Sample records for alighting

  1. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.


    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white backgr...

  2. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush


    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses. PMID:22317485

  3. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color.

    Kirkpatrick, D M; McGhee, P S; Hermann, S L; Gut, L J; Miller, J R


    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  4. Boarding and alighting injury experience with different station platform and car entranceway designs on US commuter railroads.

    Morlok, Edward K; Nitzberg, Bradley F; Lai, Lee


    Commuter railroad systems in the US employ three combinations of station platforms and car entranceways. These are high-level platforms with remotely controlled doors and level entranceway (HL-RC), low-level platforms (just above the rail) with steps and remotely controlled doors (LL-RC), and a mixture of the two platform types with a correspondingly more complex, partly manual, door and entranceway arrangement (ML-MO). Much controversy exists over which type of platform/entranceway is better. This seemingly small feature significantly impacts many performance characteristics of these systems, including cost, speed, and boarding and alighting accidents. Northeastern systems are generally moving toward the mixed platform design or all high-level platforms, while systems elsewhere are generally selecting the low-level design. Data on actual accident experience for 1995-2000 are analyzed to determine the effect of platform/entranceway type on passenger and employee injuries. Passenger injury rates on systems with the HL-RC design are lowest, with LL-RC systems next, and ML-MO systems having the highest rates. Employee injury rates are the least on LL-RC systems, but higher on ML-MO and HL-RC systems. Systems with a mixture of high and low platforms (ML-MO) experience a higher overall (combined passenger and employee) injury rate than the other two designs. The implications of these results for both the modernization of existing systems and the design of new systems, in the US and abroad, are discussed. PMID:14642881

  5. Yoga from the Mat up: How Words Alight on Bodies

    McIlwain, Doris; Sutton, John


    Yoga is a unique form of expert movement that promotes an increasingly subtle interpenetration of thought and movement. The mindful nature of its practice, even at expert levels, challenges the idea that thought and mind are inevitably disruptive to absorbed coping. Building on parallel phenomenological and ethnographic studies of skilful…

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield and marginal land in the Aral Sea Basin: derivation by combining multi-scale and multi-temporal remote sensing data with alight use efficiency model

    Fritsch, Sebastian


    Irrigated agriculture in the Khorezm region in the arid inner Aral Sea Basin faces enormous challenges due to a legacy of cotton monoculture and non-sustainable water use. Regional crop growth monitoring and yield estimation continuously gain in importance, especially with regard to climate change and food security issues. Remote sensing is the ideal tool for regional-scale analysis, especially in regions where ground-truth data collection is difficult and data availability is scarce. New sat...

  7. "Wood already touched by fire is not hard to set alight": Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    Agyepong, Irene Akua


    A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST) is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding. PMID:25774378

  8. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Hati A K


    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  9. Open field host selection and behavior by tamarisk beetles (Diorhabda spp.)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in biological control of exotic saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) and risks to non-target athel (T. aphylla) and native Frankenia

    Biological control of exotic, invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA involves releases of exotic saltcedar leaf beetles, Diorhabda elongata Brullé sensu lato. Adults in cages alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen cold-intolerant tree used for shade and as...

  10. “Preaching-Non-Violence” Rioters Rampage in Lhasa-Recounting the Rioting in Lhasa on March 14~(th)



    It was about 11a.m.,March 14th,2008.Lhasa,a Tibetan city used to peace and tranquility,was suddenly subjected to relentless rioting by mobs in the name of"non-violence resistance".They smashed,looted, vandalized,set property alight,beat and even killed people they encountered.

  11. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker;


    Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that error...

  12. Population ageing in the Netherlands: Demographic and financial arguments for a balanced approach

    W. Salverda


    Dutch policy makers recently set the public debate on ageing alight by enforcing drastic cuts in early retirement opportunities; increasing taxation of the aged and augmenting retirement age are also considered. The prime argument is to diminish a burden on public finances far in future. This paper

  13. Strohmulch gegen Blattläuse im Gemüsebau

    Siekmann, Gitta; Hommes, Martin


    One way to prevent the colonisation of crops by insect pests is to disrupt their host finding behaviour. As immigrating aphids alight on potential host plants using optical stimuli, this process can be manipulated by altering the contrast between plant and background. This study aims to test the aphid repelling properties of straw mulch in vegetables. We applied straw to broccoli, head lettuce, bush bean, vegetable broad bean and carrot. The trials were conducted in 2002 and 2003 at several ...

