Sample records for aldicarb

  1. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.269 Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for combined residues of...

  2. Sorption of Aldicarb Sulfoxide by Samples of Some Calcareous Soils From Turkey


    GÜLÜT, Kemal Y.; SAYIN, Mahmut


    Sorption of aldicarb and aldicarb sulfoxide was investigated spectrophotometrically on 16 soil samples. Ten of them were from the Çukurova region. The results showed that organic matter is the single soil property to give correlation with sorption of aldicarb. Clay minerals are also important in sorption but their effect is masked by fine carbonates and organic matter. CaCO 3 sorbs aldicarb weakly. Aldicarb sulfoxide was also sorbed by soil constituents very weakly.

  3. Aldicarb poisoning of dogs and cats in Gauteng during 2003


    R.S. Verster; C.J. Botha; Naidoo, V.; O.L. Van Schalkwyk


    A survey of aldicarb poisoning in companion animals was conducted by posting questionnaires to all private practitioners in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The survey was designed to determine the percentage of aldicarb cases seen, treatment regimen, clinical signs observed, proposals for preventative actions and more effective treatments. Other questions included duration of treatment, survival rate, cost to clients, post mortem findings and reasons for poisonings

  4. Aldicarb poisoning of dogs and cats in Gauteng during 2003

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    R.S. Verster


    Full Text Available A survey of aldicarb poisoning in companion animals was conducted by posting questionnaires to all private practitioners in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The survey was designed to determine the percentage of aldicarb cases seen, treatment regimen, clinical signs observed, proposals for preventative actions and more effective treatments. Other questions included duration of treatment, survival rate, cost to clients, post mortem findings and reasons for poisonings

  5. Residues of aldicarb in oranges: a unit-to-unit variability study. (United States)

    Lentza-Rizos, C H; Tsioumplekou, M


    Residues of aldicarb and its sulphoxide and sulphone oxidative metabolites in individual Navelino orange trees were determined at several time intervals after soil application of TEMIK 10G at 200 g formulated material per tree. Analysis was by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization giving average recoveries of 98% for aldicarb (RSD 6%), 34% for aldicarb sulphoxide (RSD 5%) and 77% for aldicarb sulphone (RSD 5%). Lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) were 0.02 mg/kg for aldicarb and aldicarb sulphone and 0.04 mg/kg for aldicarb sulphoxide. At the recommended preharvest interval (PHI) of 120 days no detectable residues of any compound, including the parent compound, were found in and of the samples analysed. In mature fruits (PHI of 88 days) detectable residues at the LCL for aldicarb sulphoxide and 0.03 or 0.04 mg/kg for aldicarb sulphone were found in only three of the 18 samples analYsed. In immature fruits detectable residues of aldicarb sulphoxide at concentrations ranging between 0.04 (LCL) and 0.51 mg/kg were detected in 70 out of 88 samples analysed, while residues of aldicarb sulphone at concentrations 0.02 (LCL) to 0.8 mg/kg were detected in 73 out of 88 samples. Indicative variability factors for sulphoxide and sulphone were estimated for immature fruits. PMID:11569769

  6. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

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    R.S. Verster


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  7. Effects of Aldicarb and Fenamiphos on Acetycholinesterase and Motility of Caenorhabditis elegans


    Opperman, C. H.; Chang, S.


    The ability of Caenorhabditis elegans to recover from exposure to high doses of aldicarb and fenamiphos was examined at the organismal and biochemical levels by determination of movement and acetylcholinesterase activity. Nematodes recovered rapidly from a 24-hour exposure to both compounds at concentrations that caused complete paralysis. Acetylcholinesterase regained nearly full activity after a 24-hour exposure to aldicarb but only 10% activity after exposure to fenamiphos. The nematodes w...

  8. Cromatografia em camada delgada para o diagnóstico da intoxicação por aldicarb ("chumbinho" em cães e gatos Thin-layer chromatography for aldicarb poisoning diagnosis in dogs and cats

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    F.G. Xavier


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD como método de diagnóstico toxicológico para os casos de intoxicação por aldicarb em cães e gatos, utilizando-se 50 amostras de conteúdo gástrico obtidas durante a necropsia e 50 amostras de alimentos utilizados como iscas para intoxicar criminalmente os animais. Todas as amostras resultaram positivas para o aldicarb, mostrando ser a CCD uma técnica qualitativa eficiente, rápida e de baixo custo, com uso potencial na toxicologia veterinária forense.The present study concerns about the identification of aldicarb residues using thin-layer chromatography (TLC in 50 samples of gastric content obtained from the necropsy of dogs and cats and 50 samples of foods suspected of being used as baits. All samples resulted positive for aldicarb showing that the TLC is an efficient, fast and not expensive qualitative method for the detection of aldicarb, being useful for this purpose in the forensic veterinary toxicology.

  9. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay. (United States)

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J


    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (Pwater velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This

  10. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho": aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos Aldicarb toxicology: general, clinic and therapeutic features in dogs and cats

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    Fabiana Galtarossa Xavier


    Full Text Available O aldicarb (Temik®, um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodinâmica, o diagnóstico e os aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da intoxicação em cães e gatos.Aldicarb (Temik®, an anticholinesterase inhibitor of the carbamate group known as ‘chumbinho’, is one of the most toxic of registered pesticides, and has its use restricted to agriculture in Brazil. In spite of it, aldicarb is being very often involved in severe intoxication in humans and animals. It is largely and illegally sold as rodenticide and often used in baits for intentional poisoning of companion animals. Because of this the aldicarb toxicology was reviewed empathizing its chemical properties, toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, diagnostic and the clinical and therapeutics aspects in dogs and cats.


    The toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of the pesticides acephate, aldicarb, carbophenothion, DEF, EPN, ethoprop, methyl parathion, and phorate were determined for estuarine environments. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the 96-h EC50 values for al...

  12. Death by chumbinho: aldicarb intoxication-regarding a corpse in decomposition. (United States)

    Durão, Carlos; Machado, Marcos P


    Chumbinho is the popular name given to carbamate aldicarb (Temik), an insecticide commonly used in agriculture and highly toxic (LD50 = 0.9 mg/kg oral in rats) that has been sold clandestinely in several regions of Brazil. Chumbinho is sold illegally as raticide and is available in a formulation of small black granules which are easily mixed with food for criminal purposes, its use often being attributed to accidents and suicides, hence the importance of its inclusion in the toxicology studies of suspicious deaths. With the corpse putrefaction, many pathological and toxicological anatomical parameters are damaged or lost. This study emphasizes the importance of the gastric content observation, which in this case has, despite the advanced putrefaction, recognized the presence of chumbinho and guide its toxicological confirmation. PMID:26914800

  13. Mutagenic studies on the effect of Aldicarb "Temik" and vitamin C as antioxidant agent on the white rat:(Chromosomal aberrations and Micronucleus tests

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    Fatma M. Hamam* and Ihab H. Foda


    Full Text Available Widespread contamination of the environment due to increased and frequently indiscriminate usage of insecticides during the last two decades has aroused much concern over the possibility of their radiominetic effect. Evidence accumulating over the years emphasized the indisputable link between certain insecticides, chromosomal damage and possibility of gene mutation. There is a wide variety of insecticides, among which the carbamates. Their chemical relationship to ethyl carbamate makes them worthy of study for their possible deleterious effect on biological system. The main object of the present study is to evaluate the mutagenic effect of a carbamate insecticide" Aldicarb" alone and in combination of vitamin C as an antioxidant agent to decrease their mutagenicity. Male albino rats were tested orally for 48 hours , two doses of aldicarb were used in absence and in the presence of viamin C (1/4 and 1/10 LD50. The obtained data showed highly significant increase in the micronucleus (PCEM and in chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells at the two doses of aldicarb compared to control group. (P< 0.0001. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus decreased in rats treated with aldicarb and vitamin C than in aldicarb treated group. From these results we concluded that cytogenetic effect of aldicarb might be decreased by the usage of vitamin as an antioxidant agent.

  14. Investigation of 0.07 T on the toxicity of Aldicarb on acetylcholinesterase enzyme of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was devoted to investigate the effect of 0.07 T d.c magnetic field on the toxicity of Carbamate pesticide Aldicarb on the cetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that was obtained from nervous system of white male Swiss rats. Permanent magnetic discs were fastened to the central back part of the skulls of rats for exposure times up to 24 hours. The activity of enzyme was obtained from brain homogenate using Ellman 1) method and Bisso et al. (199 1). Results revealed that d.e magnetic field increase the AChE enzyme activity in healthy cases due to enzyme inhibitor aldicarb. The homogenate reaction rate (R) for different exposure time (t) were expressed

  15. Effects of Incorporation Method of Ethoprop and Addition of Aldicarb on Potato Tuber Infection by Meloidogyne hapla


    Ingham, Russell E.; Morris, Mark; Newcomb, Gene B.


    The efficacy of controlling Meloidogyne hapla on potato with water incorporation of ethoprop was compared to physical incorporation before planting. The standard practice of aldicarb application for insect control was also evaluated for M. hapla suppression with and without ethoprop. Physical incorporation before planting by rototilling or discing reduced (P ≤ 0.05) tuber infection. Postplant water incorporation of ethoprop was not as effective as physical incorporation of ethoprop or postpla...

  16. Intoxicación letal con aldicarb: análisis de sangre post mortem mediante LC-ESI-MS/MS

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    Diana Jazmín Mariño-Gaviria


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El aldicarb es un plaguicida carbamato de alta toxicidad asociado a intoxicaciones agudas fatales en el ser humano. Su mecanismo de acción consiste en la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChE que ocasiona la acumulación del neurotransmisor acetilcolina en la hendidura sináptica. Esta acumulación provoca síntomas colinérgicos y, dependiendo de la dosis de exposición, puede paralizar los sistemas respiratorio y nervioso hasta llegar a la muerte. Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de aldicarb en sangre post mortem en casos de intoxicación aguda. Materiales y métodos. Investigación de tipo experimental empleando un cromatógrafo líquido con espectrometría de masas, con ionización electrospray y análisis en modo tándem (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Los estándares de aldicarb y el aldicarb-d3 fueron comprados de Dr. Ehrenstorfer GmbH. El método consiste en una precipitación de proteínas de la sangre y su posterior análisis por LC-ESI-MS/MS, utilizando el aldicarb-d3 como estándar interno. El método fue aplicado a siete casos de intoxicación letal por presunta acción del aldicarb. Resultados. El aldicarb se encontró en la sangre de seis de los casos estudiados, en niveles desde 0.12 a 1.90 µg/mL. Solo en uno de los casos no se detectó aldicarb. En cuanto la presunta manera de muerte, en seis de los casos analizados fue el suicidio y en un caso se clasificó como muerte en estudio. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos con la metodología analítica y la técnica LC-ESI-MS/MS son satisfactorios en términos de la determinación cuantitativa de aldicarb en sangre total post mortem. La aplicación de la metodología descrita en toxicología forense evidencia el empleo de este plaguicida en actos suicidas.

