Alfven wave cascades in a tokamak
Experiments designed for generating internal transport barriers in the plasmas of the Joint European Torus [JET, P. H. Rebut et al., Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion, London (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. I, p. 11] reveal cascades of Alfven perturbations with predominantly upward frequency sweeping. These experiments are characterized by a hollow plasma current profile, created by lower hybrid heating and current drive before the main heating power phase. The cascades are driven by ions accelerated with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Each cascade consists of many modes with different toroidal mode numbers and different frequencies. The toroidal mode numbers vary from n=1 to n=6. The frequency starts from 20 to 90 kHz and increases up to the frequency range of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes. In the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, a close correlation is found between the time evolution of the Alfven cascades and the evolution of the Alfven continuum frequency at the point of zero magnetic shear. This correlation facilitates the study of the time evolution of both the Alfven continuum and the safety factor, q(r), at the point of zero magnetic shear and makes it possible to use Alfven spectroscopy for studying q(r). Modeling shows that the Alfven cascade occurs when the Alfven continuum frequency has a maximum at the zero shear point. Interpretation of the Alfven cascades is given in terms of a novel-type of energetic particle mode localized at the point where q(r) has a minimum. This interpretation explains the key experimental observations: simultaneous generation of many modes, preferred direction of frequency sweeping, and the absence of strong continuum damping
Seven chapters are included. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the Alfven wave and describe its linear properties in a homogeneous medium. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the effects of inhomogeneities on these linear properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the appearance of a continuum spectrum and the associated absorption of the Alfven wave which arise due to the inhomogeneity. The explanation of the physical origin of absorption is given using kinetic theory. Chapter 5 is devoted to the associated plasma instabilities. Nonlinear effects discussed in Chapter 6 include quasilinear diffusion, decay, a solitary wave, and a modulational instability. The principles of Alfven wave heating, a design example and present-day experimental results are described in Chapter 7
The physics of Alfven-wave heating is particularly sensitive to the character of the linear mode conversion which occurs at the Alfven resonance layer. Parameter changes can profoundly affect both the location within the plasma and the mechanism for the power absorption. Under optimal conditions the heating power may be absorbed by electron Landau damping and by electron transit-time magnetic pumping in the plasma interior, or by the same processes acting near the resonance layer on the mode-converted kinetic Alfven wave. The method is outlined for computing the coefficients for reflection, transmission and absorption at the resonance layer and some representative results are offered
Nonlinearly Driven Second Harmonics of Alfven Cascades
In recent experiments on Alcator C-Mod, measurements of density fluctuations with Phase Contrast Imaging through the plasma core show a second harmonic of the basic Alfven Cascade (AC) signal. The present work describes the perturbation at the second harmonic as a nonlinear sideband produced by the Alfven Cascade eigenmode via quadratic terms in the MHD equations. (author)
Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, large-scales solar wind (SW) turbulence has been studied extensively, both theoretically and observationally. Observed power spectra of the low frequency turbulence, which can be described in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit, are shown to obey the Kolmogorov scaling, $k"{ -5/3 }$, down the local proton gyrofrequency ($C{ci} \\sim O.l$-Hz). Turbulence at frequencies above $C{ci}$ has not been thoroughly investigated and remains far less well understood. Above $C{ ci}$ the spectrum steepens to $\\sim f"{ -2.5}$ and a debate exists as to whether the turbulence has become dominated by dispersive kinetic Alfven waves (KA W) or by whistler waves, before it is dissipated at small scales, In a case study Sahraoui et al., PRL (2009) have reported the first direct determination of the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence near the electron gyroscale using the high resolution Cluster magnetic and electric field data (up to $10"2$-Hz in the spacecraft reference frame). Above the Doppler-shifted proton scale $C{\\rho i}$ a new inertial range with a scaling $\\sim f"{ -2.3}$ has been evidenced and shown to remarkably agree with theoretical predictions of a quasi-two-dimensional cascade into KA W turbulence. Here, we use a wider sample of data sets of small scale SW turbulence under different plasma conditions, and investigate under which physical criteria the KA W (or the whistler) turbulence may be observed to carry out the cascade at small scales, These new observations/criteria are compared to the predictions on the cascade and the (kinetic) dissipation from the Vlasov theory. Implications of the results on the heating problem of the solar wind will be discussed.
Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks
Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma
Alfven wave heating and stability
Alfven waves in fusion plasmas play an important role in a number of situations. First, in Alfven Wave Heating (AWH) schemes. Second, both theory and experiment have demonstrated the existence of Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAEs). GAEs have been observed in different tokamaks (PRETEXT, TCA, TEXTOR, etc.) and, more recently, in a stellarator (Wendelstein 7-AS) where they were shown to become unstable under intense Neutral Beam injection. Third, the existence and possible destabilization by fast ions of Toroidicity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) has been evidenced both theoretically and experimentally. This destabilization could hamper the operation of a magnetically confined fusion reactor by setting a limit on the number of fusion alpha particles in the plasma. It is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms leading to the occurrence of the instability and also those that can stabilize the TAEs by increasing the strength of the damping. The aim is to be able to devise possible ways to avoid the instability of Alfven eigenmodes in a region of parameter space that is compatible with the functioning of a fusion reactor. A global perturbative approach is presented to tackle the problem of the linear stability of TAEs. Our model computes the overall wave particle power transfers to the different species and thus could also be applied to the study of alpha power extraction in the presence of Alfven waves. We indicate also how to go beyond the perturbative approach. (author) 15 figs., 38 refs
Rogue waves in Alfvenic turbulence
Rogue waves, in the form of giant breathers, are shown to develop in the Alfven wave (AW) turbulence regime described by the randomly driven derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of a weak dissipation. The distribution of the instantaneous global maxima of the AW intensity fluctuations is seen to be accurately fitted by power laws, which contrasts with the integrable regime (absence of dissipation and forcing) where the behavior is rather exponential. As the dissipation is reduced, freak waves form less frequently but reach larger amplitudes. -- Highlights: → Rogue wave formation in long-wavelength Alfvenic turbulence. → Huge waves form by quasi-collapse of breathers in presence of weak dissipation. → Amplitude distribution of rogue waves is fitted by power laws. → Possible relation with SLAMS pulses observed near the Earth bow shock.
Spectrum of compressional Alfven waves
The spectrum of compressional Alfven eigenmodes localized in the potential well created by a combination of the variation in plasma density and the wave number k/sub perpendicular to/ = m/r, is obtained, and its importance for ratio frequency current drive is discussed. It is found that modes with small parallel wave numbers and frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency are attractive for current drive
CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION VIA ALFVEN WAVES
This paper presents a scenario for the chromospheric evaporation during solar flares, which is inspired by the chain of events leading to the formation of auroral arcs and ionospheric evacuation during magnetospheric substorms. The plasma, ejected from high coronal altitudes during a flare reconnection event, accumulates at the tops of coronal loops by braking of the reconnection flow, possibly by fast shock formation. A high-beta layer forms and distorts the magnetic field. Energy contained in magnetic shear stresses is transported as Alfven waves from the loop-top toward the chromosphere. It is shown that under these conditions the Alfven waves carry enough energy to feed the chromospheric evaporation process. The second subject of this investigation is identification of the most effective energy dumping or wave dissipation process. Several processes are being analyzed: ion-neutral collisions, classical and anomalous field-aligned current dissipation, and critical velocity ionization. All of them are being discarded, either because they turn out to be insufficient or imply very unlikely physical properties of the wave modes. It is finally concluded that turbulent fragmentation of the Alfven waves entering the chromosphere can generate the required damping. The basic process would be phase mixing caused by a strongly inhomogeneous distribution of Alfvenic phase speed and laminar flow breakup by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability. The filamentary (fibril) structure of the chromosphere thus appears to be essential for the energy conversion, in which the K-H instability is the first step in a chain of processes leading to ion thermalization, electron heating, and neutral particle ionization. Quantitative estimates suggest that a transverse structure with scales not far below 100 km suffices to produce strong wave damping within a few seconds. Nonthermal broadening of some metallic ion lines observed during the pre-impulsive rise phase of a flare might be a residue of
Toroidal Alfven wave stability in ignited tokamaks
Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Van Dam, J.W.
1989-01-01
The effects of fusion-product alpha particles on the stability of global-type shear Alfven waves in an ignited tokamak plasma are investigated in toroidal geometry. Finite toroidicity can lead to stabilization of the global Alfven eigenmodes, but it induces a new global shear Alfven eigenmodes, which is strongly destabilized via transit resonance with alpha particles. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Interchange Reconnection Alfven Wave Generation
Lynch, B J; Li, Y
2014-01-01
Given recent observational results of interchange reconnection processes in the solar corona and the theoretical development of the S-Web model for the slow solar wind, we present further analysis of the 3D MHD simulation of interchange reconnection by Edmondson et al. (Astrophys. J. 707, 1427, 2009). Specifically, we analyze the consequences of the dynamic streamer belt jump that corresponds to flux opening by interchange reconnection. Information about the magnetic field restructuring by interchange reconnection is carried throughout the system by Alfven waves propagating away from the reconnection region, distributing the shear and twist imparted by the driving flows, including shedding the injected stress-energy and accumulated magnetic helicity along newly-open field lines. We quantify the properties of the reconnection-generated wave activity in the simulation. There is a localized high frequency component associated with the current sheet/reconnection site and an extended low frequency component associ...
First Results of PIC Modeling of Kinetic Alfven Wave Dissipation
Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji
2007-01-01
We present first results of an investigation of the kinetic damping of Alfven wave turbulence. The methodology is based on a fully electromagnetic, three-dimensional, particle in cell code. The calculation is initialized by an Alfven wave spectrum. Subsequently, a cascade develops, and damping by coupling to both ions and electrons is observed. We discuss results of these calculations, and present first estimates of damping rates and of the effects of energy transfer on ion and electron distributions. The results pertain to solar wind heating and acceleration.
Spheromak heating with Alfven waves
The temperature of present spheromak plasmas will need to be raised in order to test the feasibility of the confinement concept. In addition, a spatially-selective rf heating pulse can be used to study transport. As the ohmic heating power within a spheromak can be quite large (6-MW), low frequencies where large amounts of power are available are preferred. For the Los Alamos spheromak experiment CTX, we propose to add heating energy via a shear Alfven wave resonance. This resonance can be made to occur upon a particular flux surface, thus depositing most of the energy locally. A 2-dimensional equilibrium code (toroidally symmetric) is used to establish flux surfaces and magnetic field values for the desired configuration, either with or without plasma pressure
Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas
Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation
Alfven wave. DOE Critical Review Series
This monograph deals with the properties of Alfven waves and with their application to fusion. The book is divided into 7 chapters dealing with linear properties in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. Absorption is treated by means of kinetic theory. Instabilities and nonlinear processes are treated in Chapters 1 to 6, and the closing chapter is devoted to theory and experiments in plasma heating by Alfven waves
Alfven wave. DOE Critical Review Series
Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.
1982-01-01
This monograph deals with the properties of Alfven waves and with their application to fusion. The book is divided into 7 chapters dealing with linear properties in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. Absorption is treated by means of kinetic theory. Instabilities and nonlinear processes are treated in Chapters 1 to 6, and the closing chapter is devoted to theory and experiments in plasma heating by Alfven waves. (MOW)
Alfvenic waves in solar spicules
Ebadi, Hossein
2016-07-01
We analyzed O VI (1031.93 A) and O VI (1037.61 A line profiles from the time series of SOHO/SUMER data. The wavelet analysis is used to determine the fundamental mode and its first harmonic periods and their ratio. The period ratio, P_1/P_2 is obtained as 2.1 based on our calculations. To model the spicule oscillations, we consider an equilibrium configuration in the form of an expanding straight magnetic flux tube with varying density along tube. We used cylindrical coordinates r, phi, and z with the z-axis along tube axis. Standing Alfvenic waves with steady flows are studied. More realistic background magnetic field, plasma density, and spicule radios inferred from the actual magnetoseismology of observations are used. It is found that the oscillation periods and their ratio are shifted because of the steady flows. The observational values are reached in P_1/P_2, when the steady flows are 0.2-0.3, the values which are reported for classical spicules.
Plasma heating by kinetic Alfven wave
The heating of a nonuniform plasma (electron-ion) due to the resonant excitation of the shear Alfven wave in the low β regime is studied using initially the ideal MHD model and posteriorly using the kinetic model. The Vlasov equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons have been used. Through the ideal MHD model, it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to the continuous spectrum (phase mixing) which the shear Alfven wave has in a nonuniform plasma. An explicit expression for the energy absorption is derived. Through the kinetic model it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to a resonant mode convertion of the incident wave into the kinetic Alfven wave which propagates away from the resonant region. Its electron Landau damping has been observed. There has been a concordance with the MHD calculations. (Author)
On Alfven waves in the solar breeze
The application to the solar wind motivates the consideration of Alfven waves in a radial background magnetic field and radial mean flow, in two cases, viz., with velocity and magnetic field perturbations along parallels, or also with perturbations along meridians, combined in the radial components of vorticity and electric current. In both cases the same second-order Alfven wave equation is obtained; it has, in general, two singularities. If the mean flow velocity is taken to be a power of radial distance, with exponent other than zero or unity, there is a transition layer. In general there is a second singularity, viz., a critical layer, where the Alfven speed equals the mean flow velocity. There is one exceptional case in which the critical layer does not exist, namely a homogeneous medium, for which the mean flow velocity decays on the inverse square of the radial distance, and then Alfven speed also decays in the same way, so that their ratio is a constant, leading to two possibilities: (i) the ratio is not unity, and the wave equation remains of the second-order; (ii) the wave equation becomes of first-order in the case the mean flow velocity and Alfven speed are equal everywhere, because then the waves can propagate only in one direction. Case (i) corresponds to Alfven waves in the solar breeze. Exact solutions of the wave equations are obtained for all values of the radius, as a single expression for the first-order wave equation, whereas for the second-order wave equation it is possible to obtain solutions for small and large radius; the transition level limits the radius of convergence of one of these solutions, but the two solutions together cover the full range of radial distances. The choices of boundary conditions are discussed and the wavefields plotted vs dimensionless distance for several values of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem, viz., the Alfven number and dimensionless frequency, which appear in one combination only. The
Current generation by the Kinetic Alfven wave
The current generated and the efficiency of the shear Kinetic Alfven wave are obtained using a self-consistent quasilinear formulation. Also, the current generation by the monochromatic shear Kinetic Alfven wave introduced by Hasegawa is re-examined taking into account the nonresonant electrons. To obtain the RF current density at the level of the ohmic heating current density in a tokamak, the required external magnetic field is smaller than 0.1% of the DC magnetic field, and the parallel electric field (E2), using the Lausanne-TCA-Tokamak parameters is of the order of 0.01 V cm-1. (author)
Alfven wave heating of a theta pinch
The process of shear Alfven wave resonant absorption for plasma heating has been applied to a theta pinch. The m=1 mode is excited by means of a helical launching structure with a given wavelength, at a number of different frequencies. When the frequency lies in the continuous Alfven spectrum the kink energy is transferred to the Alfven wave and then is rapidly thermalized. The heating power is measured by a diamagnetic probe. It is shown that the probe signal can be treated as a thermodynamic variable permitting an exact energy balance to be deduced. The measured resonance curve of the heating power is in agreement with the predicted behaviour. A 50% efficiency is achieved and the coupling between the plasma and the external circuit is strong, in spite of the high compression ratio. (author)
Stationary nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons
Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.
1989-01-01
Stationary solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation are discussed and classified by using a pseudopotential formulation. The solutions consist of a rich family of nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons with parallel and oblique propagation directions. Expressions for the envelope and the phase of nonlinear waves with periodic envelope modulation, and 'hyperbolic' and 'algebraic' solitons are given. The propagation angle for the slightly modulated elliptic, periodic waves and for oblique solitons is evaluated.
The use of Alfven waves in NET
A number of features of Alfven wave heating make it potentially attractive for use in large tokamac reactors. Among them are the availability and relatively low cost of the power supplies, the potential ability to act selectively on the current profile, and the probable absence of operational limits in size, fields or density. (author) 26 figs., 10 tabs., 54 refs
The nonlinear compressional Alfven wave equation
The nonlinear wave equation of the compressional Alfven mode is derived in Lagrangian fluid coordinate. The nonlinearity attributes unequal weight to the terms of temporal and spatial derivatives. Two specific solutions relevant to transit-time magnetic pumping plasma heating and theta-pinch implosions are given. (Author)
Effects of small wavenumber Alfven waves on particle acceleration
Energetic charged particles are accelerated by turbulent Alfven waves via resonant interaction. We discuss effects of nonresonant Alfven waves on energy diffusion by using test particle simulations. When the Alfven waves are given at wavenumbers larger than the resonant wavenumber with small amplitude, simulated diffusion coefficient is similar to that by the quasi-linear theory. If the Alfven waves are added at wavenumbers smaller than the resonant wavenumber, it is found that the simulated diffusion coefficient exceeds the quasi-linear one and becomes larger with increasing the energy density of the nonresonant Alfven waves. (author)
Alfven wave studies on a tokamak
The continuum modes of the shear Alfven resonance are studied on the Tokapole II device, a small tokamak operated in a four node poloidal divertor configuration. A variety of antenna designs and the efficiency with which they deliver energy to the resonant layer are discussed. The spatial structure of the driven waves is studied by means of magnetic probes inserted into the current channel. In an attempt to optimize the coupling of energy in to the resonant layer, the angle of antenna currents with respect to the equilibrium field, antenna size, and plasma-to-antenna distance are varied. The usefulness of Faraday shields, particle shields, and local limiters are investigated. Antennas should be well shielded, either a dense Faraday shield or particle shield being satisfactory. The antenna should be large and very near to the plasma. The wave magnetic fields measured show a spatial resonance, the position of which varies with the value of the equilibrium field and mass density. They are polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium field. A wave propagates radially in to the resonant surface where it is converted to the shear Alfven wave. The signal has a short risetime and does not propagate far toroidally. These points are all consistent with a strongly damped shear Alfven wave. Comparisons of this work to theoretical predictions and results from other tokamaks are made
Effect of longitudinal modulation of Alfven wave filamentation
The modulation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to quasitransverse perturbations is addressed, and the nonlinear dynamics simulated numerically. In some instances, radial collapse (filamentation) of Alfven waves can be arrested by the magnetosonic waves stirred by the ponderomotive force. Such waves may, however, develop sharp fronts leading to strong hydrodynamic effects
Excitation of Alfven Waves and Pulsar Radio Emission
Lyutikov, Maxim
1999-01-01
We analyze mechanisms of the excitation of Alfv\\'{e}n wave in pulsar magnetospheres as a possible source of pulsar radio emission generation. We find that Cherenkov excitation of obliquely propagating Alfv\\'{e}n waves is inefficient, while excitation at the anomalous cyclotron resonance by the particles from the primary beam and from the tail of the bulk distribution function may have a considerable growth rate. The cyclotron instability on Alfv\\'{e}n waves occurs in the kinetic regime still ...
Alfven waves: a journey between space and fusion plasmas
Alfven waves discovered by Hannes Alfven (1942 Nature 150 405) are fundamental electromagnetic oscillations in magnetized plasmas existing in the nature and laboratories. Alfven waves play important roles in the heating, stability and transport of plasmas. The anisotropic nearly incompressible shear Alfven wave is particularly interesting since, in realistic non-uniform plasmas, its wave spectra consist of both the regular discrete and the singular continuous components. In this Alfven lecture, I will discuss these spectral properties and examine their significant linear and nonlinear physics implications. These discussions will be based on perspectives from my own research in both space and laboratory fusion plasmas, and will demonstrate the positive feedback and cross-fertilization between these two important sub-disciplines of plasma physics research. Some open issues of nonlinear Alfven wave physics in burning fusion as well as magnetospheric space plasmas will also be explored.
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in adiabatic process
Solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) have been an important subject in the field of space plasma physics because of their nonzero parallel electrical field and density fluctuations. Under different thermodynamic processes, SKAWs, within the limit of small amplitude, are studied analytically and numerically using the Sagdeev potential method. The results show that the width of the solitary structures is larger and the amplitude of the density humps is smaller under constant entropy than those under constant temperature with other relevant parameters being the same. The perturbed electromagnetic fields Ex, By, and Ez are also studied further.
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two...
HLL Riemann Solvers and Alfven Waves in Black Hole Magnetospheres
Punsly, Brian; Kim, Jinho; Garain, Sudip
2016-01-01
In the magnetosphere of a rotating black hole, an inner Alfven critical surface (IACS) must be crossed by inflowing plasma. Inside the IACS, Alfven waves are inward directed toward the black hole. The majority of the proper volume of the active region of spacetime (the ergosphere) is inside of the IACS. The charge and the totally transverse momentum flux (the momentum flux transverse to both the wave normal and the unperturbed magnetic field) are both determined exclusively by the Alfven polarization. However, numerical simulations of black hole magnetospheres are often based on 1-D HLL Riemann solvers that readily dissipate Alfven waves. Elements of the dissipated wave emerge in adjacent cells regardless of the IACS, there is no mechanism to prevent Alfvenic information from crossing outward. Thus, it is unclear how simulated magnetospheres attain the substantial Goldreich-Julian charge density associated with the rotating magnetic field. The HLL Riemann solver is also notorious for producing large recurring...