  14. Thermomagnetic studies on transition metal pnictides

    Vieira Leitão, J.C.


    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) consists, in simple terms, in the heating of a magnetic material by the application of an external magnetic field. This can be easily understood if one but imagines a magnetic material with randomly applied spins; as a magnetic field is applied the spins will tend to alight with this field and as a result the overall Entropy of the system decreases, which consequently results in an exchange in Heat. This idea then becomes analogous to the vapor compression cycl...

  15. Constraint Programming Formulation for the Elevator Trip Origin-Destination Matrix Estimation Problem

    Kuusinen, Juha-Matti; Malapert, Arnaud


    We present a constraint programming formulation for the elevator trip origin-destination matrix estimation problem, and propose different approaches to solve the problem. An elevator trip consists of successive stops in one direction of travel with passengers inside the elevator. It can be defined as a directed network, where the nodes correspond to the stops on the trip, and the arcs to the possible origins and destinations of the passengers boarding and alighting at the stops. The goal is t...

  16. Chinese Beauty Rules


    Beijing beauty Zhang Zilin walked away with the Miss World 2007 crown before a partisan crowd on December 1,daz- zling the judging panel with her high-voltage smile and elegant confidence. The 23-year-old Miss China set the night alight in Sanya,in south China’s Hainan Province,when she emerged from a bevy of 106 of the world’s most beautiful women to become China’s first Miss World in 57 years

  17. Theoretically Investigation Of Smoke Production In A Tunnel Fire

    DOBRUCALI, Erinç


    Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity might vary. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, and has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fires in buildings and transportation systems are a threat to human lives and also to buildings and cultural heritage. In a fire inferno, most ...

  18. Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights.

    Domingue, Michael J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Pulsifer, Drew P; Hall, Loyal P; Badding, John V; Bischof, Jesse L; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Imrei, Zoltán; Janik, Gergely; Mastro, Victor C; Hazen, Missy; Baker, Thomas C


    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behavior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding process, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural interference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuticle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-bioreplicated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-bioreplicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing sequence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-bioreplicated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. PMID:25225359

  19. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I


    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems. PMID:26313961

  20. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India) Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Hati A K; Bhowmik Keya; Banerjee A; Mukherjee H; Poddar G; Basu D; Dhara K P


    Neem (Azadiracta India) seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the ...

  1. Mechanical behavior of PMMA due to artificial aging by means of a xenon-test chamber; Comportamiento mecanico del polimetilmetacrilato sometido a envejecimiento artificial mediante camara xenotest

    Colom, X.; Nogues, F.; Valldeperas, J.; Carrillo, F.; Gordillo, A.


    In this investigation, the mechanical behavior of poly(methylmethacrylate) due to aging in Xenon test chamber, using a xenon-arch lamp as alight radiation to simulate natural sun light has been studied. This work studies the mechanical properties (elongation at break, Young's modules, tensile strength and toughness) of PMMA samples exposed to different aging conditions (until 1560 h xenotest that correspond to 750 days exposure at natural light). The evolution of different mechanical properties characterizes the PMMA's process of degradation. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Mechanical behavior of PMMA due to artificial aging by means of a xenon-test chamber

    In this investigation, the mechanical behavior of poly(methylmethacrylate) due to aging in Xenon test chamber, using a xenon-arch lamp as alight radiation to simulate natural sun light has been studied. This work studies the mechanical properties (elongation at break, Young's modules, tensile strength and toughness) of PMMA samples exposed to different aging conditions (until 1560 h xenotest that correspond to 750 days exposure at natural light). The evolution of different mechanical properties characterizes the PMMA's process of degradation. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Azimuth orientation of the dragonfly (Sympetrum)

    Hisada, M.


    Evidence is presented of directional orientation by an alighting dragonfly relative to the azimuth of the sun. The effects of wind direction on this orientation are analyzed. It was concluded that wind does not play a major role in orientation but may have some secondary function in helping greater numbers of dragonflies face windward more often than leeward. A search was made to find the principle sensory receptor for orientation. Two possibilities, the large compound eye and the frontal ocelli, were noted; however, no conclusive evidence could be found.