  17. Control de artrópodos fitófagos en cítricos con aldicarb y efectos sobre entomofauna auxiliar.




    Aldicarb es un plaguicida utilizado en el cultivo de los agrios. Se ha estudiado su efecto con el objetivo de conocer la acción sobre ciertas plagas, el impacto sobre insectos beneficiosos, la influencia en el desarrollo vegetativo y la cosecha, así como la absorción y evolución de sus metabolitos en el suelo, hojas y frutos. Hemos observado que aldicarb controla de forma adecuada las siguientes plagas: aleiródidos, áfidos, el pseudoócido Planococcus citri Risso y el ácaro rojo Panonychus ...

  18. Intoxicación letal con aldicarb: análisis de sangre post mortem mediante LC-ESI-MS/MS


    Diana Jazmín Mariño-Gaviria; Nancy Patiño-Reyes


    Antecedentes. El aldicarb es un plaguicida carbamato de alta toxicidad asociado a intoxicaciones agudas fatales en el ser humano. Su mecanismo de acción consiste en la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) que ocasiona la acumulación del neurotransmisor acetilcolina en la hendidura sináptica. Esta acumulación provoca síntomas colinérgicos y, dependiendo de la dosis de exposición, puede paralizar los sistemas respiratorio y nervioso hasta llegar a la muerte. Objetivo. Determinar e...

  19. Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

  20. Avaliação de dois simuladores para predição da lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Evaluation of two simulators to predict the leaching of aldoxycarb in a red-yellow latossol

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    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, na região de Lavras, MG, para posterior comparação com os resultados obtidos pelos simuladores CALF e PESTLA. Os resultados mostraram alta lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe no solo em estudo. Aos 44 dias após a aplicação do inseticida e com uma lâmina de água acumulada de 241,4 mm, a quantidade média de sulfona de aldicarbe remanescente nas colunas de solo de 45 cm de profundidade foi equivalente a 17,92% (±5,88 da dose aplicada, enquanto os simuladores CALF e PESTLA estimaram 20,52% e 37,82%, respectivamente. O simulador CALF gerou melhores estimativas da quantidade média de sulfona de aldicarbe no perfil do solo nas diferentes datas de amostragem, enquanto o simulador PESTLA gerou melhores estimativas da distribuição do inseticida ao longo do perfil do solo, nas diferentes datas de amostragem.This work was carried out to study the leaching of aldoxycarb in a Red Yellow Latossol in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to compare the observed results with those obtained by the simulators CALF and PESTLA. The results showed a high leaching of aldoxycarb in the soil. After 44 days of the insecticide application and with 241.4 mm of accumulated water applied in each column, the remained quantity of aldoxycarb in the soil columns (45 cm long was 17.92% (±5.88 of the initial applied rate. However, the simulators CALF and PESTLA predicted 20.52% and 37.82%, respectively. CALF simulator gave better predictions of the overall mean residue concentrations of aldoxycarb, and PESTLA simulator gave better prediction of residues distribution.

  1. 75 FR 62129 - Aldicarb; Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel a Pesticide Registration (United States)


    ... or on citrus, cotton, dry beans, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sugar potatoes, sugar beets, and sweet... range of stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical... agricultural crops: citrus, cotton, dry beans, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beets, and sweet...

  2. Mutagenic studies on the effect of Aldicarb "Temik" and vitamin C as antioxidant agent on the white rat:(Chromosomal aberrations and Micronucleus tests)


    Fatma M. Hamam* and Ihab H. Foda


    Widespread contamination of the environment due to increased and frequently indiscriminate usage of insecticides during the last two decades has aroused much concern over the possibility of their radiominetic effect. Evidence accumulating over the years emphasized the indisputable link between certain insecticides, chromosomal damage and possibility of gene mutation. There is a wide variety of insecticides, among which the carbamates. Their chemical relationship to ethyl carbamate makes them ...

  3. Bahiagrass, Corn, Cotton Rotations, and Pesticides for Managing Nematodes, Diseases, and Insects on Peanut


    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Burton, G. W.; Culbreath, A. K.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S H


    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated pl...

  4. Bahiagrass, corn, cotton rotations, and pesticides for managing nematodes, diseases, and insects on peanut. (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Burton, G W; Culbreath, A K; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H


    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  5. 77 FR 75155 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ... Federal Register on September 19, 2012 (77 FR 58134) (FRL-9361-1), and October 7, 2010 (75 FR 62129) (FRL... Goal 2XL Herbicide. Oxyfluorfen. Table 1b--Aldicarb Product Cancellation EPA Registration No....

  6. Effect of a pesticide on the extracellular slime production and pathogenicity of a non-target phytopathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldicarb (2 methyl thio) propionaldehyde-0-(methyl carbamoyl oxime), a systemic insecticide treatment altered the quantity and the quality of the extracellular polysaccharides (slime) produced by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Although 5 ppm (normal dose) aldicarb treatment reduced the quality of polysaccharides produced by the cells, the incorporation of 14C (glucose) label and the reducing sugar contents was higher than the other treatments. Chromatographic analysis of the hydrolysed polysaccharides showed that aldicarb treatment altered their qualitative composition also. The extracellular polysaccharides produced by the pathogen treated with 5 ppm aldicarb caused wilting of tomato seedlings earlier than others, indicating thereby, that the wilt inducing factor in the slime was altered by the pesticide treatment. The limited translocation of the 14C labelled polysaccharides in the wilted seedlings indicated mechanical blocking of the vascular system of the plants. (author)


    The RASco, Inc. ASOP Drinking Water Treatment Module was tested at NSF’s Laboratory for the reduction of the following chemicals of concern: aldicarb, benzene, carbofuran, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, methomyl, mevinphos, nicotine, oxamyl, paraquat, phorate, sodium fluor...

  8. Bestrijdingsmiddelen in oppervlaktewater van het Westland


    Greve PA; Luttik R; Linders JBHJ


    Oppervlaktewatermonsters, maandelijks genomen op 10 punten in het Westland gedurende de periode april 1988 t/m januari 1989, zijn onderzocht op het voorkomen van 77 bestrijdingsmiddelen en verwante stoffen. Aldicarb-sulfon, aldicarb-sulfoxide, atrazin, diazinon, dichlobenil, alpha- en beta-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfaat, endrin, furalaxyl, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptenofos, metalaxyl, metolachloor, parathion, permethrin, propazin, simazin, tolclofos-methyl en vinchlozolin zijn in con...

  9. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children. (United States)

    Goldman, Lynn R.


    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  10. Comparative toxicity and biochemical responses of certain pesticides to the mature earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa under laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Ismail, Saad M M; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Ahmed, Yousery M


    This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of aldicarb, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl toward mature Aporrectodea caliginosa earthworms. The effects of the LC(25) values of these pesticides on the growth rate in relation to glucose, soluble protein, and activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AIP) were also studied. The results showed that aldicarb was the most toxic of the tested pesticides, followed in order by cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl. A reduction in growth rate was observed in all pesticide-treated worms, which was accompanied by a decrease in soluble protein and an increase in transaminases and phosphatases. Relationships between growth rate, protein content, transaminases, and phosphatases provided strong evidence for the involvement of pesticidal contamination in the biochemical changes in earthworms, which can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination by pesticides. PMID:14502587

  11. Evaluation of Four Bio fertilizers for Bioremediation of Pesticide contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to asses the ability of mixed populations of microorganisms which produced as a bio fertilizers by the General Organization of Agriculture Fund, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (phosphoren, microbien, cerealin and azospirillum) to degrade five selected pesticides representing different classes including organophosphate, carbamate and chlorinated organic compounds. There were differences in rates of biotransformation, suggesting the selective induction of certain metabolic enzymes. Inoculation of soil incorporated with malathion, fenamiphos, carbaryl, aldicarb and dieldrin, resulted in ca. 80-90% removal of malathion and fenamiphos within 8 days, carbaryl and aldicarb within 11-15 days respectively. Dieldrin removal occurred slowly within 2 months. These data suggest that bioremediate may act as potential candidates for soil inoculation to bioremediate pesticide contaminated soil. The production of Co2 (soil respiration ) was stimulated by some pesticides. In samples with microbien, an about 2 times higher Co2 production was measured

  12. Onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen en verwante verbindingen in oppervlaktewater (samenvattend rapport over 1984)


    Wammes; J.IJ.; Wegman; R.C.C.; Greve; P.A.


    De resultaten van het systematisch lange-termijn-onderzoek naar het voorkomen van bestrijdingsmiddelen en verwante verbindingen in Ned. oppervlaktewater zijn voor het jaar 1984 samengevat. Het programma werd t.o.v. 1983 ingekort met de bepaling van extraheerbare organische zwavelverbindingen, endosulfan (alfa- en beta-), triadimefon, triadimenol en de fenoxycarbonzuren en uitgebreid met de analyse van aldicarb, metalaxyl, fenbutatinoxide, iprodione en een aantal fosforverbindingen. Tevens wer...

  13. Nematode Control Related to Fusarium Wilt in Soybean and Root Rot and Zinc Deficiency in Corn


    Minton, N. A.; Parker, M. B.; Sumner, D. R.


    Nematode and disease problems of irrigated, double-cropped soybean and corn, and zinc deficiency of corn were investigated. Ethylene dibromide, phenamiphos, and aldicarb were equally effective for controlling nematodes and increasing yields of corn planted minimum-till and soybean planted in a moldboard plow prepared seedbed. The residual effects on yields of nematicides applied to the preceeding crop occurred during 3 years for soybean and 1 year for corn. Fusarium wilt symptoms of soybean t...