Development of Alfven wave antenna system for TCABR Tokamak
The advanced antenna system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCABR tokamak is presented. The antenna system is capable of exciting the travelling waves M=- 1, N=-4, -6 with single helicity and provides the possibility to improve Alfven wave plasma heating efficiency and to increase RF power input up 1 MW, without an uncontrolled density rise. The basic features of the antenna design and the results of preliminary tests are analyzed. (author)
Inertial Alfven waves in an inhomogeneous bi-Maxwellian plasma
The Vlasov kinetic equation is solved using gyrokinetic theory and the dielectric tensor for non-relativistic, magnetized, bi-Maxwellian plasmas is calculated. A generalized dispersion relation for kinetic Alfven waves is derived taking into account the density inhomogeneity and temperature anisotropy. The modified dispersion relation thus obtained is then used to examine the propagation characteristics of the kinetic Alfven waves in the inertial regime. The importance of density inhomogeneity and temperature anisotropy for Solar corona is highlighted. The growth rate of the inertial Alfven wave proves that density inhomogeneity acts as a source of free energy.
A laboratory search for plasma erosion by Alfven waves
Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.
2007-12-01
Obliquely propagating shear Alfven waves with transverse wavelengths on the order of the electron inertial length or even the ion gyro-radius are commonly observed in the earth's low-altitude auroral zones. These regions are also replete with observations of electron beams and transversely heated ions. A kinetic treatment of shear Alfven wave-particle interaction reveals how these waves can be responsible for some of the observed particle acceleration. The auroral plasma environment is further enriched by the presence of field-aligned depletions in plasma density, and it has been suggested* that the Alfven waves may, in fact, be the cause of the erosion of ionospheric density. In this laboratory experiment, shear waves will be launched using a variety of proven antennas, and also allowed to grow spontaneously as Drift-Alfven modes in seeded density depletions**. Detailed measurements of the wave magnetic fields in the perpendicular density gradient regions will be presented which demonstrate the generation of short perpendicular wave scales due to the perpendicular gradient in parallel wave phase speed. Miniature in-situ particle diagnostics will also be used to look for electron and ion acceleration. The waves will also be launched into an increasing region of background magnetic field in an attempt to model the ratios of Alfven speed to electron thermal speed, and density gradient scale length to electron inertial length appropriate to the earth's auroral zone. Preliminary results will be presented on the efficacy of shear Alfven waves to self-generate plasma density depletions, or deepen ambient density inhomogeneities. The experiments are conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility in the Large Plasma Device. *Chaston, et al., "Ionospheric erosion by Alfven Waves," JGR, V 111, A03206, 2006. **Penano, et al., "Drift-Alfven fluctuations associated with a narrow pressure striation," Phys. Plasmas, V 7, Issue 1, pp. 144-157 (2000).
Che, H; Viñas, A F
2013-01-01
The observed sub-proton scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quite-time suggest them as possible source of free energy to drive the turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how free energy in energetic electrons, released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfv\\'enic and whistler waves are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
The Source of Alfven Waves That Heat the Solar Corona
Ruzmaikin, A.; Berger, M. A.
1998-01-01
We suggest a source for high-frequency Alfven waves invoked in coronal heating and acceleration of the solar wind. The source is associated with small-scale magnetic loops in the chromospheric network.
Nonlinear standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Theory
We present a nonlinear analytical model of the Alfven current tubes continuing the currents through Io (or rather its ionosphere) generated by the unipolar inductor effect due to Io's motion relative to the magnetospheric plasma. We thereby extend the linear work by Drell et al. (1965) to the fully nonlinear, sub-Alfvenic situation also including flow which is not perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The following principal results have been obtained: (1) The portion of the currents feeding Io is aligned with the Alfven characteristics at an angle theta/sub A/ is the Alfven Mach number. (2) The Alfven tubes act like an external conductance Σ/sub A/=1/(μ0V/sub A/(1+M/sub A/2+2M/sub A/ sin theta)/sup 1/2/ where V/sub A/ is the Alfven wave propagation. Hence the Jovian ionospheric conductivity is not necessary for current closure. (3) In addition, the Alfven tubes may be reflected from either the torus boundary or the Jovian ionosphere. The efficiency of the resulting interaction with these boundaries varies with Io position. The interaction is particularly strong at extreme magnetic latitudes, thereby suggesting a mechanism for the Io control of decametric emissions. (4) The reflected Alfven waves may heat both the torus plasma and the Jovian ionosphere as well as produce increased diffusion of high-energy particles in the torus. (5) From the point of view of the electrodynamic interaction, Io is unique among the Jovian satellites for several reasons: these include its ionosphere arising from ionized volcanic gases, a high external Alfvenic conductance Σ/sub A/, and a high corotational voltage in addition to the interaction phenomenon with a boundary. (6) We find that Amalthea is probably strongly coupled to Jupiter's ionosphere while the outer Galilean satellites may occasionally experience super-Alfvenic conditions
Reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in interstellar clouds
Pinto, C; Galli, D; Velli, M
2012-01-01
Context: Supersonic nonthermal motions in molecular clouds are often interpreted as long-lived magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The propagation and amplitude of these waves is affected by local physical characteristics, most importantly the gas density and the ionization fraction. Aims: We study the propagation, reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in molecular clouds deriving the behavior of observable quantities such as the amplitudes of velocity fluctuations and the rate of energy dissipation. Methods: We formulated the problem in terms of Els\\"asser variables for transverse MHD waves propagating in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous medium, including the dissipation due to collisions between ions and neutrals and to a nonlinear turbulent cascade treated in a phenomenological way. We considered both steady-state and time-dependent situations and solved the equations of the problem numerically with an iterative method and a Lax-Wendroff scheme, respectively. Results: Alfv\\'en waves incident on overdens...
Alfven wave heating of current-carrying plasmas
Alfven wave heating involves the excitation, by antenna currents, of MHD waves which mode convert to short wavelength quasi-electrostatic waves (QEW) at the Alfven resonance position. Over the past few years the authors developed the computer code ANTENNA which solves the kinetic theory equations that describe this process for a cylindrical model of a tokamak. Recently, the following improvements have been made to the code: Antennas with radial current elements can now be treated; arbitrary density and temperature profiles can be analysed; the kinetic theory wave equations have been formulated for arbitrary force-free plasma-current distributions
Interplanetary Alfven waves and auroral (substorm) activity: IMP 8
Almost year of IMP 8 interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data (Days 1-312, 1979) have been examined to determine the interplanetary causes of geomagnetic AE activity. The nature of the interplanetary medium (Alfvenic or non-Alfvenic) and the B2 correlation with AE were examined over 12-hour increments throughout the study. It is found that Alfvenic wave intervals (defined as Vx-Bx cross-correlation coefficients of >0.6) are present over 60% of the time and the southward component of the Alfven waves is well correlated with AE (average peak correlation coefficient 0.62), with a median lag of 43 min. The most probable delay of AE from Bs is considerably shorter, about 20-25 min. Southward magnetic fields during non-Alfvenic intervals (Vx-Bx cross-correlation coefficients of s were variable from event to event (and at different times within the Alfven wave train), ranging from 45 min to as little as 0 min. The cause of this variable delay is somewhat surprising and is not presently well understood
Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch
Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Ion temperature in plasmas with intrinsic Alfven waves
Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.
2014-10-01
This Brief Communication clarifies the physics of non-resonant heating of protons by low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence. On the basis of general definition for wave energy density in plasmas, it is shown that the wave magnetic field energy is equivalent to the kinetic energy density of the ions, whose motion is induced by the wave magnetic field, thus providing a self-consistent description of the non-resonant heating by Alfvenic turbulence. Although the study is motivated by the research on the solar corona, the present discussion is only concerned with the plasma physics of the heating process.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, M., E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons in cold plasma
A finite-zone sector for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which describes nonlinear small-amplitude. Alfven waves in the long-wave approximation, is investigated. The formulas for periodic one-phase and one-soliton solutions and the general formula for an n-soliton solution envelope are obtained
KINETIC ALFVEN WAVES EXCITED BY OBLIQUE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ALFVEN WAVES IN CORONAL HOLES
Kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) are small-scale dispersive AWs that can play an important role in particle heating and acceleration of space and solar plasmas. An excitation mechanism for KAWs created by the coupling between large-scale oblique AWs and small-scale KAWs is presented in this paper. Taking into account both the collisional and Landau damping dissipations, the results show that the net growth rate of the excited KAWs increases with their perpendicular wavenumber kperpendicular and reaches maximum at λe kperpendicular ∼ 0.3, where λe is the electron inertial length. However, for KAWs with shorter perpendicular wavelengths, the net growth rate decreases rapidly due to dissipative effects. The evaluation of the threshold amplitude of the AW implies that for KAWs with λe kperpendicular e kperpendicular < 0.3 can be not only efficiently excited in the interplume region but also strongly dissipated in the dense plume due to the Landau damping.
Resonant Alfven wave instabilities driven by streaming fast particles
A plasma simulation code is used to study the resonant interactions between streaming ions and Alfven waves. The medium which supports the Alfven waves is treated as a single, one-dimensional, ideal MHD fluid, while the ions are treated as kinetic particles. The code is used to study three ion distributions: a cold beam; a monoenergetic shell; and a drifting distribution with a power-law dependence on momentum. These distributions represent: the field-aligned beams upstream of the earth's bow shock; the diffuse ions upstream of the bow shock; and the cosmic ray distribution function near a supernova remnant shock. 92 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs
Quantum effects on compressional Alfven waves in compensated semiconductors
Amin, M. R. [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, East West University, Aftabnagar, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)
2015-03-15
Amplitude modulation of a compressional Alfven wave in compensated electron-hole semiconductor plasmas is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime in this paper. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential, and the quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential in the momentum balance equations of the charge carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the compressional Alfven wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Typical values of the parameters for GaAs, GaSb, and GaN semiconductors are considered in analyzing the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave. Detailed analysis of the modulation instability in the long-wavelength regime is presented. For typical parameter ranges of the semiconductor plasmas and at the long-wavelength regime, it is found that the wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the effect of the Bohm potential may be neglected in comparison with the effect of the exchange-correlation potential in the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave.
Moore, R. L.; Hammer, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.
1992-01-01
In our recent analysis of Alfven wave reflection in solar coronal holes, we found evidence that coronal holes are heated by reflected Alfven waves. This result suggests that the reflection is inherent to the process that dissipates these Alfven waves into heat. We propose a novel dissipation process that is driven by the reflection, and that plausibly dominates the heating in coronal holes.
Shear Alfven wave excitation by direct antenna coupling and fast wave resonant mode conversion
Antenna coupling to the shear Alfven wave by both direct excitation and fast wave resonant mode conversion is modelled analytically for a plasma with a one dimensional linear density gradient. We demonstrate the existence of a shear Alfven mode excited directly by the antenna. For localised antennas, this mode propagates as a guided beam along the steady magnetic field lines intersecting the antenna. Shear Alfven wave excitation by resonant mode conversion of a fast wave near the Alfven resonance layer is also demonstrated and we prove that energy is conserved in this process. We compare the efficiency of these two mechanisms of shear Alfven wave excitation and present a simple analytical formula giving the ratio of the coupled powers. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of some experimental results. 45 refs., 7 figs
Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma
Taiurskii, A. A., E-mail: tayurskiy2001@mail.ru; Gavrikov, M. B., E-mail: nadya-p@cognitive.ru [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Miusskaya sq. Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation)
2015-10-28
We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations.
Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma
We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations
Simulation of the interaction between Alfven waves and fast particles
There is a wide variety of Alfven waves in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. While most of them are damped, some of the global eigenmodes can be driven unstable when they interact with energetic particles. By coupling the MHD code CKA with the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE, a hybrid kinetic-MHD model is created to describe this wave-particle interaction in stellarator geometry. In this thesis, the CKA-EUTERPE code package is presented. This numerical tool can be used for linear perturbative stability analysis of Alfven waves in the presence of energetic particles. The equations for the hybrid model are based on the gyrokinetic equations. The fast particles are described with linearized gyrokinetic equations. The reduced MHD equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the gyrokinetic equations. An equation for describing the Alfven waves is derived by combining the reduced MHD equations. The Alfven wave equation can retain kinetic corrections. Considering the energy transfer between the particles and the waves, the stability of the waves can be calculated. Numerically, the Alfven waves are calculated using the CKA code. The equations are solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the frequency spectrum and the mode structure of the waves. The results of the MHD model are in good agreement with other sophisticated MHD codes. CKA results are shown for a JET and a W7-AS example. The linear version of the EUTERPE code is used to study the motion of energetic particles in the wavefield with fixed spatial structure, and harmonic oscillations in time. In EUTERPE, the gyrokinetic equations are discretized with a PIC scheme using the delta-f method, and both full orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects are included. The code is modified to be able to use the wavefield calculated externally by CKA. Different slowing-down distribution functions are also implemented. The work done by the electric field on the particles is measured to calculate the energy transfer
Looking for Cosmological Alfven Waves in WMAP Data
Chen, Gang; Mukherjee, Pia; Kahniashvili, Tina; Ratra, Bharat; Wang, Yun
2004-01-01
A primordial cosmological magnetic field induces and supports vorticity or Alfven waves, which in turn generate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. A homogeneous primordial magnetic field with fixed direction induces correlations between the $a_{l-1,m}$ and $a_{l+1,m}$ multipole coefficients of the CMB temperature anisotropy field. We discuss the constraints that can be placed on the strength of such a primordial magnetic field using CMB anisotropy data from the WMAP experiment. W...
Kuridze, D
2007-01-01
Nonlinear coupling between 3-minute oscillations and Alfven waves in the solar lower atmosphere is studied. 3-minute oscillations are considered as acoustic waves trapped in a chromospheric cavity and oscillating along transversally inhomogeneous vertical magnetic field. It is shown that under the action of the oscillations the temporal dynamics of Alfven waves is governed by Mathieu equation. Consequently, the harmonics of Alfven waves with twice period and wavelength of 3-minute oscillations grow exponentially in time near the layer where the sound and Alfven speeds equal. Thus the 3-minute oscillations are resonantly absorbed by pure Alfven waves near this resonant layer. The resonant Alfven waves may penetrate into the solar corona taking energy from the chromosphere. Therefore the layer c_s=v_A may play a role of energy channel for otherwise trapped acoustic oscillations.
Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Soler, R.
2012-01-01
Ion-neutral collisions may lead to the damping of Alfven waves in chromospheric and prominence plasmas. Neutral helium atoms enhance the damping in certain temperature interval, where the ratio of neutral helium and neutral hydrogen atoms is increased. Therefore, the height-dependence of ionization degrees of hydrogen and helium may influence the damping rate of Alfven waves. We aim to study the effect of neutral helium in the damping of Alfven waves in stratified partially ionized plasma of ...
Enhanced phase mixing of Alfv\\'en waves propagating in stratified and divergent coronal structures
Smith, P. D.; Tsiklauri, D.; Ruderman, M. S.
2007-01-01
Corrected analytical solutions describing the enhanced phase mixing of Alfven waves propagating in divergent stratified coronal structures are presented. These show that the enhanced phase mixing mechanism can dissipate Alfven waves at heights less than half that is predicted by the previous analytical solutions. The enhanced phase mixing of 0.1 Hz harmonic Alfven waves propagating in strongly divergent, H_b=5 Mm, stratified coronal structures, H_rho=50 Mm, can fulfill 100% of an active regio...
Alfv\\'en waves in simulations of solar photospheric vortices
Shelyag, S; Reid, A; Mathioudakis, M
2013-01-01
Using advanced numerical magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the magnetised solar photosphere, including non-grey radiative transport and a non-ideal equation of state, we analyse plasma motions in photospheric magnetic vortices. We demonstrate that apparent vortex-like motions in photospheric magnetic field concentrations do not exhibit "tornado"-like behaviour or a "bath-tub" effect. While at each time instance the velocity field lines in the upper layers of the solar photosphere show swirls, the test particles moving with the time-dependent velocity field do not demonstrate such structures. Instead, they move in a wave-like fashion with rapidly changing and oscillating velocity field, determined mainly by magnetic tension in the magnetised intergranular downflows. Using time-distance diagrams, we identify horizontal motions in the magnetic flux tubes as torsional Alfv\\'en perturbations propagating along the nearly vertical magnetic field lines with local Alfv\\'en speed.
Analysis of Alfven Wave Activity in KSTAR Plasmas
Full text: We report on evidence of neutral beam driven wave activity in KSTAR plasmas. In 2010 and 2011 campaigns KSTAR plasmas included 1MW of neutral beam heating, which provided drive for Alfvenic wave activity modes. Data from the 2010 campaign, which was fully analysed during 2011, identifies the 40 kHz magnetic fluctuations as a β-induced Alfven eignemode resonant with the q = 1 surface. Evidence is multiple fold: a Fourier mode analysis identifies the mode as n = 1. Electron cyclotron emission chords identify the q = 1 inversion radius. These constrain equilibrium reconstruction, and permit detailed MHD calculations using the global MHD stability code MISHKA. A scan of mode frequency near the q = 1 minimum of the continuum identifies a core localised n = 1 mode separated from the continuum. A complementary kinetic analysis, when coupled with ion and electron temperature measurements ratios obtain from crystallography, enables calculation of the frequency evolution - which is in agreement with observations. In 2011 a series of experiments were conducted to scope Alfven excitation using NBI and ECRH heating as a function of field strength and plasma current. In these experiments plasmas with toroidal current up to 600 kA were generated with 1.5 MW of NBI heating and up to 120 kW of co or counter ECRH, and the field strength varied from 1.7 T to 2 T. Spectral and mode number analysis of the magnetics data identifies 150 - 250 kHz coherent activity with a toroidal mode number of n = 1. Assuming a poloidal mode number of m = 1, we have computed the evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) middle of the gap frequency, and compared the frequency evolution to magnetic spectrograms. While the frequency of the mode is above the Nyquist frequency, the aliased frequency tracks the observations to within 20%, providing some confidence of a TAE interpretation. Finally, we also report evidence of ion fishbone activity. (author)
Modulational instability of finite-amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven waves
Derby, N. F., Jr.
1978-01-01
The simple theory of the decay instability of Alfven waves is strictly applicable only to a small-amplitude parent wave in a low-beta plasma, but, if the parent wave is circularly polarized, it is possible to analyze the situation without either of these restrictions. Results show that a large-amplitude circularly polarized wave is unstable with respect to decay into three waves, one longitudinal and one transverse wave propagating parallel to the parent wave and one transverse wave propagating antiparallel. The transverse decay products appear at frequencies which are the sum and difference of the frequencies of the parent wave and the longitudinal wave. The decay products are not familiar MHD modes except in the limit of small beta and small amplitude of the parent wave, in which case the decay products are a forward-propagating sound wave and a backward-propagating circularly polarized wave. In this limit the other transverse wave disappears. The effect of finite beta is to reduce the linear growth rate of the instability from the value suggested by the simple theory. Possible applications of these results to the theory of the solar wind are briefly touched upon.
Characteristics of Short-wavelength Oblique Alfven and Slow waves
Zhao, J S; Yu, M Y; Lu, J Y; Wu, D J
2014-01-01
Linear properties of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) are studied in the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. We obtain the wave dispersion relations that are valid in a wide range of the wave frequency {\\omega} and plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio {\\beta}. The KAW frequency can reach and exceed the ion cyclotron frequency at ion kinetic scales, whereas the KSW frequency remains sub-cyclotron. At {\\beta}\\sim1, the plasma and magnetic pressure perturbations of both modes are in anti-phase, so that there is nearly no total pressure perturbations. However, these modes exhibit several different properties. At high {\\beta}, the electric field polarization of KAW and KSW is opposite at the ion gyroradius scale, where KAWs are polarized in sense of electron gyration (right-hand polarized) and KSWs are left-hand polarized. The magnetic helicity {\\sigma}\\sim1 for KAWs and {\\sigma}\\sim-1 for KSWs, and the ion Alfv\\'en ratio R_{Ai}\\ll 1 for KAWs and R_{Ai}\\gg 1 for KSWs. We also found...
Emission of Alfven Waves by Planets in Close Orbits
MacGregor, Keith B.; Pinsonneault, M. H.
2011-01-01
We examine the electrodynamics of a conducting planet orbiting within a magnetized wind that emanates from its parent star. When the orbital motion differs from corotation with the star, an electric field exists in the rest frame of the planet, inducing a charge separation in its ionosphere. Because the planet is immersed in a plasma, this charge can flow away from it along the stellar magnetic field lines it successively contacts in its orbit. For sufficiently rapid orbital motion, a current system can be formed that is closed by Alfvenic disturbances that propagate along field lines away from the planet. Using a simple model for the wind from a Sun-like star, we survey the conditions under which Alfven wave emission can occur, and estimate the power radiated in the form of linear waves for a range of stellar, planetary, and wind properties. For a Jupiter-like planet in a close (a type star, the emitted wave power can be as large as 1027 erg/s. While only a small influence on the planet's orbit, a wave power of this magnitude may have consequences for wind dynamics and localized heating of the stellar atmosphere. NCAR is sponsored by the NSF.