  4. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Sharpe, D. T.; Roberts, A. H.; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W. A.; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G


    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have t...

  5. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped semiconductor quantum dot – The effect of electron–phonon interaction

    Misra Deepanjali; Tripathy Sukanta Kumar


    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and magnetic fields. It is found that magnetic impurityincreases the degree of spin polarization irrespective of temperature, while the electron–phonon interaction decreases the degree of spin polarization. Results are found to be in better agreement with experiments.

  6. Security of the Internet Transactions

    Felix Musau; Shengbing Ren; Shouyi Yu


    The new generation of networked business solutions brings legacy data and applications to the world wide Web, and lets companies redefine internal and external business processes. The present need for internet transaction has forced many business to adopt the internet forms of distribution of its business items. This has threatened security, hence needs to be given a key priority. This paper alights the key areas on how to protect the information we transact on the internet. It also aims at improving the security of our data and the computers we use to access this data.

  7. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai


    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  8. Fighting fires... with science

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  9. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G


    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  10. The Effects of Taxi on Traffic Flow

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun

    Taxi will come to one complete halt during the boarding/alighting period and might produce stop-and-go without passengers, so it often produces traffic interruption on the single-lane system. Tang et al. pointed out that the traffic flow model [Chin. Phys. 18, 975 (2009)] can be used to directly describe various micro phenomena resulted by traffic interruption on the single-lane system, if we properly define the traffic interruption probability, so in this paper we adopt this model to study the micro phenomena resulted by taxi on the single-lane system. The numerical results show that this model can describe the effects that taxi has on the trails of each vehicle's motion and the evolutions of the flow and the density on the single-lane system, but that these effects are relevant to the initial conditions of the whole system.

  11. Biological and clinical meaning of myeloid antigen expression in the acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    In 238 children presenting with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) authors studied the possible association between the myeloid antigens expression with determined biologic and clinic features at disease onset. The cellular immunophenotyping was performed by ultraimmunocytochemical method. From the total of diagnosed ALLs, the 21,8% were LLA-Mi+. There was a lymphadenopathies predominance (71,2%), splenomegaly (65,4%) and hepatomegaly (57,7%) in patients with LLA-Mi+ and very significant differences (p =0,003, p = 0,0068, and p = 0,000, respectively. There was also alight predominance of mediastinum adenopathies, CNS infiltration and hemorrahagic manifestations in patients with LLA-Mi+, no statistically significant. Results showed that in our patients the myeloid antigen expression on the lymphoid blasts influenced on appearance of determined presentation of morphologic and clinical features in children

  12. Drag kings "down under": an archive and introspective of a few Aussie blokes.

    Crowley, Vicki


    The mid 1990s saw an explosion of Drag Kings in many major and smaller cities throughout the world. While documentation of this has largely occurred through publications in the USA and UK, the Internet and smaller publications have demonstrated a phenomenon that has arguably re-ignited feminist debate. In Adelaide, Australia, Ben Dover and His Beautiful Boys set the annual lesbian and gay festival alight. This chapter describes this performance to set the stage for exploration of some of the workings of 'race' and ethnicity in the creation of persona, choice of name and naming that is brought to Drag King performance. Drawing on interview material the chapter suggests that just as Drag Kings and kinging has been a useful and provocative site for closer and deeper understandings of genders, bodies and sexualities, Drag Kings and Kinging may also provide a useful site for unraveling some of the minefield that is race and racism. PMID:12769285

  13. Development of maternal and child health services in the minority communities of Israel

    Rebecca Adams


    Full Text Available TO get to the maternal and child health station in Mahamadia, a Moslem Arab village, you alight from the bus at the foot of Mount Tabor, slide down a hill, and find yourself in a courtyard with children and sheep. Bahija, the practical nurse, greets you and laughs as she tells of the Jewish paediatrician who, because of religious tenets forbidding touching a strange woman, refused to take her helping hand and proceeded to fall all the way. From the entrance shed you are led to two rooms with light coming from the open doors. The rooms are clean with stone floors that are easily washed and with the standard blue and white furniture seen in every Ministry of Health or Kupat Holim (General Sick Fund of the Federation of Labor station in Israel.