  14. Effect of intercropping on nematodes in two small-scale sugarcane farming systems in South Africa


    Berry, S. D.; Dana, P.; Spaull, V.W.; Cadet, Patrice


    Two trials were planted on sandy soils on small-scale grower farms to study the effect of intercropping on the nematode fauna, soil and plant fertility and sugarcane yield. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and sugar bean (Phaseolus limensis) were intercropped between the sugarcane rows in the first trial; velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were intercropped in the second trial. These practices were compared to a standard aldicarb (nematicide) treatment and an untreat...

  15. Rotylenchulus reniformis Management in Cotton with Crop Rotation


    Davis, R. F.; Koenning, S. R.; Kemerait, R. C.; Cummings, T. D.; Shurley, W. D.


    One-year crop rotations with corn or highly resistant soybean were evaluated at four locations for their effect on Rotylenchulus reniformis population levels and yield of a subsequent cotton crop. Four nematicide (aldicarb) regimes were included at two of the locations, and rotation with reniform-susceptible soybean was included at the other two locations. One-year rotations to corn or resistant soybean resulted in lower R. reniformis population levels (P ≤ 0.05) than those found in cotton at...

  16. Relationship of Yield and Pratylenchus spp. Population Densities in Superior and Russet Burbank Potato


    Kimpinski, J.; McRae, K. B.


    Number of Pratylenchus spp. (primarily P. penetrans) were recorded at planting in experimental potato plots over a 9-year period at one location on Prince Edward Island. Tuber yields of 'Superior' and 'Russet Burbank' potatoes in plots treated with aldicarb were compared with yields in adjacent untreated plots. There was a linear relationship between the number of root lesion nematodes at planting and tuber yield increases after treatment for Superior, but not for Russet Burbank (P < 0.05). W...

  17. Chemical control of the cyst nematode, heterodera trifolii in miniature carnation


    Marroquin, Alicia; Arbelaez, Germán


    One of the diseases recently registered on carnation in Colombia is the cystnematode caused by Heterodera trifolii. An increase of the vascular wilt was observed in some farms affected by the two pathogens. A trial was carried out in a commercial greenhouse with miniature carnation of the variety Red Baron. The fumigants DD memethylisothiocianate, Dazomet and Methamsodium applied to the soil before planting were used alone and in combination with three non fumigant nematicides Aldicarb, Carbo...

  18. Pesticide removal from cotton farm tailwater by a pilot-scale ponded wetland. (United States)

    Rose, Michael T; Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R


    A pilot-scale, ponded wetland consisting of an open pond and a vegetated pond in series was constructed on a cotton farm in northern New South Wales, Australia, and assessed for its potential to remove pesticides from irrigation tailwater. Ten incubation periods ranging from 7 to 13 days each were conducted over two cotton growing seasons to monitor removal of residues of four pesticides applied to the crop. Residue reductions ranging 22-53% and 32-90% were observed in the first and second seasons respectively. Average half-lives during this first season were calculated as 21.3 days for diuron, 25.4 days for fluometuron and 26.4 days for aldicarb over the entire wetland. During the second season of monitoring, pesticide half-lives were significantly reduced, with fluometuron exhibiting a half-life of 13.8 days, aldicarb 6.2 days and endosulfan 7.5 days in the open pond. Further significant reductions were observed in the vegetated pond and also following an algal bloom in the open pond, as a result of which aldicarb and endosulfan were no longer quantifiable. Partitioning onto sediment was found to be a considerable sink for the insecticide endosulfan. These results demonstrate that macrophytes and algae can reduce the persistence of pesticides in on-farm water and provide some data for modelling. PMID:16330067

  19. Selective effects of carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and rat brain acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of commonly used carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. The potencies of these effects have been compared to the potencies of the carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase. The potency order of six carbamates to inhibit α4β4 nicotinic receptors is fenoxycarb > EPTC > carbaryl, bendiocarb > propoxur > aldicarb with IC50 values ranging from 3 μM for fenoxycarb to 165 μM for propoxur and >1 mM for aldicarb. Conversely, the potency order of these carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase is bendiocarb > propoxur, aldicarb > carbaryl >> EPTC, fenoxycarb with IC50 values ranging from 1 μM for bendiocarb to 17 μM for carbaryl and >>1 mM for EPTC and fenoxycarb. The α4β2, α3β4, and α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are inhibited by fenoxycarb, EPTC, and carbaryl with potency orders similar to that for α4β4 receptors. Comparing the potencies of inhibition of the distinct subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors shows that the α3β2 receptor is less sensitive to inhibition by fenoxycarb and EPTC. The potency of inhibition depends on the carbamate as well as on a combination of α and β subunit properties. It is concluded that carbamate pesticides affect different subtypes of neuronal nicotinic receptors independently of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. This implicates that neuronal nicotinic receptors are additional targets for some carbamate pesticides and that these receptors may contribute to carbamate pesticide toxicology, especially after long-term exposure

  20. A fully automated system for analysis of pesticides in water: on-line extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem photodiode array/postcolumn derivatization/fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Patsias, J; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E


    A fully automated system for on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem detection with a photodiode array detector and a fluorescence detector (after postcolumn derivatization) was developed for analysis of many chemical classes of pesticides and their major conversion products in aquatic systems. An automated on-line-SPE system (Prospekt) operated with reversed-phase cartridges (PRP-1) extracts analytes from 100 mL acidified (pH = 3) filtered water sample. On-line HPLC analysis is performed with a 15 cm C18 analytical column eluted with a mobile phase of phosphate (pH = 3)-acetonitrile in 25 min linear gradient mode. Solutes are detected by tandem diode array/derivatization/fluorescence detection. The system is controlled and monitored by a single computer operated with Millenium software. Recoveries of most analytes in samples fortified at 1 microgram/L are > 90%, with relative standard deviation values of < 5%. For a few very polar analytes, mostly N-methylcarbamoyloximes (i.e., aldicarb sulfone, methomyl, and oxamyl), recoveries are < 20%. However, for these compounds, as well as for the rest of the N-methylcarbamates except for aldicarb sulfoxide and butoxycarboxim, the limits of detection (LODs) are 0.005-0.05 microgram/L. LODs for aldicarb sulfoxide and butoxycarboxim are 0.2 and 0.1 microgram, respectively. LODs for the rest of the analytes except 4-nitrophenol, bentazone, captan, decamethrin, and MCPA are 0.05-0.1 microgram/L. LODs for the latter compounds are 0.2-1.0 microgram/L. The system can be operated unattended. PMID:10444834

  1. Effects and Carry-Over Benefits of Nematicides in Soil Planted to a Sweet Corn-Squash-Vetch Cropping System


    Johnson, A. W.; Leonard, R A


    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a...

  2. Enhancement of the efficacy of a carbamate nematicide against the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, through mycorrhization in commercial potato fields


    Deliopoulos, T.; Minnis, S. T.; Jones, P W; Haydock, P. P. J.


    Two experiments were conducted over 2 years in commercial potato fields in Shropshire, UK, to evaluate the compatibility of the nematicide aldicarb with commercial inocula of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. The AMF used were Vaminoc (mixed-AMF inoculum), Glomus intraradices (BioRize BB-E) and G. mosseae (isolate BEG 12). In the absence of AMF, the in-soil hatch of G. pallida increased 30% (P < 0.01) from wk-2 to wk-4 after plant...

  3. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  4. Effects of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides on Pratylenchus penetrans and Yield of Potato


    Olthof, Th. H. A.


    In 1984-85 metham-sodium and the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb decreased (P = 0.05) soil population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans at planting, midseason, and at harvest relative to the untreated control. These treatments increased (P = 0.05) marketable potato tuber yield from 27% to 46% in 1984 and from 23% to 37% in 1985, as compared with the control. In 1984 oxamyl (10% granular and 24% liquid) applied immediately after planting increased (P = 0.05) only the total y...

  5. Estudos sobre aplicações conjuntas de herbicidas e nematicidas sistêmicos na eficácia dos nematicidas em cana-de-açúcar Studies on the effect of simultaneous application of herbicide and systemic nematicide on nematicide efficacy in sugarcane fields


    Andrea C. B. Barros; Romero M. Moura; Elvira M. R. Pedrosa


    Com o objetivo de avaliar uma possível influência da aplicação conjunta de nematicidas sistêmicos e herbicidas sobre a eficácia dos nematicidas, no controle de Meloidogyne spp. e Pratylenchus zeae em cana-de-açúcar (híbrido de Saccharum spp.) no Nordeste, instalaram-se dois experimentos, um irrigado e outro não irrigado, ambos em canaviais nordestinos, há muito cultivados e comprovadamente infestados por fitonematóides. A variedade utilizada foi SP79-1011, os nematicidas aldicarb e terbufós e...

  6. Effect of Carbamate, Organophosphate, and Avermectin Nematicides on Oxygen Consumption by Three Meloidogyne spp.


    Nordmeyer, D.; Dickson, D.W.


    Second-stage juveniles (I2) of Meloidogyne arenaria consumed more oxygen (P ≤ 0.05) than M. incognita J2, which in turn consumed more than M. javanica J2 (4,820, 4,530, and 3,970 μl per hour per g nematode dryweight, respectively). Decrease in oxygen consumption depended on the nematicide used. Except for aldicarb, there was no differential sensitivity among the three nematode species. Meloidogyne javanica had a greater percentage decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in oxygen uptake when treated with aldicar...

  7. Study on the Highly Sensitive AChE Electrode Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Zhang


    Full Text Available Using chitosan (CS as carrier, the method named layer-by-layer (LBL self-assembly modification to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and acetylcholine esterase (AChE was proposed to prepare the acetylcholine esterase electrode with high sensitivity and stability. The modified electrode was used to detect pesticide of aldicarb, and the enzyme inhibition rate of the electrode showed good linearity with pesticide concentrations in the range of 10−10 g·L−1 to 10−3 g·L−1. The detection limit was 10−11 g·L−1. The modified electrode was also used to detect the actual sample, and the recovery rate range was from 97.72% to 107.15%, which could meet the rapid testing need of the aldicarb residue. After being stored in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS in 4°C for 30 days, the modified electrode showed good stability with the response current that was 80% of the original current.

