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Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 days. The animals were weighed once in a week and the food and water consumption was monitored every day. Behavioural changes in these animals were monitored every week using Rotarod, Actophotometer and William?s maze. Results: A significant increase in body weight, food and water consumption in rats could be recorded after 3rdand 4th week of treatment with 200mg/kg/day L. aspera. However, there were no changes in any of the behavioural responses in L. aspera treated groups compared to control. Conclusions: The unaltered neuro behavioural responses after L. aspera treatment indicate the safe nature of this medicinal plant. The significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggest a potential anabolic/ nutraceutical property of L aspera.. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000): 433-437

Kavitha R; Kannan R; Glory Josephine I

2013-01-01

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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423) showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg in 24 h and 14 day observation period. For repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407) extract was given at dose of 50, 200, and 800 mg/kg and limit dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days and compared with the control group given with the distilled water. The result showed no significant increase (P>0.05) in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine) and haematological parameters. No significant decrease in feed consumption and body weight gain, also there were no treatment related gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, methanolic leaf extract of F. virens did not revealed any clinical signs of toxicity and mortality in both acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study at given dose and duration in Wistar albino rats. LD50 value may be more than 2000 mg/kg, can be classified as category 5 and indicating non-toxic nature of the methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens.

Pattar Jayashree; N.B Shridhar; Matham Vijaykumar; K Suhasini; Jayakumar; M.L Satyanarayana

2012-01-01

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks) was used as a test model. Repeated imm...

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

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Effect of Trans Fatty Acids Consumption on Some Haematological Indices in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.

G.E. Egbung; E.U. Essien; I.J. Atangwho

2009-01-01

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Effect of Hawthorn (Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus (L)) on platelet function in albino Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the possible antiplatelet effect of aqueous whole-plant C. aronia syn: Azarolus (L) extract using Wistar albino rats as a model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male albino Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g were divided into seven groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 served as the control and received equal volumes of distilled water. Groups 2-6 served as the experimental groups and were given C. aronia extract at doses of 100, 200, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg, while group 7 served as a positive control and was given aspirin (25mg/kg). All the doses were administered orally once a day and the treatment was continued for seven days. In all groups, at the end of the experimental procedure, blood samples were obtained for platelet function measurements, including PFA-100, thromboxane B2 levels, platelet count, and haematocrit. The bleeding time was determined using a modified tail cutting method described previously. RESULTS: The aqueous C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) extract significantly altered the bleeding time and the closure time, as determined by the PFA-100 and thromboxane B2 levels, suggesting significant platelet function inhibition. These effects were observed with C. aronia doses between 100 - 500 mg/kg, which yielded thromboxane B2 levels of 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the higher dose (2,000 mg/kg) produced opposite effects on these parameters. CONCLUSION: C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) aqueous extract has antiplatelet effects in Wistar albino rats.

Shatoor AS; Soliman H; Al-Hashem F; Gamal BE; Othman A; El-Menshawy N

2012-07-01

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Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

Nedosa U. Anastasia; Saleh Mohammed; Nedosa K. Stanislaus; Njoku Goddy; Ikenna K. Onyedibe; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli

2012-01-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD), a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr) and subacute toxicity (28 days) and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan; Vijaya Ravinayagam; Sachdanandam Panchanadham; Shanthi Palanivelu

2012-01-01

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HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p.) with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

Kanakasabapathi Devaki; Uthamaraj Beulah; Govindraj Akila; Martin Sunitha; Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan

2011-01-01

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research...

Adjroud Ounassa

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Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg) produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

R. Mahalakshmi; P. Rajesh; N. Ramesh; V. Balasubramanian; V. Rajesh Kannan

2010-01-01

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COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS  

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Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II) cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co), the rats received both Ni (II) cation (LD 50/2) and CO (II) cation (LD50/2). Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT) and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

2006-01-01

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ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB) in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia), test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg) and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg) were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM). Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-01-01

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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

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Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

2010-01-01

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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD(50); sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. RESULTS: The acute oral toxicity result, LD(50,) revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. CONCLUSION: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Oduola T; Bello I; Adeosun G; Ademosun AW; Raheem G; Avwioro G

2010-05-01

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Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestock)in Wistar Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India), was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000): 100-102

A.H. Ahmad; D.S.Rekhe; K.Ravikanth; S.Maini

2009-01-01

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks) was used as a test model. Repeated immobilization stress significantly decreased glutathione (GSH), RNA and total protein levels, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were elevated in brain and liver tissues. Daily drinking of green or black tea only attenuated the RNA decrease and the MDA increase in stressed groups in liver tissues. Green tea group attenuated the decrease in GSH and RNA and the increase in MDA induced by immobilization stress in brain tissues. However, black tea only attenuated the increase in brain MDA in stressed animals. The effect of green tea on restraint stress was higher in brain than liver. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the antioxidative effect of green tea during immobilization stress was higher, possibly attributed to the presence of relatively higher concentrations of flavonoids than in black tea.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

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GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g) for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o) and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o) as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

Khumanthem Deepak Singh; S. Haja Sherief; S. Sengottuvelu; V. Lalitha; T. Sivakumar

2011-01-01

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Impact of sperm retrieival on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P ?

Prithiviraj E; Suresh S; Manivannan M; Prakash S

2013-10-01

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Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

Balakrishnan, A; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K; Teepa, K S Ananta; Sathya, M

2011-07-01

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Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels.

Balakrishnan A; Kokilavani R; Gurusamy K; Teepa KS; Sathya M

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats.  

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Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

Devaki, K; Beulah, U; Akila, G; Gopalakrishnan, V K

2012-01-01

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Impact of sperm retrieival on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P ?

Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Suresh, Sekar; Manivannan, Monica; Prakash, Seppan

2013-06-13

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ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Saiprasanna Behera; S M Babu; Y Roja Ramani; Prasanta Kumar Choudhury; Sudeep Kumar Patra

2012-01-01

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Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg) in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day) alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day) for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc.) treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7) est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se) sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg) par voie sous-cutanée (sc) ou en association (10 mg/kg) avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg). Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour) seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour) pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05) du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-01-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg). The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01) decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01) increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K; S Haja Sherief; Sengottuvelu S; T Sivakumar

2011-01-01

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Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica...