  14. The flaming gypsy skirt injury.

    Leong, S C L; Emecheta, I E; James, M I


    On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this injury. PMID:17081546

  15. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier


    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  16. Arboreal ants use the "Velcro(R principle" to capture very large prey.

    Alain Dejean

    Full Text Available Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN and/or food bodies (FBs; the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.

  17. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A


    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10 % of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  18. B\\"o\\"ogg Bang drives global climate change

    Brennwald, M S; Kipfer, R


    The B\\"o\\"ogg is a large model of a snowman, constructed of inflammable materials and filled with explosives. During the traditional festival of Sechsel\\"auten, which takes place each spring in Zurich, Switzerland, the B\\"o\\"ogg is placed atop a wooden pyre, which is set alight. According to popular legend, the time that elapses until the B\\"o\\"ogg's head explodes (the "head-bang" time) is said to give a rough forecast of local weather conditions prevailing during the following summer. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this prediction. To study the B\\"o\\"ogg's predictive powers, we analyzed the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time record from 1965-2010 within the context of global climate change. Our analysis shows that the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time is a good predictor not of short-term local weather, as might be expected from the legend, but of the behavior of the entire global climate system.

  19. Injuries in special transport services--situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users.

    Wretstrand, Anders; Bylund, Per-Olof; Petzäll, Jan; Falkmer, Torbjörn


    Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate and societal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incident-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record, two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as the continuing development of WTORS. PMID:19720552

  20. Pioneers in metamaterials: John Pendry and Victor Veselago

    This article is a tribute designed to praise two great scientists who have set the world alight by stimulating boundless curiosity about metamaterials. It is stated early on that it is not intended to be a technical review but one from which it is possible to understand what the excitement is about. To achieve this outcome some simple discussions of refractive index are used as a means of getting to the now famous concept of negative index. After some selective, quasi-historical, development, the article moves on to a specific section about the pioneers themselves. It presents some impressions of their backgrounds, including the fact that John Pendry is now known now as Sir John Pendry. This flows from the recognition of his work by Queen Elizabeth. It is acknowledged that Victor Veselago truly guided the world along the track of negative refraction with a remarkable display of prescience. It is asserted that metamaterials have a brilliant future and that very important work is progressing towards the production of loss-free and active negative index and other forms of metamaterials. It pointed out that the control of light paths through the distortion of space is currently a major outcome from the groundbreaking work of the pioneers and that, in fact, light concentrators and optical black holes may well be life-transforming consequences. Indeed, in the conclusion, it is stated, unreservedly, that the whole world is indebted to John Pendry and Victor Veselago. (community perspective)

  1. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Shah Jiten


    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  2. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activity near nuclear power plants. Study of typical accidents

    The design and dimensioning of nuclear power plant structures necessitate the evaluation of risks due to industrial activity. Among these risks, those due to the storage or transport of dangerous products merit special attention. They result, inter alia, in the explosion of flammable gas clouds. Such clouds can drift before igniting and, once alight, the resulting pressure wave can cause serious damage, even at a distance. A methodology both deterministic and probabilistic enabling this risk to be quantified has therefore been developed. It is based in part on an analysis of the statistics of actual accidents that have occurred. After briefly recalling the probabilistic model, the typical accidents selected are described and for three usual cases (storage under pressure, rail tank cars and road units) the main characteristics of the rupture are explicited. The deterministic models that have been worked out to calculate the consequences of such an accident: flow rate at the bursting point, evaporation, drift and atmospheric dispersion of the cloud formed, explosion of this cloud, are then described. At the present time the overpressure wave is quantified against a TNT equivalent of the explosive mixture. Some data are given as examples for three commonly employed hydrocarbons (butane, propane, propylene)

  3. The use of vulcanic glasses in cellular concrete

    Alvarez, J. L.


    Full Text Available This paper covers studies made using different mixes for cellular concrete variating silica sand, vulcanic glass and aluminium powder contents. Studies on compressive strenght, dry density and X-ray diffraction are performed on autoclave cured cellular concrete, concluding that best results are attained when vulcanic glass contents reaches 50% of silica sand. When percentage of aluminium powder is diminished from 0.11% to 0.09%, alight increase in density, with noticiable growth of comprensive strength are observed.