  8. Potential of crops uncommon to alabama for management of root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; King, P S; Robertson, D G; Weaver, C F


    Vigna unguiculata, Cassia fasiculata, and Sesamum indicum did not support Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, or Heterodera glycines race 4 in greenhouse studies with soils from peanut and soybean fields. Fagopyron eseulentum, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, and Cucurbita pepo were hosts to the two Meloidogyne spp. but were nonhosts to H. glycines. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita galled but reproduced poorly in the roots of three types of Amaranthus cruentus, and low densities of these two Meloidogyne spp. (< 10 second-stage juveniles/100 cm(3) soil) occurred in soil cultivated with this crop. In a field study no juveniles of M. arenaria determined at peanut harvest were recovered from plots with Ricinus communis, Gossypium hirsutum, Aeschynomene americana, C. fasiculata, or S. indicum. Peanut plots averaged 120 juveniles/100 cm(3) soil. Application of aldicarb (12 kg a.i./ha broadcast) in peanut resulted in an average of 27 juveniles/100 cm(3) soil. Several crops were as effective as aldicarb treatment for reducing soil juvenile population densities of M. arenaria. PMID:19290317

  9. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 23 experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 μg L-1, and 17.0 and 33.0 μg L-1, respectively.

  10. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil. (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M


    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

  11. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  12. Estudos sobre aplicações conjuntas de herbicidas e nematicidas sistêmicos na eficácia dos nematicidas em cana-de-açúcar Studies on the effect of simultaneous application of herbicide and systemic nematicide on nematicide efficacy in sugarcane fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. B. Barros


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar uma possível influência da aplicação conjunta de nematicidas sistêmicos e herbicidas sobre a eficácia dos nematicidas, no controle de Meloidogyne spp. e Pratylenchus zeae em cana-de-açúcar (híbrido de Saccharum spp. no Nordeste, instalaram-se dois experimentos, um irrigado e outro não irrigado, ambos em canaviais nordestinos, há muito cultivados e comprovadamente infestados por fitonematóides. A variedade utilizada foi SP79-1011, os nematicidas aldicarb e terbufós e os herbicidas diuron, ametrina, oxyfluorfen e pendimetalin, aplicados no plantio, nas doses recomendadas comercialmente. As avaliações fundamentaram-se nos níveis populacionais dos nematóides observados em três diferentes momentos, e nos fatores de reprodução. Avaliaram-se também o desenvolvimento das plantas, a produtividade agrícola e dois parâmetros tecnológicos. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve efeito dos herbicidas na eficácia dos nematicidas, nem foram significativas as diferenças em relação à produtividade, exceto na área irrigada, para perfilhamento nos tratamentos com herbicidas, e número de colmos e perfilhos, nos tratamentos com nematicidas em relação à testemunha. Os nematicidas e herbicidas não afetaram os níveis de Pol e PCC do caldo, não interferindo, portanto, na produtividade industrial. Houve interação estatística entre nematicida e herbicida para P. zeae na rizosfera, na área irrigada, com a menor população do parasito encontrada na combinação aldicarb + pendimetalin.The effect of interaction between herbicides (diuron, ametrina, oxyfluorfen, and pendimetalin and systemic nematicides (aldicarb and terbufos on growth and yield of sugarcane (hybrid ofSaccharumspp. variety SP79-1011 in soil naturally infested with Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica andPratylenchus zeaewas evaluated in two different experiments: irrigated and not irrigated, in Northeastern Brazil. Evaluations were based

  13. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils. (United States)

    Vrain, T C; Belair, G; Martel, P


    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively. PMID:19300652

  14. Influence of a carbamate pesticide on growth, respiration (14C)-carbon metabolism and symbiosis of a Rhizobium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of aldicarb (2 methyl-2(methyl thio) propionaldehyde-O-methyl carbamoyl oxime) in the growth medium enhanced the growth of Rhizobium sp. (cowpea group) at 2ppm level while an inhibition was observed at the normal (5 ppm) and higher (10 ppm) concentrations. Respiration of the cells was also inhibited by 5 and 10 ppm levels of the chemical eventhough a stimulation was observed at 2 ppm (lower) concentration. The insecticide, when incorporated at 5 and 10 ppm levels in the medium increased the 14C-glucose incorporation and considerably altered the assimilation of the radioactive carbon in different fractions of rhizobium cells. Soil application of this insecticide (Temik 10 G) reduced the number of nodules formed and the total nitrogen content in cowpea plants inoculated with the Rhizobium sp. but enhanced the dry matter production of cowpea plants. (Auth.)

  15. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips. (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y


    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  16. Sensibilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos a agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Alves Botelho


    Full Text Available Os agroquímicos empregados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar podem afetar a ação de fungos entomopatogênicos usados no controle biológico de pragas da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar se os inseticidas, herbicidas e maturadores utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar têm efeito tóxico sobre os fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram utilizados os inseticidas thiametoxan, aldicarbe e fipronil, os herbicidas imazapir, diuron, metribuzin, hexazinone+diuron, clomazone+ametrina, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético e glifosato, e os maturadores etil-trinexapac, sulfometurom-metílico e glifosato também. Os fungos foram cultivados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar contendo os agroquímicos. Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial, a produção e viabilidade dos conídios, e fez-se a avaliação da toxicidade dos agroquímicos. O inseticida à base de thiametoxan foi considerado compatível, pois não afetou o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos dois fungos. O inseticida formulado com fipronil se mostrou parcialmente tóxico para os fungos, sendo considerado moderadamente compatível, enquanto o aldicarbe foi considerado tóxico. Os herbicidas avaliados afetaram o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos entomopatógenos e foram classificados como tóxicos, mas aqueles formulados com imazapir, glifosato e metribuzim foram considerados compatíveis. Entre os agroquímicos usados como maturadores apenas o glifosato foi classificado como compatível. Os agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar, e que foram testados neste estudo, têm majoritariamente efeito tóxico sobre B. bassiana e M. anisopliae podendo comprometer sua ação como bioagentes de controle de pragas da cultura.

  17. Altered Function of the DnaJ Family Cochaperone DNJ-17 Modulates Locomotor Circuit Activity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Seizure Model (United States)

    Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Jin, Yishi


    The highly conserved cochaperone DnaJ/Hsp40 family proteins are known to interact with molecular chaperone Hsp70, and can regulate many cellular processes including protein folding, translocation, and degradation. In studies of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion mutants, we identified a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in dnj-17 closely linked to the widely used e156 null allele of C. elegans GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) unc-25. dnj-17 encodes a DnaJ protein orthologous to human DNAJA5. In C. elegans DNJ-17 is a cytosolic protein and is broadly expressed in many tissues. dnj-17(gf) causes a single amino acid substitution in a conserved domain, and behaves as a hypermorphic mutation. The effect of this dnj-17(gf) is most prominent in mutants lacking GABA synaptic transmission. In a seizure model caused by a mutation in the ionotropic acetylcholine receptor acr-2(gf), dnj-17(gf) exacerbates the convulsion phenotype in conjunction with absence of GABA. Null mutants of dnj-17 show mild resistance to aldicarb, while dnj-17(gf) is hypersensitive. These results highlight the importance of DnaJ proteins in regulation of C. elegans locomotor circuit, and provide insights into the in vivo roles of DnaJ proteins in humans. PMID:27185401

  18. Sensitive and specific multiresidue methods for the determination of pesticides of various classes in clinical and forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Lacassie, E; Marquet, P; Gaulier, J M; Dreyfuss, M F; Lachâtre, G


    Original and sensitive multiresidue methods are presented for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of 61 pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX) OASIS cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil) pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles). Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides, but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged, respectively, from 2.5 to 20 and from 5 to 50ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods: in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran; in four other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with, respectively, parathion-ethyl, the association of bromacil and strychnine, bifenthrin and aldicarb. PMID:11516896

  19. Toxicity in relation to mode of action for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Acute-to-chronic ratios and quantitative structure-activity relationships. (United States)

    Ristau, Kai; Akgül, Yeliz; Bartel, Anna Sophie; Fremming, Jana; Müller, Marie-Theres; Reiher, Luise; Stapela, Frederike; Splett, Jan-Paul; Spann, Nicole


    Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are of particular interest in chemical risk assessment. Previous studies focusing on the relationship between the size or variation of ACRs to substance classes and QSAR models were often based on data for standard test organisms, such as daphnids and fish. In the present study, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for a total of 11 chemicals covering 3 substance classes (nonpolar narcotics: 1-propanol, ethanol, methanol, 2-butoxyethanol; metals: copper, cadmium, zinc; and carbamates: methomyl, oxamyl, aldicarb, dioxacarb). The ACRs were variable, especially for the carbamates and metals, although there was a trend toward small and less variable ACRs for nonpolar narcotic substances. The octanol-water partition coefficient was a good predictor for explaining acute and chronic toxicity of nonpolar narcotic substances to C. elegans, but not for carbamates. Metal toxicity could be related to the covalent index χm2r. Overall, the results support earlier results from ACR and QSAR studies with standard freshwater test animals. As such C. elegans as a representative of small soil/sediment invertebrates would probably be protected by risk assessment strategies already in use. To increase the predictive power of ACRs and QSARs, further research should be expanded to other species and compounds and should also consider the target sites and toxicokinetics of chemicals. PMID:25994998

  20. Dopamine modulates acetylcholine release via octopamine and CREB signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suo

    Full Text Available Animals change their behavior and metabolism in response to external stimuli. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB is a signal-activated transcription factor that enables the coupling of extracellular signals and gene expression to induce adaptive changes. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters regulate CREB and such regulation is important for long-term changes in various nervous system functions, including learning and drug addiction. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the amine neurotransmitter octopamine activates a CREB homolog, CRH-1, in cholinergic SIA neurons, whereas dopamine suppresses CREB activation by inhibiting octopamine signaling in response to food stimuli. However, the physiological role of this activation is unknown. In this study, the effect of dopamine, octopamine, and CREB on acetylcholine signaling was analyzed using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. Mutants with decreased dopamine signaling exhibited reduced acetylcholine signaling, and octopamine and CREB functioned downstream of dopamine in this regulation. This study demonstrates that the regulation of CREB by amine neurotransmitters modulates acetylcholine release from the neurons of C. elegans.