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Sanni Saka; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Kyari Abba Sanda; Amina Ibrahim; Fatima Abba Lawan

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Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3?mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3?mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18?:?3, n ? 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

Arya, Ekta; Saha, Sudipta; Saraf, Shubhini A.; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2013-01-01

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Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3?mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3?mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30?mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6?h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18?:?3, n - 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

Arya E; Saha S; Saraf SA; Kaithwas G

2013-01-01

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Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production) in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites) and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli; T. Ojemudia; I. Nedosa; O. N. Adeyanju; K. S. Nedosa; I. K. Onyedibe; U. A. Utoh-Nedosa; P. A. Akah; C. O. Okoli; T. Ojemudia; I. Nedosa; O. N. Adeyanju; K. S. Nedosa; I. K. Onyedibe

2011-01-01

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Hepatoprotective potential of Cordia subcordata Lam. against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and hepatoprotective activity of ethanol (90%) extract of Cordia subcordata Lam. (EECS) using CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats.Methods: The EECS at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o and the standard drug Liv.52 (40mg/kg, p.o) were administered for 7 days in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed by using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP), also total bilirubin and urea along with histopathological studies of liver tissue. The biochemical changes and histopathological studies were observed on 4th and 8th day. Results: EECS at tested doses significantly decrease (P<0.001) the elevated levels of the hepatic enzymes, total bilirubin and urea in a dose dependent manner after 3days whereas it’s subsequent return towards near normal after 7days indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. In the liver sections of the rats treated with EECS extracts for 7 days, the normal cellular architecture was retained as compared to Liv.52, thereby furtherly confirming the potent hepatoprotective effect of EECS.Conclusion: The EECS afforded significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.

Saravana Kumar.A; Gandhimathi.R; Senthil Kumar.K.K; Kusuma Praveen Kumar

2009-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT), triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water). However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05). This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

K. Konaté; M. Ouédraogo; M.B. Ouattara; I.C. Dibala; J.F. Mavoungou; A.N. Lepengué; A. Souza; B.M. Batchi; O.G. Nacoulma

2012-01-01

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Influence of L-arginine on the Heart Histology and Function Markers of Metabolic Syndrome in Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available High blood pressure (a condition associated with vascular constriction) is a major feature of metabolic syndrome (MES). MES, a constellation of metabolic disorders, is prevalently higher in females and was associated with a reduced concentration of a vasodilator molecule, Nitric Oxide (NO). L-arginine (ARG), a precursor of NO may improve MES, warranting this study. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were (per orally for twenty eight days) exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, DW, respectively as treated and control groups. Significant differences in means were separated by student’s t-test (p+) concentration (136.42±1.66 mmol L-1; 6.54%), but a non-significant decrease (p>0.05) in potassium ion (K+) concentration (4.54±0.66 mmol L-1; 14.01%) in the rats’ serum, suggesting improved/reduced blood pressure. ARG treatment in the rats had a significant increase (p-1; 196.43%) in the rats’ serum, indicating adverse influence on high metabolic organs, including the brain. Sodium ion had a significant negative correlation (r = 0.01) with potassium ion, whereas the heart histomorphology revealed degenerations in the ARG-fed rats, apparently confirming the observations and suggestions thereto. Thus, ARG may improve blood pressure in the rats, perhaps at the expense of compromised heart function and histology of the rats. These may be pointing to a new arginine phenomenon, hence warrant follow up.

Anthony C.C. Egbuonu; Ifeoma I. Ijeh; Lawrence U.S. Ezeanyika; Onyechi O. Obidoa

2013-01-01

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The Quantitative Phytochemistry and Hypoglycaemic Properties of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The quantitative Phytochemistry and hypoglycaemic properties of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on normoglycemic wistar albino rats were investigated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica was bought in September 2012 from Gamboru market, Borno State, North eastern, Nigeria. One hundred and 50 g of aqueous product were prepared by reflux method from three hundred and 50 g of initial powdered sample. Phytochemical screening for biochemical and elemental contents were conducted. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids. Elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration, manganese, zinc and silicon is low, whereas the amount of nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead are negligible. Administration of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica in normoglycemic rats at the dosage of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 for four weeks significantly (pHyphaene thebaica crude mesocarp extract in the management of Diabetes mellitus in Borno State, Nigeria.

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Fatima Abba Lawan; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Amina Ibrahim; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Kyari Abba Sanda; Abubakar Muhammad Wakil; Ahmad Bello Thaluvwa

2012-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP), glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water). However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05). This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

K. Konaté; A. Souza; R.R.R. Aworet Samseny; B. Batchelili; B. Marlaine; M. Lamidi; N. Barro; J. Millogo-Rasolodimby; O.G. Nacoulma

2011-01-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. (more) The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Zora, Hasan; Muftuler, Zumrut F. Biber; Demir, Ilknur; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan

2012-04-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora; Zumrut F. Biber Muftuler; Ilknur Demir; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Cigdem Ichedef; Perihan Unak

2012-01-01

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Acute and twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of besifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicities of besifloxacin (BAF) in Wistar albino rats. In oral acute and repeated dose study, BAF was administered to both sex of rats, at dose levels of 0, 300, 600, 900 mg/kg/day and 0, 100, 200, 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the acute study, total white blood cell (WBC) (male, 43.74%; female, 42.60%) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) (male, 80%; female, 60%) were significantly increase, total protein (TP) (male, 23.24%; 27.80%) was significantly decreased, and significant incidence of pericholangitis (male, 83.33%; female, 75%) was shown in males and females of high-dose groups. In repeated oral dose toxicity study, similar type effects were also observed after serum hematological and serum biochemical analysis, whereas additionally sever hepatic injury and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa also observed in high dose groups of both sexes after histopathological analysis. However these toxic effects of besifloxacin were transient and reversible and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) were 300 mg/kg/day for acute and 100 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity study, respectively.

