionality provided on-demand by an application which is run on a remote computer located elsewhere on the Internet. The value of a web service is that it can (1) run a scientific code without the user needing to install and learn the intricacies of running the code; (2) provide the technical framework which allows a user's computer to talk to the remote computer which performs the service; (3) provide the computational resources to run the code; and (4) bundle several analysis steps and provide the end results in digital or (post-processed) graphical form. Within an NSF-sponsored ITR project coordinated by SCEC, we are constructing web services using architectural protocols and programming languages (e.g., Java). However, because the SCEC community has a rich pool of scientific research software (written in traditional languages such as C and FORTRAN), we also emphasize making existing scientific codes available by constructing web service frameworks which wrap around and directly run these codes. In doing so we attempt to broaden community usage of these codes. Web service wrapping of a scientific code can be done using a "web servlet" construction or by using a SOAP/WSDL-based framework. This latter approach is widely adopted in IT circles although it is subject to rapid evolution. Our wrapping framework attempts to "honor" the original codes with as little modification as is possible. For versatility we identify three methods of user access: (A) a web-based GUI (written in HTML and/or Java applets); (B) a Linux/OSX/UNIX command line "initiator" utility (shell-scriptable); and (C) direct access from within any Java application (and with the
An evaluation has been made at the laboratory for INAA in Delft of the type of analytical protocols requested for by scientific and commercial customers. Examples are given of the differences in requests from industrial research and university research and the consequences for the analysis protocol to be selected. On the basis of experience with the users and clients and customer satisfaction evaluation results, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis has been made. This analysis makes clear that many of the frequently mentioned 'advantages' of INAA do not excite the clients. One of the typical weaknesses of the technique results from lack of automation, indispensable for effective and economic operations. This may hamper small INAA groups to become interesting for large-scale and/or parallel requests, to become competitive and self-sustainable. Suggestions are given how the weaknesses and threats may be circumvented and how the strong points and opportunities may be successfully exploited. (author)
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, ...
Full Text Available The methodology of scientific research programme (MSRP proposed by Lakatos was in the line of the proposals made by Popper. MSRP were intended for constructing and evaluating research programme, which is unique among philosophers of science. Surprisingly, scientists dedicated to research in mathematics, physic or biology have not used much MRSP. This could be due to the fact that scientists are not aware of the existence of MSRP, or they find it difficult to apply to their own investigations. That is why we present firstly the main characteristics of this methodology (hard core – the group of hypothesis that are admitted by experts in the field, auxiliary hypotheses – which are intended to protect and refine the hypotheses of the hard-core, and heuristics for mending and evaluating the MSRP and, secondly, propose an example in helminthology. We think that the methodology of Lakatos, is a useful tool, but it cannot encompass the large flexibility of investigations pathways.
Burgin, Stephen Randall
Understanding the ways in which scientific knowledge develops, or the epistemology of science, is believed to be a crucial component of scientific literacy. This construct is more formally known as Nature of Science (NOS) within the science education community. The merits of three different approaches to NOS teaching and learning in the context of authentic scientific research on high school student participants' NOS ideas were explored in this study. These approaches were an explicit/reflective approach, a reflective approach and an implicit approach. The effectiveness of explicit approaches over implicit approaches has been demonstrated in school contexts, but little is known regarding the merits of these approaches when the practices that learners engage in are highly authentic in the ways in which they model the work of professional scientists. If an implicit approach yields positive impacts in authentic contexts, then which specific factors within those contexts are influential in doing so? The Authentic Experiences in Science Program (AESP), a summer program designed for high school students offered at a major research university, offered a wonderful context for an investigation of these issues. In this program, high school students worked for an extended period of time in a research scientist's laboratory on an authentic research project. Additionally, seminars offered through the program provided a venue for the implementation of the three aforementioned NOS teaching and learning approaches. An open-ended questionnaire designed to assess respondent NOS ideas was administered to 30 participants of the AESP both at the beginning and again at the end of the program. From those thirty, six case study participants were selected, and through a series of observations and interviews, influential factors impacting their NOS ideas within their specific laboratory placements were identified. Results of categorical data analysis of the questionnaires revealed that the
On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.
This paper analyzes a movement of criticism towards humanities and educational research. The ‘evidence-based scientific research’ movement proclaims itself fit to raise the educational research to scientific level and criticizes severely the scientific production in the area, on the presumption of the exemplary validity of experimental research to achieve scientific forum and conduct public policies for education on the basis of scientific evidence. The movement admits an exemplary model of t...
A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the
Ajai R. Singh
Full Text Available A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters. The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no. Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.
CERN Video Productions
Questions : 1. How do you feel as Director for Research at a moment when the LHC is ready to produce data for the first time? 2. Is 3.5 Tev per beam enough for the very large community of physicists expecting data for a year now? 3. What do you expect as a physicist and what would you wish to find at this energy? 4. Do you think the Tevatron at FERMILAB still has a chance to get interesting results before the LHC? 5. How complex is it to run the LHC and how difficult is the data taking? 6. What is the historical importance of the LHC in scientific research in general? 7. What spin offs on society can we expect from the LHC?
This research grant addresses two primary objectives: 1. Conduct of specific research tasks under the DOE Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP), and 2. Provision of scientific coordination for the Atmospheric Chemistry Program. In summary, the project is progressing essentially as expected, with some minor exceptions. Higher than anticipated demands within Objective 2, associated primarily with the ACP Ozone Project and the recompetition of the National Laboratories protion of ACP, have resulted in a somewhat higher proportionate emphasis on the coordination activities associated with this objective. Also, the immediate need for pre-campaign modeling of the North Pacific has resulted in an acceleration of the Pacific modeling task relative to other tasks, particularly the Atlantic modeling task. Modeling activities in general have been delayed somewhat because of the noted Objective 2 demands and because of the extended time that was necessary to complete financial agreements for this grant.
.... Regenerative Medicine......... February 26-27, Paralyzed Veterans of 2013. America. Career Development Award... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting.... App. 2, that the subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific...