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    Fábia Silva de Oliveira


    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and chemical products on Pratylenchus brachyurus population in sugarcane crop, cv. RB 835486.This study was conducted at ";Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos"; of ";Universidade Federal de Goiás";, in Goiânia, and at experimental fields of ";Usina Jalles Machado S/A";, in Goianésia, Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with five replications. The ten treatments were the arrangement of the nematicide abamectim 0.5 L.ha-1, abamectim 1.0 L.ha-1, neem oil, 2.0 L.ha-1, aldicarb 150G 12 kg.ha-1 and control, all with and without filter cake (30 t.ha-1. The population of P. brachyurus was evaluated at two, four, six and eight months after planting. The yield of sugarcane was also evaluated at the end of the first harvest. Effect of treatments on nematode population was observed two, four and six months after planting, but only aldicarb treatment showing efficiency to reduce nematode population. Abamectim and neem oil did not show consistent nematicide effect, sometimes developing higher population than the control. The filter cake showed effect on P. brachyurus population only at six months after planting, even though plots treated with filter cake presented 10 t.ha-1 average yield increase.

    KEY-WORDS: Nematodes; Azadirachta indica; control; ilter cake.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de produtos químicos e naturais sobre a população do nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus, na cultura da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., cv. RB 835486, esta pesquisa foi conduzida na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, GO, e nos campos experimentais da Usina

  2. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor for inhibitor measurements based on glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon black and pillar[5]arene. (United States)

    Shamagsumova, Rezeda V; Shurpik, Dmitry N; Padnya, Pavel L; Stoikov, Ivan I; Evtugyn, Gennady A


    New acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on unsubstituted pillar[5]arene (P[5]A) as electron mediator was developed and successfully used for highly sensitive detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. The AChE from electric eel was immobilized by carbodiimide binding on carbon black (CB) placed on glassy carbon electrode. The working potential of 200mV was obtained in chronoamperometric mode with the measurement time of 180 s providing best inter-biosensors precision of the results. The AChE biosensor developed made it possible to detect 1×10(-11)-1×10(-6) M of malaoxon, 1×10(-8)-7×10(-6) M of methyl-paraoxon, 1×10(-10)-2×10(-6) M of carbofuran and 7×10(-9)-1×10(-5) M of aldicarb with 10 min incubation. The limits of detection were 4×10(-12), 5×10(-9), 2×10(-11) and 6×10(-10) M, respectively. The AChE biosensor was tested in the analysis of pesticide residuals in spiked samples of peanut and beetroot. The protecting effect of P[5]A derivative bearing quaternary ammonia groups on malaoxon inhibition was shown. PMID:26452862

  3. Comparative voltammetric study and determination of carbamate pesticide residues in soil at carbon nanotubes paste electrodes

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    Full Text Available In this investigation, the persistence of carbamate pesticides in soil samples was investigated. A simple and selective differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry was selected for this investigation. Carbon nanotubes paste electrodes were used as working electrodes for differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. A symmetric study of the various operational parameters that affect the stripping response was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry. Peak currents were linear over the concentration range of 10-5 to 10-10 M with an accumulation potential of -0.6 V and a 70 s accumulation time with lower detection limits of 1.09 x 10-7 M, 1.07 × 10-7M, 1.09×10-7 M for chlorphropham, thiodicarb, aldicarb. The relative standard deviation (n=10 and correlation coefficient values were 1.15 %, 0.988; 1.13 %, 0.978; and 1.14 %, 0.987, respectively. Universal buffer with pH range 2.0 - 6.0 was used as sup­porting electrolyte. The solutions with uniform concentration (10-5 M were used in all deter­minations. Calculations were made by standard addition method.

  4. Multiresidue method for the quantitation of 20 pesticides in aquatic products. (United States)

    Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Kim, Junghyun; Han, Sang Beom; Choi, Yong Seok


    As the consumption of aquatic products increased, the need for regulation of pesticide residues in aquatic products also emerged. Thus, in this study, a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method employing a novel extraction and purification step based on QuEChERS with EDTA was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of 20 pesticides (alachlor, aldicarb, carbofuran, diazinon, dimethoate, dimethomorph, ethoprophos, ferimzone, fluridone, hexaconazole, iprobenfos, malathion, methidathion, methiocarb, phenthoate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, pirimicarb, and simazine) in aquatic products. Additionally, the present method was validated in the aspects of specificity, linearity (r ≥ 0.980), sensitivity (the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ≤ 5 ng/g), relative standard deviation, RSD (1.0% ≤ RSD ≤ 19.4%), and recovery (60.1% ≤ recovery ≤ 117.9%). Finally, the validated method was applied for the determination of the 20 pesticide residues in eel and shrimp purchased from local food markets. In the present study, QuEChERS with EDTA was successfully expanded to residual pesticide analysis for the first time. The present method could contribute to the rapid and successful establishment of the positive list system in South Korea. PMID:26466578

  5. Preparation of graphene/TiO2 composites by nonionic surfactant strategy and their simulated sunlight and visible light photocatalytic activity towards representative aqueous POPs degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A series of graphene/TiO2 composites were developed by nonionic surfactant strategy. ► The textural property, optical property, and composition were well characterized. ► Aqueous POPs were degraded under simulated sunlight and visible light irradiation. ► The degradation mechanism and kinetics of aqueous POPs were studied in detail. ► Mineralization of aqueous POPs and recyclability of the composites were also tested. -- Abstract: A series of graphene/TiO2 composites were fabricated using a single-step nonionic surfactant strategy combined with the solvothermal treatment technique. Their phase structure, morphology, porosity, optical absorption property, as well as composition and structure, were characterized. The as-prepared composites were successfully applied to degrade aqueous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as rhodamine B, aldicarb, and norfloxacin in simulated sunlight (λ > 320 nm) and visible light (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The degradation mechanism and kinetics of aqueous POPs were studied in detail. The mineralization of aqueous POPs and the recyclability of the composites were also tested in the same condition

  6. Method development for determination of herbicides and insecticides in surface waters using solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of low concentrations of pesticides in surface and ground waters requires high sensitivity analytical techniques. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) has been successfully employed to pre concentrate and extract pesticides compounds from water samples. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/Vis detector was used to separate and quantify the extracted compounds. In this work, samples of surface waters with known concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine and trifluralin) and insecticides (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) were extracted by using SPE off-line technique. The compounds were separated and quantified by reverse phase HPLC with UV detection at 220 ηm. The extraction efficiency was compared between two columns filled with different materials: C18-bonded silica phase (500 mg) and copolymer styrenedivynilbenzene resin (250 mg). The results were evaluated as the percent recovery of compounds obtained using different solvents at different concentrations. The results showed that recovery of the analytes greater than 80 % were obtained in SPE columns filled with C18 bonded silica phase with 6 mL of acetonitrile. Once the optimum conditions were chosen for simulate water samples, the method was validated through analytical and statistical procedures and applied for surface waters. The suitability of the method was verified for the studied compounds showing good sensitivity, i. e., concentrations within the range of 0.4 to 4.0 μgL-1 of pesticides could be quantified attending the limits proposed by official regulations. (author)

  7. A multiresidue screen for the analysis of toxicants in bovine rumen contents. (United States)

    Vudathala, Daljit K; Cummings, Margaret R; Murphy, Lisa A


    Analysis of rumen contents is helpful in solving poisoning cases when ingestion of a toxic substance by cattle or other ruminant animals is suspected. The most common technique employs extraction of the sample with organic solvent followed by clean-up method(s) before analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with a library of mass spectra to help identify unknowns. A rapid method using magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine, and C18 sorbents following principles of QuEChERS to clean up rumen contents samples is reported herein. The method was validated to analyze fortified bovine rumen contents to detect commonly found organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, and several other compounds such as atropine, 4-aminopyridine, caffeine, scopolamine, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, strychnine, metaldehyde, and metronidazole. For each compound, the ratio of 2 ions from the mass spectrum was monitored in fortified rumen contents. The ion ratio of fortified sample was compared with the ion ratio of standard sample spectrum and was found to be within 20%, with the exception of aldicarb and 4-aminopyridine with ion ratio of 26% and 29%, respectively. Usefulness of the method was demonstrated by not only analyzing bovine rumen contents but also canine and avian gastrointestinal contents submitted for organic chemical screening. PMID:25027495

  8. Photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of carbamate pesticides. (United States)

    Catalá-Icardo, M; Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S


    A liquid chromatography method with post-column photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL) detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight carbamate pesticides, namely aldicarb, butocarboxim, ethiofencarb, methomyl, methiocarb, thiodicarb, thiofanox and thiophanate-methyl. After chromatographic separation, quinine (sensitizer) was incorporated and the flow passed through an UV lamp (67 s of irradiation time) to obtain the photoproducts, which reacted with acidic Ce(iv) and provided a CL emission. The PICL method showed great selectivity for carbamate pesticides containing sulphur in their chemical structure. A solid-phase extraction process increased sensitivity (LODs ranging from 0.06 to 0.27 ng mL(-1)) and allowed the carbamate pesticides in surface and ground water samples to be determined, with recoveries in the range 87-110% (except for thiophanate-methyl, whose recoveries were between 60 and 75%). The intra- and inter-day precision was evaluated, with RSD ranging from 1.1 to 7.5% and from 2.6 to 12.3%, respectively. A discussion about the PICL mechanism is also included. PMID:27079156

  9. Suscetibilidade de genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado

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    Lemos Leandro Borges


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade de diversos genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado (VMDF, transmitido pela mosca branca (Bemisia tabaci. A semeadura foi realizada na época da seca e das águas, com e sem aplicação do inseticida granulado Aldicarb (3,0 kg ha-1 do i.a. no sulco de semeadura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados disposto em esquema fatorial 14x2, representado por genótipos e inseticida, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. A maior infestação de mosca-branca e incidência do vírus ocorreu na época da seca, causando prejuízos à produção do feijoeiro. Os genótipos apresentaram diferentes graus de suscetibilidade ao vírus e ao inseto vetor. Os genótipos mais tolerantes foram IAPAR 57, IAPAR 65, IAPAR 72, Ônix, Aporé e 606 (5(214-17. A aplicação do inseticida sistêmico controla o vetor em ambas as épocas de cultivo, proporcionando aumentos da produtividade.