Roy B; Nandi U; Das A; Pal TK

2011-07-01

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Acute and twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of besifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicities of besifloxacin (BAF) in Wistar albino rats. In oral acute and repeated dose study, BAF was administered to both sex of rats, at dose levels of 0, 300, 600, 900 mg/kg/day and 0, 100, 200, 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the acute study, total white blood cell (WBC) (male, 43.74%; female, 42.60%) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) (male, 80%; female, 60%) were significantly increase, total protein (TP) (male, 23.24%; 27.80%) was significantly decreased, and significant incidence of pericholangitis (male, 83.33%; female, 75%) was shown in males and females of high-dose groups. In repeated oral dose toxicity study, similar type effects were also observed after serum hematological and serum biochemical analysis, whereas additionally sever hepatic injury and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa also observed in high dose groups of both sexes after histopathological analysis. However these toxic effects of besifloxacin were transient and reversible and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) were 300 mg/kg/day for acute and 100 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity study, respectively. PMID:21787734

Roy, Bikash; Nandi, Utpal; Das, Anjan; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2011-04-04

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Acute toxicity, biochemical and haematological study of Aframomum melegueta seed oil in male Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: Aframomum melegueta is a popular medicinal plant in Nigeria believed to have many agents acting in different ways to bring about human health benefits. This study aimed to determine the acute toxicity, identify some phytochemicals known to be present in this plant and the possible effects on lipid profile, haematological indices and biomarker of prostate and cardiac dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four Wistar rats (284-326g) were used in four groups of six animals. Group 1 (control) received normal saline; group 2, 3 and 4, received intraperitoneal injection of 27.39, 54.77 and 82.16mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 7 days. Haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and steroids were identified in this plant extract. The LD50 was 273.86mg/kg body weight. PSA decreased significantly in group 2. Testosterone increased significantly in all the test groups compared to the control. Cardiac troponin I (0ng/dl) was recorded for the test groups while the control had 1.69±0.12ng/dl. Lipid profile results showed increase in HDL and decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Haemoglobin (Hb) and Red Blood Cells count (RBC) decreased significantly in group 4. White blood cells count (WBC), Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Aframomum melegueta seed oil has the potential of ameliorating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and cardiac dysfunction as indicated by testosterone, PSA, lipid profile and troponin I levels. The LD50 of 273.86mg/kg body weight is indicative of mild toxicity. The lower than normal Hb, RBC confirms the possibility of toxicity.

Akpanabiatu MI; Ekpo ND; Ufot UF; Udoh NM; Akpan EJ; Etuk EU

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G.) on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18) rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p). The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p). Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight). After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05) dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP) and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05) in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05) in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05) in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05). The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%). The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro; C. Ikeh; A.A Uwakwe; K. E. Ekpo; E.O. Anosike

2012-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of metoprolol succinate and telmisartan in Wistar albino rats: safety profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metoprolol succinate (MET), a cardioselective ? blocker and telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin receptor blocker were administered orally, both individually and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose oral toxicity (28 days). Pharmacokinetic study was performed by analyzing drug concentration in plasma by a developed and validated LC-MS/MS method following oral administration of MET and TEL at 2.5 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg dose, respectively, both individually and in combination. Antihypertensive activity of MET and TEL in above dose and manner was evaluated on artificially induced hypertension on laboratory animals. In repeated dose oral toxicity study, MET (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg/day) and/or TEL (12, 24 and 48 mg/kg/day) were administered to animals for 28 days followed by a recovery period of 14 days. Pharmacokinetic data revealed the probable absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Improved blood pressure lowering effect was observed by combination therapy. Moreover, toxic effects obtained at high dose level of each treatment groups were transient and reversible and no evidence of additive toxic effects were observed due to concomitant administration. So, this combination can primarily be stated as safe which will be confirmed after clinical interaction studies in humans. PMID:23201407

Nandi, Utpal; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Das, Anjan Kumar; Ghosh, Balaram; Padman, Aswathi; Chatterjee, Nilendra; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2012-11-27

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Subacute effects of methanolic crude leaf extract of Gnetum africanum on the haematological profile in albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the haematopoietic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Gnetum africanum in 30 albino wistar rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups (A-E), group E served as the control and group D was orally given (0.1ml/kg body weight) of multivitamin. Groups (A-C) were exposed to the extract (30,60,120 mg/kg body weight)/rat/day respectively for 9 Days. Anticoagulated venous blood were collected on Days 3,6 and 9. This was used to determine complete blood count using symex KX 21N auto analyzer. Day 3 revealed a statistically significant increase (p<0.01) in RBC in group D and a statistically significant decrease (P<0.05) in total WBC in group C when compared with the control group. Group B revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.01) in MCV and a decrease (P<0.05) in RBC when compared with group D. Day 6 revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in neutrophil and a decrease (P<0.05) in PCV and lymphocyte count in groups C and D when compared with the control. Group C revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in platelet and neutrophil counts and a decrease (P<0.05) in lymphocyte count and MCHC when compared with group D. Day 9 revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in Hb in groups C and D, MCH in groups A and D and in neutrophil in group A when compared with the control. The study demonstrated that methanolic leaf extract of Gnetum africanum appears to have a stimulatory effect on haemapoiesis, and more especially on erythropoiesis.

T. NUBILA; E.O. UKAEJIOFO; N.I. NUBILA; E.E IYARE; E.N. SHU; C.P. CHIJIOKE; I.F. IBOK

2013-01-01

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Glucose lowering eff ect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. on alloxan induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. leaf on alloxan induced Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). Aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia tomentosa at the dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the diabetic animals. In this study, glycemic parameters, lipid parameters and serum enzymes were reducedwhereas the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was elevated. The extract significantly increased the total protein and glycogen level in the liver of diabetic rats. Furthermore, the liver carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were normalized by the administration of the extracts. Histopatholgical examination results of liver, pancreas and kidney were normal in general. The above results indicated the anti-diabetic efficacy of the B.tomentosa leaf extract.

K.Devaki; U.Beulah; R.Narmadha; G.Akila; V. K.Gopalakrishnan

2011-01-01

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The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

1998-01-01

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Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. CONCLUSION: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment.

Bhaskar A; Nithya V

2012-11-01

47

Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective(s): Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) on the 1-Methyl -3- nitro -1- nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum) and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca(2+), tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen) were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

Bathaie SZ; Miri H; Mohagheghi MA; Mokhtari-Dizaji M; Shahbazfar AA; Hasanzadeh H

2013-01-01

48

Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective(s): Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) on the 1-Methyl -3- nitro -1- nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum) and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca(2+), tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen) were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner. PMID:23638290

Bathaie, S Zahra; Miri, Hamidreza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijeh; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi

2013-01-01

49

Dose-Dependent Effects of Endosulfan and Malathion on Adult Wistar Albino Rat Ovaries  

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Full Text Available In this study, histological effects and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were investigated by endosulfan and malathion in adult female rat ovaries. An increase of MDA level in rat ovarium tissues due to endosulfan and malathion may be an indicator of the free radicals occurred during the metabolism and their lipid peroxidative inducing damage. In this study in accordance with the biochemical findings, the study demonstrated that there are pronounced structural defects in histological examinations of ovarian tissues in rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion. It has been observed that the size of ovarian tissues of rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion in different doses was decreased in various levels. There was a significant decrease healthy follicles and a significant increase atretic follicles in low dose of endosulfan and malathion (11 mg kg-1) treated rats. The histologic observations of the ovary revealed the presence of less number of healthy follicles and more number of atretic follicles and corpus luteums in high dose of endosulfan and malathion (33 mg kg-1) treated rats. Finally, a peroxidative damage occurs inavitably due to endosulfan and malathion for ovarium tissues. The biochemical results (MDA levels) also showed such a damage, similar with the histological results.