Keyes, D E; McGraw, J R; Bodtker, L K
The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is jointly administered by the Computing Applications and Research Department (CAR) and the University Relations Program (URP), and this joint relationship expresses its mission. An extensively externally networked ISCR cost-effectively expands the level and scope of national computational science expertise available to the Laboratory through CAR. The URP, with its infrastructure for managing six institutes and numerous educational programs at LLNL, assumes much of the logistical burden that is unavoidable in bridging the Laboratory's internal computational research environment with that of the academic community. As large-scale simulations on the parallel platforms of DOE's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) become increasingly important to the overall mission of LLNL, the role of the ISCR expands in importance, accordingly. Relying primarily on non-permanent staffing, the ISCR complements Laboratory research in areas of the computer and information sciences that are needed at the frontier of Laboratory missions. The ISCR strives to be the ''eyes and ears'' of the Laboratory in the computer and information sciences, in keeping the Laboratory aware of and connected to important external advances. It also attempts to be ''feet and hands, in carrying those advances into the Laboratory and incorporating them into practice. In addition to conducting research, the ISCR provides continuing education opportunities to Laboratory personnel, in the form of on-site workshops taught by experts on novel software or hardware technologies. The ISCR also seeks to influence the research community external to the Laboratory to pursue Laboratory-related interests and to train the workforce that will be required by the Laboratory. Part of the performance of this function is interpreting to the external community appropriate (unclassified
Scientific committee 83 was appointed to identify research needs for radiation protection in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions requires that follows on a Presidential inquiry to the Council asking it to identify critical questions in research including laboratory and epidemiologic research related to radiation protection and requiring resolution at this time. The answers overwhelmingly identified low dose, low dose rate, LET, and radiation risk being the most important. Aspects of the problems that were singled out had to do with fractionation and protraction, shape of the dose response curve, molecular mechanism, decrement in risk with time as revealed by epidemiologic study, and the reality of hormesis. Against this background, the Committee formulated its scope and an outline of this report, as well as the time table and the mechanism to react with its consultant s who will also be asked to serve as its critical reviewers. The scope of the Committee was taken to be the identification of areas for additional research to improve the bases for making recommendations for protection against ionizing radiation. This paper has five parts, one dealing with sources and environmental transport, one with dosimetry and measurement, one with biologic consequences, epidemiology and risk estimates and one with public perception and policy
In the construction of software test platforms in scientific research institutes, the well-developed advanced software test concepts and instruments in other countries shall be incorporated. Based on the real conditions of the institutes, the management procedures for software test, evaluation specifications and implementation regulations shall be developed, and the construction of work team and technology innovation shall be enhanced, thus to establish the software test platform into a specialized service platform. Institutional system shall be established for the software test platform, to allow it plays important roles in the information construction. For example, it is compulsory that no computer software is allowed to run online unless it has pass-ed the test on the platform. (authors)
Love, James W.
The racial bias embedded in scientific inquiry is a seldom explored topic; however, this project employed a qualitative coding methodology to develop themes reflective of racism in three areas of scientific inquiry: Biomedical, Behavioral, and Social. The results of this analysis reveal racial hierarchy creation remains an ever-present feature of scientific inquiry, although taking a more subtle and hidden form. This racism is primarily evident through the use of race as an etiological vari...
van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C
The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169
Stapleton, M.; Carpenter, L.
BACKGROUND International Polar Year, which was launched in March 2007, is an international program of coordinated, interdisciplinary scientific research on Earth's polar regions. The northern regions of the eight Arctic States (Canada, Alaska (USA), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland. Iceland and Greenland (Denmark) have significant indigenous populations. The circumpolar Arctic is one of the least technologically connected regions in the world, although Canada and others have been pioneers in developing and suing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in remote areas. The people living in this vast geographic area have been moving toward taking their rightful place in the global information society, but are dependent on the outreach and cooperation of larger mainstream societies. The dominant medium of communication is radio, which is flexible in accommodating multiple cultures, languages, and factors of time and distance. The addition of newer technologies such as streaming on the Internet can increase access and content for all communities of interest, north and south. The Arctic Circle of Indigenous Communicators (ACIC) is an independent association of professional Northern indigenous media workers in the print, radio, television, film and Internet industries. ACIC advocates the development of all forms of communication in circumpolar North areas. It is international in scope. Members are literate in English, French, Russian and many indigenous languages. ACIC has proposed the establishment of a headquarters for monitoring IPY projects are in each area, and the use of community radio broadcasters to collect and disseminate information about IPY. The cooperation of Team IPY at the University of Colorado, Arctic Net at Laval University, and others, is being developed. ACIC is committed to making scientific knowledge gained in IPY accessible to those most affected - residents of the Arctic. ABSTRACT The meeting of the American Geophysical Union will be held
Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C.; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M.
We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving “conflict” in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945–2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed—such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957–1971 where ideas didn’t persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped
Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M
We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving "conflict" in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945-2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed-such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957-1971 where ideas didn't persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped shape the
Full Text Available There is a potential for improving the scientific research environment in Libya. One reason to be optimistic about the prospects of the future of science in Libya is the number of postgraduate students in all disciplines who are training in European and North American Universities. According to statistics of the Higher Education Authorities in Libya, there are approximately 3000 Libyan students enrolled in postgraduate studies in British universities alone and almost half of this number in North America . However, research output of Libyan universities’ academic staff members is still very low. For example, a recent survey of published medical literature revealed that the average annual production rate at the Al-Fateh Medical University is 1.4 article/100 academic staff . In my opinion, four major reasons may explain the problems facing scientific research in Arab countries in general and in Libya in particular: 1 Brain Drain 2 Lack of funding 3 Lack of scientific infrastructure and incompetent supportive staff, and 4 Teaching overload. I will discuss the role that the new generation of Libyan researchers* could play to advance the scientific research output in Libya.