    Se hace un estudio con diferentes mezclas, teniendo como variables la arena sílice, el vidrio volcánico y el polvo de aluminio. Al hormigón celular, una vez curado en autoclave, se le hace un estudio de resistencia a la compresión, densidad en estado seco y difracción de rayos X, llegándose a la conclusión de que los mejores resultados se obtienen cuando se emplea el vidrio volcánico al 50% en sustitución de la arena sílice. Cuando se disminuye el porcentaje de polvo de aluminio de 0,11% a 0,09%, se presenta un ligero aumento en la densidad, con un notable crecimiento de la resistencia a la compresión.

  4. Approximating actual flows in physical infrastructure networks: the case of the Yangtze River Delta high-speed railway network

    Zhang Weiyang


    Full Text Available Previous empirical research on urban networks has used data on infrastructure networks to guesstimate actual inter-city flows. However, with the exception of recent research on airline networks in the context of the world city literature, relatively limited attention has been paid to the degree to which the outline of these infrastructure networks reflects the actual flows they undergird. This study presents a method to improve our estimation of urban interaction in and through infrastructure networks by focusing on the example of passenger railways, which is arguably a key potential data source in research on urban networks in metropolitan regions. We first review common biases when using infrastructure networks to approximate actual inter-city flows, after which we present an alternative approach that draws on research on operational train scheduling. This research has shown that ‘dwell time’ at train stations reflects the length of the alighting and boarding process, and we use this insight to estimate actual interaction through the application of a bimodal network projection function. We apply our method to the high-speed railway (HSR network within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, discuss the difference between our modelled network and the original network, and evaluate its validity through a systemic comparison with a benchmark dataset of actual passenger flows.

  5. Vegetable surface sterilization system using UVA light-emitting diodes.

    Aihara, Mutsumi; Lian, Xin; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Harada, Yumi; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira


    Surface sterilization of fresh produce has been needed in the food manufacturing/processing industry. Here we report a UVA-LED (Ultra Violet A-Light Emitting Diode) system for surface sterilization that is safe, efficacious, low cost, and apparently harmless to fresh produce. To test the system, Escherichia coli strain DH5α was spot-inoculated onto vegetable tissues, and treated under UVA-LED. Tissues were homogenized and bacteria quantified by colony-forming assay. Possible effects of UVA-LED on vegetable quality were evaluated by HPLC. Tissue weight changes were checked after treatment at 4℃, 15℃, and 30℃. Bacterial inactivation by UVA-LED radiation was observed after a 10 min treatment and increased with increasing time of irradiation. The log survival ratio reached -3.23 after a 90 min treatment. Bacterial cells surviving treatment grew slowly compared to non-irradiated control cells. Cabbage tissue lost weight over time after treatment, and weight loss increased with increasing incubation temperature, but there was no difference between losses by UVA-LED treated and control tissues at any temperature tested. In addition, no differences of Vitamin C content in cabbage tissue were detected by HPLC after UVA-LED treatment. These results suggest that UVA-LED treatment has great potential for vegetable surface sterilization in the food manufacturing/processing industry. PMID:25264046

  6. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J


    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of PMID:22876731

  7. The Effect of Transport Accessibility on the Social Inclusion of Wheelchair Users: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Raquel Velho


    Full Text Available In recent years the accessibility of London buses has improved with the introduction of ramps and wheelchair priority areas. These advances are meant to remove physical barriers to entering the bus, but new conflicts have arisen particularly over the physical space aboard. We aimed to research the barriers faced by wheelchair users in public transport using a mixed methods approach to establish the breadth of issues faced by wheelchair users. To this end we quantified the push-force used alight a bus and a study to understand the coping mechanisms used by people to propel up a ramp. This quantitative approach found push forces which resulted in a load of 2 to 3 times body weight being transferred through people’s shoulders, forces which can be directly linked to shoulder injury. This could disable the user further, preventing them from being able to push their wheelchair. Alongside the quantitative study, we conducted qualitative research comprising of a number of in-depth interviews with wheelchair users about the barriers they face in public transport. Our main claim, highlighted through this interdisciplinary collaboration, is that proposed ‘solutions’ to accessibility, such as ramps, often generate problems of their own. These barriers can affect the life of wheelchair users, impacting on their confidence and causing social isolation. These can be long-term in nature or immediate.