Interplanetary Alfven waves inducing ionospheric disturbances observed by GPS data
Complete text of publication follows. Interplanetary Alfven waves appear in satellite data as high-amplitude, fast oscillations in the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind velocity components. The waves are more often present in high speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes. For a long time, these Alfven waves were not believed as able to produce geomagnetic responses due to the absence of a strong and sustained southward Bz (Bs) interplanetary magnetic field. But in 1987, Tsurutani and Gonzalez showed that these structures were responsible by intense and long-lasting auroral activity (observable through the AE index). However, these phenomena were not strong enough to produce significant ring current intensification (measured by the middle/low latitude Dst index). In this work we analyze three intervals of strong auroral activity related to interplanetary Alfven waves outside main phases of geomagnetic storms. These events occurred in the years 2002, 2003, and 2005. The ionospheric effects were observed through the vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) data from GPS receivers. Data from three GPS stations were employed in this study: Porto Alegre (POAL, Brazil, Lat. 30.1deg S, Long. 51.1deg W, Dip Lat. 20.7deg S, LT=UT-3 h), Bahia Blanca (VBCA, Argentina, Lat 38.7deg S, Long. 62.3deg W, Dip Lat. 22.4deg S, LT=UT-4 h), and Rio Grande (RIOG, Argentina, Lat. 53.6deg S, Long. 67.8deg W, Dip Lat. 43.6deg S, LT=UT-4 h). For each event three quiet days around the date were used to calculate the VTEC average and standard deviation. These values were assumed as reference for disturbed intervals comparisons. For the three selected intervals we observed VTEC increases in all the analyzed stations. The VTEC values may reach over 50% increases compared to quiet day values. Another remarkable observation is that the POAL station (the most equatorward station) always presents higher increases than the other stations. This effect is reduced as the latitude
Nonlinear astrophysical Alfven waves - Onset and outcome of the modulational instability
Spangler, S. R.
1985-01-01
The nonlinear development of Alfven waves is numerically studied, with applications to Alfven waves in astrophysical plasmas. It is found that amplitude-modulated Alfven wave packets undergo a collapse instability in which the wave packets become more intense and of smaller spatial extent. The wave packet steepening is eventually halted in a process most aptly described as soliton formation. A simple analytic model based on the method of characteristics can account for many of the results of the numerical calculations. The instability probably cannot prevent particle pitch angle isotropization due to self-generated Alfven waves. Nonlinear effects of the collapse may modify the process by which energetic electrons are reaccelerated by plasma turbulence. The model calculations can semiquantitatively account for properties of shock-associated Alfven waves in the solar system.
Drift-Kinetic Alfven Waves Observed near a Reconnection X Line in the Earth's Magnetopause
We identify drift-kinetic Alfven waves in the vicinity of a reconnection X line on the Earth's magnetopause. The dispersive properties of these waves have been determined using wavelet interferometric techniques applied to multipoint observations from the Cluster spacecraft. Comparison of the observed wave dispersion with that expected for drift-kinetic Alfven waves shows close agreement. The waves propagate outwards from the X line suggesting that reconnection is a kinetic Alfven wave source. Energetic O+ ions observed in these waves indicate that reconnection is a driver of auroral ion outflow
Density Limit in TCABR Plasmas With Alfven Wave Heating
Alfven Waves (AW) were launched in tokamak (TCABR) density limit plasmas for the first time. Experimental evidence of plasma heating is backed up by calculations from an 1-D numerical cylindrical code, based on the toroidal electric field diffusion. Simultaneously, increase in the density limit and plasma pressure with negligible impurities level launched by the AW antennas were also observed, without major appearance of a resistive disruption. The increase in the density limit and the heating might be related to the expected edge and off-axis AW power deposition, respectively, in agreement with the calculation performed by an 1-D numerical code linked to ASTRA
Effect of the radial electric field, induced by Alfven waves, on transport processes in tokamaks
We demonstrate that Alfven waves may be the convenient trigger for the formation and maintenance of edge and internal transport barriers due to their small radial localizations. Kinetic Alfven waves can also provide a mechanism for squeezing the banana orbits of ions in collisional plasmas of tokamaks. It is shown that the radial electric field, induced by Alfven waves, at some conditions has a nonlinear dependence on the radio-frequency absorbed power. The dependence of the ion heat conductivity and of the ion poloidal viscosity oil the radio-frequency absorbed power is obtained in this paper for tokamak plasmas with ion banana orbits squeezed by Alfven waves. Estimations of the proper absorbed power of Alfven waves in some tokamaks is about the level of absorbed power to be used in early fulfilled experiments. (author)
Effect of the radial electric field, induced by Alfven waves, on transport processes in tokamaks
We demonstrate that Alfven waves may be the convenient trigger for the formation and maintenance of edge and internal transport barriers due to their small radial localizations. Kinetic Alfven waves can also provide a mechanism for squeezing the banana orbits of ions in weekly collisional plasmas of tokamaks. It is shown that the radial electric field, induced by Alfven waves, at some conditions has a nonlinear dependence on the radio-frequency absorbed power. The dependence of the ion heat conductivity and of the ion poloidal viscosity on the radio-frequency absorbed power is obtained in this paper for tokamak plasmas with ion banana orbit squeezed by Alfven waves. Estimations of the proper absorbed power of Alfven waves in some tokamaks is about the level of absorbed power to be used in early fulfilled experiments. (author)
Preliminary results on Alfven wave system in the TCABR tokamak
A brief review of the Alfven Wave Excitation System (AWES) designed for the TCABR tokamak and the first experimental results on RF plasma heating are presented. One of four antenna modules has been completely installed in the vacuum chamber and the initial experiments were carried out in the low power regime using the four-phase RF generator. The main objectives were the antenna tuning according to the typical plasma parameters of TCABR and the evaluation of the antenna parasitic loading, as well as the calibration of the RF diagnostic tools in real discharge conditions. The first results have been obtained with standard diagnostics and with the RF signals measured using high sampling rate digital oscilloscopes. They showed that daily antenna cleaning and correct wave helicity excitation reduce significantly the parasitic loading and are crucial for efficient plasma coupling
Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfven wave in a collisional plasma
Low-frequency Magneto Hydrodynamic waves in general and Alfv´en wave, in particular, occurs in various physical problems starting from laboratory to space plasma. These low frequency disturbances make the magnetic fluctuations large enough so that nonlinear coupling becomes finite. Among these low-frequency waves, nonlinear Alfv´en wave has become a topic of intense research due to its applications in various physical processes, related to particle energization in magnetized plasma, self-modulation in strongly magnetized plasma, tokamak plasma heating, interplanetary shocks, turbulence etc. In the present work, we have investigated weakly nonlinear Alfv´en wave dynamics in the framework of Lagrangian two-fluid theory in a compressible cold magnetized plasma in presence of finite electron inertia effect. The electron-ion collision induced dissipation effect is also taken into account. In the finite amplitude limit, we have shown that the collisionless Alfv´en wave is governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. In presence of collision it becomes a modified Korteweg-de Vries -Burgers (mKdVB) equation, where the electron inertia is found to act as a dispersive effect and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation which is responsible for the Burgers term. In the long wavelength limit, we have also investigated another important physical phenomenon, known as the wave modulation instability. The dynamics of this modulated wave is shown to be governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with a linear damping term arising due to electron-ion collision. These two nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Both the results reveal that nonlinear Alfven wave exhibits shock, dissipative envelope and breather like structures. Numerical simulation also predicts the formation of Alv´enic rogue wave and giant breathers
Exact Analytical Solution of Alfven Waves in Nonuniform Plasmas
Full text: The propagation of Alfven waves in non-uniform plasmas is described through linear second-order differential equations, governing the total pressure and radial plasma velocity. In general, these two differential equations only admit numerical solutions, whose behavior is very much complicated especially near resonance surfaces which encompass essential degeneracies. It is well-known that most existing analytical methods, including the famous Wentzel-Karmers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation fail near such singularities. In this paper, a power analytical method, which is recently developed and named the Differential Transfer Matrix Method (DTMM), is applied to find a rigorously exact solution to the problem of interest. We also present an approximate solution based on the Airy functions. (author)
The modulational instability and envelope-solitons are analyzed for the Alfven waves propagating along the static magnetic field in cold collisionless plasmas, using the modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation previously derived by the authors. The modulational instability occurs in the left-hand circularly polarized Alfven wave (left Alfven wave) for a small amplitude but does not for an amplitude larger than the critical value. On the other hand, the instability never occurs in the right-hand circularly polarized Alfven wave (right Alfven wave). When the modulational instability does not occur, the rarefactive and compressive envelope-solitons exist in the left Alfven wave and the two types of the rarefactive envelope-solitons exist in the right Alfven wave. (auth.)
Multiple-gap theory of toroidal Alfven waves with kinetic effects
The stability of kinetic toroidal Alfven waves with multi-gap coupling is analyzed by using the two-dimensional ballooning transform. An alternate convergence scheme, based on the smallness of the inverse aspect ratio, is devised. The resulting wave functions are oscillatory and do not balloon in contrast to the wave functions of conventional ballooning theory. It is shown that the single-gap theory is a special, weak shear (s → 0) limit of the formalism. Analytical and numerical results for the two fundamental branches, the ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE), and the kinetic toroidal Alfven eigenmode (KTAE) are presented and discussed
An experimental study of the harmonics generated during Alfven wave heating in TCA
During plasma excitation by high power Alfven waves in TCA, signals at harmonics of the generator frequency are observed in the plasma scrape-off layer. In this paper we report experimental investigations of the sheath effect and the excitation efficiency and dispersion properties of these harmonics. The results indicate that the harmonics arise either directly or indirectly through the driven Alfven waves and not the sheath effect at the exciting antenna. The RF ion saturation current is observed a non-negligible peak amplitude in comparison to the time averaged ion saturation current and may provide evidence of non-linear evolution of the driven Alfven waves. (author) 8 figs., 8 refs
Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.
1989-01-01
The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.
Alfven Waves in a Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer Associated with Near-Tail Magnetic Reconnection
YUAN Zhi-Gang; DENG Xiao-Hua; PANG Ye; LI Shi-You; WANG Jing-Fang
2007-01-01
We report observations from Geotail satellite showing that large Poynting fluxes associated with Alfven waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer(PSBL) occur in the vicinity of the near-tail reconnection region on 10 December 1996.During the period of large Poynting fluxex,Geotail also observed strong tailward plasma flws.These observations demonstrate the importance of near-tail reconnection process as the energy source of Alfven waves in the PSBL.Strong tailward(Earthward)plasma flows ought to be an important candidate in generating Alfven waves.Furthermore,the strong pertutbations not only of the magnetic field but also of the electric field observed in the PSBL indicate that the PSBL plays an important role in the generation and propagation of the energy flux associated with Alfven waves.
Drake, D J; Howes, G G; Kletzing, C A; Skiff, F; Carter, T A; Auerbach, D W
2013-01-01
Turbulence is a phenomenon found throughout space and astrophysical plasmas. It plays an important role in solar coronal heating, acceleration of the solar wind, and heating of the interstellar medium. Turbulence in these regimes is dominated by Alfven waves. Most turbulence theories have been established using ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD. However, there has been no experimental evidence to support the use of such models for weakly to moderately collisional plasmas which are relevant to various space and astrophysical plasma environments. We present the first experiment to measure the nonlinear interaction between two counterpropagating Alfven waves, which is the building block for astrophysical turbulence theories. We present here four distinct tests that demonstrate conclusively that we have indeed measured the daughter Alfven wave generated nonlinearly by a collision between counterpropagating Alfven waves.
Formation of convective cells by modulational instability of drift Alfven waves
A model equation describing drift Alfven wave with E X B nonlinearity is derived. For a special ordering a nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived, which governs modulational instability of the drift Alfven wave. Translational invariance is assumed along the magnetic field. The relation between the characteristic scale lengths parallel and perpendicular to the drift flow for the onset of cell formation has been found. The influence of perpendicular ion viscosity is also discussed. (Auth.)
Recent Results of Alfven Wave Studies in TCABR
The results on comparative studies of Alfven wave plasma heating by two different antenna types in TCABR are presented. Emphasis is placed on the excited wave spectra and parasitic coupling with the edge plasma. The antenna modules have two groups of RF current-carrying straps separated by a toroidal angle of approximately 22 deg. In type I antenna, each group consists of two circular loops that are cut in two half-turn windings. The feeders of each loop pair are rotated 90 deg. in the poloidal direction with respect to each other, to decrease the mutual coupling between them and make it possible to excite single helicity plasma modes (M=+1 or M=-1). In type II antenna, each group consists of two poloidal straps located at the low-magnetic-field side of the vacuum chamber. The poloidal extension of each strap is around 90 deg. and the angle between straps is also of the same value. In both antenna types, the straps have side protectors of boron nitride. Initial experiments indicate that the parasitic interaction with the edge plasma is quite different for the two antennae. Also the first type has larger self-inductance, making it more difficult to deliver high currents to the antenna without increasing the dynamic polarization voltage up to breakdown limits. Results on the excited spectrum and floating potential at the plasma edge are presented
Observation of an Alfv\\'en Wave Parametric Instability in a Laboratory Plasma
Dorfman, S
2016-01-01
A shear Alfv\\'en wave parametric instability is observed for the first time in the laboratory. When a single finite $\\omega/\\Omega_i$ kinetic Alfv\\'en wave (KAW) is launched in the Large Plasma Device above a threshold amplitude, three daughter modes are produced. These daughter modes have frequencies and parallel wave numbers that are consistent with copropagating KAW sidebands and a low frequency nonresonant mode. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump wave amplitude. The daughter modes are spatially localized on a gradient of the pump wave magnetic field amplitude in the plane perpendicular to the background field, suggesting that perpendicular nonlinear forces (and therefore $k_{\\perp}$ of the pump wave) play an important role in the instability process. Despite this, modulational instability theory with $k_{\\perp}=0$ has several features in common with the observed nonresonant mode and Alfv\\'en wave sidebands.
Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model
A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth's geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons
PERPENDICULAR ION HEATING BY LOW-FREQUENCY ALFVEN-WAVE TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND
We consider ion heating by turbulent Alfven waves (AWs) and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) with wavelengths (measured perpendicular to the magnetic field) that are comparable to the ion gyroradius and frequencies ω smaller than the ion cyclotron frequency Ω. We focus on plasmas in which β ∼ρ/vperpendicular, where vperpendicular (v ||) is the component of the ion velocity perpendicular (parallel) to the background magnetic field B 0, and δv ρ (δB ρ) is the rms amplitude of the velocity (magnetic-field) fluctuations at the gyroradius scale. In the case of thermal protons, when ε crit, where εcrit is a constant, a proton's magnetic moment is nearly conserved and stochastic heating is extremely weak. However, when ε>εcrit, the proton heating rate exceeds half the cascade power that would be present in strong balanced KAW turbulence with the same value of δv ρ, and magnetic-moment conservation is violated even when ω crit = 0.19. For protons in low-β plasmas, ε ≅ β-1/2δBρ/B 0, and ε can exceed εcrit even when δBρ/B 0 crit. The heating is anisotropic, increasing v 2perpendicular much more than v 2|| when β 1 Landau damping and transit-time damping of KAWs lead to strong parallel heating of protons.) At comparable temperatures, alpha particles and minor ions have larger values of ε than protons and are heated more efficiently as a result. We discuss the implications of our results for ion heating in coronal holes and the solar wind.
Solar off-limb line widths: Alfven waves, ion-cyclotron waves, and preferential heating
Dolla, L
2008-01-01
Alfven waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind (HELIOS spacecrafts) and, recently, in the upper corona (UVCS/SOHO remote-sensing results). We propose a method to constrain both the Alfven wave amplitude and the preferential heating induced by ion-cyclotron resonance, above a partially developed polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. The instrumental stray light contribution is first substracted from the spectra. By supposing that the non-thermal velocity is related to the Alfven wave amplitude, it is constrained through a density diagnostic and the gradient of the width of the Mg X 625 A line. The temperatures of several coronal ions, as functions of the distance above the limb, are then determined by substracting the non-thermal component to the observed line widths. The effect of st...
Ionospheric Ion Upflows Associated with the Alfven Wave Heating
Song, P.; Tu, J.
2014-12-01
In this study we present the simulation results from a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (noon-midnight meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals and Maxwell's equations. In particular, the model retains Faraday's law, inertial term in the ion momentum equations and photochemistry. The code is based on an implicit algorithm and simulates a region from 80 km to 5000 km above the Earth. The system is driven by an antisunward motion at the upper boundary of the dayside cusp latitude in both hemispheres. We show that the frictional heating, which can produce upflows of the light (H+ and He+) and heave (O+) ions, is driven by the Alfven wave-induced ion motion relative to the neutrals. The variations of the upflows along a noon-midnight magnetic meridian are examined in association with given driving conditions imposed by the magnetosphere convection.
Threaded-Field-Lines Model for the Low Solar Corona Powered by the Alfven Wave Turbulence
Sokolov, Igor V; Manchester, Ward B; Ozturk, Doga Can Su; Szente, Judit; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Tóth, Gabor; Jin, Meng; Gombosi, Tamas I
2016-01-01
We present an updated global model of the solar corona, including the transition region. We simulate the realistic tree-dimensional (3D) magnetic field using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements and assume the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfv\\'en wave turbulence and its non-linear dissipation to be the only source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. In closed field regions the dissipation efficiency in a balanced turbulence is enhanced. In the coronal holes we account for a reflection of the outward propagating waves, which is accompanied by generation of weaker counter-propagating waves. The non-linear cascade rate degrades in strongly imbalanced turbulence, thus resulting in colder coronal holes. The distinctive feature of the presented model is the description of the low corona as almost-steady-state low-beta plasma motion and heat flux transfer along the magnetic field lines. We trace the magnetic field lines through each grid point of the lower boundary of the g...
Generation of coherent wave packets of kinetic Alfven waves in solar plasmas
This work presents the numerical simulations to study the filamentation of kinetic Alfven waves in solar plasmas. Using the modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation model, we study the effect of changing the initial perturbation on filament formation and their nonlinear dynamics. The spectral indices of the power spectrum are calculated with different initial conditions of the simulations. The relevance of the present investigation in coronal heating and solar wind acceleration/turbulence is also pointed out
Kinetic effects on Alfven wave nonlinearity. II. The modified nonlinear wave equation
The study of kinetic effects on Alfven wave nonlinearity is continued. Previously obtained expressions for the perturbed (by an Alfven wave) ion and electron distribution functions are used to obtain a nonlinear wave equation for parallel-propagating, circularly polarized waves. The results are cast in the form of a modified version of the familiar derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The approach in obtaining this equation is a hybrid one; fluid theory is used to the greatest extent possible, and kinetic theory is introduced where the correction is believed to be most important. Fluid theory at two levels of sophistication is employed. The first uses a simple scalar pressure term. This approach yields physical insight and illuminates the field-aligned fluid flow and the associated plasma density perturbation as a major contributor to Alfven wave nonlinearity. The second approach employs a tensor pressure term that in general will be necessary. The results indicate that kinetic effects in general produce a nonlinear wave equation that is of a different functional form than the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation, as previously reported by Mjolhus and Wyller [Phys. Scr. 33, 442 (1986); J. Plasma Phys. 40, 229 (1988)]. The coefficient of the derivative cubic term depends on the plasma beta in a way which, in general, is quite different from the fluid expression. In addition, a functionally novel term appears in the modified equation. The magnitude of this term, named the ''nonlocal term'' by Mjolhus and Wyller, can be large when the plasma beta is comparable to unity. The susceptibility of the modified equation to modulational instability is studied. Kinetic effects cause modulational instability of wave packets, even when fluid theory would predict modulational stability. This modulational instability occurs for both right- and left-hand polarized waves
AMPTE/CCE observations of substorm-associated standing Alfven waves in the midnight sector
Takahashi, K.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.; Kokubun, S.; Sakurai, T.
1988-01-01
Magnetic-field and medium-energy particle data from the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are used to study substorm-associated ULF pulsations in the midnight sector at a radial distance of 8 to 9 earth radii. The particle data are used to identify ion injections and to detect the electric field of ULF waves. A case study of the events on May 23, 1985 shows that the waves have the properties of a fundamental-mode standing Alfven wave. It is suggested that these observations are evidence of substorm-associated standing Alfven waves in the nightside magnetosphere.
Long-Alfven-wave trains in collisionless plasmas. I. Kinetic theory
A generalized kinetic derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the multidimensional dynamics of Alfven wave trains propagating along an ambient magnetic field is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by a reductive perturbative expansion. It retains in addition to the Landau damping, the coupling to longitudinally averaged fields driven by both transverse gradients and kinetic effects. These mean fields that modulate the propagation speed of the wave play a main role in transverse instabilities of extended Alfven wave packets and in the filamentation phenomenon. This long-wave model also provides a benchmark for Landau-fluid descriptions of collisionless plasmas
On the origin of solar wind. Alfven waves induced jump of coronal temperature
Mishonov, T M; Maneva, Y G
2007-01-01
Absorbtion of Alfven waves is considered as the main mechanism of heating of solar corona. It is concluded that the sharp increase of the plasma temperature by two orders of magnitude is related to a self-induced opacity with respect to Alfven waves. The maximal frequency for propagation of Alfven waves is determined by the strongly temperature dependent kinematic viscosity. In such a way the temperature jump is due to absorption of high frequency Alfven waves in a narrow layer above the solar surface. There is calculated the dissipated in this layer power, which blows up the plasma and gives birth to the solar wind. A model short wave-length (WKB) evaluation takes into account the 1/f^2 frequency dependance of the transversal magnetic field and velocity spectral densities. Such spectral densities agree with an old magnetometer's data taken by Voyager 1 and recent theoretical calculations in the framework of Langevin-Burgers MHD. The present theory predicts existence of intensive high frequency Alfven waves i...
Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.
2014-01-01
The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
Kinetic Alfven wave in the presence of kappa distribution function in plasma sheet boundary layer
The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution function. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (Ti/Te), and kappa distribution function affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven wave instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave
Alfven wave. [Book on linear and nonlinear properties for fusion applications
Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.
1978-11-01
Seven chapters are included. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the Alfven wave and describe its linear properties in a homogeneous medium. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the effects of inhomogeneities on these linear properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the appearance of a continuum spectrum and the associated absorption of the Alfven wave which arise due to the inhomogeneity. The explanation of the physical origin of absorption is given using kinetic theory. Chapter 5 is devoted to the associated plasma instabilities. Nonlinear effects discussed in Chapter 6 include quasilinear diffusion, decay, a solitary wave, and a modulational instability. The principles of Alfven wave heating, a design example and present-day experimental results are described in Chapter 7.
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure, collisional plasma
The hydromagnetic drift mode of the coupled drift-Alfven wave is destabilized as a standing wave in a dense, current-free plasma in the presence of a density gradient. When an axial electron current is drawn, a localized Alfven mode propagating against the current is destabilized, in addition to the unstable drift mode now propagating along the current. The measured wave properties, dispersion, and dependence on plasma parameters are found to agree with the theory derived for a finite β, collisional plasma
Quantum Treatment of Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves instability in a dusty plasma: Magnetized ions
Rubab, N
2016-01-01
The dispersion relation of kinetic Alfv\\'en wave in inertial regime is studied in a three component non-degenerate streaming plasma. A lin- ear dispersion relation using fluid- Vlasov equation for quantum plasma is also derived. The quantum correction CQ raised due to the insertion of Bohm potential in Vlasov model causes the suppression in the Alfven wave frequency and the growth rates of instability. A number of analytical expressions are derived for various modes of propagation. It is also found that many system parameters, i.e, streaming velocity, dust charge, num- ber density and quantum correction significantly influence the dispersion relation and the growth rate of instability.
Alfven Wave Collisions, The Fundamental Building Block of Plasma Turbulence II: Numerical Solution
Nielson, Kevin D; Dorland, William
2013-01-01
This paper presents the numerical verification of an asymptotic analytical solution for the nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfven waves, the fundamental building block of astrophysical plasma turbulence. The analytical solution, derived in the weak turbulence limit using the equations of incompressible MHD, is compared to a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of an Alfven wave collision. The agreement between these methods signifies that the incompressible solution satisfactorily describes the essential dynamics of the nonlinear energy transfer, even under the weakly collisional plasma conditions relevant to many astrophysical environments.
The soliton transform and a possible application to nonlinear Alfven waves in space
Hada, T.; Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.
1993-01-01
The inverse scattering transform (IST) based on the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation is applied to a complex time series of nonlinear Alfven wave data generated by numerical simulation. The IST describes the long-time evolution of quasi-parallel Alfven waves more efficiently than the Fourier transform, which is adapted to linear rather than nonlinear problems. When dissipation is added, so the conditions for the validity of the DNLS are not strictly satisfied, the IST continues to provide a compact description of the wavefield in terms of a small number of decaying envelope solitons.
Kinetic Alfven Waves at the Magnetopause-Mode Conversion, Transport and Formation of LLBL; TOPICAL
At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in the Alfven velocity[Johnson and Cheng, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1423]. The mode-conversion process can explain the following wave observations typically found during satellite crossings of the magnetopause: (1) a dramatic change in wave polarization from compressional in the magnetosheath to transverse at the magnetopause, (2) an amplification of wave amplitude at the magnetopause, (3) a change in Poynting flux from cross-field in the magnetosheath to field-aligned at the magnetopause, and (4) a steepening in the wave power spectrum at the magnetopause. We examine magnetic field data from a set of ISEE1, ISEE2, and WIND magnetopause crossings and compare with the predictions of theoretical wave solutions based on the kinetic-fluid model with particular attention to the role of magnetic field rotation across the magnetopause. The results of the study suggest a good qualitative agreement between the observations and the theory of mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. Because mode-converted kinetic Alfven waves readily decouple particles from the magnetic field lines, efficient quasilinear transport (D(approx) 109m2/s) can occur. Moreover, if the wave amplitude is sufficiently large (Bwave/B0 and gt; 0.2) stochastic particle transport also occurs. This wave-induced transport can lead to significant heating and particle entry into the low latitude boundary layer across closed field lines.At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in
Magnetohydrodynamics in the Early Universe and the Damping of Non-linear Alfven Waves
Subramanian, K; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Barrow, John D.
1998-01-01
The evolution and viscous damping of cosmic magnetic fields in the early universe, is analysed. Using the fact that the fluid, electromagnetic, and shear viscous energy-momentum tensors are all conformally invariant, the evolution is transformed from the expanding universe setting into that in flat spacetime. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of nonlinear Alfven modes. For a small enough magnetic field, which satisfies our observational constraints, these wave modes either oscillate negligibly or, when they do oscillate, become overdamped. Hence they do not suffer Silk damping on galactic and subgalactic scales. The smallest scale which survives damping depends on the field strength and is of order a dimensionless Alfven velocity times the usual baryon-photon Silk damping scale. After recombination, nonlinear effects can convert the Alfven mode into compressional, gravitationally unstable waves and seed cosmic structures if the cosmic magnetic field is sufficiently strong.
Energetic particle destabilization of shear Alfven waves in stellarators and tokamaks
An important issue for ignited devices is the resonant destabilization of shear Alfven waves by energetic populations. These instabilities have been observed in a variety of toroidal plasma experiments in recent years, including: beam-destabilized toroidal Alfven instabilities (TAE) in low magnetic field tokamaks, ICRF destabilized TAE's in higher field tokamaks, and global Alfven instabilities (GAE) in low shear stellarators. In addition, excitation and study of these modes is a significant goal of the TFIR-DT program and a component of the ITER physics tasks. The authors have developed a gyrofluid model which includes the wave-particle resonances necessary to excite such instabilities. The TAE linear mode structure is calculated nonperturbatively, including many of the relevant damping mechanisms, such as: continuum damping, non-ideal effects (ion FLR and electron collisionality), and ion/electron Landau damping. This model has been applied to both linear and nonlinear regimes for a range of experimental cases using measured profiles
The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect
NiBin-bin; ZhaoZheng-yu; XieShu-guo
2003-01-01
The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature varia-tions on the Alfven resonant field, We discuss the mechanism of the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the Doppler effect. The results show that the Alfven resonant field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR on HF waves has a quasi-quadratic relation with the Alfven field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase vari-ation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.
Reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in interstellar clouds
Pinto, C.; A. Verdini; Galli, D.; Velli, M.
2012-01-01
Context: Supersonic nonthermal motions in molecular clouds are often interpreted as long-lived magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The propagation and amplitude of these waves is affected by local physical characteristics, most importantly the gas density and the ionization fraction. Aims: We study the propagation, reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in molecular clouds deriving the behavior of observable quantities such as the amplitudes of velocity fluctuations and the rate of energy ...
Kinetic structures of shear Alfven and acoustic wave spectra in burning plasmas
Zonca, F; Biancalani, A; Chavdarovski, I; Chen, L; Di Troia, C; Wang, X, E-mail: fulvio.zonca@enea.it
2010-11-01
We present a general theoretical framework for discussing the physics of low frequency fluctuation spectra of shear Alfven and acoustic waves in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. This framework helps identifying the relevant dynamics and, thus, interpreting experimental observations. We also discuss the roles of such general theoretical framework for verification and validation of numerical simulation codes vs. analytic predictions and experimental results.
Kinetic structures of shear Alfven and acoustic wave spectra in burning plasmas
We present a general theoretical framework for discussing the physics of low frequency fluctuation spectra of shear Alfven and acoustic waves in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. This framework helps identifying the relevant dynamics and, thus, interpreting experimental observations. We also discuss the roles of such general theoretical framework for verification and validation of numerical simulation codes vs. analytic predictions and experimental results.
Overdamped Alfven waves due to ion-neutral collisions in the solar chromosphere
Soler, R; Zaqarashvili, T V
2014-01-01
Alfvenic waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and their dissipation may play an important role in atmospheric heating. In the partially ionized solar chromosphere, collisions between ions and neutrals are an efficient dissipative mechanism for Alfven waves with frequencies near the ion-neutral collision frequency. The collision frequency is proportional to the ion-neutral collision cross section for momentum transfer. Here, we investigate Alfven wave damping as a function of height in a simplified chromospheric model and compare the results for two sets of collision cross sections, namely those of the classic hard-sphere model and those based on recent quantum-mechanical computations. We find important differences between the results for the two sets of cross sections. There is a critical interval of wavelengths for which impulsively excited Alfven waves are overdamped as a result of the strong ion-neutral dissipation. The critical wavelengths are in the range from 1 km to 50 km for the hard-sphere cr...
Heating and Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Alfv\\'{e}n Wave Turbulence
van Ballegooijen, A A
2016-01-01
We present numerical simulations of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in a magnetic flux tube at the center of a polar coronal hole. The model for the background atmosphere is a solution of the momentum equation, and includes the effects of wave pressure on the solar wind outflow. Alfv\\'{e}n waves are launched at the coronal base, and reflect at various heights due to variations in Alfv\\'{e}n speed and outflow velocity. The turbulence is driven by nonlinear interactions between the counter-propagating Alfv\\'{e}n waves. Results are presented for two models of the background atmosphere. In the first model the plasma density and Alfv\\'{e}n speed vary smoothly with height, resulting in minimal wave reflections and low energy dissipation rates. We find that the dissipation rate is insufficient to maintain the temperature of the background atmosphere. The standard phenomenological formula for the dissipation rate significantly overestimates the rate derived from our RMHD simulations, and a revised formu...
Energy cascade in internal wave attractors
Brouzet, Christophe; Joubaud, Sylvain; Sibgatullin, Ilias; Dauxois, Thierry
2016-01-01
One of the pivotal questions in the dynamics of the oceans is related to the cascade of mechanical energy in the abyss and its contribution to mixing. Here, we propose internal wave attractors in the large amplitude regime as a unique self-consistent experimental and numerical setup that models a cascade of triadic interactions transferring energy from large-scale monochro-matic input to multi-scale internal wave motion. We also provide signatures of a discrete wave turbulence framework for internal waves. Finally, we show how beyond this regime, we have a clear transition to a regime of small-scale high-vorticity events which induce mixing. Introduction.
Weng, C. J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Lee, L. C. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. L. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, C. B. [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)
2013-03-15
Alfven waves are low-frequency transverse waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. We define the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0} as {omega}{sub 0}=kV{sub A}cos{theta}, where k is the wave number, V{sub A} is the Alfven speed, and {theta} is the angle between the wave vector and the ambient magnetic field. There are partially ionized plasmas in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma systems, such as in the solar chromosphere, interstellar clouds, and the earth ionosphere. The presence of neutral particles may modify the wave frequency and cause damping of Alfven waves. The effects on Alfven waves depend on two parameters: (1) {alpha}=n{sub n}/n{sub i}, the ratio of neutral density (n{sub n}), and ion density (n{sub i}); (2) {beta}={nu}{sub ni}/{omega}{sub 0}, the ratio of neutral collisional frequency by ions {nu}{sub ni} to the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Most of the previous studies examined only the limiting case with a relatively large neutral collisional frequency or {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1. In the present paper, the dispersion relation for Alfven waves is solved for all values of {alpha} and {beta}. Approximate solutions in the limit {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1 as well as {beta} Much-Less-Than 1 are obtained. It is found for the first time that there is a 'forbidden zone (FZ)' in the {alpha}-{beta} parameter space, where the real frequency of Alfven waves becomes zero. We also solve the wavenumber k from the dispersion equation for a fixed frequency and find the existence of a 'heavy damping zone (HDZ).' We then examine the presence of FZ and HDZ for Alfven waves in the ionosphere and in the solar chromosphere.
Experimental evidence of Alfv\\'en wave propagation in a Gallium alloy
Alboussiere, Thierry; Debray, François; La Rizza, Patrick; Masson, Jean-Paul; Plunian, Franck; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Schmitt, Denys
2011-01-01
Experiments with a liquid metal alloy, galinstan, are reported and show clear evidence of Alfv\\'en wave propagation as well as resonance of Alfv\\'en modes. Galinstan is liquid at room temperature, and although its electrical conductivity is not as large as that of liquid sodium or NaK, it has still been possible to study Alfv\\'en waves, thanks to the use of intense magnetic fi elds, up to 13 teslas. The maximal values of Lundquist number, around 60, are similar to that of the reference experimental study by Jameson [1]. The generation mechanism for Alfv\\'en waves and their refl ection is studied carefully. Numerical simulations have been performed and have been able to reproduce the experimental results despite the fact that the simulated magnetic Prandtl number was much larger than that of galinstan. An originality of the present study is that a poloidal disturbance (magnetic and velocity fields) is generated, allowing us to track its propagation from outside the conducting domain, hence without interfering.
Alfven wave coupled with flow-driven fluid instability in interpenetrating plasmas
Vranjes, J
2015-01-01
The Alfven wave is analyzed in case of one quasineutral plasma propagating with some constant speed $v_0$ through another static quasineutral plasma. A dispersion equation is derived describing the Alfven wave coupled with the flow driven mode $\\omega= k v_0$ and solutions are discussed analytically and numerically. The usual solutions for two oppositely propagating Alfv\\'en waves are substantially modified due to the flowing plasma. More profound is modification of the solution propagating in the negative direction with respect to the magnetic field and the plasma flow. For a large enough flow speed (exceeding the Alfven speed in the static plasma), this negative solution may become non-propagating, with frequency equal to zero. In this case it represents a spatial variation of the electromagnetic field. For greater flow speed it becomes a forward mode, and it may merge with the positive one. This merging of the two modes represents the starting point for a flow-driven instability, with two complex-conjugate...
Alfven wave spectrum control in the heating and current drive experiments
In this report we present the diagnostic system that has been developed for wave field spectrum analysis and control during Alfven wave heating and current drive experiments in the TCABR tokamak The system permits to register simultaneously the phase and the amplitude of the toroidal Β-tilde φ and poloidal Β-tildeθ magnetic field components of the waves with M ±1, N = ±, N = ±(2+6) in the frequency range ∫ = 2-8 MHz and RF pulse duration τ = 20-50 ms and to generate a feedback signal for plasma parameters control. The wave mode and frequency selectivity are ensured by the adjustment of the magnetic probe position and by utilization of specially designed 'lock-in' amplifiers that use 'sin' and 'cos' reference signals produced on the basis of the Alfven antenna feeding current. (author)
Nonlinear coupling of O- and X-mode radio emission and Alfven waves in the solar corona
The nonlinear coupling of extraordinary and ordinary waves via kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) is investigated on the basis of two fluid magnetohydrodynamics. The equation governing the time dependence of electric field of excited O-mode is found. We estimate the time of effective coupling between modes and corresponding interaction distance in solar corona. Our theoretical results show that the X- and O-mode couplings via Alfven waves can be efficient depolarization mechanism for the coronal radioemission
Magnetosphere--Ionosphere Coupling: Effects of Plasma Alfven Wave Relative Motion
Christiansen, P. J.; Dum, C. T.
1989-06-01
The introduction of relative perpendicular motion between a flux-tube supporting shear Alfven wave activity and the background plasma is studied in the context of the coupling of a wave generating region with a distant ionosphere. The results of a representative simulation, using an extended version of the code developed by Lysak & Dum (J. geophys. Res. 88, 365 (1983)), are used as a basis for interpreting some aspects of recent satellite observations.
Propagation of Alfv\\'enic Waves From Corona to Chromosphere and Consequences for Solar Flares
Russell, A. J. B.; Fletcher, L.
2013-01-01
How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a 2-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform 1D simulations of Alfv\\'en waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra and umbra) show that energy transmis...
Transverse dynamics of dispersive Alfven waves. II. Driving of a reduced magnetohydrodynamic flow
The nonlinear dynamics resulting from transverse and quasi-transverse instabilities of a finite-amplitude dispersive Alfven wave propagating along an ambient magnetic field is studied by direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) equations. When the pump wave has a moderate amplitude and a long enough wavelength, one observes the generation of nonlinear structures in the form of helical filaments for the transverse magnetic field intensity and the density fluctuations. An interesting feature is the development of a quasi-incompressible turbulent flow, with a longitudinal characteristic scale large compared to the Alfven wavelength, that remains spectrally well separated from the wave throughout the evolution. The coexistence of this 'reduced MHD' flow with nonlinear Alfven waves was predicted on the basis of an asymptotic analysis [A. Gazol, T. Passot, and P. L. Sulem, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3114 (1999)] carried out in the long-wavelength limit. Whereas in this regime the generation of the reduced MHD flow is negligible, it becomes significant on a time scale of a few wave periods when dispersion is increased. Increasing the dispersion also leads to a faster destabilization of the wave and to a more rapid dissipation, a remarkable effect due to enhanced instability growth rates. In the case of a larger amplitude pump, or of an Alfven wavelength close to the ion-inertial length, the helical structures get fragmented and the spectral gap observed at early times between the large-scale flow and the waves rapidly disappears, leading to a fully three-dimensional MHD turbulent flow
Modification and damping of Alfven waves in a magnetized dusty plasma
The dispersion characteristics of the circularly polarized electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous magnetic field in a dusty plasma have been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been employed to find the response of the magnetized plasma particles where the dust grains form a static background of highly charged and massive centers having certain correlation. It is found that in addition to the usual Landau damping which is negligible in the low temperature approximation, a novel mechanism of damping of the Alfven waves due to the dust comes into play. The modification and damping of the Alfven waves depend on the dust perturbation parameters, unequal densities of plasma particles, the average correlation length of the dust grains, temperature of the plasma and the magnetic field. (author)
Supergranulation-driven Alfven waves in the solar chromosphere and related phenomena.
Hollweg, J. V.
1972-01-01
It has recently been recognized that Alfven waves frequently dominate the microstructure of the solar wind at the orbit of the earth. We seek a solar source for these waves, and consider here their excitation by the supergranular motions. The wave equation is solved in a horizontally stratified, bi-exponential solar atmosphere. The interaction of Alfven wave motions associated with adjacent supergranules is discussed qualitatively. The Alfven wave effectively conveys the supergranular motions to great heights in the chromosphere. These motions are oppositely directed above intersupergranule boundaries, and compress the magnetic field there. A naive calculation of the compression, based on balancing dynamic and magnetic pressures, leads to adequate agreement with observations of the chromospheric network. We find that the magnetic field is appreciably compressed only below about 1500 km, and on this basis we reject theories of spicule formation which require large vertical magnetic fields at the heights reached by spicules. We advance a theory for spicule formation, in which spicules form as a result of matter being squeezed upward, out of the compression region between adjacent supergranules.
Flow shear suppression of turbulence using externally driven ion Bernstein and Alfven waves
The utilization of externally-launched radio-frequency waves as a means of active confinement control through the generation of sheared poloidal flows is explored. For low-frequency waves, kinetic Alfven waves are proposed, and are shown to drive sheared E x B flows as a result of the radial variation in the electromagnetic Reynolds stress. In the high frequency regime, ion Bernstein waves are considered, and shown to generate sheared poloidal rotation through the ponderomotive force. In either case, it is shown that modest amounts of absorbed power (∼ few 100 kW) are required to suppress turbulence in a region of several cm radial width. 9 refs
Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali
2007-01-01
We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the electrostatic (ES) components of broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves could possibly be generated by cross-field plasma instabilities driven by the relative drifts between the heavy and light ion species in the electromagnetic (EM) Alfvenic component of the BBELF waves in a multi-ion plasma. The ES components consist of ion cyclotron as well as lower hybrid modes. We also demonstrate that the ES wave generation is directly involved in the transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) as commonly measured with the BBELF wave events. The heating is affected by ion cyclotron resonance in the cyclotron modes and Landau resonance in the lower hybrid waves. In the simulation we drive the plasma by the transverse electric field, E(sub y), of the EM waves; the frequency of E(sub y), omega(sub d), is varied from a frequency below the heavy ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub h), to below the light ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub i). We have also performed simulations for E(sub y) having a continuous spectrum given by a power law, namely, |Ey| approx. omega(sub d) (exp -alpha), where the exponent alpha = _, 1, and 2 in three different simulations. The driving electric field generates polarization and ExB drifts of the ions and electrons. When the interspecies relative drifts are sufficiently large, they drive electrostatic waves, which cause perpendicular heating of both light and heavy ions. The transverse ion heating found here is discussed in relation to observations from Cluster, FAST and Freja.