Danka, Elizabeth S; Malpede, Brian M
High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys. PMID:26753027
Coughlin, Steven S.; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus
The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we ar...
Food chains are important contributors to the radiological dose of populations exposed to radionuclides released from the nuclear fuel cycle. A good understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and a profound insight in the transfer mechanisms of radioisotopes through the ecosystem component is required in order to assess radiological exposure through the diet, to select appropriate remedial action to limit the contamination levels in food, and to restore contaminated sites. This research project aims to evaluate the mechanisms and dynamics of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all circumstances affecting the transfer parameters and their variability. The scientific methodology consists of laboratory and field experiments. The results of the research can contribute to the selection of appropriate countermeasures for the reduction of the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain. The feasibility and effectiveness of these countermeasures are experimentally tested. Another important objective is to provide information to the authorities, enabling to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases. The main achievements for 1997 are given.
Document available in extended abstract form only. The Research and Development Division must manage, secure and reliable manner, a large number of data from scientific disciplines and diverse means of acquisition (observations, measurements, experiments, etc.). This management is particularly important for the Underground research Laboratory, the source of many recording continuous measurements. Thus, from its conception, Andra has implemented two management tools of scientific information, the 'Acquisition System and Data Management' [SAGD] and GEO database with its associated applications. Beyond its own needs, Andra wants to share its achievements with the scientific community, and it therefore provides the data stored in its databases or samples of rock or water when they are available. Acquisition and Data Management (SAGD) This system manages data from sensors installed at several sites. Some sites are on the surface (piezometric, atmospheric and environmental stations), the other are in the Underground Research Laboratory. This system also incorporates data from experiments in which Andra participates in Mont Terri Laboratory in Switzerland. S.A.G.D fulfils these objectives by: - Make available in real time on a single system, with scientists from Andra but also different partners or providers who need it, all experimental data from measurement points - Displaying the recorded data on temporal windows and specific time step, - Allowing remote control of the experimentations, - Ensuring the traceability of all recorded information, - Ensuring data storage in a data base. S.A.G.D has been deployed in the first experimental drift at -445 m in November 2004. It was subsequently extended to the underground Mont Terri laboratory in Switzerland in 2005, to the entire surface logging network of the Meuse / Haute-Marne Center in 2008 and to the environmental network in 2011. All information is acquired, stored and manage by a software called Geoscope. This software
This document reports the general activities results of technical and scientific research production of the Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Researches, IPEN, Brazil, during the year of 1997-1999, listing journal articles, scientific events (complete texts, communications, abstracts and panels), thesis and dissertations, books, technical and scientific reports
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of a proposed project for technical quality and...
This paper firstly introduced theoretical background of the Activity-Based Costing(ABC). Then,it analyzed necessity,extension resistance and difficulty of ABC approach in agri-scientific research institutions. Finally,it came up with some recommendations for scientifically learning and steadily promoting ABC method in agri-scientific research field.
... purpose of this order is to remove these limitations on scientific inquiry, to expand NIH support for the... Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential... Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President by the...
This paper firstly introduced theoretical background of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC). Then, it analyzed necessity, extension resistance and difficulty of ABC approach in agri-scientific research institutions. Finally, it came up with some recommendations for scientifically learning and steadily promoting ABC method in agri-scientific research field.
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892
Wang, Lipeng; Li, Mingqiu
Currently, it has become a fundamental goal for the engineering major to cultivate high-quality engineering technicians with innovation ability in scientific research which is an important academic ability necessary for them. This paper mainly explores the development of comprehensive and designing experiments in automation based on scientific…
Jian Zhang; Shengbin Chen; Bin Chen; Yanjun Du; Xiaolei Huang; Xubin Pan; Qiang Zhang
Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decision...
" The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has implemented a Zambeel Aztera storage system and software to accelerate the productivity of scientists running high performance scientific simulations and computations" (1 page).
Many academics have attempted to resolve the demarcation problem through boundary work. Due to this problem, it is difficult to distinguish between Science and Non-Science. Even some reasoned Science, such as Psychology, are accused of being unscientific. This investigation looks at how the designated Pseudoscience of Psychical research constructs its research as scientific when widely believed to investigate “non-science”. By analysing this construction through discourse analysis, a better u...
Borden, K. A.; Whyte, L. F.; Smith, A.; Tarnoff, A.; Schmitt, H.