  10. Influence of Cultural and Pest Management Practices on Performance of Runner, Spanish, and Virginia Market Types in North Carolina

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    Bridget R. Lassiter


    Full Text Available Virginia market type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars are grown primarily in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in the US, although growers in these states often plant other market types if marketing opportunities are available. Information on yield potential and management strategies comparing these market types is limited in North Carolina. In separate experiments, research was conducted to determine response of runner, Spanish, and Virginia market types to calcium sulfate and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium at planting, planting and digging dates, planting patterns, and seeding rates. In other experiments, control of thrips (Frankliniella spp. using aldicarb, southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Howardi using chlorpyrifos, eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L. using threshold-based postemergence herbicides, and leaf spot disease (caused by the fungi Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum fungicide programs was compared in these market types. Results showed that management practice and market types interacted for peanut pod yield in only the planting date experiment. Yield of runner and Virginia market types was similar and exceeded yield of the Spanish market type in most experiments.

  11. An ALS-linked mutant SOD1 produces a locomotor defect associated with aggregation and synaptic dysfunction when expressed in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jiou Wang


    Full Text Available The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking.

  12. 几种替代杀线剂对甘薯茎线虫的毒力与活性%Toxicity and bioactivity of several alternative nematocides against Ditylenchus destructor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德良; 于伟丽; 苗建强; 刘峰


    采用熏蒸法和浸渍法测定了4种土壤熏蒸杀线剂和6种非熏蒸杀线剂对甘薯茎线虫的毒力,在此基础上以各药剂的致死中浓度剂量处理线虫,设置不同时间处理,观察了药剂对线虫的活性动态变化.结果表明:熏蒸杀线剂棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、威百亩、氯化苦对甘薯茎线虫的LC50依次为0.49、0.89、0.91、3.60 mg·L-1,非熏蒸杀线剂甲维盐、阿维菌素、灭线磷、噻唑膦、涕灭威、丁硫克百威对甘薯茎线虫的LC50依次为31.2、48.1、224.3、288.4、632.3、823.9 mg·L-1.致死中浓度处理线虫后,各药剂校正死亡率随处理时间延长有不同幅度升高,棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、阿维菌素和甲维盐对线虫有较高的持续抑制效果,处理48 h脱离药剂处理后校正死亡率没有降低,而传统杀线剂品种灭线磷和涕灭威处理均出现线虫明显复苏的现象.表明棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、阿维菌素和甲维盐可以替代传统杀线剂应用于甘薯茎线虫的防治.%By the methods of fumigation and contact assay, this paper determined the toxicity of four kinds of soil fumigants and six kinds of non-fumigants against Ditylenchus destructor. In the meantime, the bioactivity of the agents was evaluated by the corrected mortality rate of D. Destructor after treated with the LC50 dose of each agent for different time. The LC50, values of soil fumigants dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, metham-sodium, and chloropierin were 0.49, 0. 89, 0.91, and 3. 60 mg · L-1, and those of non-fumigants emamectin benzoate, abamectin, ethoprophos, fosthia-zate, aldicarb, and carbosulfan were 31.2, 48.1, 224.3, 288.4, 632.3, and 823.9 mg · L-1, respectively. The corrected mortality rate increased with treating time. After treated with LC50, dose, the inhibitory effects of dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate kept on a higher level at the time, and the corrected mortality rate did not decline after breaking away

  13. An automated system for measuring parameters of nematode sinusoidal movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirbl Robert C


    of the goa-1 gene, which encodes Go-alpha. We also demonstrate the use of this system for analyzing the effects of toxic agents. Concentration-response curves for the toxicants arsenite and aldicarb, both of which affect motility, were determined for wild-type and several mutant strains, identifying P-glycoprotein mutants as not significantly more sensitive to either compound, while cat-4 mutants are more sensitive to arsenite but not aldicarb. Conclusions Automated analysis of nematode movement facilitates a broad spectrum of experiments. Detailed genetic analysis of multiple alleles and of distinct genes in a regulatory network is now possible. These studies will facilitate quantitative modeling of C. elegans movement, as well as a comparison of gene function. Concentration-response curves will allow rigorous analysis of toxic agents as well as of pharmacological agents. This type of system thus represents a powerful analytical tool that can be readily coupled with the molecular genetics of nematodes.

  14. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515 tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of herbicides applied on pre-emergence of nematicide-treated sugarcane crop (RB 867515

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Barela


    Full Text Available A aplicação simultânea de duas ou mais classes de defensivos sobre uma cultura agrícola pode provocar toxicidade às plantas. Assim, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas à cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515, quando aplicados em condição de pré-emergência, em áreas previamente tratadas com nematicidas no sulco de plantio. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, no município de Piracicaba - SP, entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre nove fatores herbicidas e quatro fatores nematicidas. Os herbicidas usados no experimento foram: sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron, metribuzin, ametrina, diuron, clomazone, pendimethalin e diuron + hexazinone, além de uma testemunha capinada. Os nematicidas utilizados foram: carbofuran, terbufós, aldicarb e uma testemunha sem nematicida. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade das diferentes combinações aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a brotação, o rendimento (t ha-1 e os parâmetros tecnológicos qualitativos. Observou-se que a seletividade inicial dos herbicidas foi prejudicada em função da interação das diferentes classes de defensivos utilizadas. Os sintomas de fitotoxicidade foram agudos, e os casos mais evidentes se originaram da associação dos nematicidas com clomazone, pendimethalin e tebuthiuron. Contudo, os danos fitotóxicos não se refletiram em perdas significativas de rendimento ou de qualidade de colmos, fato esse que pode ter sido influenciado pela capacidade de recuperação de injúrias apresentada pela variedade RB 867515, pela ocorrência de altas infestações de nematóides ou pela elevada variabilidade experimental.Simultaneous applications of two or more classes of herbicides on a crop may promote ,totoxicity in the plants. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide selectivity in sugarcane, when applied under pre-emergence condition, in

  15. Potencial de controle da erva-de-Santa-Maria sobre Pratylenchus brachyurus Potential Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus by Chenopodium ambrosioides

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    Alexandre F.S. Mello


    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas antogônicas tem sido uma alternativa no controle de fitonematóides. O efeito da erva-de-Santa-Maria (ESM sobre a população de Pratylenchus brachyurus foi avaliado em teste in vitro e em dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação. No teste in vitro, utilizou-se extrato de ESM em quatro concentrações (20; 2; 0,2 e 0,02%, em suspensões contendo 500 exemplares de P. brachyurus. Após 48 h, os nematóides vivos foram coletados e contados. Verificou-se que a ESM possui ação nematicida, sendo observada maior mortalidade de juvenis de P. brachyurus quando comparada com o controle químico (aldicarb. Nos experimentos em casa de vegetação, plantas de ESM e soja foram inoculadas com 1.500 e 5.000 nematóides, respectivamente, e, após 45 dias, a parte aérea (PA foi incorporada ao solo, seguindo-se os seguintes tratamentos: incorporação da PA da ESM; incorporação da PA da soja; e sem incorporação da PA. Após um mês, cada vaso recebeu uma planta de soja, para atuar como indicador biológico de parasitismo. Após 45 dias, avaliou-se a população final do nematóide presente nas raízes de soja e no solo e as massas seca da PA e fresca de raízes da soja. Houve redução da população do nematóide nos tratamentos com ESM, mas foi observada fitotoxidez em plantas de soja.Antagonist plants have been used as an alternative to control plant-parasitic nematodes. One in vitro assay and two greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of Mexican-tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides on the control of Pratylenchus brachyurus. In the in vitro test an extract of Mexican-tea was tested at four concentrations (20; 2; 0.2 and 0.02%, in suspensions containing 500 exemplars of P. brachyurus. After 48 h, living nematodes were collected and counted. A nematicidal action of Mexican-tea was observed by higher juvenile mortality in comparison with chemical control (aldicarb. In greenhouse experiments, 1 and 2

  16. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物源性食品中16种氨基甲酸酯类农药及其代谢物%Determination of 16 carbamate pesticides and metabolite residues in plant-derived foodstuffs by high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬; 陈瑞春; 郭春海; 窦彩云


    目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物源性食品中16种氨基甲酸酯类农药及其代谢物(涕灭威、涕灭威亚砜、涕灭威砜、灭害威、恶虫威、甲萘威、克百威、乙霉威、仲丁威、茚虫威、异丙威、灭多威、速灭威、杀线威、抗蚜威和残杀威)残留量的方法。方法样品用0.1%冰醋酸-乙腈提取,提取液经过滤、浓缩后用石墨化炭黑/氨基固相萃取柱净化,采用多反应监测(multi-reaction monitoring, MRM)正离子扫描模式进行准确的定性和定量分析。结果16种氨基甲酸酯类农药在5~500 ng/mL浓度范围内均呈良好线性。16种农药在苹果、菠菜、山药、大米、大豆和生姜6种基质中的检出限和定量下限为2.0µg/kg和5.0µg/kg,在低、中、高3个水平的加标回收率为71.0%~108.0%之间, RSDs (relative standard deviations)为2.03%~11.30%。结论该方法简单快速,其灵敏度、准确度和精密度均能满足农药残留分析的要求。%Objective To establish a high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for determination 16 kinds of carbamate pesticides and their metabolites (aldicarb, al-dicarb-sulfoxide, aldicarb-sulfone, aminocarb, bendicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, diethofencarb, fenobucarb, in-doxacarb, isoprocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb and propoxur) in plant-derived foodstuffs. Methods Samples were extracted with 0.1%formic acid-acetonitrile solution. After concentrated, the solution was cleaned up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) column of envi-Carb/NH2, the mode of multi-reaction moni-toring positive ion scanning was adopted for both the quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results Calibra-tion curves showed a good linearity over the range of 5~500 ng/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 µg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 5.0 µg/kg for all the 16 pesticides spiked in apple, spinach, Chinese yam, rice, soybean and ginger

  17. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita

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    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P < 0,05 de J2 de M. incognita de forma semelhante à observada com Aldicarbe. Alguns filtrados fúngicos reduziram a motilidade, mas não causaram a morte de J2. Já os filtrados de Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani e Mortierella sp. reduziram apenas a eclosão de J2. Não houve correlação entre a produção de metabólitos tóxicos e a quantidade de micélio fúngico produzido. No caso específico de P. lilacinus, observou-se que após o primeiro dia de cultivo o filtrado fúngico correspondente já apresentava toxidez contra M. incognita. Com o aumento do número de dias de cultivo foi elevado o efeito do filtrado sobre o nematóide, sendo que apenas após 13 dias a mortalidade de J2 alcançou o índice de 100%.