  8. Determinants of spikes in ultrafine particle concentration whilst commuting by bus

    Lim, Shanon; Dirks, Kim N.; Salmond, Jennifer A.; Xie, Shanju


    This paper examines concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) based on data collected using high-resolution UFP monitors whilst travelling by bus during rush hour along three different urban routes in Auckland, New Zealand. The factors influencing in-bus UFP concentration were assessed using a combination of spatial, statistical and GIS analysis techniques to determine both spatial and temporal variability. Results from 68 bus trips showed that concentrations varied more within a route than between on a given day, despite differences in urban morphology, land use and traffic densities between routes. A number of trips were characterised by periods of very rapid increases in UFPs (concentration 'spikes'), followed by slow declines. Trips which recorded at least one spike (an increase of greater than 10,000 pt/cm3) resulted in significantly higher mean concentrations. Spikes in UFPs were significantly more likely to occur when travelling at low speeds and when passengers were alighting and boarding at bus stops close to traffic light intersections.

  9. Development of a driving cycle for intra-city buses in Chennai, India

    Nesamani, K. S.; Subramanian, K. P.


    In India the emissions rate and fuel consumption of intra-city buses are estimated using the European driving cycles, which don't represent Indian driving conditions and in-use operation of vehicles. This leads to underestimation or overestimation of emissions and fuel consumption. In this context, this paper offers some insight into the driving characteristics of intra-city buses using a Global Positioning System. The study has revealed that irrespective of road type and time of travel, a higher percentage of time is spent in idle mode. This is primarily due to alighting and boarding of passengers at regular intervals and fixed delays caused by traffic lights. More than 90 percent of trips have an average speed of less than 30 km h -1. This study has also developed an intra-city bus driving cycle for Chennai and compared it with some well-known international driving cycles. It has revealed that Chennai has unique driving characteristics and, therefore, it may not be appropriate to adopt a driving cycle of another country or city.

  10. A neglected aspect of the epidemiology of sleeping sickness: the propensity of the tsetse fly vector to enter houses.

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When taking a bloodmeal from humans, tsetse flies can transmit the trypanosomes responsible for sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis. While it is commonly assumed that humans must enter the normal woodland habitat of the tsetse in order to have much chance of contacting the flies, recent studies suggested that important contact can occur due to tsetse entering buildings. Hence, we need to know more about tsetse in buildings, and to understand why, when and how they enter such places. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Buildings studied were single storied and comprised a large house with a thatched roof and smaller houses with roofs of metal or asbestos. Each building was unoccupied except for the few minutes of its inspection every two hours, so focusing on the responses of tsetse to the house itself, rather than to humans inside. The composition, and physiological condition of catches of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, in the houses and the diurnal and seasonal pattern of catches, were intermediate between these aspects of the catches from artificial refuges and a host-like trap. Several times more tsetse were caught in the large house, as against the smaller structures. Doors and windows seemed about equally effective as entry points. Many of the tsetse in houses were old enough to be potential vectors of sleeping sickness, and some of the flies alighted on the humans that inspected the houses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Houses are attractive in themselves. Some of the tsetse attracted seem to be in a host-seeking phase of behavior and others appear to be looking for shelter from high temperatures outside. The risk of contracting sleeping sickness in houses varies according to house design.

  11. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae).