Increasingly scientists and researchers from a multitude of disciplines are finding themselves inundated with more data than they could possibly interpret in a lifetime. Computers can be used entirely or partially for some data analysis; but there are some tasks that are currently best suited to human eyes, ears and brains. Zooniverse (www.zooniverse.org) invites members of the public to help researchers analyze and interpret data. To date, hundreds of thousands of volunteers have been involved in classifying images, interpreting sounds and transcribing texts. Zooniverse citizen scientists are providing valuable analyses across a variety of fields, from the hunt for exoplanets in Planet Hunters (planethunters.org) to the transcription of Greek papyri in Ancient Lives (ancientlives.org). Multiple academic publications have resulted from the combined efforts of the Zooniverse community and science teams demonstrating that citizen science is more than ever becoming a well-established method of doing research. Unlike most research projects the data, analysis and interactions with the science teams have an established and visible online presence through the project website and related discussion sites and blogs. These in themselves provide a valuable classroom resource, an opportunity for free and easy access to cutting edge scientific research. Anecdotal evidence exists that teacher can and already do use Zooniverse projects. By providing a rich and varied scaffolding to accompany the Zooniverse projects the opportunity exists for bringing citizen scientists to a wider classroom audience. An audience that may include non-specialist teachers, who require additional support to deliver challenging content, or time strapped educators who haven't the time to develop their own accompanying resources to weave Zooniverse projects into their lessons. During the session we will discuss the recent Zooniverse projects specifically designed to support and promote classroom adoption
Nerina Sarthou; Fernando Piñero; José Araya
This article explores the differences in some aspects of scientific investigation and communication between researchers of different disciplinary traditions at a university in Argentina. Based on an analysis of guidelines for research groups engaged in scientific research and publications, we present the trends in each discipline and introduce a reflection on the indicators used for assessing research activity
The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high β), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. The authors have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with βN H98y ∼ 6 for 5 τE (∼1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. They have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment
The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high β), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. We have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with βN H98y ∼ 6 for 5 τE (∼ 1s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. We have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment. (author)
The DIII-D research program is aimed at developing the scientific basis for advanced modes of operation which can enhance the commercial attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Features that improve the attractiveness of the tokamak as a fusion power plant include: high power density (which demands high β), high ignition margin (high energy confinement time), and steady state operation with low recirculating power (high bootstrap fraction), as well as adequate divertor heat removal, particle and impurity control. This set of requirements emphasizes that the approach to improved performance must be an integrated approach, optimizing the plasma from the core, through the plasma edge and into the divertor. We have produced high performance ELMing H-mode plasmas with βN H98y ∼ 6 for 5 τE (∼1 s) and demonstrated that core transport barriers can be sustained for the length of the 5-s neutral beam pulse in L-mode plasmas. We have demonstrated off-axis electron cyclotron current drive for the first time in a tokamak, discovering an efficiency above theoretical expectations. Edge stability studies have shown that the H-mode edge pressure gradient is not limited by ballooning modes; the self-consistent bootstrap provides second stable regime access. Divertor experiments have provided a new understanding of convection and recombination in radiative divertors and have produced enhanced divertor radiation with scrape off layer plasma flows and impurity enrichment. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate of Imre Lakatos' MSRP (Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Presenting the methodology which is based on Popperian Refutationism, Lakatos intended to overcome Pluralism (, Relativism and Skepticism and distinguishes the best theory (/program in science. The question is that did the lakatos' secondary change in the form and content of MSRP -against some historical facts and criticisms- make some serious deficiencies in his methodology? The answer to this question is positive. One of Lakatos' changes in MSRP is to resort to a new concept of "rationality". Presenting a logical analysis, the paper shows that this change causes MSRP to be unable to distinguish the best program among others. Furthermore he gives a new definition of the term 'methodology'. This definition, in its turn, makes MSRP main task to be inactive.Showing the irreparable harms Lakatos' changes produce in MSRP, the paper shows that these changes not only cannot get rid of the deficiencies therein, but it is also unable to meet lakatos' original purpose for MSRP.
Purohit, Sumit; Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; West, Patrick; Lee, Benno; Stephan, Eric G.; Fox, Peter
Challenges that make it difficult to find, share, and combine published data, such as data heterogeneity and resource discovery, have led to increased adoption of semantic data standards and data publishing technologies. To make data more accessible, interconnected and discoverable, some domains are being encouraged to publish their data as Linked Data. Consequently, this trend greatly increases the amount of data that semantic web tools are required to process, store, and interconnect. In attempting to process and manipulate large data sets, tools–ranging from simple text editors to modern triplestores– eventually breakdown upon reaching undefined thresholds. This paper offers a systematic approach that data publishers can use to categorize suitable tools to meet their data publishing needs. We present a real-world use case, the Resource Discovery for Extreme Scale Collaboration (RDESC), which features a scientific dataset(maximum size of 1.4 billion triples) used to evaluate a toolbox for data publishing in climate research. This paper also introduces a semantic data publishing software suite developed for the RDESC project.
Pishchik Alexander; Bobrova Olga
The article aims to present the concept of the eight genuses activities. This concept was developed by scientific methodological school of Nizhny Novgorod. The concept was developed in the framework of the systemic-activity approach. Eight genuses of activity - economic, ecological, pedagogical, managerial, scientific, artistic, medical, sports.
Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.
The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.
The long-term vision of the Fusion Collaboratory described in this paper is to transform fusion research and accelerate scientific understanding and innovation so as to revolutionize the design of a fusion energy source. The Collaboratory will create and deploy collaborative software tools that will enable more efficient utilization of existing experimental facilities and more effective integration of experiment, theory, and modeling. The computer science research necessary to create the Collaboratory is centered on three activities: security, remote and distributed computing, and scientific visualization. It is anticipated that the presently envisioned Fusion Collaboratory software tools will require 3 years to complete
Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik
How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable
Víctor Patricio Díaz-Narváez; Aracelis Calzadilla Núñez
The aim of this paper is to describe different types of useful research and its importance in the formative research, research training and research itself in health sciences. It is stated that one of the sources of these rejections could be because the authors did not resolve correctly, from a methodological point of view, the concatenation between the research types, research designs, the type of problems inherent to these types and research designs; objectives and methods should be propose...
King, R. D.
Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The reuse of scientific knowledge obtained from one investigation in another investigation is basic to the advance of science. Scientific investigations should therefore be recorded in ways that promote the reuse of the knowledge ...
Baier, Eric; Dupraz, Laure
How have university institutions generally tackled the fight against scientific fraud? We intend to throw light on the very process of public disclosure of scientific fraud, as it has transformed in the last 30 years within the framework of scientific research institutions. By focusing our analysis on the "denunciation process", we intend to refer…
Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more…
... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis... scientific and medical literature and information concerning the use of non-standardized allergenic extracts... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...
van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to…
Xiaoqiang; CHU; Hanchun; QIN; Guoyan; SHAN; Peiqun; LIN; Guixiu; HUANG
Taking Environment and Plant Protection Institute in Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences as an example,it summarized major experience and practice in management of scientific research projects from strengthening project database,enhancing project planning,reinforcing scientific research management team construction,bringing into play functions of academies and institutes,and improving management system. It analyzed existing problems and came up with recommendations from strengthening project process management,improving management team quality,and improving incentive mechanism,in the hope of providing reference for scientific research project management in agricultural scientific research institutes.