N.D. Koc; F.E. Kayhan; C. Sesal; M.N. Muslu

2009-01-01

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Research: HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Andrographis paniculata IN ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RAT  

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Full Text Available The effect of Andrographis paniculata (AP) extract was studied on ethanol induced hepatic damage in rats. Treatment with aqueous extract of A. Paniculata (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg body weight) was found to protect the rat from hepato-toxic action of ethanol as evidenced by significant reduction in the elevated serum transaminase levels. Histopathological studies show marked reduction in fatty degeneration and centrizonal necrosis in animals receiving different doses of A. paniculata along with ethanol as compared to the control group.

S Vetriselvan*; U Subasini; Victor Rajamanickam C; Thirumurugu S

2011-01-01

51

Effect of Carum carvi on Experimentally Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Carum carvi L. pretreatment on gastric mucosal injuries caused by NaCl, NaOH, ethanol and pylorous ligation accumulated gastric acid secretions was investigated in rats. Pretreatment at oral doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1, body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the (i) ulcerogenic effects of different necrotizing agents (ii) ethanol-induced histopathological lesions, depletion of stomach wall mucus and Nonprotein Sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) and (iii) pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions. The protective effect of Carum carvi against ethanol-induced damage of the gastric tissue appears to be related with the free-radical scavenging property of its constituents. The exact mechanism of action of the gastroprotective activity is not known. However, it might be due to flavonoid related suppression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) which are known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic metabolites.

A.A. Alhaider; I.A. Al-Mofleh; J.S. Mossa; M.O. Al-Sohaibani; S. Rafatullah; S. Qureshi

2006-01-01

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ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV) by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o). Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01) and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05) respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

Chandrashekar R.; Rao S.N

2013-01-01

53

Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000): 243-247

Shishira Bharadwaj; Shraddha Nayak

2013-01-01

54

Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice.

Nandi U; Roy B; Das AK; Pal TK

2012-09-01

55

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly (P< 0.001) increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.

Vijay P; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

2008-01-01

56

Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230?±?0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819?±?1.539?µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment.

Bhosale SS; Avachat AM

2013-06-01

57

Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230?±?0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819?±?1.539?µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

2013-01-16

58

Effect of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on White Blood Cells and Differential Leucocytic Count in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica on white blood cell and differential leucocytic counts in wistar albino rats was evaluated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica collected were ground into fine powder, extracted by reflux method and subjected to phytochemical screening for biochemical principles. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, Terpenes and Terpinoids. The elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration. The amount of zinc and silicon were low whereas, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead were negligible. The crude mesocarp extract administered at the dosages of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (pHyphaene thebaica in the management of parasitic and viral infections in North eastern region of Nigeria.

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Fatima Adamu Lawan; Kyari Abba Sanda; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi; Amina Ibrahim; Isa Adamu Gulani; Bitrus Wampana; Giwa I. Lateefat; Yagana Kibon

2012-01-01

59

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta; M. Chaudhary; R. Sehgal

2010-01-01

60

Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Soldier Ant (Dorylus spp) Meal in Partial Replacement for Fishmeal on Some Haematological, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Wistar Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and toxic effects of soldier ant meal as a supplement for fishmeal on some haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of wistar albino rats. Thirty rats aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments (T) in a complete randomized design with six rats per treatment. The rats were fed with diets containing 0% (T1) (Control), 25 % (T2), 50 % (T3), 75 % (T4) and 100% (T5) soldier ant meal. The experimental diets and drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of three weeks. There were significant reduction (p<0.05) among T2, T3, T4 and T5 for red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb ,) mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) compared to the control treatment T1. Also, significant increase in the white blood cell count (WBC) of the treated rats compared to the control treatment was observed. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the biochemical parameters among the treatments and enzymological study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in the activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in the liver and muscle of T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. It can be concluded that soldier ant meal has adverse effects on the haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of rats.

Owagboriaye F.O; Banjo A.D; Lawal O.A; Odejayi A.O.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hepatoprotective effect of Cocculus hirsutus on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in Albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex) common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.

Sagar P. Thakare, Hitesh N. Jain, Savita D. Patil and Umesh M. Upadhyay

2009-01-01

62

Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice. PMID:22885677

Nandi, Utpal; Roy, Bikash; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2012-07-14

63

Biochemical and Histologic Effect of Dietary Substitution with Solvent Extracted Neem Seed Cake of Albino Rats (wistar strain)  

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Full Text Available The performance of 20 albio rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks was investigated by feeding neem seedcake (NSC) after treatment with solvents. Group 1 and those of group II and III were fed experimental dietscontaining water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol processed neem seed cake respectively as a replacement forsoya bean for a period of 28days. Replacement of soya bean by water processed neem seed depressed thegrowth at the end of 4th week while for the other solvent processing 4th week was a period of stunted growth.There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the PCV and Hb of animals fed MNSC diet compared toanimals fed with standard protein diet. All the animals fed with processed neem seed cakes showed significant(p<0.05) increases in serum albumin compared to standard. Of all the serum marker enzymes determ ined onlythe level of SGOT for animals fed with ethanol processed neem seed cake was significantly (p<0.05) higherand the histopathology studies revealed fatty degeneration and necrosis of hepatic tissue and glomerular andrenal necrosis compared to the standard feed and other solvents treated.