On the reflection of Alfv\\'en waves and its implication for Earth's core modeling
Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Cardin, Philippe; Marie, Drouard
2011-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves propagate in electrically conducting fluids in the presence of a magnetic field. Their reflection properties depend on the ratio between the kinematic viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, also known as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. In the special case Pm=1, there is no reflection on an insulating, no-slip boundary, and the wave energy is entirely dissipated in the boundary layer. We investigate the consequences of this remarkable behaviour for the numerical modeling of torsional Alfv\\'en waves (also known as torsional oscillations), which represent a special class of Alfv\\'en waves, in rapidly rotating spherical shells. They consist of geostrophic motions and are thought to exist in the fluid cores of planets with internal magnetic field. In the geophysical limit Pm 0.3, which is the range of values for which geodynamo numerical models operate. As a result, geodynamo models with no-slip boundary conditions cannot exhibit torsional oscillation normal modes.
Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves generation by large-scale phase-mixing
Vasconez, C L; Valentini, F; Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Malara, F
2015-01-01
One view of the solar-wind turbulence is that the observed highly anisotropic fluctuations at spatial scales near the proton inertial length $d_p$ may be considered as Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs). In the present paper, we show how phase-mixing of large-scale parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves is an efficient mechanism for the production of KAWs at wavelengths close to $d_p$ and at large propagation angle with respect to the magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-Magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD), and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) simulations modeling the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves in inhomogeneous plasmas are performed. In linear regime, the role of dispersive effects is singled out by comparing MHD and HMHD results. Fluctuations produced by phase-mixing are identified as KAWs through a comparison of polarization of magnetic fluctuations and wave group velocity with analytical linear predictions. In the nonlinear regime, comparison of HMHD and HVM simulations allows to point out the role of kinetic effe...
Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry
Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J
2015-01-01
Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...
Energy densities of Alfven waves between 0.7 and 1.6 AU. [in interplanetary medium
Belcher, J. W.; Burchsted, R.
1974-01-01
Plasma and field data from Mariner 4 and 5 between 0.7 and 1.6 AU are used to study the radial dependence of the levels of microscale fluctuation associated with interplanetary Alfven waves. The observed decrease of these levels with increasing distance from the sun is consistent with little or no local generation or damping of the ambient Alfven waves over this range of radial distance.
Inbound waves in the solar corona: a direct indicator of Alfv\\'en Surface location
DeForest, C E; McComas, D J
2014-01-01
The tenuous supersonic solar wind that streams from the top of the corona passes through a natural boundary -- the Alfv\\'en surface -- that marks the causal disconnection of individual packets of plasma and magnetic flux from the Sun itself. The Alfv\\'en surface is the locus where the radial motion of the accelerating solar wind passes the radial Alfv\\'en speed, and therefore any displacement of material cannot carry information back down into the corona. It is thus the natural outer boundary of the solar corona, and the inner boundary of interplanetary space. Using a new and unique motion analysis to separate inbound and outbound motions in synoptic visible-light image sequences from the COR2 coronagraph on board the STEREO-A spacecraft, we have identified inbound wave motion in the outer corona beyond 6 solar radii for the first time, and used it to determine that the Alfv\\'en surface is at least 12.5 solar radii from the Sun over the polar coronal holes and 17 solar radii in the streamer belt, well beyond ...
Kinetic effects of Alfven wave spatial resonances near the plasma edge are investigated numerically and analytically in a cylindrical tokamak model. In Part 1, cold plasma surface Alfven eigenmodes (SAE's) in a pure plasma are examined. Numerical calculations of antenna-driven waves exhibiting absorption resonances at certain discrete frequencies are first reviewed. From a simplified kinetic equation, an analytical dispersion relation is then obtained with the antenna current set equal to zero. The real and imaginary parts of its roots, which are the complex eigenfrequencies, agree with the central frequencies and widths, respectively, of the numerical antenna-driven resonances. These results serve as an introduction to the companion paper, in which it is shown that, in the presence of a minority species, certain SAE's, instead of heating the plasma exterior, can dissipate substantial energy in the two-ion hybrid layer near the plasma center. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
The first direct observation of the internal structure of driven global Alfven eigenmodes in a tokamak plasma is presented. A carbon dioxide laser scattering/interferometer has been designed, built, and installed on the PRETEXT tokamak. By using this diagnostic system in the interferometer configuration, we have for the first time, thoroughly investigated the resonance conditions required for, and the spatial wave field structure of, driven plasma eigenmodes at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency in a confined, high temperature, tokamak plasma
Magnetohydrodynamics in the Early Universe and the Damping of Non-linear Alfven Waves
Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Barrow, John D.
1997-01-01
The evolution and viscous damping of cosmic magnetic fields in the early universe, is analysed. Using the fact that the fluid, electromagnetic, and shear viscous energy-momentum tensors are all conformally invariant, the evolution is transformed from the expanding universe setting into that in flat spacetime. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of nonlinear Alfven modes. For a small enough magnetic field, which satisfies our observational constraints, these wave modes either oscilla...
Plasma acceleration by the interaction of parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves
Mottez, Fabrice
2014-01-01
It is shown that two circularly polarised Alfv\\'en waves that propagate along the ambient magnetic field in an uniform plasma trigger non oscillating electromagnetic field components when they cross each other. The non-oscilliating field components can accelerate ions and electrons with great efficiency. This work is based on particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations and on analytical non-linear computations. The analytical computations are done for two counter-propagating monochromatic wa...
Theory of heating of hot magnetized plasma by Alfven waves. Application for solar corona
Mishonov, T. M.; Stoev, M. V.; Maneva, Y. G.
2007-01-01
The heating of magnetized plasma by propagation of Alfven waves is calculated as a function of the magnetic field spectral density. The results can be applied to evaluate the heating power of the solar corona at known data from satellites' magnetometers. This heating rate can be incorporated in global models for heating of the solar corona and creation of the solar wind. The final formula for the heating power is illustrated with a model spectral density of the magnetic field obtained by anal...
Effect of Rossby and Alfv\\'{e}n waves on the dynamics of the tachocline
Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-Jin
2006-01-01
To understand magnetic diffusion, momentum transport, and mixing in the interior of the sun, we consider an idealized model of the tachocline, namely magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence on a $\\beta$ plane subject to a large scale shear (provided by the latitudinal differential rotation). This model enables us to self-consistently derive the influence of shear, Rossby and Alfv\\'{e}n waves on the transport properties of turbulence. In the strong magnetic field regime, we find that the turbule...
Spectroscopic Observations and Modelling of Impulsive Alfv\\'en Waves Along a Polar Coronal Jet
Jelínek, P; Murawski, K; Kayshap, P; Dwivedi, B N
2015-01-01
Using the Hinode/EIS 2$"$ spectroscopic observations, we study the intensity, velocity, and FWHM variations of the strongest Fe XII 195.12 \\AA\\ line along the jet to find the signature of Alfv\\'en waves. We simulate numerically the impulsively generated Alfv\\'en waves within the vertical Harris current-sheet, forming the jet plasma flows, and mimicking their observational signatures. Using the FLASH code and the atmospheric model with embedded weakly expanding magnetic field configuration within a vertical Harris current-sheet, we solve the two and half-dimensional (2.5-D) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to study the evolution of Alfv\\'en waves and vertical flows forming the plasma jet. At a height of $\\sim 5~\\mathrm{Mm}$ from the base of the jet, the red-shifted velocity component of Fe XII 195.12 \\AA\\ line attains its maximum ($5~\\mathrm{km\\,s}^{-1}$) which converts into a blue-shifted one between the altitude of $5-10~\\mathrm{Mm}$. The spectral intensity continously increases up to $10~\\mathrm{Mm...
The role of Alfv\\'en wave heating in solar prominences
Soler, Roberto; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis
2016-01-01
Observations have shown that magnetohydrodynamic waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in solar prominences. The waves are probably driven by photospheric motions and may transport energy up to prominences suspended in the corona. Dissipation of wave energy can lead to heating of the cool prominence plasma, so contributing to the local energy balance within the prominence. Here we discuss the role of Alfv\\'en wave dissipation as a heating mechanism for the prominence plasma. We consider a slab-like quiescent prominence model with a transverse magnetic field embedded in the solar corona. The prominence medium is modelled as a partially ionized plasma composed of a charged ion-electron single fluid and two separate neutral fluids corresponding to neutral hydrogen and neutral helium. Friction between the three fluids acts as a dissipative mechanism for the waves. The heating caused by externally-driven Alfv\\'en waves incident on the prominence slab is analytically explored. We find that the dense pro...
Observation of fast-ion Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with shear Alfven waves
The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance (ω-kzvz=Ωf) between fast ions and shear Alfven waves is experimentally investigated (ω, wave frequency; kz, axial wavenumber; vz, fast-ion axial speed; Ωf, fast-ion cyclotron frequency). A test particle beam of fast ions is launched by a Li+ source in the helium plasma of the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], with shear Alfven waves (SAW) (amplitude δ B/B up to 1%) launched by a loop antenna. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer measures the nonclassical spreading of the beam, which is proportional to the resonance with the wave. A resonance spectrum is observed by launching SAWs at 0.3-0.8ωci. Both the magnitude and frequency dependence of the beam-spreading are in agreement with the theoretical prediction using a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that launches fast ions with an initial spread in real/velocity space and random phases relative to the wave. Measured wave magnetic field data are used in the simulation.
Stimulated emission of fast Alfv\\'en waves within magnetically confined fusion plasmas
Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C
2016-01-01
A fast Alfv\\'en wave with finite amplitude is shown to grow by a stimulated emission process that we propose for exploitation in toroidal magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Stimulated emission occurs while the wave propagates inward through the outer mid-plane plasma, where a population inversion of the energy distribution of fusion-born ions is observed to arise naturally. Fully nonlinear first principles simulations, which self-consistently evolve particles and fields under the Maxwell-Lorentz system, demonstrate this novel "alpha-particle channelling" scenario for the first time.
Plastic damping of Alfv\\'en waves in magnetar flares and delayed afterglow emission
Li, Xinyu
2015-01-01
Magnetar flares generate Alfv\\'en waves bouncing in the closed magnetosphere with energy up to $\\sim 10^{46}$ erg. We show that on a 10-ms timescale the waves are transmitted into the star and form a compressed packet of high energy density. This packet strongly shears the stellar crust and initiates a plastic flow, heating the crust and melting it hundreds of meters below the surface. A fraction of the deposited plastic heat is eventually conducted to the stellar surface, contributing to the surface afterglow months to years after the flare. A large fraction of heat is lost to neutrino emission or conducted into the core of the neutron star.
Roles of Fast-Cyclotron and Alfven-Cyclotron Waves for the Multi-Ion Solar Wind
Xiong, Ming; Li, Xing
2012-01-01
Using linear Vlasov theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear theory of resonant wave-particle interaction, the dispersion relations and the electromagnetic field fluctuations of fast and Alfven waves are studied for a low-beta multi-ion plasma in the inner corona. Their probable roles in heating and accelerating the solar wind via Landau and cyclotron resonances are quantified. We assume that (1) low-frequency Alfven and fast waves have the same spectral shape and the same amplitude of power s...
Shukla, P K
2012-01-01
It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unperturbed plasma number density, $k_B$ the Boltzmann constant, $T_e (T_e)$ the electron (ion) temperature, and $B_0$ the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) Alfv\\'enic vortex beam or Alfv\\'enic tornadoes with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of Alfv\\'en magnetic flux ropes.
Alfven waves and current relaxation: attenuation at high frequencies and large resistivity
The dispersion relations of Alfven waves propagating in a resistive plasma are explored by assuming a finite relaxation time for the current density. It is shown that the proposed approach is consistent with the hydromagnetic approximation. An extension for the equation governing the space and time evolution of Alfven waves is provided. New results are found at high values of the wave frequency ω: for a small resistivity, the wavelength increases as the cube of the equilibrium magnetic field but decreases with the cube of ω; for a large resistivity, the wave attenuation does not depend on ω, saturating to a finite value which is fully determined by the relaxation time of the current density. A transition frequency, ωt, between two sharply distinct regimes of the perturbation is identified: for ω t, the disturbance propagates in the resistive plasma as an attenuated oscillation; for ω > ωt the wave ceases very rapidly to oscillate (in space), its amplitude saturating to a finite value. The results presented here may be relevant for investigations of some transient phenomena in plasma physics such as the reconnection of magnetic field lines.
Non-inductive electric current generation with the Alfven waves
Non-inductive current generation by means of radio frequency waves is studied using one-dimensional (1D) quasilinear equations. The main results obtained in this thesis are the general expressions for the current generated, for the efficiency of current generation and for the critical power - the lowest power required for current saturation. (M.W.O.)
Plasma acceleration by the interaction of parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves
Mottez, Fabrice
2014-01-01
It is shown that two circularly polarised Alfv\\'en waves that propagate along the ambient magnetic field in an uniform plasma trigger non oscillating electromagnetic field components when they cross each other. The non-oscilliating field components can accelerate ions and electrons with great efficiency. This work is based on particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations and on analytical non-linear computations. The analytical computations are done for two counter-propagating monochromatic waves. The simulations are done with monochromatic waves and with wave packets. The simulations show parallel electromagnetic fields consistent with the theory, and they show that the particle acceleration result in plasma cavities and, if the waves amplitudes are high enough, in ion beams. These acceleration processes could be relevant in space plasmas. For instance, they could be at work in the auroral zone and in the radiation belts of the Earth magnetosphere. In particular, they may explain the origin of the deep plasma...
Effects of heavy ion temperature on low-frequency kinetic Alfven waves
Heavy ion-electron (or proton) temperature ratio varies in a wide range in the solar and space environment. In this paper, proton and heavy ion temperatures are included in a three-fluid plasma model. For the specified parameters, low-frequency (<< heavy ion gyrofrequency) kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) with sub- and super-Alfvenic speeds are found to coexist in the same plasma environment. Our results show that the temperature ratio of heavy ions to electrons can considerably affect the dispersion, propagation, and electromagnetic polarizations of the KAWs. In particular, the temperature ratio can increase the ratio of parallel to perpendicular electric fields and the normalized electric to magnetic field ratio, the variations of which are greatly different in regions with a high heavy ion temperature and with a low one. The results may help to understand the physical mechanism of some energization processes of heavy ions in the solar and space plasma environment. Effects of the ratio of electron thermal to Alfven speeds and the heavy ion abundance on these parameters are also discussed.
Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas
Bains, A; Xia, L -D
2014-01-01
We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n waves (KAWs) in low $\\beta$ plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter $\\kappa$, plasma $\\beta$ and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfv\\'enic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfv\\'en rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation from {the KdV} equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermal...
Advanced antenna system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCABR tokamak
An advanced antenna system that has been developed for investigation of Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in the TCABR tokamak is described. The main goal was the development of such a system that could insure the excitation of travelling single helicity modes with predefined wave mode numbers M and N. The system consists of four similar modules with poloidal windings. The required spatial spectrum is formed by proper phasing of the RF feeding currents. The impedance matching of the antenna with the four-phase oscillator is accomplished by resonant circuits which form one assembly unit with the RF feeders. The characteristics of the antenna system design with respect to the antenna-plasma coupling and plasma wave excitation, for different phasing of the feeding currents, are summarised. The antenna complex impedance Z=ZR+ZI is calculated taking into account both the plasma response to resonant excitation of fast Alfven waves and the nonresonant excitation of vacuum magnetic fields in conducting shell. The matching of the RF generator with the antenna system during plasma heating is simulated numerically, modelling the plasma response with mutually coupled effective inductances with corresponding active ZR and reactive ZI impedances. The results of the numerical simulation of the RF system performance, including both the RF magnetic field spectrum analysis and the modeling of the RF generator operation with plasma load, are presented. (orig.)
Design of the RF system for Alfven wave heating and current drive in a TCA/BR tokamak
The advanced RF system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCA/BR tokamak is presented. The antenna system is capable of exciting the standing and travelling wave M = -1,N = 1,N =-4,-6 with single helicity and thus provides the possibility to improve Alfven wave plasma heating efficiency in TCA/BR tokamak and to increase input power level up to P ≅ 1 MW, without the uncontrolled density rise which was encountered in previous TCA (Switzerland) experiments. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
Transverse dynamics of dispersive Alfven waves. I. Direct numerical evidence of filamentation
The three-dimensional dynamics of a small-amplitude monochromatic Alfven wave propagating along an ambient magnetic field is simulated by direct numerical integration of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamics equations. As predicted by the two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation or by more general amplitude equations retaining the coupling to low-frequency magnetosonic waves, the transverse instability of the pump leads to wave collapse and formation of intense magnetic filaments, in spite of the presence of competing, possibly linearly dominant, instabilities that in some instances distort the above structures. In computational boxes, including a large number of pump wavelengths, an early arrest of the collapse is possible under the effect of quasi-transverse instabilities that drive magnetosonic waves and also prescribe the directions of the filaments
The results of the initial experimental studies of the Alfven wave antenna module, which is destined to be a part of the advanced antenna system of TCABR tokamak, are presented. The tests were carried out in a specially constructed vacuum chamber and included the measurement of antenna electrical parameters and testing of the power diagnostic tools. The complex impedances and inductive mutual coupling of antenna loops were measured and results were compared with theoretical calculations. The tests have shown that the parameters of the antenna module have values according to the design. (author)
Nonlinear reflection process of linearly-polarized, broadband Alfv\\'en waves in the fast solar wind
Shoda, Munehito
2016-01-01
Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave-wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfv\\'{e}n wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfv\\'en wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfv\\...
Lazarian, A
2016-01-01
This paper considers turbulent damping of Alfven waves in magnetized plasmas. We identify two cases of damping, one related to damping of cosmic rays streaming instability, the other related to damping of Alfven waves emitted by a macroscopic wave source, e.g. stellar atmosphere. The physical difference between the two cases is that in the former case the generated waves are emitted in respect to the local direction of magnetic field, in the latter in respect to the mean field. The scaling of damping is different in the two cases. We the regimes of turbulence ranging from subAlfvenic to superAlfvenic we obtain analytical expressions for the damping rates and define the ranges of applicability of these expressions. Describing the damping of the streaming instability, we find that for subAlfvenic turbulence the range of cosmic ray energies influenced by weak turbulence is unproportionally large compared to the range of scales that the weak turbulence is present. On the contrary, the range of cosmic ray energies...
The Spatial and Temporal Dependence of Coronal Heating by Alfven Wave Turbulence
Asgari-Targhi, M; Cranmer, S R; DeLuca, E E
2013-01-01
The solar atmosphere may be heated by Alfven waves that propagate up from the convection zone and dissipate their energy in the chromosphere and corona. To further test this theory, we consider wave heating in an active region observed on 2012 March 7. A potential field model of the region is constructed, and 22 field lines representing observed coronal loops are traced through the model. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reduced magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code, we simulate the dynamics of Alfven waves in and near the observed loops. The results for different loops are combined into a single formula describing the average heating rate Q as function of position within the observed active region. We suggest this expression may be approximately valid also for other active regions, and therefore may be used to construct 3D, time-dependent models of the coronal plasma. Such models are needed to understand the role of thermal non-equilibrium in the structuring and dynamics of the Sun's corona.
Filamentation of dispersive Alfven waves in density channels: Hall magnetohydrodynamics description
Filamentation of dispersive Alfven waves initiated by low or high density channels (depending on the plasma beta) is simulated numerically in the framework of ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics, and asymptotically modeled with a two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation including a linear attracting potential. Compared with the dynamics in a homogeneous plasma, the phenomenon is accelerated and occurs for a broader range of parameters. In the case of an isolated channel with a width comparable to the pump wavelength, the transverse wave collapse can be replaced by a moderate amplification. In many cases, a relatively complex dynamics takes place, characterized by an oscillation between magnetic filaments and magnetic ribbons, leading to the formation of small scales at which dissipative effects could become relevant. Alfven vortices, governed by the equations of the reduced magnetohydrodynamics, are also identified in the simulations, in spite of their small amplitude relative to the wave. The formation of structures under the effect of periodic or random distributions of low and high density channels is also discussed
Integrated campaign to study the stationary inertial Alfven wave in the laboratory and space regimes
A small, off-axis mesh-anode electrode at one plasma-column end is used to create a paraxial channel of electron current and depleted density in the large plasma device upgrade at UCLA. We show that the on-axis, larger, surrounding-plasma column rotates about its cylindrical axis because a radial electric field is imposed by a multiple-segmented-disc termination electrode on the same end as the mesh-anode electrode. The radial profile of azimuthal velocity is shown to be consistent with predictions of rigid-body rotation. Launched inertial Alfven waves are shown to concentrate in the off-axis channel of electron current and depleted plasma density. In the absence of launched waves, time varying boundary conditions, or spatially structured boundary conditions, a non-fluctuating, non-traveling pattern in the plasma density is shown to arise spontaneously in the channel, but only in the combined presence of electron current, density depletion, and spontaneously in the channel, cross-field convection (i.e. rotation). These results may be relevant to the stationary Alfven wave in the inertial regime in space and laboratory plasmas
Tsiklauri, David
2015-04-01
Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1/3 and in the latter as log(S) , where S is the Lundquist number. In this work [1], linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed
Studies of the Jet in BL Lacertae. II. Superluminal Alfv\\'en Waves
Cohen, M H; Arshakian, T G; Clausen-Brown, E; Homan, D C; Hovatta, T; Kovalev, Y Y; Lister, M L; Pushkarev, A B; Richards, J L; Savolainen, T
2014-01-01
Ridge lines on the pc-scale jet of the active galactic nucleus BL Lac display transverse patterns that move superluminally downstream. The patterns are not ballistic, but are analogous to waves on a whip. Their apparent speeds $\\beta_\\mathrm{app}$ (units of $c$) range from 4.2 to 13.5, corresponding to $\\beta_\\mathrm{wave}^\\mathrm{gal}= 0.981 - 0.998$ in the galaxy frame. We show that the magnetic field in the jet is well-ordered with a strong transverse component, and assume that it is helical and that the transverse patterns are longitudinal Alfv\\'en waves. The wave-induced transverse speed of the jet is non-relativistic ($\\beta_\\mathrm{tr}^\\mathrm{gal}\\sim 0.09$) and in agreement with our assumption of low-amplitude waves. In 2010 the wave activity subsided and the jet displayed a mild wiggle that had a complex oscillatory behavior. The waves are excited by changes in the position angle of the recollimation shock, in analogy to exciting a wave on a whip by shaking it. Simple models of the system are presen...