There is a potential for improving the scientific research environment in Libya. One reason to be optimistic about the prospects of the future of science in Libya is the number of postgraduate students in all disciplines who are training in European and North American Universities. According to statistics of the Higher Education Authorities in Libya, there are approximately 3000 Libyan students enrolled in postgraduate studies in British universities alone and almost half of this number in No...
As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are
... scientific research? 280.21 Section 280.21 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a... you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities. (b) Consult and coordinate your...
Jardine, L J
ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available
ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization
The first CPTAC Public Scientific Symposium was recently held on November 13, 2013 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. The symposium brought together a record number of registrants, 450 scientists, who shared and discussed novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data.
Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad; Mahyar Ahmadpour-B
International Cardiovascular Research Journal has been recently indexed in PubMed. In order to evaluate the role of this journal in global and international scientific growth, the scientific growth of cardiovascular researches in the past 13 years has been evaluated. In this way, one can compare the role of this journal in Iran and Iran’s role in the global scientific growth rate. Each year, new medical inventions and discoveries all around the world have major influences on increase of p...
Leite, Fernando César Lima; Bertin, Patrícia Rocha Bello; Pereira, Fernando do Amaral
This paper presents a methodological model for the establishment of Open Access to scientific information at Embrapa, as a strategy for scientific information and knowledge management. The model consists of elements that speed up scientific communication processes and allow for the research output management. The aim is to provide the necessary mechanisms to capture, store, organize, preserve and widely disseminate the scientific knowledge produced by Embrapa and by the scientific community i...
Coughlin, Steven S; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus
The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one's actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity. PMID:24532867
This article explores research issues and methods of textbook research. Drawing on literatures and the author’s own work in the area of mathematics textbook research, it conceptualizes textbooks as an intermediate variable in the context of education and hence defines textbook research as disciplined inquiry into issues about textbooks and the relationships between textbooks and other factors in education. Furthermore, it argues that to further advance the field of textbook research, research...
CHU, Xiaoqiang; QIN, Hanchun; SHAN, Guoyan; LIN, Peiqun; HUANG, Guixiu
Taking Environment and Plant Protection Institute in Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences as an example, it summarized major experience and practice in management of scientific research projects from strengthening project database, enhancing project planning, reinforcing scientific research management team construction, bringing into play functions of academies and institutes, and improving management system. It analyzed existing problems and came up with recommendations from str...
As part of my assignment connected with the Scientific and Technical Photography & Lab (STPL) at the NASA Langley Research Center I conducted a series of interviews and observed the day to day operations of the STPL with the ultimate objective of becoming exposed first hand to a scientific and technical photo/imaging department for which my school prepares its graduates. I was also asked to share my observations with the staff in order that these comments and observations might assist the STPL to better serve its customers. Meetings with several individuals responsible for various wind tunnels and with a group that provides photo-optical instrumentation services at the Center gave me an overview of the services provided by the Lab and possible areas for development. In summary form these are some of the observations that resulted from the interviews and daily contact with the STPL facility. (1) The STPL is perceived as a valuable and almost indispensable service group within the organization. This comment was invariably made by everyone. Everyone also seemed to support the idea that the STPL continue to provide its current level of service and quality. (2) The STPL generally is not perceived to be a highly technically oriented group but rather as a provider of high quality photographic illustration and documentation services. In spite of the importance and high marks assigned to the STPL there are several observations that merit consideration and evaluation for possible inclusion into the STPL's scope of expertise and future operating practices. (1) While the care and concern for artistic rendition of subjects is seen as laudable and sometimes valuable, the time that this often requires is seen as interfering with keeping the tunnels operating at maximum productivity. Tunnel managers would like to shorten down-time due to photography, have services available during evening hours and on short notice. It may be of interest to the STPL that tunnel managers are
Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.
Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be taught in and out of the science classroom. We then set out to identify a research agenda that will help make scientific media education a key content area in both formal and informal science learning environments. In particular, we identified research avenues that will allow us to better understand: (1) limitations in current practices of scientific media education; (2) what scientific media education should look like in the future; and (3) ways we might overcome barriers to implementing a new and improved scientific media education.
Ionizing radiation poses a significant risk to humans living and working in space. The major sources of radiation are solar disturbances and galactic cosmic rays. The components of this radiation are energetic charged particles, protons, as well as fully ionized nuclei of all elements. The biological effects of these particles cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner from available data on x-rays and gamma-rays. A radiation protection program that meets the needs of spacefaring nations must have a solid scientific basis, capable not only of predicting biological effects, but also of making reliable estimates of the uncertainty in these predictions. A strategy leading to such predictions is proposed, and scientific requirements arising from this strategy are discussed.
Газуда, Леся Михайлівна
The scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of convergence theories are analyzed and summarized in the article. Feasibility of updating process of territorial convergence of economic systems with differential features of development is outlined. It is proved a necessity of developing a promising concept for the development of rural border areas, which will promote sustainable development based on the consideration of socio-economic, natural and environmental characteristics of the ...
Nielson, Gregory M.; Brunet Crosa, Pere; Gross, Markus; Hagen, Hans; Klimenko, S.V.
This article summarizes some topics of modeling as they impinge on the future development of scientific data visualization. The benefits from visualization techniques in analyzing data are well established, but to build on these pioneering efforts, one must recognize modeling as a distinct structural component in the larger context of visualization and problem-solving systems. Volume modeling is the entry way to this arena of future development, and model-based rendering describes how scienti...
Lasthiotakis, Helen; Sigurdson, Kristjan; Sá, Creso M.
International collaboration is a rapidly growing aspect of university research and a priority of research funding agencies. This article investigates the rationales that underlie Canadian federal research councils' support of international research collaborations. Such support has deep roots in Canadian science and technology policy but has…
The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO2 laser light on target. (author)
Plo Alastrué, Ramón
This volume examines the role of English in academic and research settings in Europe and provides recommendations on the challenges posed by the dominance of English over national languages as languages of science and research dissemination; the need for language support for academics that need to disseminate their research in English; and the effect of past and present language policies.
Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R
In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research. PMID:22249427
Full Text Available In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students’ concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students’ opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students’ difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.
Xingquan; ZOU; Jia; ZHANG; Chengxing; YAN; Mingjing; QING
The existing performance salary system has several grades in the same job title. When the number of workers qualified for promotion is more than the target,quantitative grading is usually adopted to determine salary promotion personnel. Scientific,fair and reasonable grading content and standard directly concern income and remuneration of scientific researchers,and also concern recognition and respect degree of contribution made by scientific researchers. Therefore,quantitative grading standard is of the utmost importance to keeping stability,arousing enthusiasm and creativity of scientific researchers,and promoting smooth development of scientific research. Achievements awarded,papers published and project research can reflect scientific research level,ability and working performance of agricultural scientific researchers. This paper takes these three items as examples,analyzes,discusses and compares the establishment and evaluation of quantitative grading standard. It states that " one yardstick" and " one vote veto system" should be adhered to when evaluating using the quantitative grading standard. It is expected to provide reference for organizations of the same trade in establishing quantitative grading standard and conducting evaluation.
Jang, J P K
This study was investigated to understand the in-depth features and processes of physicists' scientific inquiries. At first, research motives were investigated by interviewing six physicists who were prominent worldwide. As a result, three main types - incompleteness, discovery, and conflict - and nine subtypes of research motivation, were identified. Six additional background factors were found which might affect the design and start of research. Based on these findings, implications for teaching scientific inquiries to students were discussed.
E. L. Nasonov
Full Text Available Authors report new recommendations of All-Russian Public Organization «Association of Rheumatologists of Russia» (ARR on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which adapts contemporary concept accepted in the respective field of pharmacotherapy known as «Treat to Target». According to it, the main objective of RA pharmacotherapy is a remission (or low disease activity. To achieve it, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD should be administered to all RA patients as early as possible, with efficacy monitoring and therapy correction according to the disease activity. Special attention has been paid to the use of methotrexate (MTX as«the gold standard» of RA pharmacotherapy and the key component of «Treat to Target» strategy. Early MTX administration (including subcutaneous injections should become an obligatory component of RA treatment at all stages of the disease. If MTX is not efficient or not well tolerated (including subcutaneous form of the drug as monotherapy or combined with conventional DMARD, biological agents should be used. Those include TNFα inhibitors, antagonist of interleukin-6 receptor (Tocilizumab, anti-B-cell drugs (Rituximab and agents blocking T-cell activation (Abatacept. Tofacitinib therapy (JAK inhibitor is indicated in patients who are resistant to conventional DMARDs and biologics. All biologics and Tofacitinib are more effective in combination with MTX (or other DMARD.
E. L. Nasonov
Full Text Available Authors report new recommendations of All-Russian Public Organization «Association of Rheumatologists of Russia» (ARR on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which adapts contemporary concept accepted in the respective field of pharmacotherapy known as «Treat to Target». According to it, the main objective of RA pharmacotherapy is a remission (or low disease activity. To achieve it, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD should be administered to all RA patients as early as possible, with efficacy monitoring and therapy correction according to the disease activity. Special attention has been paid to the use of methotrexate (MTX as «the gold standard» of RA pharmacotherapy and the key component of «Treat to Target» strategy. Early MTX administration (including subcutaneous injections should become an obligatory component of RA treatment at all stages of the disease. If MTX is not efficient or not well tolerated (including subcutaneous form of the drug as monotherapy or combined with conventional DMARD, biological agents should be used. Those include TNFα inhibitors, antagonist of interleukin-6 receptor (Tocilizumab, anti-B-cell drugs (Rituximab and agents blocking T-cell activation (Abatacept. Tofacitinib therapy (JAK inhibitor is indicated in patients who are resistant to conventional DMARDs and biologics. All biologics and Tofacitinib are more effective in combination with MTX (or other DMARD.
María Eugenia Salvai
The purpose of the research was, after searching in the catalogues of all Universidad Nacional de Córdoba´s libraries, analyze the state of gender, feminism and women studies’ research elaborated from the university itself between years 2000 and 2009. The hypothesis planted that the documents are no access. this paper analyze the possible causes that make women studies, gender and feminism´s research are invisibilized.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Provide a collaborative research environment to streamline software delivery and execution process. Integrate cloud computing with NASA science algorithms Improve...
Gauffriau, Marianne; Larsen, P.O.; Maye, I.;
The literature on publication counting demonstrates the use of various terminologies and methods. In many scientific publications, no information at all is given about the counting methods used. There is a lack of knowledge and agreement about the sort of information provided by the various methods......, about the theoretical and technical limitations for the different methods and about the size of the differences obtained by using various methods. The need for precise definitions and terminology has been expressed repeatedly but with no success. Counting methods for publications are defined and...... analysed with the use of set and measure theory. The analysis depends on definitions of basic units for analysis (three chosen for examination), objects of study (three chosen for examination) and score functions (five chosen for examination). The score functions define five classes of counting methods...
A. J. Andersson
Full Text Available In recent years, ocean acidification has gained continuously increasing attention from scientists and a number of stakeholders and has raised serious concerns about its effects on marine organisms and ecosystems. With the increase in interest, funding resources, and the number of scientific investigations focusing on this environmental problem, increasing amounts of data and results have been produced, and a progressively growing and more rigorous understanding of this problem has begun to develop. Nevertheless, there are still a number of scientific debates, and in some cases misconceptions, that keep reoccurring at a number of forums in various contexts. In this article, we revisit four of these topics that we think require further thoughtful consideration including: (1 surface seawater CO2 chemistry in shallow water coastal areas, (2 experimental manipulation of marine systems using CO2 gas or by acid addition, (3 net versus gross calcification and dissolution, and (4 CaCO3 mineral dissolution and seawater buffering. As a summation of these topics, we emphasize that: (1 many coastal environments experience seawater pCO2 that is significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere and is strongly linked to biological processes; (2 addition of acid, base or CO2 gas to seawater can all be useful techniques to manipulate seawater chemistry in ocean acidification experiments; (3 estimates of calcification or CaCO3 dissolution based on present techniques are measuring the net of gross calcification and dissolution; and (4 dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases will not produce sufficient alkalinity to buffer the pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow water environments on timescales of decades to hundreds of years to the extent that any potential negative effects on marine calcifiers will be avoided.
Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn; Jeppesen, Jacob
opportunities for combination of knowledge and coordination costs. The way specific collaborative configurations strike this trade-offs between these opportunities and costs have notable effects on research performance. The findings of the paper show that i.) scientists combining affiliations to both...... the facility and to an external university of research laboratory (secondments) out-perform all other types of institutional affiliations. ii.) Teams spanning multiple institutional types have the lowest performance. This is the case whether or not teams include resident scientists from Oak Ridge National...... Laboratories. iii.). Knowledge integration at the level of individual scientists clearly outperforms team level integration. iv.) Team diversity is associated with stronger performance in basic research than in applied research. Implications for the organisation of research collaboration of LSRFs...
Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn
One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…
Algadheeb, Nourah A.; Almeqren, Monira A.
The present study aimed to identify the scientific research obstacles facing faculty members in the College of Education at Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University (PNU) and to determine the differences in the obstacles according to age, academic rank, scientific specialty, marital status, number of completed studies, and time since the last…
Magnussen, Rikke; Hansen, Sidse Damgaard; Planke, Tilo; Sherson, Jacob Friis
This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if…
Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.
Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be…
Jensen, Jakob D.
News reports of scientific research are rarely hedged; in other words, the reports do not contain caveats, limitations, or other indicators of scientific uncertainty. Some have suggested that hedging may influence news consumers' perceptions of scientists' and journalists' credibility (perceptions that may be related to support for scientific…
A study of 15 popular scientific journal articles and 15 specialist medical-research articles indicates that in medical discourse hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by epistemic devices, can be applied in less specialized English- for-Special-Purposes (ESP) texts such as popular scientific articles, but in different…
Chen, Yanyu; Ma, Zilong; Shi, Xueru
Performance management is an effective means of promoting agricultural research institutes to improve the innovation capability, establish scientific performance management process is the guarantee for the performance management being successfully carried out. This paper discusses the establishment of performance management organization, developing performance plans mission objectives, establishing a scientific performance evaluation index system, the development of assessment criteria and sc...
Through discussing the definition of scientific research collaboration, the motivations of scientific research collaboration, the relationship between scientific research collaboration and co-authorship, the relationship between scientific research collaboration and knowledge communication, the paper proposes 7 characteristic of scientific research collaboration and summarize it＇ s definition and 5 collaborative motivations, as well as analyzes the advantages and shortcomings in collaboration research through co-authorship meth- od. The difference and linkage between scientific research collaboration and knowledge communication are also pointed. The paper intends to improve the understanding of basic concepts and theories about scientific research collaboration and make up the shortcomings of theory research in the field of scientific research collaboration.%探讨科研合作的定义、科研合作的动机、科研合作与合著的关系、科研合作与知识交流的关系等4个方面的问题。指出科研合作的七大特征，提出其定义，归纳其5类主要合作动机，辩证地分析利用合著论文研究科研合作的优势和不足以及科研合作与知识交流的区别和联系，以期能够增进对科研合作基本概念和基础理论的认识和理解，弥补科研合作领域在基础理论研究方面的不足。
The increased need of NAA laboratories to find beneficiaries and external funding to ensure the exploration costs requires a new view on the organization of the research and development. A higher degree of professionalism may be attained via introduction of quality management principles, e.g., via a project management of the research task. Guidance documents have been developed for this, and are being discussed. Examples are given of the use of quality- and project-management in the research activities of the NAA laboratory in Delft. Subjects discussed are internal training and qualification, planning, sources of error and documentation. (author)
Ten articles about the effects of gamma radiation or neutron radiation on human or animal cells are studied here. Effects of radiation, recoveries, research on radioprotective substances are examined in these articles. (N.C.)
The report abstracted contains a list of works published in 1984. Papers not in print yet are listed separately. Patent entries take account of all patent rights granted or published in 1984, i.e. patents or patent specifications. The list of publications is classified by institutes. The project category lists but the respective reports and studies carried out and published by members of the project staff concerned. Also listed are publications related to research and development projects of the 'product engineering project' (PFT/Projekt 'Fertigungstechnik'). With different companies and institutes cooperating, PFT is sponsored by Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe GmbH. The latter is also responsible for printing above publications. Moreover the list contains the publications of a branch of the Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung which is located on the KfK-premises. The final chapter of the list summarizes publications dealing with guest-experiments and research at Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. (orig./PW)
Martin, B.R.; Minchin, N.; Skea, J.; Peacock, T.; Crouch, D.; Irvine, J.
The review aims to demonstrate that formal methods of evaluating research performance can play a valuable role in overcoming some of the problems with decision-making in basic science based on peer review. An approach which combines a number of research output indicators, including bibliometric measures derived from publication and citation analysis, is first outlined and then applied in a case study of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, over the period 1961-1984.
Huesmann, L. Rowell
Since the early 1960s research evidence has been accumulating that suggests that exposure to violence in television, movies, video games, cell phones, and on the internet increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In the current review this research evidence is critically assessed, and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental eff...
Oramis Sosa Palacios
Full Text Available The training of students enrolled in the Medical Sciences graduate program (residents includes research activities such as research projects, the final paper of the specialty, scientific events and scientific publications. Knowledge gaps in residents lead to problems seen in both the poor quality of the research project and the final paper of the specialty and in the lack of autonomy to make decisions, affecting their overall training. An electronic book aimed at residents was created for knowledge management in scientific research. The first version was designed using the Crheasoft 2.0 program. It consists of: presentation, start modules, list of topics and complementary information. It comprises condensed knowledge on: research management, research methodology, statistics, information management, computer science, linguistics and language. This e-book contributes to the execution of research activities and promotes learning independence.