D.B. James

2009-01-01

64

Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. PMID:20570120

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

2010-05-31

65

Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

Adaramoye OA; Okiti OO; Farombi EO

2011-11-01

66

Uridine modulates neuronal activity and inhibits spike-wave discharges of absence epileptic Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pharmacological and functional data suggest the existence of uridine (Urd) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, simultaneous extracellular single unit recording and microiontophoretic injection of the pyrimidine nucleoside Urd was used to provide evidence for the presence of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of Long Evans rats. Twenty-two neurons in the thalamus (24% of recorded neurons) and 17 neurons in the cortex (55%) responded to the direct iontophoresis of Urd. The majority of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and cortex (82% and 59%, respectively) increased their firing rate in response to Urd. In contrary, adenosine (Ado) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) decreased the firing rate of all responding neurons in the thalamus, and the majority of responding neurons in the cortex (83% and 87%, respectively). Functional relevance of Urd-sensitive neurons was investigated in spontaneously epileptic freely moving Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 500mg/kg Urd decreased epileptic activity (210-270min after injection) in both rat strains. Intraperitoneal administration of 1000mg/kg Urd decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) between 150-270min and 90-270min in Long Evans and WAG/Rij rats, respectively. The effect of Urd was long-lasting in both rat strains as the higher dose significantly decreased the number of SWDs even 24h after Urd injection. The present results suggest that Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex may play a role in the antiepileptic action of Urd possibly via modulation of thalamocortical neuronal circuits.

Kovács Z; Slézia A; Bali ZK; Kovács P; Dobolyi A; Szikra T; Hernádi I; Juhász G

2013-08-01

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Alterations in the Liver Histology and Markers of Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Inflammation and Liver Damage in L-arginine Exposed Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MES), a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG) may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8) of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg-1 b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p>0.05) in the neutrophils count (22.50±10.35%, representing 38.46%) but a decrease (p>0.05) in the lymphocytes count (77.50±10.35%, representing 8.82%) and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40±0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38%) of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p-1, representing 18.55%) and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC) count (2.73±0.75x109 L-1, representing 43.24%), suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01), while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study.

A.C.C. Egbuonu; L.U.S. Ezeanyika; I.I. Ijeh

2013-01-01

68

Development of safety profile evaluating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of pioglitazone and olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an antihypertensive drug were administered orally alone and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity of individual drugs and their combination. Pharmacokinetic study was performed by orally administering PIO and OLM at single dose of 3 and 2mg/kg, respectively alone and in combination analyzing the plasma samples using LC-MS/MS. Antidiabetic activity evaluation was done in type-2 diabetes mellitus induced animals at same dose level as in pharmacokinetic study daily for 30 days. PIO and/or OLM were administered orally to animals at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 28 days for toxicity study. There was no significant alteration in the pharmacokinetic parameters of either drug indicating absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Positive pharmacodynamic interaction between PIO and OLM was established in this study. Two drugs in combination showed no evidence of potentiation of 28-day repeated dose toxicity in animals. Again, drugs, alone and in combination, caused only minor changes in clinical-laboratory tests and histopathological change was not found in the experiment performed. In conclusion, PIO and OLM combination can primarily be stated as safe in terms of present toxicity and pharmacokinetics findings. PMID:22203042

Sengupta, Pinaki; Nandi, Utpal; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2011-12-19

69

Development of safety profile evaluating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of pioglitazone and olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an antihypertensive drug were administered orally alone and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity of individual drugs and their combination. Pharmacokinetic study was performed by orally administering PIO and OLM at single dose of 3 and 2mg/kg, respectively alone and in combination analyzing the plasma samples using LC-MS/MS. Antidiabetic activity evaluation was done in type-2 diabetes mellitus induced animals at same dose level as in pharmacokinetic study daily for 30 days. PIO and/or OLM were administered orally to animals at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 28 days for toxicity study. There was no significant alteration in the pharmacokinetic parameters of either drug indicating absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Positive pharmacodynamic interaction between PIO and OLM was established in this study. Two drugs in combination showed no evidence of potentiation of 28-day repeated dose toxicity in animals. Again, drugs, alone and in combination, caused only minor changes in clinical-laboratory tests and histopathological change was not found in the experiment performed. In conclusion, PIO and OLM combination can primarily be stated as safe in terms of present toxicity and pharmacokinetics findings.

Sengupta P; Nandi U; Pal TK

2012-02-01

70

ALBINO RATS SKIN TUMOUR;  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to see the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) on albino rats skin tumourinitiation by dimethylbenze (a) anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by 12-" o" tetra decanoyl-phorbol. 13acetate (TPA). Skin tumour was initiated by 20 µ-g/2.0 ml DMBA twice a week in one group of rats. In another group of rats tumour promoter TPA was applied in a dose of 2 µ/0.2ml, after the application of initiator(DMBA) in the same dose twice a week. This study was continued for 20 weeks. In another groups of rats13-cis retinoic acid (CRC) was applied before the application of initiator (DMBA) and promoter (TPA).Topical application of CRA resulted in 80% tumour inhibition when given before the DMBA and 70% whengiven before TPA. The results indicate that vitamin "A" (CRA) inhibits both stages of tumour initiation andpromotion.

Syed Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

1998-01-01

71

Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Indian Medicinal Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden Shower) in Wistar Albino Rats  

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The study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn. (ELE) in experimental rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models, while the antipyr...

K. Gobianand; P. Vivekanandan; K. Pradeep; C.V.R. Mohan; S. Karthikeyan

72

Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM). Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI) at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01) and 36.87% (p<0.05) respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000): 302-305

Chandrashekar R.; S. N. Rao

2013-01-01

73

Sub-acute Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius Root on Some Physiologically Important Electrolytes in Serum of Normal Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯ were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p>0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p0.05). Decreases (p0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl¯. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (pSarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant.

V.H.A. Enemor; A.N.C. Okaka

2013-01-01

74

Protective Response of Dried Stems of Cassia auriculata against Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Chronic liver diseases commonly result in liver fibrosis. Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) is widely used for experimental induction of liver fibrosis. It is a potent heptotoxin producing centrilobular necrosis which causes liver injury. Five groups of 3 rats each were used. First group (normal...