Kinetic Alfven solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons
Panwar, A., E-mail: anurajrajput@gmail.com, E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr, E-mail: bainsphysics@yahoo.co.in; Ryu, C. M., E-mail: anurajrajput@gmail.com, E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr, E-mail: bainsphysics@yahoo.co.in [POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bains, A. S., E-mail: anurajrajput@gmail.com, E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr, E-mail: bainsphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan S7N5E2 (Canada)
2015-09-15
A study of the ion Larmor radius effects on the solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons is presented by employing the kinetic theory. The linear dispersion relation of SKAW is shown to depend on the superthermal parameter κ, ion to electron temperature ratio, and the angle of wave propagation. Using the Sagdeev potential approach, the energy balance equation has been derived to study the dynamics of SKAWs. The effects of various plasma parameters are investigated for the propagation of SKAWs. It is shown that only compressive solitons can exist and in the Maxwellian limit our results are in good agreement with previous studies. Further, the characteristics of small amplitude SKAWs are investigated. Present study could be useful for the understanding of SKAWs in a low β plasma in astrophysical environment, where particle distributions are superthermal in nature.
Kinetic Alfven solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons
A study of the ion Larmor radius effects on the solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) in a magnetized plasma with superthermal electrons is presented by employing the kinetic theory. The linear dispersion relation of SKAW is shown to depend on the superthermal parameter κ, ion to electron temperature ratio, and the angle of wave propagation. Using the Sagdeev potential approach, the energy balance equation has been derived to study the dynamics of SKAWs. The effects of various plasma parameters are investigated for the propagation of SKAWs. It is shown that only compressive solitons can exist and in the Maxwellian limit our results are in good agreement with previous studies. Further, the characteristics of small amplitude SKAWs are investigated. Present study could be useful for the understanding of SKAWs in a low β plasma in astrophysical environment, where particle distributions are superthermal in nature
Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance of fast ions with circularly polarized shear Alfven waves
The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance between fast ions and shear Alfven waves (SAWs) has been experimentally investigated with a test-particle fast-ion (Li+) beam launched in the helium plasma of the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)]. Left- or right-hand circularly polarized SAWs are launched by an antenna with four current channels. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer characterizes the resonance by measuring the nonclassical spreading of the averaged beam signal. Left-hand circularly polarized SAWs resonate with the fast ions but right-hand circularly polarized SAWs do not. The measured fast-ion profiles are compared with simulations by a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that uses the measured wave field data.
Shukla, P. K.
2012-01-01
It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unpert...
Carter, T A
2006-11-16
Final report for DOE Plasma Physics Junior Faculty Development award DOE-FG02-02ER54688. Reports on research undertaken from 8/1/2002 until 5/15/2006, investigating nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves in a laboratory experiment.
Neugebauer, M.; Buti, B.
1990-01-01
Results are presented of a study designed to confirm the suspected relation between Alfven solitons (steepened Afven waves) and rotational discontinuities (RDs) in the solar wind. The ISEE 3 data were used to search for the predicted correlations between the beta value of plasma, the sense of polarization of the discontinuity, and changes of the magnetic field strength and plasma density across the discontinuity. No statistically significant evidence was found for the evolution of RDs from Alfven solitons. A possibility is suggested that the observations made could have been far from the regions in which the RDs were formed.
Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves in a Low-β Dusty Plasma
CHEN Yin-Hua; LU Wei
2000-01-01
The nonlinear kinetic Alfven waves in a low-β(0<β<1)dusty plasma have been investigated with the fluid model of three-component plasma. The nonlinear equation governing the perturbation density of electrons in a form of the energy integral has been derived. In the approximation of small amplitude, the soliton solution for the perturbation density of electrons is found, and the characteristics of solitons in different range of plasma parameters is studied numerically. The results show that the density dip or hump can be formed in a dusty plasma for different ranges of parameters, the amplitude of density dip is enhanced and the amplitude of density hump is reduced with increasing dust grain content.
Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Rucker, H.O.
2011-01-01
Chromospheric and prominence plasmas contain neutral atoms, which may change the plasma dynamics through collision with ions. Most of the atoms are neutral hydrogen, but a significant amount of neutral helium may also be present in the plasma with a particular temperature. Damping of MHD waves due to ion collision with neutral hydrogen is well studied, but the effects of neutral helium are largely unknown. We aim to study the effect of neutral helium in the damping of Alfven waves in solar pa...
Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies
Ofman, L.
2010-01-01
Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.
In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5RE,0.3RE), where RE is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k⊥≫k∥ are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δEz)/(δBy )∼ω/k∥ of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet
Guo, Zhifang [Key Laboratory of Ionospheric Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing National Observatory of Space Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hong, Minghua; Du, Aimin [Key Laboratory of Ionospheric Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing National Observatory of Space Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi [CAS Key Lab of Geoscience Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Physics Department, Auburn University, 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5311 (United States); Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming, E-mail: qmlu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Lab of Geoscience Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Astronautical Science and Technology (China)
2015-02-15
In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x,z)=(−10.5R{sub E},0.3R{sub E}), where R{sub E} is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k{sub ⊥}≫k{sub ∥} are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δE{sub z})/(δB{sub y} )∼ω/k{sub ∥} of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.
Guo, Zhifang; Hong, Minghua; Lin, Yu; Du, Aimin; Wang, Xueyi; Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming
2015-02-01
In this paper, effects of a fast flow in the tail plasma sheet on the generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in the high-latitude of the near-Earth magnetotail are investigated by performing a two-dimensional (2-D) global-scale hybrid simulation, where the plasma flow is initialized by the E ×B drift near the equatorial plane due to the existence of the dawn-dusk convection electric field. It is found that firstly, the plasma sheet becomes thinned and the dipolarization of magnetic field appears around (x ,z ) =(-10.5 RE,0.3 RE) , where RE is the radius of the Earth. Then, shear Alfven waves are excited in the plasma sheet, and the strong earthward flow is braked by the dipole-like magnetic field. These waves propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the polar regions later. Subsequently, KAWs with k⊥≫k∥ are generated in the high-latitude magnetotail due to the existence of the non-uniformity of the magnetic field and density in the polar regions. The ratio of the electric field to the magnetic field in these waves is found to obey the relation (δEz)/(δBy )˜ω/k∥ of KAWs. Our simulation provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed low-frequency shear Alfven waves in the plasma sheet and kinetic Alfven waves in the high-latitude near-Earth magnetotail, whose source is suggested to be the flow braking in the low-latitude plasma sheet.
James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Talk: On Nonlinear Physics of Shear Alfv'en Waves
Chen, Liu
2012-10-01
Shear Alfv'en Waves (SAW) are electromagnetic oscillations prevalent in laboratory and nature magnetized plasmas. Due to its anisotropic propagation property, it is well known that the linear wave propagation and dispersiveness of SAW are fundamentally affected by plasma nonuniformities and magnetic field geometries; for example, the existence of continuous spectrum, spectral gaps, and discrete eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas. This talk will discuss the crucial roles that nonuniformity and geometry could also play in the physics of nonlinear SAW interactions. More specifically, the focus will be on the Alfv'enic state and its breaking up by finite compressibility, non-ideal kinetic effects, and geometry. In the case of compressibility, finite ion-Larmor-radius effects are shown to qualitatively and quantitatively modify the three-wave parametric decays via the ion-sound perturbations. In the case of geometry, the spontaneous excitation of zonal structures by toroidal Alfv'en eigenmodes is investigated; demonstrating that, for realistic tokamak geometries, zonal current dominates over zonal flow. [4pt] Present address: Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
On the coronal heating mechanism by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves
H. Y. Alkahby
1993-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will investigate the heating of the solar corona by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves in a viscous and isothermal atmosphere permeated by a horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that if the viscosity dominates the motion in a high (low- ÃŽÂ² plasma, it creates an absorbing and reflecting layer and the heating process is acoustic (magnetoacoustic. When the magnetic field dominates the oscillatory process it creates a non-absorbing reflecting layer. Consequently, the heating process is magnetohydrodynamic. An equation for resonance is derived. It shows that resonances may occur for many values of the frequency and of the magnetic field if the wavelength is matched with the strength of the magnetic field. At the resonance frequencies, magnetic and kinetic energies will increase to very large values which may account for the heating process. When the motion is dominated by the combined effects of the viscosity and the magnetic field, the nature of the reflecting layer and the magnitude of the reflection coefficient depend on the relative strengths of the magnetic field and the viscosity.
Scattering of fast magnetoacoustic waves on a ionosphere perturbed by Alfven waves
Scattering of fast magnetoacoustic waves on an ionospheric plasma layer is emphasized. The mathematical calculations consider that the magnetoacoustic wave, scattered on the plasma layer with periodical inhomogeneities is the result of some partial wave superposition. The expressions for 0 and +-1 order partial waves and also the corrections to the zeroth order approximation are estimated. The dependence of the amplitude of the +1 order partial waves on the incidence angle THETA and the distance from the boundary of the perturbed plasma layer is studied. With this end in view the analytical form of the amplitudes is expressed. As a rule a periodical dependence of the +1 order partial wave amplitude on THETA and on the distance from the boundary of the pertubed layer occurs. For THETA = 35 deg, it is worth noting a marked maximum for all small perturbations of the +1 order partial wave
Dispersive waves in fs cascaded second-harmonic generation
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;
2009-01-01
Dispersive waves are observed in simulations of cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation. When generating ultra-short fs compressed near-IR solitons the dispersive waves are strongly red-shifted, depending on the soliton wavelength. Semi-analytical calculations predict the wavelengths....
Alfven solitons in the solar wind
Ovenden, C.; Schwartz, S. J.
1983-01-01
A nonlinear Alfven soliton solution of the MHD equations is presented. This solution represents the final state of modulationally unstable Alfven waves. A model of the expected turbulent spectrum due to a collection of such solitons is briefly described.
Stability of global Alfven waves (TAE, EAE) in JET tritium discharges
The study of MHD modes driven unstable by energetic particles due to additional heating and, in particular, by alpha particles is crucial for the prediction of α-confinement for future JET D-T discharges aiming at QDT≅1. In this paper we analyse the toroidicity and elongation induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE, EAE), their damping and their destabilisation by energetic particles. The spectral code CASTOR (Complex Alfven Spectrum for Toroidal Plasmas) together with the equilibrium solver HELENA provides the tool for the analysis of the ideal and dissipative MHD spectrum. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Turbulence in the sub-Alfv\\'enic solar wind driven by reflection of low-frequency Alfv\\'en waves
Verdini, A; Buchlin, E
2009-01-01
We study the formation and evolution of a turbulent spectrum of Alfv\\'en waves driven by reflection off the solar wind density gradients, starting from the coronal base up to 17 solar radii, well beyond the Alfv\\'enic critical point. The background solar wind is assigned and 2D shell models are used to describe nonlinear interactions. We find that the turbulent spectra are influenced by the nature of reflected waves. Close to the base, these give rise to a flatter and steeper spectrum for the outgoing and reflected waves respectively. At higher heliocentric distance both spectra evolve toward an asymptotic Kolmogorov spectrum. The turbulent dissipation is found to account for at least half of the heating required to sustain the background imposed solar wind and its shape is found to be determined by the reflection-determined turbulent heating below 1.5 solar radii. Therefore reflection and reflection-driven turbulence are shown to play a key role in the accelerationof the fast solar wind and origin of the tur...
Finite amplitude solitary Alfven waves in a low-β plasma
Different exact forms of Alfven solitons were found recently in low-beta plasmas by different assumptions. The present paper studies the case of parallel ion inertia and current density. Both super and sub-Alfvenian rarefactive solitons were found to exist depending on the angle of inclination of the propagation vector with the magnetic field. (D.Gy.)
Hahn, Michael
2013-01-01
We present a measurement of the energy carried and dissipated by Alfv\\'en waves in a polar coronal hole. Alfv\\'en waves have been proposed as the energy source that heats the corona and drives the solar wind. Previous work has shown that line widths decrease with height in coronal holes, which is a signature of wave damping, but have been unable to quantify the energy lost by the waves. This is because line widths depend on both the non-thermal velocity v_nt and the ion temperature T_i. We have implemented a means to separate the T_i and v_nt contributions using the observation that at low heights the waves are undamped and the ion temperatures do not change with height. This enables us to determine the amount of energy carried by the waves at low heights, which is proportional to v_nt. We find the initial energy flux density present was 6.7 +/- 0.7 x 10^5 erg cm^-2 s^-1, which is sufficient to heat the coronal hole and acccelerate the solar wind during the 2007 - 2009 solar minimum. Additionally, we find tha...
Adopting the theoretical framework for the generalized fishbonelike dispersion relation, an extended hybrid magnetohydrodynamics gyrokinetic simulation model has been derived analytically by taking into account both thermal ion compressibility and diamagnetic effects in addition to energetic particle kinetic behaviors. The extended model has been used for implementing an extended version of hybrid magnetohydrodynamics gyrokinetic code (XHMGC) to study thermal ion kinetic effects on Alfvenic modes driven by energetic particles, such as kinetic beta induced Alfven eigenmodes in tokamak fusion plasmas. The XHMGC nonlinear model can be used to address a number of problems, where kinetic treatments of both thermal and supra-thermal plasma components are necessary, as theoretically predicted, or where it is desirable to investigate the phenomena connected with the presence of two supra-thermal particle species with different radial profiles and velocity space distributions.
Reappraising Transition Region Line Widths in light of Recent Alfv\\'{e}n Wave Discoveries
McIntosh, Scott W; Tarbell, Theodore D
2008-01-01
We provide a new interpretation of ultraviolet transition region emission line widths observed by the SUMER instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). This investigation is prompted by observations of the chromosphere at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode revealing that all chromospheric structures above the limb display significant transverse (Alfvenic) perturbations. We demonstrate that the magnitude, network sensitivity and apparent center-to-limb isotropy of the measured line widths (formed below 250,000K) can be explained by an observationally constrained forward-model in which the line width is caused by the line-of-sight superposition of longitudinal and Alfvenic motions on the small-scale (spicular) structures that dominate the chromosphere and low transition region.
The mechanism of momentum and energy transfer by internal Alfven-gravity waves is studied in a turbulent plasma flow, modelling astrophysical and geophysical situations. The difficulty of the indeterminate system of equations is solved by using gradient diffusion model as a suitable closure. It is found that the weak stratification and the magnetic field decrease the intensity of the turbulence. (D.Gy.)
Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser
Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J.W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G.T.; Malcolm, G.P.A.
2015-01-01
An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emi...
Cally, P. S.; Goossens, M
2007-01-01
The efficacy of fast/slow MHD mode conversion in the surface layers of sunspots has been demonstrated over recent years using a number of modelling techniques, including ray theory, perturbation theory, differential eigensystem analysis, and direct numerical simulation. These show that significant energy may be transferred between the fast and slow modes in the neighbourhood of the equipartition layer where the Alfven and sound speeds coincide. However, most of the models so far have been two...
The Alfven wave spectrum of analytic high-beta tokamak equilibria
This thesis addresses a number of problems regarding the equilibrium and stability of a tokamak plasma under fusion conditions. To get insight into the geometric effects on the behaviour of the most prominent global modes, a spectral study was carried out on a class of analytic, noncircular plasma equilibria. Parallel to this work, extending a previous high-beta energy principle a variational principle is developed for the numerical determination of the Alfven spectrum of a high-beta tokamak with arbitrary cross-section. Based on the Lagrangian formalism, representations were derived for the potential and kinetic energy in terms of arbitrary, non-orthogonal flux coordinates, which can be readily implemented in a numerical programme. The method is then tested by using the analytic equilibrium as input. 85 refs.; 32 figs.; 2 tabs
Tsiklauri, D
2015-01-01
Our magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and analytical calculations show that, when a background flow is present, mathematical expressions for the Alfv\\'en wave (AW) damping via phase mixing are modified by a following substitution $C_A^\\prime(x) \\to C_A^\\prime(x)+V_0^\\prime(x)$, where $C_A$ and $V_0$ are AW phase and the flow speeds and prime denotes derivative in the direction across the background magnetic field. In uniform magnetic field and over-dense plasma structures, in which $C_A$ is smaller compared to surrounding plasma, the flow, that is confined to the structure, in the same direction as the AW, reduces the effect of phase mixing, because on the edges of the structure $C_A^\\prime$ and $V_0^\\prime$ have opposite sign. Thus, the wave damps via phase mixing {\\it slower} compared to the case without the flow. This is the consequence of the co-directional flow reducing the wave front stretching in the transverse direction. Although, the result is generic and is applicable to different laboratory or ...
Medium-induced QCD cascade: democratic branching and wave turbulence
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine
2013-01-01
We study the average properties of the cascade of gluons that is generated by an energetic parton propagating through a quark-gluon plasma. We focus on the soft, medium-induced, emissions which control the energy transport at large angles with respect to the leading parton. We show that the effect of multiple branchings are important. In contrast to what happens in a usual QCD cascade in vacuum, medium-induced branchings are quasi-democratic, with offspring gluons carrying sizable fractions of the energy of their parent gluon. This results in a new mechanism for the transport of energy towards the medium, which is akin to wave turbulence with a scaling spectrum $\\sim 1/\\sqrt{\\omega}$. We argue that the turbulent flow may be responsible for the excess energy carried by very soft quanta, as revealed by the analysis of the di-jet asymmetry observed in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.
Medium-Induced QCD Cascade: Democratic Branching and Wave Turbulence
Blaizot, J.-P.; Iancu, E.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.
2013-08-01
We study the average properties of the gluon cascade generated by an energetic parton propagating through a quark-gluon plasma. We focus on the soft, medium-induced emissions which control the energy transport at large angles with respect to the leading parton. We show that the effect of multiple branchings is important. In contrast with what happens in a usual QCD cascade in vacuum, medium-induced branchings are quasidemocratic, with offspring gluons carrying sizable fractions of the energy of their parent gluon. This results in an efficient mechanism for the transport of energy toward the medium, which is akin to wave turbulence with a scaling spectrum ˜1/ω. We argue that the turbulent flow may be responsible for the excess energy carried by very soft quanta, as revealed by the analysis of the dijet asymmetry observed in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.
We have constructed a quadratic dispersion relation, in which various MHD and kinetic effects like ion diamagnetism, electron diamagnetism, electron-electron electron-ion collisions, ion Landau-damping, E x B drift and energetic particles are included and treated in a systematic way. The numerical study in which we use the formalism to investigate the two most likely instabilities in tandem mirror machines produced many quantitative and qualitative results about the two modes. We have proposed a physically motivated, non-perturbative closure scheme to deal with some problems in plasma or fluid turbulence. After discussing a few simple analytically tractable applications, we have applied our formalism to a model problem: the shear-Alfven turbulence. The problem is readily solved numerically to obtain the turbulent spectrum with the following features: the calculated spectrum has explicit frequency shift from the linear theory as well as explicit band-broadening in k, ω space; the frequency integrated spectrum obeys a power law in the intermediate k range, i.e., I/sub k/ /approximately/ K/sup -α/, where α approaches the value 2 in the case we studied; and the form of the power law is hardly influenced by changing low-k, high-k damping effects, or by changing the strength of the turbulence. It is very encouraging that this closure scheme is capable of producing essential features associated with a turbulence spectrum. 66 refs., 38 figs
Computing the damping and destabilization of global Alfven waves in tokamaks
The role of ideal MHD in magnetic fusion is in the first place to discover magnetic geometries with favourable equilibrium and stability properties. Non-ideal effects cause slower and weaker instabilities leading to enhanced transport and often to violent disruptions. MHD spectroscopy, i.e. the identification of ideal and dissipative MHD modes for the purpose of diagnosing tokamaks and optimising their stability properties, requires a numerical tool which accurately calculates the dissipative MHD spectra for measured equilibria. The new spectral code CASTOR (Complex Alfven Spectrum for TORoidal Plasmas), together with the equilibrium solver HELENA, provides such a tool. In CASTOR, the fluid variables ρ, v, T, and b are discretized by means of a combination of cubic Hermite and quadratic finite elements for the radial direction and Fourier modes for the poloidal coordinate. The equilibrium in non-orthogonal flux coordinates ψ, θ, φ with straight field lines is computed using isoparametric bicubic Hermite elements, resulting in a very accurate representation of the metric elements. Finally, for analysis of JET discharges the equilibrium solver HELENA is interfaced with the equilibrium identification code IDENTC(D). (author) 5 refs., 5 figs
Nonlinear Energetic Particle Transport in the Presence of Multiple Alfvenic Waves in ITER
Schneller, Mirjam; Briguglio, Sergio
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of a multi mode ITER study on Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes, using the nonlinear hybrid HAGIS-LIGKA model. It is found that main conclusions from earlier studies of ASDEX Upgrade discharges can be transferred to the ITER scenario: global, nonlinear effects are crucial for the evolution of the multi mode scenario. This work focuses on the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario with with a safety factor at the magnetic axis of $q_0 =$ 0.986. The least damped eigenmodes of the system are identified with the gyrokinetic, non-perturbative LIGKA solver, concerning mode structure, frequency and damping. Taking into account all weakly damped modes that can be identified linearly, nonlinear simulations with HAGIS reveal strong multi mode behavior: while in some parameter range, quasi-linear estimates turn out to be reasonable approximations for the nonlinearly relaxed energetic particle profile, under certain conditions low-n TAE branches can be excited. As a consequence, not only grow amplitudes of ...