Hendricks, Vincent Fella
Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt that...
Jesús de Benito-Castanedo
Full Text Available This article embodies an introduction to the “open access” movement and the main features and tools derived from it. In addition, it raises awareness about the importance of access to research and to scientific knowledge.
Dong Weiliang; Wang Weiyuan
@@ The scientific and technological development of CNOOC Limited entered a new stage during the Tenth Five-Year Plan period. High-tech researches in the company have catalyzed the technological innovation of the offshore petroleum industry.
... Career Development Award Program.... August 6, 2013........ VHA National Conference Center........... VHA National Conference Center. Career Development Award Program.... August 8, 2013........ VHA... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of...
George, Brandon J; Beasley, T Mark; Brown, Andrew W; Dawson, John; Dimova, Rositsa; Divers, Jasmin; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Heo, Moonseong; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Keith, Scott W; Kim, Mimi Y; Li, Peng; Mehta, Tapan; Oakes, J Michael; Skinner, Asheley; Stuart, Elizabeth; Allison, David B
This review identifies 10 common errors and problems in the statistical analysis, design, interpretation, and reporting of obesity research and discuss how they can be avoided. The 10 topics are: 1) misinterpretation of statistical significance, 2) inappropriate testing against baseline values, 3) excessive and undisclosed multiple testing and "P-value hacking," 4) mishandling of clustering in cluster randomized trials, 5) misconceptions about nonparametric tests, 6) mishandling of missing data, 7) miscalculation of effect sizes, 8) ignoring regression to the mean, 9) ignoring confirmation bias, and 10) insufficient statistical reporting. It is hoped that discussion of these errors can improve the quality of obesity research by helping researchers to implement proper statistical practice and to know when to seek the help of a statistician. PMID:27028280
Rusnak, A J; Chudley, A E
Stem cell research has generated intense excitement, awareness, and debate. Events in the 2005-2006 saw the rise and fall of a South Korean scientist who had claimed to be the first to clone a human embryonic stem cell line. From celebration of the potential use of stem cells in the treatment of human disease to disciplinary action taken against the disgraced scientists, the drama has unfolded throughout the world media. Prompted by an image of therapeutic cloning presented on a South Korean stamp, a brief review of stem cell research and the events of the Woo-suk Hwang scandal are discussed. PMID:16965321
Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J. P.; Hallau, K.; Asplund, S. E.; Cobb, W. H.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.
Scientific discoveries, large and small, are constantly being made. Whether it is the discovery of a new species or a new comet, it is a challenge to keep up. The media provide some assistance in getting the word out about the discoveries, but not the details or the challenges of the discovery. Professional development is essential for science educators to keep them abreast of the fascinating discoveries that are occurring. The problem is that not every educator has the opportunity to attend a workshop on the most recent findings. NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Education and Public Outreach program has offered a series of multi-site professional development workshops that have taken place at four physical locations sites: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Arizona, as well as over the internet. All sites were linked via the Digital Learning Network, on which scientists and educator specialists shared information about their missions and activities. Participants interacted with speakers across the country to learn about Discovery and New Frontiers class missions. The third such annual workshop without walls, 'Challenge of Discovery,' was held on 9 April 2013. Educators from across the country delved into the stories behind some amazing NASA missions, from conception to science results. They learned how scientists, engineers, and mission operators collaborate to meet the challenges of complex missions to assure that science goals are met. As an example of science and engineering coming together, an Instrument Scientist and a Payload Operations Manager from the MESSENGER mission discussed the steps needed to observe Mercury's north polar region, gather data, and finally come to the conclusion that water ice is present in permanently shadowed areas inside polar impact craters. The participating educators were able to work with actual data and experience how the
Dijk, Elly; Baars, Chris; Hogenaar, Arjan (KNAW Research Information); van Meel, Marga; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
The DARE programme was initiated in the Netherlands by the SURF Foundation, the Dutch universities, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The objective of the programme was to enable digital access to research results of all the Dutch scientific institutions. Since the DARE programme (2003 - 2006), all the institutes involved have had their own repositories. The DAREnet portal website (www.darenet.nl/en) give...
Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Felicetti, Alberto M.
In this paper we propose a weighted multi-hypergraph as logical structure to model relationships between researchers and interest groups that join them on the base of shared research topics in a given scientific community. The well known concept of eingenvector centrality for graphs is extended to weighted multi-hypergraphs and we present a model instantiation for centrality analysis in the Pro-VE scientific community.
Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Planke, Tilo; Friis Sherson, Jacob
This paper presents results from the design and testing of an educational version of Quantum Moves, a Scientific Discovery Game that allows players to help solve authentic scientific challenges in the effort to develop a quantum computer. The primary aim of developing a game-based platform for student-research collaboration is to investigate if and how this type of game concept can strengthen authentic experimental practice and the creation of new knowledge in science education. Researchers a...
Breslavets, A. V.
The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.
Zyoud, Shaher H.; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E.; Shaheen, Hafez Q.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela
Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific ou...
IURMANOVA S.A.; BALYKHINA T.M.
The article provides a historical overview of the methods of teaching the Russian language in the aspect of the formation of the idea of a conscious, creative approach to teaching in the writings of prominent local teachers; the necessity of developing a specific, step by step teaching method of research work in the study of language in the modern world.
České Budějovice : Czech Zoological Society, 2001. s. 64. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology. 23.04.2001-25.04.2001, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : digital photography Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies
Full Text Available The article explores the problem of students’ research skills background and considers explicit approach a good way to tackle the issue. Appraising the potentiality of pertinent questioning as a well-functioning methodology of cognition, the author proposes her view of the scheme for the humanitarian inquiry.
The article explores the problem of students’ research skills background and considers explicit approach a good way to tackle the issue. Appraising the potentiality of pertinent questioning as a well-functioning methodology of cognition, the author proposes her view of the scheme for the humanitarian inquiry.