  18. Successful validation of genomic biomarkers for human immunotoxicity in Jurkat T cells in vitro. (United States)

    Schmeits, Peter C J; Shao, Jia; van der Krieken, Danique A; Volger, Oscar L; van Loveren, Henk; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hendriksen, Peter J M


    Previously, we identified 25 classifier genes that were able to assess immunotoxicity using human Jurkat T cells. The present study aimed to validate these classifiers. For that purpose, Jurkat cells were exposed for 6 h to subcytotoxic doses of nine immunotoxicants, five non-immunotoxicants and four compounds for which human immunotoxicity has not yet been fully established. RNA was isolated and subjected to Fluidigm quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR analysis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the screening assay as based on the nine immunotoxicants and five non-immunotoxicants used in this study were 100%, 80% and 93%, respectively, which is better than the performance in our previous study. Only one compound was classified as false positive (benzo-e-pyrene). Of the four potential (non-)immunotoxicants, chlorantraniliprole and Hidrasec were classified immunotoxic and Sunset yellow and imidacloprid as non-immunotoxic. ToxPi analysis of the PCR data provided insight in the molecular pathways that were affected by the compounds. The immunotoxicants 2,3-dichloro-propanol and cypermethrin, although structurally different, affected protein metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis and transport. In addition, four compounds, i.e. chlorpyrifos, aldicarb, benzo-e-pyrene and anti-CD3, affected genes in cholesterol metabolism and transport, protein metabolism and transcription regulation. qRT-PCR on eight additional genes coding for similar processes as defined in ToxPi analyzes, supported these results. In conclusion, the 25 immunotoxic classifiers performed very well in a screening with new non-immunotoxic and immunotoxic compounds. Therefore, the Jurkat screening assay has great promise to be applied within a tiered approach for animal free testing of human immunotoxicity. PMID:25424538

  19. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron.

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    Dawn M Wong

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae. Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold. The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50>5,000 μg/mL. However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50 = 32-650 μg/mL. These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  20. Effect of three insecticides on soil phosphatase activity%3种杀虫剂对土壤磷酸酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明; 张小萍; 曹玉


    Inhibiting effect of three pesticides (furadan,aldicarb,bifenthrin) on soil phosphatase activity was studied.The different dose,incubating time,phenyl phosphate dinatrium dose levels and adding buffer solution with different PН were experimented and analyzed.The results showed that all the three treatme nts can inhibit the activity of soil phosphatase,and the activity of soil ph osphatase was significantly affected by the doses of pesticides and phenyl phosphate dinatrium (R>0.990 0).It also implied that there was a possibility that agricu ltural chemicals would affect the agrological environment.%研究了呋喃丹、铁灭克、天王星3种农药对土壤磷酸酶活性的抑制作用。结果表明,3种农药在不同农药用量、培养时间、磷酸苯二钠用量及外加不同pН值缓冲溶液时,对磷酸酶活性均有不同程度的抑制作用。同时,在该条件下进行回归分析建模时发现不同农药用量、磷酸苯二钠用量对磷酸酶活性影响的相关系数均大于\\{0.990 0\\}。证明了在本地区特有的农业环境条件下,这3种农药可能会影响和破坏农业生态环境。

  1. Control Effect of Different Insecticides on Underground Pest of Sweet Potato%不同药剂处理对红薯地下害虫田间防效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太春; 冯志珍; 张国龙; 王梦怡


    In order to screen agents with high efficiency ,low toxicity and safety quality for agricultural products to apply in the sweet potato production .The control effect of seven different kinds of insecticides on under‐ground pests in the field was studied aiming to find high efficiency ,low toxicity and suitable to use on food .The results showed that the pesticide with the best control effect was 30% Chlorpyrifos CS and the mixed treat‐ment of 70% imidacloprid WP and Beauveriabassiana .The selected insecticides with the characteristics of high efficient ,low toxicity and low residual could replace the pesticides of isofenphos‐methyl ,aldicarb and so on which were banned on underground pest for sweet potato .%为筛选高效、低毒、符合农产品质量安全的药剂,以用于红薯生产,选用7种不同药剂处理对红薯地下害虫进行了防效试验。结果表明:高效、低毒、低残留的30%毒死蜱微胶囊悬浮剂、70%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂与球孢白僵菌混合处理对红薯地下害虫防效显著,可以替代国家禁用农药甲基异柳磷、涕灭威等防治红薯地下害虫。

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

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    Jean-Claude Assad


    Full Text Available Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also been associated with several cases of pesticide poisoning. In this research, we conducted a field survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the farmer’s community regarding the safe use of pesticides. We also evaluated the residual concentrations of selected pesticides in water, soil, milk, fish, and orange samples, and estimated the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that more than 95% of farm workers do not practice safety precautions during pesticide formulation and application; leading to a considerable prevalence of pesticide-related illnesses in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in various environmental samples varied greatly; from below detection levels (3-5 ng to as high as 325 ppb depending on the matrix of interest, and the specific pesticide of concern. The analysis of health risk estimates indicated that chlorpyrifos, DDT, dimethoate, methomyl, and larvin did not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in water, milk, orange, and/or fish. However, aldicarb, and carbosulfan levels exceeded the reference doses, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. The upper-bound values of cancer risk from DDT exposure were estimated to be about 8 (adults, and 55 (children excess cancers in a population of one million.

  3. Exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alters the physiology and motor function of honeybees

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    Full Text Available Cholinergic signalling is fundamental to neuro-muscular function in most organisms. Sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic pesticides that target cholinergic signalling can alter the behaviour of insects in subtle ways; their influence on non-target organisms may not be readily apparent in simple mortality studies. Beneficial arthropods such as honeybees perform sophisticated behavioural sequences during foraging that, if influenced by pesticides, could impair foraging success and reduce colony health. Here, we investigate the behavioural effects on honeybees of exposure to a selection of pesticides that target cholinergic signalling by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE. To examine how continued exposure to AChE inhibitors affected motor function, we fed adult foraging worker honeybees sub-lethal concentrations of these compounds in sucrose solution for 24 h. Using an assay for locomotion in bees, we scored walking, stopped, grooming, and upside down behaviour continuously for 15 min. At a 10nM concentration, all the AChE inhibitors caused similar effects on behaviour, notably increased grooming activity and changes in the frequency of bouts of behaviour such as head grooming. Coumaphos caused dose-dependent effects on locomotion as well as grooming behaviour, and a 1µM concentration of coumaphos induced symptoms of malaise such as abdomen grooming and defecation. Biochemical assays confirmed that the 4 compounds we assayed (coumaphos, aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, and donepezil or their metabolites acted as AChE inhibitors in bees. Furthermore, we show that transcript expression levels of two honeybee acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were selectively upregulated in the brain and in gut tissues in response to AChE inhibitor exposure. The results of our study imply that the effects of pesticides that rely on this mode of action have subtle yet profound effects on physiological effects on behaviour that could lead to reduced survival.

  4. Synthesis of a New Bimetallic Re(I)-NCS-Pt(II) Complex as Chemodosimetric Ensemble for the Selective Detection of Mercapto-Containing Pesticides. (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Gong, Cheng-Bin


    Detection of mercapto-containing pesticides plays a crucial role in food and water safety. A new Re(I)-NCS-Pt(II) complex, [Re(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)3(NCS)]-[Pt(DMSO)(Cl)2] (1), was synthesized and characterized. The synthetic procedure, characterization results, and photophysical data for 1 are reported in this paper. Solvated complex 1 demonstrated luminescent chemodosimetric selectivity for phorate, demeton, and aldicarb (three common mercapto-containing pesticides) with method detection limits (MDLs) of 1.00, 2.87, and 2.08 ppm, respectively. The binding constants (log K) of 1 toward them were in the 3.24-3.44 range. The analyte selectivity of the complex was found to be dependent on the bridging linkage (C≡N and N═C═S) between the Re(I) and Pt(II) centers. The solid-supported dosimetric device 1 was fabricated by blending complex 1 with Al2O3 and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) powder. The MDLs of the device toward the mercapto-containing pesticides were 0.48-0.60 ppm. The device was applicable to pesticides in real water bodies such as taps, rivers, lakes, and underground water bodies with excellent recoveries and relative standard deviations of 76.2-108.0% and 2.9-6.7%, respectively. Its spectrofluorimetric changes could be analyzed by naked eye within 20 min with a linear luminometric response toward increases in the phorate concentration (0-8.0 ppm) with R = 0.999. PMID:26039794

  5. Laser desorption fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. (United States)

    Shahar, T; Dagan, S; Amirav, A


    A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment, held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser with pulse energy of typically 3 mJ on the surface. About 20 pulses at 50 Hz were applied for sample injection, resulting in about 0.4 s injection time and one or a few micrograms sample vapor or small particles. The laser desorbed sample was further thermally vaporized at a heated frit glass filter located at the fast GC inlet. Ultrafast GC separation and quantification was achieved with a 50-cm-long megabore column operated with a high carrier gas flow rate of up to 240 mL/min. The high carrier gas flow rate provided effective and efficient entrainment of the laser desorbed species in the sweeping gas. Following the fast GC separation, the sample was analyzed by mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. Both electron ionization and hyperthermal surface ionization were employed for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. Typical laser desorption analysis time was under 10 s. The laser desorption fast GC-MS was studied and demonstrated with the following sample/matrices combinations, all without sample preparation or extraction: (a) traces of dioctylphthalate plasticizer oil on stainless steel surface and the efficiency of its cleaning; (b) the detection of methylparathion and aldicarb pesticides on orange leaves; (c) water surface analysis for the presence of methylparathion pesticide; (d) caffeine analysis in regular and decaffeinated coffee powder; (e) paracetamol and codeine drug analysis in pain relieving drug tablets; (f) caffeine trace analysis in raw urine; (g) blood analysis for the presence of 1 ppm lidocaine drug. The features and advantages of the laser desorption fast GC

  6. New validated multiresidue analysis of six 4-hydroxy-coumarin anticoagulant rodenticides in hen eggs. (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Soback, Stefan; Cuneah, Olga; Shlosberg, Alan; Britzi, Malka