Broadband Continuous Wave Quantum Cascade laser beatnote characterization
Full text: Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operated in continuous wave tend to become multimode above a certain value of the threshold current. There is great interest in understanding this multimode behavior in QCLs, since it is of key importance for technology to master this regime for various applications. We present a study of the beatnote, measured using a quantum well infrared photodetector at the round trip frequency of the laser, of a broadband continuous wave QCL. The laser emits radiation over 200 cm-1 with an output power of 78 mW at -200C at a center wavelength of 7 μm. We record an interferogram of the beatnote through an FTIR. This gives us information on the relative phases between the laser modes as well as the spectral composition of the beatnote. (author)
Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser
An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm−1 is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity
In a circular cylindrical geometry, the author solves a fourth-order set of differential equations numerically for the perturbed fields Eτ and Eperpendicular. The model takes into account the equilibrium current, magnetic shear, finite ω/ωc1 effect, mode conversion effects like finite ion gyroradius and electron inertia, and various dissipative mechanisms such as electron Landau and collisional damping, and minority fundamental and majority second harmonic cyclotron absorption. To illustrate the results, the author plots the perturbed electric fields and the energy absorbed by each species. He first examines cold plasma surface Alfven eigenmodes analytically and numerically in a pure plasma. The motivation for this work is to investigate how to avoid the undesirable edge absorption and introduce the methods for the study of impurity effects. In the two-species plasmas, he considers three special examples: (1) minority oxygen in hydrogen in PRETEXT, (2) minority T or H in deuterium in TFTR. He adopts two models: (i) a radially varying minority charge, or (ii) a radially varying magnetic field to investigate the minority gyroresonance heating. The model (ii) is used to examine these three examples. But the model (i) is only applied to the first one. In model (i), it is found that surface modes can induce the eigenmodes and dissipate substantial energy near the hybrid layer in the interior. Some cases analytically manageable are given an interpretation of why there is large or small energy deposition in this layer. It is shown that this strongly depends on poloidal mode numbers, minority concentrations, and minority charge profiles
Excitation and diagnosis of cascading Langmuir waves in ionospheric plasmas at Gakona, Alaska
Burton, L M; Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Labno, A; Lee, M C; Batishchev, O; Rokusek, D L [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kuo, S P [Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Watkins, B J; Oyama, S [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)], E-mail: mclee@mit.edu
2008-12-15
Ionospheric plasma heating experiments were conducted at Gakona, Alaska to investigate cascading spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence, excited by parametric instabilities diagnosed by Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR). This work is aimed at testing the recent theory of Kuo and Lee (2005 J. Geophys. Res. 110 A01309) that addresses how the cascade of Langmuir waves can distribute spatially via the resonant and non-resonant decay processes. The non-resonant cascade proceeds at the location where parametric decay instability (PDI) or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) is excited and severely hampered by the frequency mismatch effect. By contrast, the resonant cascade, which takes place at lower matching heights, has to overcome the propagation loss of the Langmuir pump waves in each cascade step. Our experimental results have corroborated these predictions about the generation of cascading Langmuir waves by the HAARP heater.
Excitation and diagnosis of cascading Langmuir waves in ionospheric plasmas at Gakona, Alaska
Ionospheric plasma heating experiments were conducted at Gakona, Alaska to investigate cascading spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence, excited by parametric instabilities diagnosed by Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR). This work is aimed at testing the recent theory of Kuo and Lee (2005 J. Geophys. Res. 110 A01309) that addresses how the cascade of Langmuir waves can distribute spatially via the resonant and non-resonant decay processes. The non-resonant cascade proceeds at the location where parametric decay instability (PDI) or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) is excited and severely hampered by the frequency mismatch effect. By contrast, the resonant cascade, which takes place at lower matching heights, has to overcome the propagation loss of the Langmuir pump waves in each cascade step. Our experimental results have corroborated these predictions about the generation of cascading Langmuir waves by the HAARP heater.
Alfven Eigenmode And Ion Bernstein Wave Studies For Controlling Fusion Alpha Particles
Franklin, F R
1999-01-01
In magnetic confinement fusion reactor plasmas, the charged fusion products (such as alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas) will be the dominant power source, and by controlling these charged fusion products using wave-particle interactions the reactor performance could be optimized. This thesis studies two candidate waves: Mode- Converted Ion Bernstein Waves (MCIBWs) and Alfvé n Eigenmodes (AEs). Rates of MCIBW-driven losses of alpha-like fast deuterons, previously observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), are reproduced by a new model so that the wave-particle diffusion coefficient can be deduced. The MCIBW power in TFTR is found to be ∼ 1/3 that needed for collisionless alpha particle control...
Oran, R; van der Holst, B; Sokolov, I V; Gombosi, T I
2014-01-01
In the present work, we test the predictions of the AWSoM model, a global extended-MHD model capable of calculating the propagation and turbulent dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in any magnetic topology, against high resolution spectra of the quiescent off-disk solar corona. Wave dissipation is the only heating mechanism assumed in this model. Combining 3D model results with the CHIANTI atomic database, we were able to create synthetic line-of-sight spectra which include the effects of emission line broadening due to both thermal and wave-related non-thermal motions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a global model is used to obtain synthetic non-thermal line broadening. We obtained a steady-state solution driven by a synoptic magnetogram and compared the synthetic spectra with SUMER observations of a quiescent area above the solar west limb extending between 1.04 and 1.34 solar radii at the equator. Both the predicted line widths and the total line fluxes were consistent with the observations...
Rehman, M. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Kachery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-10-15
Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in magnetized nonrelativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic degenerate Fermi plasmas. Using the quantum hydrodynamic model, Zakharov equations are derived and the Sagdeev potential approach is used to investigate the properties of the electromagnetic solitary structures. It is seen that the amplitude increases with the increase of electron density in the relativistic and ultrarelativistic cases but decreases in the nonrelativistic case. Both right and left handed waves are considered, and it is seen that supersonic, subsonic, and super- and sub-Alfvénic solitary structures are obtained for different polarizations and under different relativistic regimes.
Alfven Eigenmode And Ion Bernstein Wave Studies For Controlling Fusion Alpha Particles
Heeter, R F
1999-01-01
In magnetic confinement fusion reactor plasmas, the charged fusion products (such as alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas) will be the dominant power source, and by controlling these charged fusion products using wave-particle interactions the reactor performance could be optimized. This thesis studies two candidate waves: Mode-Converted Ion Bernstein Waves (MCIBWs) and Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs). Rates of MCIBW-driven losses of alpha-like fast deuterons, previously observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), are reproduced by a new model so that the wave-particle diffusion coefficient can be deduced. The MCIBW power in TFTR is found to be ∼ 1/3 that needed for collisionless alpha particle control. A reasonable reactor power scaling is derived. To study AEs, existing magnetic fluctuation probes at the Joint European Torus (JET) have been absolutely calibrated from 30–500 kHz for the first time, allowing fluctuation measurements with &vbm0;dBpol&vbm0;/B0&am...
Erkaev, NV; Shaidurov, VA; Semenov, VS; Biernat, HK; Heidorn, D; Lakhina, GS
2006-01-01
A ratio of the maximal and minimal cross sections of the magnetic tube (contraction ratio) is a crucial parameter which affects very strongly on reflections of MHD wave pulses propagating along a narrowing magnetic flux tube. In cases of large contraction ratios of magnetospheric magnetic tubes, the
Alfven wave structure and resonant dissipation in cylindrical stability and heating problems
For /ω/ approximately equal to epsilonsup(1/3)tausub(A)sup(-1), we obtain the general solution of the resistive differential equation for the radial M.H.D. displacement in cylindrical geometry, under the assumption of incompressibility. Here: ω is the wave frequency, Tausub(A) = r0 Vsub(Atheta)sup(-1), r = r0 is the surface at which q(r) = 1, Vsub(Atheta) = Btheta0/√4πrho[r0 dq0/dr] (subscript zero indicates evaluation at r0), epsilon = tausub(A) tausub(R)sup(-1) and tausub(R) is the resistive diffusion time. By using a flux function, we write the expression of the electromagnetic field and current density in the resistive layer. Finally, we discuss power dissipated in this layer by an external wave and the limit when the resistivity vanishes
Wang, X; Chen, L; Di Troia, C; Fogaccia, G; Vlad, G; Zonca, F
2010-01-01
Adopting the theoretical framework for the generalized fishbonelike dispersion relation, an extended hybrid magnetohydrodynamics gyrokinetic simulation model has been derived analytically by taking into account both thermal ion compressibility and diamagnetic effects in addition to energetic particle kinetic behaviors. The extended model has been used for implementing an eXtended version of Hybrid Magnetohydrodynamics Gyrokinetic Code (XHMGC) to study thermal ion kinetic effects on Alfv\\'enic modes driven by energetic particles, such as kinetic beta induced Alfv\\'en eigenmodes in tokamak fusion plasmas.
Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra
2008-01-01
The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere/magnetosphere coupling makes it a very dynamic region having similar fundamental processes to those within the auroral regions. With Polar passing through the cusp at 1 Re in the Spring of 1996, we observe a strong correlation between ion heating and broadband ELF (BBELF) emissions. This commonly observed relationship led to the study of the coupling of large field-aligned currents, burst electric fields, and the thermal O+ ions. We demonstrate the role of these measurements to Alfvenic waves and stochastic ion heating. Finally we will show the properties of the resulting density cavities.
Brady, C S
2016-01-01
Two of the central problems in our understanding of the solar chromosphere are how the upper chromosphere is heated and what drives spicules. Estmates of the required chromospheric heating, based on radiative and conductive losses suggest a rate of $\\sim 0.1 \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the lower chromosphere dropping to $\\sim 10^{-3} \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the upper chromosphere (\\citet{Avrett1981}). The chromosphere is also permeated by spicules, higher density plasma from the lower atmosphere propelled upwards at speeds of $\\sim 10-20 \\mathrm{\\:km\\:s^{-1}}$, for so called Type-I spicules (\\citet{Pereira2012,Zhang2012}, reaching heights of $\\sim 3000-5000 \\mathrm{\\:km}$ above the photosphere. A clearer understanding of chromospheric dynamics, its heating and the formation of spicules, is thus of central importance to solar atmospheric science. For over thirty years it has been proposed that photospheric driving of MHD waves may be responsible for both heating and spicule formation. This ...
Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an Alfv\\'en Wave-heated flare chromosphere
Kerr, Graham S; Russell, Alexander J B; Allred, Joel C
2016-01-01
We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfv\\'en wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg II k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca II 8542A profiles which are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg II k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with IRIS observations. The predicted differences between the Ca II 8542A in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-05-13
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence. PMID:21668138
Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons
Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.
1992-01-01
The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.
Recent Observations of Plasma and Alfvenic Wave Energy Injection at the Base of the Fast Solar Wind
McIntosh, Scott W
2012-01-01
We take stock of recent observations that identify the episodic plasma heating and injection of Alfvenic energy at the base of fast solar wind (in coronal holes). The plasma heating is associated with the occurrence of chromospheric spicules that leave the lower solar atmosphere at speeds of order 100km/s, the hotter coronal counterpart of the spicule emits radiation characteristic of root heating that rapidly reaches temperatures of the order of 1MK. Furthermore, the same spicules and their coronal counterparts ("Propagating Coronal Disturbances"; PCD) exhibit large amplitude, high speed, Alfvenic (transverse) motion of sufficient energy content to accelerate the material to high speeds. We propose that these (disjointed) heating and accelerating components form a one-two punch to supply, and then accelerate, the fast solar wind. We consider some compositional constraints on this concept, extend the premise to the slow solar wind, and identify future avenues of exploration.
Wang, X.; Briguglio, S.; Chen, L.; Di Troia, C; Fogaccia, G.; Vlad, G.; Zonca, F.
2010-01-01
Adopting the theoretical framework for the generalized fishbonelike dispersion relation, an extended hybrid magnetohydrodynamics gyrokinetic simulation model has been derived analytically by taking into account both thermal ion compressibility and diamagnetic effects in addition to energetic particle kinetic behaviors. The extended model has been used for implementing an eXtended version of Hybrid Magnetohydrodynamics Gyrokinetic Code (XHMGC) to study thermal ion kinetic effects on Alfv\\'enic...
Star of Lima - Overview and optical diagnostics of a barium Alfven critical velocity experiment
Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.
1986-01-01
The Alfven critical velocity mechanism for ionization of a neutral gas streaming across the magnetic field has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. In March 1983, two rocket-borne experiments with Ba and Sr tested the effect in the wall-less laboratory of space from Punto Lobos, Peru, near 430 km altitude. 'Star of Lima' used a conical Ba shaped charge aimed at an instrument payload about 2 km away. Because of rocket overperformance the detonation occurred in partial sunlight, so that less than 21.6 percent of the ionizing UV was present. Particle and field measurements indicate the production of hot electrons and waves in the energy and frequency range that are respectively predicted to produce a cascade of ionization by the Alfven mechanism. However, the ionization fluxes and wave energy density did not reach cascade levels, and optical observations indicate that only 2.5 to 5 x 10 to the 20th Ba ions were produced. A substantial portion and perhaps all of the ionization could have been produced by solar UV. The failure of the Alfven process in this experiment is not well understood.
Travelling waves in boundary-controlled, non-uniform, cascaded lumped systems
O'Connor, William; Zhu, Ming
2013-01-01
A companion paper in this conference considers travelling and standing waves in cascaded, lumped, mass-spring systems, controlled by two boundary actuators, one at each end, when the system is uniform. It first proposes definitions of waves in finite lumped systems. It then shows how to control the actuators to establish desired waves from rest, and maintain them despite disturbances. The present paper extends this work to the more general, non-uniform case, when mass and sp...
Travelling waves in boundary-controlled, non-uniform, cascaded lumped systems
O'Connor, William; Zhu, Ming
2012-01-01
A companion paper considers travelling and standing waves in cascaded, lumped, mass-spring systems, controlled by two boundary actuators, one at each end, when the system is uniform. It first proposes definitions of waves in finite lumped systems. It then shows how to control the actuators to establish desired waves from rest, and to maintain them despite disturbances. The present paper extends this work to the more general, non-uniform case, when mass and spring values can ...
Kinetic Damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes
G.Y. Fu; H.L. Berk; A. Pletzer
2005-05-03
The damping of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in JET plasmas is investigated by using a reduced kinetic model. Typically no significant damping is found to occur near the center of the plasma due to mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. In contrast, continuum damping from resonance near the plasma edge may be significant, and when it is, it gives rise to damping rates that are compatible with the experimental observations.
Soler, Roberto
2015-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles for the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfv\\'en continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In ...
Continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade laser emitting near 5.6 µm
Yarekha, D. A.; Beck, Mattias; Blaser, Stéphane; Aellen, Thierry; Gini Emilio; Hofstetter, Daniel; Faist, Jérôme
2008-01-01
Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers emitting at 5.64 µm are presented. Continuous-wave (CW) operation has been achieved at –30°C for junction down mounted devices with both facets coated. A 750 µm-long laser exhibited 3 mW of CW power with a threshold current density of 5.4 kA/cm2.
Nogami, S. H.; Koepke, M. E.; Gillies, D. M.; Knudsen, D. J.; Vincena, S. T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Donovan, E.
2015-12-01
The Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave (StIAW) [Knudsen J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10761 (1996)] is a non-fluctuating, non-travelling, spatially periodic pattern in electromagnetic field and fluid quantities that arises in the simultaneous presence of a magnetic-field-aligned current channel and cross-magnetic field plasma flow. Theory predicts [Finnegan et al., Nonlin. Proc. Geophys., 15, 957 (2008)] that the wave appears as an ion density perturbation that is static in the laboratory frame and that the wave electric field can accelerate electrons parallel to a background magnetic field. For experiments in the afterglow plasma in LAPD-U, results of which are reported on in this poster, the necessary conditions for the stationary wave are generated by a biased segmented electrode that creates a convective flow and a planar-mesh electrode that draws current parallel to the background magnetic field. An electrostatic probe and a retarding field energy analyzer measure fixed (in the laboratory frame) patterns in the ion density and electron energy. Spatial patterns of electron acceleration are reminiscent of the patterns present during the formation of discrete auroral arcs. Observation of long-lived discrete arcs indicates that some arcs require a generation mechanism that supports electron acceleration parallel to auroral field lines for tens of minutes. We present arc lifetime statistics to emphasize the paucity of physical models that explain these observations. *Support from NSF grant PHY-130-1896 and grants from the Canadian Space Agency is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank the THEMIS ASI Teams at U Calgary and UC Berkeley.
Pfaff, R. F.
2009-01-01
On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.
This paper discusses experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators. Experiments considered are: formation of linear high beta heliac plasma configurations; Alfven wave heating in a straight tube and in a linear high beat stellarator; shifted hardcore heliac studies; a system for measuring the timing of high-current switches in a pulsed high voltage fusion experiment; HBQM general refurbishment; and proposed experiment on excitation of the m = 1 tilt mode in field-reversed configurations
Travelling waves in boundary-controlled, non-uniform, cascaded lumped systems
O'Connor, William J.; Zhu, Ming
2013-08-01
A companion paper considers travelling and standing waves in cascaded, lumped, mass-spring systems, controlled by two boundary actuators, one at each end, when the system is uniform. It first proposes definitions of waves in finite lumped systems. It then shows how to control the actuators to establish desired waves from rest, and to maintain them despite disturbances. The present paper extends this work to the more general, non-uniform case, when mass and spring values can be arbitrary. A special "bi-uniform" case is first studied, consisting of two different uniform cascaded systems in series, with an obvious, uncontrolled, impedance mismatch where they meet. The paper shows how boundary actuator control systems can be designed to establish, and robustly maintain, apparently pure travelling waves of constant amplitude in either the first or the second uniform section, in each case with an appropriate, partial, standing wave pattern in the other section. Then a more general non-uniform case is studied. A definition of a "pure travelling wave" in non-uniform systems is proposed. Curiously, it does not imply constant amplitude motion. It does however yield maximum power transfer between boundary actuators. The definition, and its implementation in a control system, involves extending the notions of "pure" travelling waves, of standing waves, and of input and output impedances of sources and loads, when applied to non-uniform lumped systems. Practical, robust control strategies are presented for all cases.
Optical Switching of a Quantum Cascade Laser in Continuous Wave Operation
We demonstrate an optical switching in a middle infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade laser operated in single mode by illuminating its front facet with a near infrared laser. A decrease in the laser net gain is observed in the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. This is attributed to an increase of the carrier concentration caused by the near infrared excitation. The net gain reduction allows the quantum cascade laser to be completely switched off from single mode lasing. This optical switching can be used to convert near infrared signals into middle infrared signals for free space communication. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Kaladze, Tamaz; Kahlon, Laila
Nonlinear dynamics of coupled internal-gravity (IG) and alfven electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Under such coupling new type of alfven waves is revealed. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of IG and alfvén waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of coupled IG and alfven waves with zonal flows is derived. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity and is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite-amplitude coupled IG and alfven waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rates of the corresponding instability and the conditions for driving them are determined. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown.
Alfvenic Heating of Protostellar Accretion Disks
Vasconcelos, M. J.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; R. Opher
1999-01-01
We investigate the effects of heating generated by damping of Alfven waves on protostellar accretion disks. Two mechanisms of damping are investigated, nonlinear and turbulent, which were previously studied in stellar winds (Jatenco-Pereira & Opher 1989a, b). For the nominal values studied, f=delta v/v_{A}=0.002 and F=varpi/Omega_{i}=0.1, where delta v, v_{A} and varpi are the amplitude, velocity and average frequency of the Alfven wave, respectively, and Omega_{i} is the ion cyclotron freque...