P. Swathi; T. Jagadeesh Kumar; M. Madhu Babu; Ch. Vijay

75

Protective Response of Dried Stems of Cassia auriculata against Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Chronic liver diseases commonly result in liver fibrosis. Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) is widely used for experimental induction of liver fibrosis. It is a potent heptotoxin producing centrilobular necrosis which causes liver injury. Five groups of 3 rats each were used. First group (normal control) was given 1 ml of liquid paraffin /kg b.wt. Daily for 21 days and kept as normal control. Rats of the second group were given the same dose of liquid paraffin, in addition CCl4 (30% in liquid paraffin) was given in a single oral dose of 1 ml /kg b.wt, for every 72 hours. Rats of the third, fourth and fifth groups were pre-treated orally with 25 mg/kg b.wt of silymarin, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of cassia auriculata suspended in 1% CMC. Serum was separated and used for various biochemical estimations. Liver and kidney were collected in ice-cold containers, washed with saline, homogenized with appropriate buffer and used for the estimation of protein, liver enzymes (SGPT & SGOT), ALP, hepatic TBARS and glutathione. The experiment was carried out to investigate the role of antioxidant enzymes and liver enzymes such GSH, LPO, ALP, SGOT, SGPT & protein. This protective effect of this drug can be correlated directly to its antioxidant and hepatoprotective property.Keywords: Cassia auriculata, hepatoprotective activity, silymarin, CCl4

P. Swathi; T. Jagadeesh Kumar; M. Madhu Babu; Ch. Vijay

2011-01-01

76

ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM) had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 values (27.12, 13.13 and 7.32 µM, respectively) were identified by plotting cumulative concentration response curve and pD2 values (4.48 ± 0.99, 6.06 ± 1.03 and 7.41 ± 0.97, respectively) were calculated for individual alcoholic extract of plant. All extracts were able to relax carbachol pre-contracted tracheas significantly in a concentration dependent manner. Our results suggested potential role of Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa in asthma for further potential therapeutic and clinical uses.

Nagar Ashish; Kumar Ashok; Gullaiya Sumeet; Singh Varun; Dubey Vishal; Srinivasan B. P.

2013-01-01

77

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Althaea officinalis against Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver function were assessed by the determination of SGPT and SGOT studies. The serum biochemical analysis results suggested that the use of ethanolic extract of Althaea officinalis exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model.

Jabbar Zoobi; Ali Mohd

2011-01-01

78

ADULT ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The average number and size of motor units were assessed by investigating the components of motorunits supplied by Tibial Nerve in adult albino rats. The motor neurons forming the Tibial Nervelocalized by HRP technique extended from the caudal part of L3 to S1 segments of the spinal cord.The motoneurons forming the Tibial Nerve (TN) which are distributed mainly in the Posterolateraland Post-Posterolateral groups with few of them are also distributed in the central groups. The average somaldiameter of motoneurons ranged between 12 and 63 m. The motor end-plates on skeletal myofibers ofmuscles supplied by Tibial Nerve were localized by using bromo-indigo and urea-silver technique. The totalof 826 motor units with the size of 137 of the muscles innervated by Tibial Nerve have been observed in thepresent study.

Abdul Jabbar

2001-01-01

79

A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion[pt] Analisou-se a influencia de dieta carente em proteinas sobre os niveis do hormonio tireotrofico (TSH) em ratos, em condicoes basais e em resposta a administracao de seu hormonio liberador (TRH). Estudaram-se dois grupos de animais: um com dieta normoproteica e outro, hipoproteica. Durante a experiencia (30d), conservaram-se os animais sob condicoes controladas sendo pesados periodicamente e as variacoes de peso analisadas. Analisaram-se estatisticamente os dados obtidos. Os animais dos dois grupos tinham pesos medios iniciais semelhantes. Durante a experiencia, os controles aumentaram de peso e os carentes diminuiram. Analisaram-se as concentracoes sericas de proteinas totais e fracoes proteicas (albumina e globulinas), resultando significantemente menores nos carentes quando comparadas as correspondentes dos controles. Apos administracao de TRH o grupo controle aumentou o seu nivel medio de TSH serico em 10 vezes e o carente em 17 vezes. Confirmou-se uma liberacao exagerada de TSH em resposta ao estimulo de TRH nos animais carentes, embora sem alteracao nos niveis basais. Possivelmente a diminuicao da frenacao hipofisaria na secrecao de TSH observada nos carentes em resposta ao TRH deve-se a deficiente conversao extratireoide de tiroxina, que acarretaria diminuida formacao hepatica de triiodotirodina

1978-01-01

80

Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.

Al-Rejaie Salim; Abuohashish Hatem; Alkhamees Osama; Aleisa Abdulaziz; Alroujayee Abdulaziz S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rat...

Y. Raji; S.O. Ifabunmi; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.O. Morakinyo; A.K. Oloyo

82

Acute oral administration of Khat (Catha edulis) aqueous extract elevates blood pressure and prolongs QT and QTC intervals in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of Khat (Catha edulis) acute administration on blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in vivo. Methods: This study was performed between January and February 2009 at the Physiology Laboratory, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two groups of Wistar rats (n=10), weighing 190-200 g were divided into control group and Khat treated group. Throughout the study, arterial BP and ECG were recorded for 60 consecutive minutes. The data were collected and analyzed by Power Lab Data Acquisition System every 10 minutes, and were compared within and between the groups. Results: Oral administration of Khat resulted in significant time dependent increases in both systolic and diastolic BP with a maximum increase at minute 60 after extract administration (systolic BP - 34.1%; and diastolic BP - 46.2%). Heart rate was significantly increased at all minutes of the study with a maximum increase occurring at minute 40 (12.8%). There was a significant decrease in PR interval through the experiment, and the maximum decrease was observed at minute 40 (-15.2%). However, QT and QTc started to widen 20 minutes after extract administration with a maximum prolongation in both intervals to occur at minute 40 (QT - 11.6%; QTc - 9.1%). Conclusion: These newly reported changes in the ECG of rats after Khat administration should be a warning regarding the cardiac hazards of Khat chewing.

Fahaid H. Al-Hashem; Abdullah S. Shatoor

2012-01-01

83

Hepatoprotective Effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia clappertoniana) and Negro Pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) in CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica) and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica) and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana). Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p?0.05) in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in CCl4 -treated rats only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana when compared to those administered CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly decreased (p?0.05) in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in rats administered CCl4 alone. Histopathological examinations of rats administered CCl4 alone revealed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. These findings suggest that X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana may be protective against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats.

K.C. Patrick- Iwuanyanwu; M.O. Wegwu; J.K. Okiyi

2010-01-01

84

Hepatoprotective Effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia clappertoniana) and Negro Pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) in CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica) and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was adm...

K.C. Patrick- Iwuanyanwu; M.O. Wegwu; J.K. Okiyi

85

Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA) induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60?mg/kg, body weight, per oral) for three weeks fo...

Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Gullaiya, Sumeet; Dubey, Vishal; Singh, Varun; Kumar, Ashok; Nagar, Ashish; Tiwari, Poonam

86

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylates underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota A

1988-01-01

87

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested. (orig.)

1988-01-01

88

Disposition of (2,3-/sup 14/C)-methyl and (2,3-/sup 14/C)-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

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The disposition of methyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The /sup 14/C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of /sup 14/C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of /sup 14/C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota, A.

1988-09-01

89

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effect of Mangifera indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar)  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Mangifera indica leaf extract. The effects of the leaf extract on anti-inflammatory response using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema model, analgesic activity of the extract using hot plate model to induce pain and anti-pyretic activity using Baker’s yeast fever induction model were examined. The research work was carried out using rats weighing between 150-210 g. These rats were divided into five (5) groups of 5 animals each; Group 1 served as the control group. Other groups were administered at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract (at the dose various dosages and in a time dependent manner) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the paw oedema induced by fresh egg-albumin in rats. This result supports the use of Mangifera indica leaf extract for the management of inflammatory disorders. Phytochemical analysis of the extract composition demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, reducing sugars, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and tannins.

O.J. Olorunfemi; D.C. Nworah; J.N. Egwurugwu; V.O. Hart

2012-01-01

90

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

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Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were ran...

Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

91

Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA) induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60?mg/kg, body weight, per oral) for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10??g/2??L) into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2) receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry) were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Gullaiya, Sumeet; Dubey, Vishal; Singh, Varun; Kumar, Ashok; Nagar, Ashish; Tiwari, Poonam

2012-01-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA.LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4) INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS.  

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Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hapatoprotective activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn (SHE) against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) inducd hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the determination of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin. Histopathological studies were carried out.The serum biochemical analysis results suggest that the use of Ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model. Histopathological studies revealed that concurrent administration of the extract with CCl4 exhibited protective effect on the liver, which further evidenced its hepatoprotective activity.

M.Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

93

Evaluation of genotoxicity in leukocytes and testis following intra-vasal contraception with RISUG and its reversal by DMSO and NaHCO? in Wistar albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluation of genotoxicity of RISUG® - a vas based contraceptive, was carried out in the present study. Animals were allotted into groups of sham operated control, vas occlusion with RISUG (5-7 ?l) for 360 days and reversal by DMSO (250-500 ?l) and 5% NaHCO? (500 ?l). Blood samples and testis were collected at 360 days of vas occlusion and 90 days of vas occlusion reversal for comet analysis. Hydrogen peroxide induced samples were used as positive control. Olive moment, tail length and percentage DNA in tail were recorded with minimum variation in all groups for both leukocytes and testis. When compared with positive control the variation was highly significant for both 20 ?M and 50 ?M H?O? (p<0.001). It is concluded that vas occlusion with RISUG at the contraceptive dose regimen is not associated with genotoxicity in leukocytes or the testis of pre- and post-reversal rats.

Ansari AS; Alam I; Hussain M; Khan SR; Lohiya NK

2013-04-01

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Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal.

Ayfer Aktas; M Serhan Tasdemir; M Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hüsnü Alper Bagriyanik

2011-01-01

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Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound ...

Jagadeesh S. Sanganal; Jayakumar.K.; Jayaramu G.M.; V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

96

Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young), four ( adult), six (adult), and twelve (mature) months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test); insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test); fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

Ghezzi Ana; Cambri Lucieli; Botezelli José; Ribeiro Carla; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria Alice

2012-01-01

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Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the pre (more) sent experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

Zotz, T.G.G.; Paula, J.B. de; Moser, A.D.L.

2012-06-01

98

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan R; Elango K; Suresh B; Ramesh BR

2006-01-01

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PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

2006-01-01

100

Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Craniopharyngioma is a rare neoplasm in the rat, and few cases have been described. These lesions are thought to originate from squamous cell remnants of Rathke's pouch, an evagination of primitive stomatodeum. This neoplasm is usually locally invasive, and neither cranial nor extracranial metastases have been described. A spontaneously occurring malignant, metastasizing craniopharyngioma arising from the neurohypophysis was detected in a 2-year-old male albino rat. The infiltrative growth was observed in the wall of the vessels of the circle of Willis, in the perivascular space of Virchow and Robin, in the submeningeal space near the hypothalamus, through the fissura chorioidea, in the medulla oblongata, and along the optic nerve into the periocular region. Metastases were detected in the thalamus and hippocampus. The diagnosis was made on the basis of microscopic, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings.

Pace V; Heider K; Persohn E; Schaetti P

1997-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Oxytocin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical use of cisplatin (CP) is highly limited because of its renal toxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that intensify the cytotoxic effects. Oxytocin (OT) was previously shown to have antioxidant activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study on male Wistar albino rats performed in the Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar albino rats were classified into four equal groups: a control group, OT only-treated group which received OT twice (500 micro g/kg intraperitoneally (ip) 30 minutes and just before saline administration), a CP-induced nephrotoxicity group that received a single dose of CP (7.5 mg/kg ip) and treated with saline, and CP+OT group treated with the same previous doses. Seventy-two hours after CP administration, the rats were sacrificed and blood was withdrawn for determination of urea, creatinine, albumin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The kidneys were extracted for histopathological examination and determination of the tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide end product nitrite (NO(2)). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assessed. RESULTS: CP-induced renal injury was evidenced histopathologically and manifested by a significant increase in serum LDH activity as well as urea and creatinine levels. Moreover, renal injury was associated with decreased renal tissue activities of CAT, SOD, GPx and GST as well as GSH level. On the other hand, renal tissue content of TBARS and NO(2) as well as the activity of MPO were increased. Alterations in these biochemical and histopathological indices due to CP were attenuated by OT. CONCLUSION: OT protected rats from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Such protection is attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidant activity.

Elberry AA; Refaie SM; Kamel M; Ali T; Darwish H; Ashour O

2013-01-01

102

Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.