    Anticoagulant rodenticides are frequently a cause of poisoning of domestic animals, wildlife, and human beings. A toxicosis in 6,000 laying hens caused by the malicious addition of unknown amounts of coumatetralyl bait as well as the insecticides aldicarb, methomyl, and imidacloprid in the drinking water, was investigated in the current study. In order to determine a possible carryover of coumatetralyl into eggs, a rapid and reliable analytical method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous detection of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides (warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and brodifacoum) in yolk and albumen using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The method developed was reproducible, sensitive, accurate, and linear within the range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, which is the concentration range of bromadiolone and warfarin found in yolk in previously reported studies. The coefficient of variations of within and between days was 1.0-8.5% for yolk and 0.6-3.8% for albumen, while recoveries from spiked albumen and yolk samples were all in the range of 79-99% and 51-95%, respectively. Limits of detection in yolk were 0.01 mg/kg for warfarin and 0.003 mg/kg for the remaining compounds; in albumen, the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for warfarin, coumatetralyl, and coumachlor, and 0.0015 mg/kg for difenacoum and brodifacoum. The application of the validated method revealed the presence of coumatetralyl in the yolk only at levels of 0.0057 mg/kg and 0.0052 mg/kg on the second and fourth day of the poisoning. In conclusion, the HPLC method demonstrated suitability for application in official analysis of anticoagulants in hen eggs. PMID:24081927

  7. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

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    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado


    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  8. Intoxicación con rodenticidas: casos reportados al Centro de Información, Gestión e Investigación en Toxicología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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    Mario David Galofre-Ruiz


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los rodenticidas son sustancias químicas destinadas al control de roedores, provocándoles la muerte por diferentes mecanismos: inhibiendo sus sistemas de coagulación sanguínea, bloqueando la enzima acetil colinesterasa, alterando el ciclo de Krebs y por inhibición de sistemas enzimáticos con desplazamiento celular de iones. Objetivo. Identificar los rodenticidas involucrados de manera más frecuente en casos de intoxicaciones agudas en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Investigación descriptiva retrospectiva, donde se revisaron casos de intoxicaciones por rodenticidas reportados al Centro de Información, Gestión e Investigación en Toxicología (CIGITOX en 2012, ocurridos en Colombia y algunos países de Suramérica. Resultados. Se reportaron 177 casos de exposiciones a rodenticidas, más de un 80% de los casos en población joven, 53% de ellos en el sexo femenino y 69% por intentos de suicidio. Los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Antioquia y Cundinamarca fueron los que más reportaron casos, mientras que un 45% de los eventos ocurrieron en el hogar de la víctima. El rodenticida más usado fue el carbamato aldicarb con 55% de los eventos, seguido por rodenticidas anticoagulantes con 29% y fluoroacetato de sodio con 12%; en la intoxicación con anticoagulantes predominaron los pacientes asintomáticos con 45% de los eventos, en la intoxicación con carbamatos fueron las crisis colinérgicas con 60% y en la intoxicación con fluoroacetato de sodio fueron más frecuentes los síntomas gastrointestinales y del sistema nervioso periférico con 45%. El 64% de los pacientes fue dado de alta después de observación y tratamiento básico, 26% de ellos fue remitido a nivel superior de atención y 5% no se pudo determinar su evolución. Conclusiones. Las intoxicaciones por rodenticidas traen consigo una alta morbilidad y sin intervenciones médicas precisas y oportunas pueden llegar a ser letales.

  9. Macoilin, a conserved nervous system-specific ER membrane protein that regulates neuronal excitability.

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    Fausto Arellano-Carbajal


    Full Text Available Genome sequence comparisons have highlighted many novel gene families that are conserved across animal phyla but whose biological function is unknown. Here, we functionally characterize a member of one such family, the macoilins. Macoilins are characterized by several highly conserved predicted transmembrane domains towards the N-terminus and by coiled-coil regions C-terminally. They are found throughout Eumetazoa but not in other organisms. Mutants for the single Caenorhabditis elegans macoilin, maco-1, exhibit a constellation of behavioral phenotypes, including defects in aggregation, O₂ responses, and swimming. MACO-1 protein is expressed broadly and specifically in the nervous system and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is excluded from dendrites and axons. Apart from subtle synapse defects, nervous system development appears wild-type in maco-1 mutants. However, maco-1 animals are resistant to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb and sensitive to levamisole, suggesting pre-synaptic defects. Using in vivo imaging, we show that macoilin is required to evoke Ca²(+ transients, at least in some neurons: in maco-1 mutants the O₂-sensing neuron PQR is unable to generate a Ca²(+ response to a rise in O₂. By genetically disrupting neurotransmission, we show that pre-synaptic input is not necessary for PQR to respond to O₂, indicating that the response is mediated by cell-intrinsic sensory transduction and amplification. Disrupting the sodium leak channels NCA-1/NCA-2, or the N-,P/Q,R-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channels, also fails to disrupt Ca²(+ responses in the PQR cell body to O₂ stimuli. By contrast, mutations in egl-19, which encodes the only Caenorhabditis elegans L-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channel α1 subunit, recapitulate the Ca²(+ response defect we see in maco-1 mutants, although we do not see defects in localization of EGL-19. Together, our data suggest that macoilin acts in the ER to regulate assembly or

  10. Development of a GIS-based Scenario Analysis System for Pesticide Groundwater Risk Assessment in China%我国农药地下水环境风险评估场景体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林绿; 覃志豪; 李文娟


    根据国际通用的标准场景和环境脆弱性概念,利用GIS技术,以我国气象、土壤、农业生产等数据为基础,构建农药环境风险评估过程“现实中最糟糕的情况”。针对旱地作物和地下水这一环境系统,将我国划分为6个农药地下水环境风险评估场景区,并在此基础上构建了11个标准场景点,从而形成针对旱地作物的我国农药地下水环境风险评估场景体系。利用欧盟农药环境暴露模型PEARL测试该场景体系,运行结果显示该场景体系科学可行。该场景体系的建立既为运用定量模型进行我国农药环境风险评估奠定了重要基础,也为我国农药环境风险管理、农药登记管理工作提供了技术支持和科学依据。%Pesticide environmental risk assessment is a key part of pesticide registration process. Here we applied the concept of standard scenario system developed by the European Union(EU)to groundwater risk assessment of pesticides used in dryland crops. Precipita-tion, temperature, soil organic matter and pesticide application ways were all considered as the main factors affecting environmental behav-iors and soil concentrations of pesticides. Based on meteorological, soil and agricultural production data, a GIS approach was adopted to es-tablish the standard scenario systems. They consisted of 6 scenario zones and 11 standard scenarios. The PEARL model developed by the EU for simulation of pesticide environmental risk was employed to test the established scenarios. The simulation showed pesticide Aldicarb had high environmental risk but Atrazin and Oxadixyl was relatively safe. These results show that the established scenarios would be useful for enhancing the efficiency of pesticide registration.

  11. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  12. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  13. 固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留%Determination of twelve carbamate residues in drinking water by HPLC after solid-phase membrane extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓松; 余辉菊; 马子元


    目的:建立固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中灭多威、涕灭威、速灭威、残灭威、呋喃丹、甲萘威、抗杀虫威、异丙威、硫双威、仲丁威、猛杀威、杀虫威等12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的方法.方法:水样经C18固相萃取膜真空抽滤,滤膜用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱液经氮吹、甲醇溶解,高效液相色谱法测定.结果:12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的线性范围为0.05 mg/L~25.0 mg/L,线性相关系数大于0.999,检出限为0.31 mg/L~1.25 mg/L,水样中氨基甲酸酯类农残最低检测浓度范围为0.005 mg/L~0.019 mg/L,加标回收率为59.3%~97.3%,RSD<7.5%.结论:本方法样品前处理方便、快捷,有机试剂用量少.%Objective:To establish a method for determination of 12 carbamate residues including methomyl, al-dicarb, metolcarb, profluoralin, furadan, methyl carbamate, pirimicarb, isoprocarb, thiodicarb, fenobucarb, promecarb and tetrachlorvinphose in drinking - water by high performance liquid chromatography after solid - phase membrane extraction. Methods: The water sample was filtered through the conditioned solid - phase membrane under vacuum. The carbamales absorbed on the membrane were eluted using ethyl acetate and the eluted solution was blown to dryness under nitrogen gas. The residue was reconstituted with methanol and analyzed by HPLC. Results: The linear range of 12 carbamates residues were between 0. 05 mg/L to 25. 0 mg/L with r >0. 999. The detection limits were 0. 31 mg/L to 1.25 mg/L. The lowest detection limits of carbamate residues in the sample water were between 0.005 mg/L and 0.019 mg/L. The recoveries ranged from 59. 3% to 97. 3% with RSD <7.5% . Conclusion: The method can be used for the multi -residue analysis of carbamate residues in drinking water.

  14. Determination of Carbamate Pesticides Residues in Vegetables by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定蔬菜中氨基甲酸酯类农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长朋; 杨丽君; 徐成钢; 时文春; 王静


    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 5 carbamate pesticides, including aldicarb, aldicarbsulfoxide, aldicarbsulfone, carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in products of vegetables. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrle. The extracts were dehydrated with sodium sulphate anhydrous. The extract layer was concentrated in 40°C by vacuum rotary steam to 1. 0 mL,and dried by nitrogen flowing,then redissolved in 0. 1% formic acid issolution. Identification of 5 carbamate pesticides was achieved by electospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and quantification analysis was performed with matrix-matched standard calibration. The results indicated that, under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity for 5 carbamate pesticides over the concentration range of 5. 0 - 100 jug/kg. Detection limits were 5. 0 μg/kg. The mean recoveries varied from 61. 3% to 123% at three spiked levels of 5. 0,10 and 20 μg/kg. The RSDs were less than 15%. This method is sensitive and reproducible,and suitable for the routine determination of 5 carbamate pesticides residues in vegetables.%建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)法同时测定蔬菜中涕灭威、涕灭威砜、涕灭威亚砜、克百威、三羟基克百威5种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的方法.样品均质后,经乙腈提取,无水硫酸钠脱水.提取液40℃减压旋蒸浓缩至1.0mL,氮气吹干后,0.1%甲酸水溶解定容;采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱电喷雾多反应监测模式检测.实验结果表明,5种氨基甲酸酯类农药在5.0~100 μg/kg范围内线性关系良好.检出限均为5.0μg/kg.6种空白基质样品中5.0、10、20 μg/kg 3水平的加标回收率为61.30%~123%,相对标准偏差均在15%以内.该方法操作简单、灵敏度高、重现性好,可用于蔬菜中5种氨