    Bänziger, H


    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only. PMID:35931

  12. A comparative study of roentgenographic appearance of periodontal osseous lesions

    The purpose of this article is to re-examine the roentgenographic appearance of alveolar osseous in an effort to determine the value of the orthopantomogram in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. A total of 158 osseous lesions from 13 human dry panoramic film are used to obtain radiographs of all defects. The bisecting technic was used, with a target-film distance of 8 inches and exposure factors of 70 kVp, 10 mA and 0.4 sec. at anterior teeth, 0.6 sec at posterior teeth in exposure time. For orthopantomogram, Panoura Eight-C was used with a exposure factors of 90 kVp, 10 mA. and 15 sec. exposure time. All films were developed in alight-tight darkroom at 68 .deg. for 4 1/2 minutes. Comparison of orthopantomogram and intraoral films on the view-box was carefully studied in relation to the types of osseous defect visually evident; Proximal intraosseous defects, Interproximal craters, Interproximal hemisepta, Furcal defects on multirooted teeth, and Facial or Lingual one-walled defects. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Proximal osseous defects throughout the dental arches and furcal defects on facial and lingual surfaces of multirooted teeth can be identified with a high degree of accuracy from their orthopantomographic appearances. 2. Lesions on facial or lingual surface of the alveolar arches are rather difficult to locate or recognize on the dental radiographs. 3. In determining whether the proximal and furcal lesions are located facially or lingually, Orthopantomogram is superior to the conventional film Orthopantomogram obtained with standardization of head in proper position revealed the complete visualization of alveolar bone without showing occlusal surface of molars and proximal superimposition of teeth. Thus, on the standardized orthopantomograms, The roentgenographic characteristics of each defect were determined.

  13. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  14. Relationships among magnetic resonance imaging, histological findings, and IGF-I in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits

    Xing-can CHEN; Jian WENG; Xue-qun CHEN; Ji-zeng DU; Miao-ping ZHU; Yong-qing PAN; Miao LIU


    Objective: To study the relationships among magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological findings, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental Group A (n=15) and control Group B (n=15). The 7.5 mg/kg (2 ml) ofdexamethasone (DEX)and physiological saline (2 ml) were injected into the fight gluteus medius muscle twice at one-week intervals in animals of Groups A and B, respectively. At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after obtaining an MRI, the rabbits were sacrificed and the femoral head from one side was removed for histological study of lacunae empty of osteocytes, subchondral vessels, and size of fat cells under microscopy, and the femoral head from the other side was removed for enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for IGF-I.Results: At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment, no necrotic lesions were detected in Group B, while they were detected in Group A.Light microscopy revealed that the fat cells of the marrow cavity were enlarged, subchondral vessels were evidently decreased,and empty bone lacunae were clearly increased. The IGF-I levels in Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B. At 8 weeks after the DEX injection, the MRI of all 20 femora showed an inhomogeneous, low signal intensity area in the femoral head,and at 16 weeks, the findings of all 10 femora showed a specific "line-like sign". The MRI findings of all femora in Group B were normal. Conclusion: MRI is a highly sensitive means of diagnosing early experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the abnormal marrow tissues appeared later than 4 weeks when the expression of IGF-I increased. This reparative factor has an early and important role in response to steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the pathology and designing new therapies.

  15. Olfactory Responses of the Asiatic Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri to Mineral Oil-Treated Mandarin Leaves

    Mofit E. Poerwanto


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Evidence of rejection or acceptance by phytophagous pests of citrus plants treated with mineral oils suggests that impacts of oils may be related to detection by olfactory and/or contact chemoreceptors of repellent oils or plant volatiles. Alternatively, the oils may mask or suppress attractant host plant volatiles. To date, no studies have reported that oils elicit an olfactory response in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama [Hemiptera: Psyllidae]. Therefore, we undertook two studies to determine how oil deposits on citrus leaves influenced the behaviour of D. citri. Approach: The attractiveness of citrus leaves treated separately with an nC21 horticultural mineral oil and an nC24 agricultural mineral oil to D. citri was evaluated under laboratory conditions. In the first of two studies, the oils were applied as 0.5% aqueous emulsions to mandarin leaves and responses of adults determined after they walked on surfaces saturated with either distilled water or 2% aqueous emulsions of the oils. In the second study, responses of adult psyllids to host-leaf volatiles, mineral oil volatiles emanating from leaves dipped in 2% v/v aqueous emulsions of each oil and similarly treated filter paper paired with water-dipped leaves were determined in single, linear-tube olfactometers. Results: In the first study, deposits of both oils significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri attracted to citrus leaves. Prior exposure of the insects to oil deposits did not influence this response. However, prior contact with the HMO slightly reduced the proportion of psyllids alighting on the water-dipped leaves. In the second study, oil volatiles emanating from filter paper significantly reduced the attractiveness of water-dipped mandarin leaves. Conclusion: These results indicate that application of the oils to the mandarin leaves may have: (a suppressed release of attractant host plant volatiles; (b masked attractant host plant volatiles; (c led to the

  16. Development of an in-situ diagnostic for the measurement of the hydrogen content of amorphous hydrocarbon layers in fusion devices; Entwicklung einer In-situ-Messmethode zur Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehalts amorpher Kohlenwasserstoffschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Irrek, F.