Damping of kinetic Alfven eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas
The ability to predict the stability of fast-particle-driven Alfven eigenmodes in burning fusion plasmas requires a detailed understanding of the dissipative mechanisms that damp these modes. In order to address this question, the linear gyro-kinetic, electromagnetic code LIGKA is employed to investigate their behaviour in realistic tokamak geometry. LIGKA is based on an eigenvalue formulation and self-consistently calculates the coupling of large-scale MHD modes to gyro-radius scale length kinetic Alfven waves. It uses the drift-kinetic HAGIS code to accurately describe the unperturbed particle orbits in general geometry. In addition, a newly developed antenna-like version of LIGKA allows for a frequency scan, analogous to an external antenna. With these tools the properties of the kinetically modified TAE in or near the gap (KTAE, radiative damping or 'tunnelling') and its coupling to the continuum close to the edge are numerically analysed. The results are compared with previous calculations based on fluid and other gyro-kinetic models. Also first linear calculations on cascade modes are presented. (author)
Waves and vortices in the inverse cascade regime of stratified turbulence with or without rotation
Herbert, Corentin; Rosenberg, Duane; Pouquet, Annick
2015-01-01
We study the partition of energy between waves and vortices in stratified turbulence, with or without rotation, for a variety of parameters, focusing on the behavior of the waves and vortices in the inverse cascade of energy towards the large scales. To this end, we use direct numerical simulations in a cubic box at a Reynolds number Re=1000, with the ratio between the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency N and the inertial frequency f varying from 1/4 to 20, together with a purely stratified run. The Froude number, measuring the strength of the stratification, varies within the range 0.02 < Fr < 0.32. We find that the inverse cascade is dominated by the slow quasi-geostrophic modes. Their energy spectra and fluxes exhibit characteristics of an inverse cascade, even though their energy is not conserved. Surprisingly, the slow vortices still dominate when the ratio N/f increases, also in the stratified case, although less and less so. However, when N/f increases, the inverse cascade of the slow modes becomes we...
Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback
Lyakh, A.; Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Tsvid, G.; Patel, C. Kumar N.
2016-01-01
Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm-1 for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials.
Terahertz Detection of Quantum Cascade Laser Emission by Plasma Waves in Field Effect Transistors
Teppe, Frederic; Consejo, Christophe; Torres, J; Chenaud, Boris; Solignac, Pierre; Fathololoumi, S; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Zholudev, Maksim; Diakonova, Nina; Coquillat, Dominique; El Fatimy, Abdelouahad; Buzatu, Petre; CHAUBET, Christophe; Knap, Wojciech
2011-01-01
We report on the resonant detection of a 3.1 THz radiation produced by a quantum cascade laser using a 250 nm gate length GaAs/AlGaAs field effect transistor at liquid nitrogen temperature. We show that the physical mechanism of the detection is related to the plasma waves excited in the transistor channel. The detection is enhanced by increasing the drain current and driving the transistor into saturation regime. These results clearly show that plasma wave nanometer-size transistors can be u...
Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback
Lyakh, A., E-mail: arkadiy.lyakh@ucf.edu [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Pkwy, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 304 Scorpius St, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Tsvid, G.; Patel, C. Kumar N., E-mail: patel@pranalytica.com [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States)
2016-01-15
Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm{sup −1} for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials.
Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback
Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm−1 for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials
Kinetic Alfven solitons in a low-beta plasma
Kinetic Alfven solitons with hot electrons and finite electron inertia in a low beta (β=8πnoT/B2G, the ratio of the kinetic to the magnetic pressure) plasma is studied analytically, with the ion motion being considered dominant through the polarization drift. Both compressive and rarefactive kinetic Alfven solitons are found to exist within a definite range of kz (the direction of propagation of the kinetic Alfven solitary waves with respect to the direction of the magnetic field) for each pair of assigned values of β and M (Mach number). Unlike in previous theoretical investigations, β appears as an explicit parameter for the kinetic Alfven solitons in this case. In addition, consideration of the electron pressure gradient is found to suppress the speed of both the Alfven solitons considerably for A (=2QM2 / βk2z, with Q the electron-to-ion mass ratio) less than unity. (Author)
Cascaded four-wave mixing for broadband tunable laser sideband generation.
Liu, Weimin; Zhu, Liangdong; Wang, Liang; Fang, Chong
2013-06-01
We demonstrate the versatile broadband wavelength tunability of frequency upconverted multicolor cascaded four-wave-mixing (CFWM) signals spanning the continuous wavelength range from UV to near IR in a thin type-I BBO crystal using 35 fs, 800 nm fundamental and chirped IR supercontinuum white light pulses. Two sets of spatially dispersed CFWM laser sidebands are concomitantly generated from two incident pulses as well as their second-harmonic-generation and sum-frequency-generation pulses in a crossing geometry. The tunable cascaded signals with ultrabroad bandwidth can be readily achieved via spatially rotating the BBO crystal to different phase-matching conditions and temporally varying the time delay between the two incident near-IR pulses. PMID:23722739
Interband cascade lasers with >40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures
Broad-area 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at λ = 3.0–3.2 μm are shown to maintain continuous-wave (cw) wallplug efficiencies exceeding 40% at temperatures up to 125 K, despite having a design optimized for operation at ambient and above. The cw threshold current density at 80 K is only 11 A/cm2 for a 2 mm cavity with anti-reflection/high-reflection coatings on the two facets. The external differential quantum efficiency for a 1-mm-long cavity with the same coatings is 70% per stage at 80 K, and still above 65% at 150 K. The results demonstrate that at cryogenic temperatures, where free carrier absorption losses are minimized, ICLs can convert electrical to optical energy nearly as efficiently as the best specially designed intersubband-based quantum cascade lasers
Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)
2015-05-25
Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.
A numerical study of shock wave/boundary layer interaction in a supersonic compressor cascade
A numerical analysis of shock wave boundary layer interaction in transonic/supersonic axial flow compressor cascade has been performed by using a characteristic upwind Navier-Stokes method with various turbulence models. Two equation turbulence models were applied to transonic/supersonic flows over a NACA 0012 airfoil. The results are superion to those from an algebraic turbulence model. High order TVD schemes predicted shock wave/boundary layer interactions reasonably well. However, the prediction of SWBLI depends more on turbulence models than high order schemes. In a supersonic axial flow cascade at M=1.59 and exit/inlet static pressure ratio of 2.21, k-ω and Shear Stress Transport (SST) models were numerically stables. However, the k-ω model predicted thicker shock waves in the flow passage. Losses due to shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions in transonic/supersonic compressor flowfields can be higher losses than viscous losses due to flow separation and viscous dissipation
Facet temperature distribution of a room temperature continuous-wave operating quantum cascade laser
The facet temperature distribution of a room temperature continuous-wave (CW) operating quantum cascade laser was experimentally measured based on the micro-Raman intensity ratio analysis of the Stokes and anti-Stokes phonon lines. A ‘W’-shaped temperature distribution was observed in the active region. We found that the traditional thermal simulation using the Fourier law is not sufficient in explaining our experimental results and other simulation models need to be explored. The active region temperatures at different CW operating currents were also measured. Our work is useful for device failure analysis and optimization of thermal management. (paper)
Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency
An InP based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 4.6 μm was grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The wafer was processed into a conventional double-channel ridge waveguide geometry with ridge widths of 19.7 and 10.6 μm without semi-insulating InP regrowth. An uncoated, narrow ridge device with a 4.8 mm cavity length was epilayer down bonded to a diamond submount and exhibits 2.5 W maximum output power with a wall plug efficiency of 12.5% at room temperature in continuous wave operation
Li Jia-Hua; Yang Wen-Xing; Peng Ju-Cun
2004-01-01
A nonlinear optical cascade-configuration multi-wave mixing (CCMWM) scheme is presented and analysed for the generation of coherent light in a six-level atomic system in the context of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). A detailed semi-classical study of the propagation of the generated mixing and probe fields is demonstrated.We show by numerical simulations that EIT is capable of suppressing linear and nonlinear photon absorption. The analytical dependence of the generated mixing field on the probe field and the respective detuning is also predicted.Such a nonlinear optical process can be used for generating coherent short-wavelength radiation.
Particle energization and current sheets in Alfvenic plasma turbulence
Makwana, Kirit; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Cattaneo, Fausto
2015-11-01
Plasma turbulence is driven by injecting energy at large scales through stirring or instabilities. This energy cascades forward to smaller scales by nonlinear interactions, described by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) at scales larger than the ion gyroradius. At smaller scales, the fluid description of MHD breaks down and kinetic mechanisms convert turbulent energy into particle energy. We investigate this entire process by simulating the cascade of strongly interacting Alfven waves using MHD and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The plasma beta is varied and particle heating is analyzed. Anisotropic heating of particles is observed. We calculate the fraction of injected energy converted into non-thermal energy. At low beta we obtain a significant non-thermal component to the particle energy distribution function. We investigate the mechanisms behind this acceleration. The velocity distribution function is correlated with the sites of turbulent current sheets. The different dissipative terms due to curvature drift, gradB drift, polarization drifts, and parallel current density are also calculated. This has applications for understanding particle energization in turbulent space plasmas.
Injectorless quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave above room temperature
In this paper, an injectorless quantum cascade laser (QCL) device operating in continuous wave (cw) above room temperature is presented. The pulsed performance shows a threshold current density of 1.2 kA cm−2 at 300 K and a maximum operation temperature of 420 K. According to the thermal resistance of 16 K W−1 in continuous wave operation, a room temperature threshold current density of 2.4 kA cm−2 and a maximum operation temperature of 310 K have been achieved. Using very narrow ridges (∼4 µm), which were formed by a combination of dry and wet etching, the overall optical power reached 12 mW at 292 K and a slope efficiency of 220 mW A−1 for both facets. The low-temperature (80 K) cw threshold current density is as low as 0.3 kA cm−2, showing the potential of injectorless devices. (rapid communication)
Alfven eigenmodes in shear reversed plasmas
Experiments on JT-60U and JET have shown that plasma configurations with shear reversal are prone to the excitation of unusual Alfven Eigenmodes by energetic particles. These modes emerge outside the TAE frequency gap, where one might expect them to be strongly damped. The modes often appear in bunches and they exhibit a quasi-periodic pattern of predominantly upward frequency sweeping (Alfven Cascades) as the safety factor q changes in time. This work presents a theory that explains the key features of the observed unusual modes including their connection to TAE's as well as the modifications of TAE's themselves near the shear reversal point. The developed theory has been incorporated into a reduced numerical model and verified with full geometry codes. JET experimental data on Alfven spectroscopy have been simulated to infer the mode numbers and the evolution of qmin in the discharge. This analysis confirms the values of q that characterize the internal transport barrier triggering in reversed shear plasmas. (author)
Ravaro, Marco; Santarelli, Giorgio; Sirtori, Carlo; Li, Lianhe; Khanna, S P; Linfield, Edmund H; Barbieri, Stefano; 10.1063/1.4793424
2013-01-01
We demonstrate a coherent imaging system based on a terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) phase-locked to a near-infrared fs-laser comb. The phase locking enables coherent electro-optic sampling of the continuous-wave radiation emitted by the QCL through the generation of a heterodyne beat-note signal. We use this beat-note signal to demonstrate raster scan coherent imaging using a QCL emitting at 2.5 THz. At this frequency the detection noise floor of our system is of 3 pW/Hz and the long-term phase stability is <3 degrees/h, limited by the mechanical stability of the apparatus.
Xie, Feng, E-mail: xief@corning.com; Caneau, Catherine G.; LeBlanc, Herve P.; Ho, Ming-tsung; Wang, Jie; Chaparala, Satish; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Zah, Chung-en [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)
2014-02-17
High temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) quantum cascade laser is demonstrated up to a heat sink temperature of 80 °C. A CW output power of 2 W and a single mode operation with side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB around wavelength of 4.48 μm were achieved at 20 °C. The maximum pulsed and CW wall-plug-efficiencies reached 14.7% and 10.3% at 20 °C, respectively. A large tuning range of 5 cm{sup −1} between mode hopping was observed and attributed to the thermal cross-talk from the gain section to the DBR section.
Six-wave mixing spectroscopy in a Doppler-broadened cascade four-level system
Niu Jinyan; Wang Ruquan; Wang Bingbing; Wu Lingan; Fu Panming, E-mail: pmfu@aphy.iphy.ac.c [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2009-09-14
We study six-wave mixing (SWM) spectroscopy based on electromagnetically induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened cascade four-level system. It is found that the SWM spectra are extremely sensitive to the configuration of the incident beams, where the linewidth can be either Doppler-free or very broad, due to the polarization interference of atoms of different velocities. This polarization interference can be controlled in the presence of a strong coupling field. Moreover, SWM can be employed as a new type of Doppler-free Autler-Townes (AT) spectroscopy, which has better spectral resolution than conventional AT spectroscopy. Finally, we also reveal the intrinsic connection between frequency-domain SWM spectroscopy and time-domain photon echoes through studying the time-domain correspondence of SWM.
Acceleration of Alfven solitons
We study the dynamics of solitons perturbed by an external harmonic driver. These are described by a derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (DNLSE) which we solve by pseudo-spectral simulations over a 1024 point grid. Under the action of the perturbation, low-amplitude non-linearly interacting wave modes develop, which eventually degenerate into chaotic oscillations characterized by a positive maximum Lyapunov exponent and a large dimension. After this stage (which lasts about 10 driver's periods), an initially injected soliton (the initial condition) sets down to a train of pulse-shaped structures. These pulses have all the same speed and move in the same direction of the original soliton, retaining its polarization. However, the number of pulses in the numerical box and the time interval between them point out a translation speed which is about 4 times the one of the original soliton; the amplitude and width of the pulses are respectively about 2 and 1/4 times the ones of the original soliton. This suggests that the observed structure is itself a soliton which in fact solves the DNLSE. In other words, it appears as if the DNLSE nonlinearly stored the energy intake out of the driver into more energetic, faster and narrower solitons, a phenomenon we refer to as soliton acceleration. In the meanwhile, the above reported chaotic oscillations have entered an energy-cascade regime, and they have generated a low-level turbulent background in which the solitary structure is embedded. These features are spectrally analyzed to produce power-law wave-number and frequency spectra. An inertial range exists where the spectral indexes are about -1.45 and -1.5 for the wave-number and the frequency spectrum respectively. (orig.)
Fundamentals of Highly Non-Degenerate Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing
Rosa Weigand
2015-09-01
Full Text Available By crossing two intense ultrashort laser pulses with different colors in a transparent medium, like a simple piece of glass, a fan of multicolored broadband light pulses can be simultaneously generated. These newly generated pulses are emitted in several well-defined directions and can cover a broad spectral range, from the infrared to the ultraviolet and beyond. This beautiful phenomenon, first observed and described 15 years ago, is due to highly-nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing (cascaded FWM, or CFWM. Here, we present a review of our work on the generation and measurement of multicolored light pulses based on third-order nonlinearities in transparent solids, from the discovery and first demonstration of highly-nondegenerate CFWM, to the coherent synthesis of single-cycle pulses by superposition of the multicolored light pulses produced by CFWM. We will also present the development and main results of a dedicated 2.5-D nonlinear propagation model, i.e., with propagation occurring along a two-dimensional plane while assuming cylindrically symmetric pump beam profiles, capable of adequately describing noncollinear FWM and CFWM processes. A new method for the generation of femtosecond pulses in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV based on FWM and CFWM will also be described. These experimental and theoretical results show that highly-nondegenerate third-order nonlinear optical processes are formally well understood and provide broader bandwidths than other nonlinear optical processes for the generation of ultrashort light pulses with wavelengths extending from the near-infrared to the deep-ultraviolet, which have many applications in science and technology.
Grid Connection of Wave Power Farm Using an N-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Rickard Ekström
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An N-level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is proposed for grid connection of large wave power farms. The point-absorber wave energy converters are individually rectified and used as isolated DC-sources. The variable power characteristics of the wave energy converters are discussed, and a method of mitigating this issue is demonstrated. The complete power control system is given in detail and has been experimentally verified for a single-phase setup of the 9-level inverter. Theoretical expressions of the power sharing between multilevel cells are derived and show good correspondence with the experimental results.
Alfvenic Turbulence from the Sun to 65 Solar Radii: Numerical predictions.
Perez, J. C.; Chandran, B. D. G.
2015-12-01
The upcoming NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will fly to within 9 solar radii from the solar surface, about 7 times closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft has ever reached. This historic mission will gather unprecedented remote-sensing data and the first in-situ measurements of the plasma in the solar atmosphere, which will revolutionize our knowledge and understanding of turbulence and other processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. This close to the Sun the background solar-wind properties are highly inhomogeneous. As a result, outward-propagating Alfven waves (AWs) arising from the random motions of the photospheric magnetic-field footpoints undergo strong non-WKB reflections and trigger a vigorous turbulent cascade. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of reflection-driven Alfven turbulence in this scenario by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, with the goal of predicting the detailed nature of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations that the SPP mission will measure. In particular, I will place special emphasis on relating the simulations to relevant physical mechanisms that might govern the radial evolution of the turbulence spectra of outward/inward-propagating fluctuations and discuss the conditions that lead to universal power-laws.
Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission
Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/√m and a/(fourth root of m), respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau dampings and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of √m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with υα0/υA α0/υA > 1
Random cascade models of multifractality: real-space renormalization and travelling waves
Random multifractals occur in particular at critical points of disordered systems. For Anderson localization transitions, Mirlin and Evers (2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 7920) have proposed the following scenario: (a) the inverse participation ratios (IPR) Yq(L) display the following fluctuations between the disordered samples of linear size L: with respect to the typical value that involve the typical multifractal spectrum τtyp(q), the rescaled variable y = Yq(L)/Yqtyp(L) is distributed with a scale-invariant distribution presenting the power-law tail 1/y1+βq, so the disorder-averaged IPR have multifractal exponents τav(q) that differ from the typical ones τtyp(q) whenever βq q and the multifractal exponents are related by the relation βqτtyp(q) = τav(qβq). Here we show that this scenario can be understood by considering the real-space renormalization equations satisfied by the IPR. For the simplest multifractals described in terms of random cascades, these renormalization equations are formally similar to the recursion relations for disordered models defined on Cayley trees and they admit travelling-wave solutions for the variable (lnYq) in the effective time teff = lnL: the exponent τtyp(q) represents the velocity, whereas the tail exponent βq represents the usual exponential decay of the travelling-wave tail. In addition, we obtain that the relation in (b) above can be obtained as a self-consistency condition from the self-similarity of the multifractal spectrum at all scales. Our conclusion is thus that the Mirlin–Evers scenario should apply to random critical points of other types, and even to random multifractals occurring in other fields
Sarma, Amarendra K
2012-01-01
We report exact bright and dark soliton solution to the nonlinear evolution equation derived by Moses and Wise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073903, (2006)] for cascaded quadratic media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximations. The integrability aspects of the model are addressed. The traveling wave hypothesis as well as the ansatz method is employed to obtain an exact 1-soliton solution. Both bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. The corresponding constraint conditions are obtained in order for the soliton solutions to exist.
Experimental observation of the shear Alfven resonance in a tokamak
Experiments in Tokapole II have demonstrated the shear Alfven resonance in a tokamak by direct probe measurement of the wave magnetic field within the plasma. The resonance is driven by external antennas and is identified as radially localized enhancements of the poloidal wave magnetic field. The radial location agrees with calculations which include toroidicity and noncircularity of the plasma cross-section. Other properties such as polarization, radial width, risetime, and wave enhancement also agree with MHD theory
Weidmann, D.; F. K. Tittel; Aellen, Thierry; Beck, Mattias; Hofstetter, Daniel; Faist, Jérôme; Blaser, Stéphane
2008-01-01
A recently developed distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) capable of thermoelectric-cooled (TEC) continuous-wave (cw) operation and emitting at ~9 μm is used to perform laser chemical sensing by tunable infrared spectroscopy. A quasi-continuous-wave mode of operation relying on long current pulses (~5 Hz, ~50% duty cycle) is utilized rather than pure cw operation in order to extend the continuous frequency tuning range of the quantum cascade laser. Sulfur dioxide and ammonia were ...
Global structures of Alfven-ballooning modes in magnetospheric plasmas
The authors show that a steep plasma pressure gradient can lead to radially localized Alfven modes, which are damped through coupling to filed line resonances. These have been called drift Alfven balloning modes (DABM) and are the prime candidates to explain Pc4-Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations observed during storms. A strong dependence of the damping rate on the azimuthal wave number m is established, as well as on the equilibrium profile. A minimum azimuthal mode number can be found for the DABM to be radially trapped. The authors find that higher m DABMs are better localized, which is consistent with high-m observations
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of toroidicity-induced alfven eigenmode
Gyrokinetic/Magnetohydrodynamics hybrid simulations have been carried out using MH3D-K code to study the nonlinear saturation of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode driven by energetic particles in a tokamak plasma. It is shown that the wave particle trapping is the nonlinear saturation mechanism for the parameters considered. The corresponding density profile flattening of hot particles is observed. The saturation amplitude is proportional to the square of linear growth rate. In addition to TAE modes, a new n = 1, m = 0 global Alfven eigenmode is shown to be excited by the energetic particles