    A diagnostic method, the laser-induced thermal desorption spectroscopy (LDS), is developed to measure in situ the hydrogen inventory in the surface of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments. Its capabilities will be demonstrated in TEXTOR. In LDS, during the plasma discharge a laser beam is used to heat a spot on a surface close to the plasma to a temperature of 1400 to 2100 K to a depth of 100 {mu}m. Trapped hydrogen will be released into the plasma where it emits line radiation. The emitted H{sub a}-light is quantitatively measured. The amount of released hydrogen is calculated from the intensity of this emission using conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff}. The laser light (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) is conducted via light fibres. At TEXTOR, a 5 mm{sup 2} sized homogeneous laser spot is created with a pulse duration of 1.5 ms, and an Energy of 5 J, typically. Below the laser spot a volume of at most 1 mm{sup 3} is desorbed. The generated temperature is calculated numerically and indirectly deduced from surface changings. Depending on the conditions during the layer formation the hydrogen content of the hydrocarbon layer will vary and different fractions of the released molecules (H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are created during the laser heating. The release of atomic hydrogen by laser desorption was not found. The emitted light is measured by means of narrow-band interference filters and a CCD-camera. The fraction of the light emission which lies outside the observation volume is estimated using simulations of the emission by the neutral gas transport Monte Carlo code EIRENE for each molecular fraction. Conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff} were measured in various reference plasmas (T{sub e}=22-30 eV, n{sub e}=1-11 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and T{sub e}=50-74 eV, n{sub e}=1-5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) by desorbing prepared graphite samples which release a known amount of hydrogen with a known molecular distribution. LDS measurements were carried out in TEXTOR at

  17. História e memórias do banco de leite humano do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil History and memories of the human milk bank of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1987-2009 in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Karenina Elice Guimarães Carvalho


    's HMB, set up in 1987, was the brainchild of Professor Fernando Figueira and Dr. Vilneide Braga and its aim was to meet the needs of the Maternity hospital and its neonatal intensive care unit. The inauguration was attended by politicians, breastfeeding experts, TV celebrities and hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS: the methods of oral history were used to build up a history of the origins and evolution of the IMIP's HMB based on the testimony of the individuals involved. The history of the IMIP's HMB is an ongoing, living process and force that produces change, dreams and hope and keeps alight the ideal of a better world for children, mothers and for society at large.

  18. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  19. Le grand assemblage du panoptique planétaire. Un travail d’amateurs...

    Daniel Thierry


    permettront ou non la réutilisation active des fichiers par des amateurs sur des espaces numériques personnels loin du monde des médias. Photographic news is the result of a scenography processed through a typology of conventional structures at the core of which evolve interchangeable actors. The history of photojournalism established a type of canonical framework that defined the expression of several generations of reporters, without real innovation. The massification of purposeful images with the advent of television reinforced these structures with the public. The growing need to produce a flux of dematerialized pictures accelerated technological developments in media and led to important changes in how they are viewed. Expectations lie increasingly in a universality of the panoptic vision, made familiar by the multiplicity of viewing channels. Based on this observation, we highlight an important transformation in the nature of the sources of news images, which demonstrates two main characteristics: first of all, technological advances in the capturing of images make pictures virtually omnipresent at all times and at any point on the planet. As a result, this global web of picture-takers produces images without authors and without intentionality which alight in the established structure. Faced with this loss of meaning on the part of producersof images, the viewers of these billions of dispossessed available images are invited to create new uses for them, in contrast to the news that feeds networked screens. The classic scenes of photojournalism persist, but it is primarily the activity of the viewers of these raw materials that produces news writing according to their unique needs. Questions about the state of the planet, historicity, truth, or bias of the author are replaced by concerns for rapidity, and size and type of file which may or may not allow their reuse by amateurs in personal digital spaces far away from the media. A atualidade fotográfica resulta de