Weber K; Ernst R; Fankhauser H; Hardisty JF; Heider W; Stevens K

2009-12-01

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Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies. PMID:22271999

Weber, Klaus; Ernst, Rainer; Fankhauser, Heinz; Hardisty, Jerry F; Heider, Wolfram; Stevens, Karla

2009-12-21

104

Origins of Albino and Hooded Rats: Implications from Molecular Genetic Analysis across Modern Laboratory Rat Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (hi) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

2012-01-01

105

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine embryopathy in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnant Wistar rats received a therapeutic dose (0.72 mg/kg body weight) of intramuscular sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on days 5, 12, and 19 of gestation. The treated animals showed elevated neutrophilic lobe average and increased urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) as compared with controls (p < 0.001), confirming folic acid deficiency due to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment. Complete embryo resorption occurred in the treatment group, while the control animals littered normally. These findings imply that sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine should be used with utmost caution in early pregnancy as this regimen can lead to folic acid deficiency and consequent pregnancy wastage.

Uche-Nwachi EO; Caxton-Martins AE

1998-04-01

106

Abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Metoclopramide a dopamine receptor antagonist is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting. Long term use can cause parkinsonism, galactorrhoea and gynaecomastia. As it is lipid soluble, it enters the brain, easily crosses the placental barrier and can affect the fetus. Hence, the present study is designed to assess the risk of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Objectives To study the abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Methods Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. The abortifacient activities of metoclopramide were studied in the doses of 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg intramuscularly. The treatments were started on the 6th day of pregnancy and continued till the 15th day. Rats were laparotomised on 19th day of pregnancy for evaluation of abortifacient action. In both the horns of the uterus, number of implantation sites, resorption sites, dead and live fetuses were observed. Results The mean percentage of aborted fetus was 17.22 +/= 21.13 33.88 +/= 37.73 after 1mg/kg and 85.21 +/=18.93 after 3mg/kg of metoclopramide. The abortifacient effect of higher dose was significantly larger compared to both control group and low dose group, but there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of abortion in control group and the low dose group of metoclopramide. Conclusion Metoclopramide at 3mg/kg intra muscular has abortifacient effects in female albino rats. PMID:23774405

Shrestha, J M; Shrestha, R; Khanal, K

107

Abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in female albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background Metoclopramide a dopamine receptor antagonist is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting. Long term use can cause parkinsonism, galactorrhoea and gynaecomastia. As it is lipid soluble, it enters the brain, easily crosses the placental barrier and can affect the fetus. Hence, the present study is designed to assess the risk of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Objectives To study the abortifacient effect of metoclopramide in pregnant albino rats. Methods Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. The abortifacient activities of metoclopramide were studied in the doses of 1mg/kg and 3mg/kg intramuscularly. The treatments were started on the 6th day of pregnancy and continued till the 15th day. Rats were laparotomised on 19th day of pregnancy for evaluation of abortifacient action. In both the horns of the uterus, number of implantation sites, resorption sites, dead and live fetuses were observed. Results The mean percentage of aborted fetus was 17.22 +/= 21.13 33.88 +/= 37.73 after 1mg/kg and 85.21 +/=18.93 after 3mg/kg of metoclopramide. The abortifacient effect of higher dose was significantly larger compared to both control group and low dose group, but there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of abortion in control group and the low dose group of metoclopramide. Conclusion Metoclopramide at 3mg/kg intra muscular has abortifacient effects in female albino rats.

Shrestha JM; Shrestha R; Khanal K

2013-01-01

108

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received...

T. Madhavi; B. Mahitha; K. Mallikarjuna; N. John Sushma

109

Spontaneous choroid plexus carcinoma in an albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neoplasms of the choroid plexus are very rare in the rat, and few cases have been described. We report on a spontaneously occurring choroid plexus carcinoma arising from the fourth ventricle in a 2-year-old female albino rat. The infiltrative growth was observed in the adjacent brain parenchyma, in the wall of the vessels of the circle of Willis, in the perivascular space of VIRCHOW and ROBIN and in the leptomeninges. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin (Lu-5) indicating that choroid plexus tumors in the rat express epithelial differentiation. The diagnosis was made on the basis of microscopical and immunohistochemical findings.

Pace V

1998-06-01

110

Modulatory effect of NONI-Herbal formulation against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of NONI-herbal formulation against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in albino wistar rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administering 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10) NONI formulation orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) reduced urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol.This was reduced; however after treatment with NONI formulation. These observations enable to conclude that NONI is effective against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis.

Verma NK; Patel SS; Saleem TSM; Christina AJM; Chidambaranathan N

2009-01-01

111

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000): 317-321

Jagadeesh S. Sanganal; Jayakumar.K.; Jayaramu G.M.; V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

2011-01-01

112

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water). Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01) at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05) at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio) and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01) at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01) at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01). The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji; S.O. Ifabunmi; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.O. Morakinyo; A.K. Oloyo

2005-01-01

113

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R; Babitha. J; Kandeepan. S; Murugaian. P

2013-01-01

114

Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method) for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407), methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05) increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05) increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

C. N. Santhosh Kumar; N. B. Shridhar; J. S. Sanganal; Ambika Das

2013-01-01

115

Gonadotoxicity Evaluation of Oral Administration of Zidolam in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aim. Zidolam is an antiretroviral combination therapy consisting of zidovudine and lamivudine for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between oral administration of zidolam and fertility in adult male albino rats.Material and Methods. Fifteen male albino rats with body weight (bwt) of 150 – 220 gm were used for the 2-phase study. Solution of the drug in sterile water was administered via oral cannula to 5 male rats each at daily dose of 1.29 mg/100 gm bwt respectively for 21 days during phase I. Phase II was a recovery study involving 5 male rats exposed to dose regimen as in phase I, and sacrificed after 21-day withdrawal of treatment. The control group of 5 male rats was given sterile water ad-libitum during the period. Results. Zidolam caused significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the progressive sperm motility, sperm count, testosterone and viability of the animals while there was no significant change in the pH of the semen and all these factors may impair fertility. Discontinuation of the drug use caused restoration of the depressed values in the recovery group. The results suggested that Zidolam could induce reversible changes in all the parameters under investigation in the treated animals. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the use of antiretroviral drugs could have deleterious effects on spermatogenesis hence cause sperm alterations which can lead to infertility even in normal subjects as the wistar rats used for the experiment were HIV –free.

Ifabunmi Oduyemi Osonuga; Odusoga Adeleke Osonuga; AA Osonuga

2010-01-01

116

Effect of meclofenoxate on pentylenetetrazol kindling in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a single and 5-day treatment of male albino rats with meclofenoxate in a dose of 100 mg/kg on the clonic-tonic convulsions during the kindling phenomenon, induced by multiple injection of a subconvulsive dose (40 mg/kg) pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were tested. Its effects on convulsions, induced by a single convulsive dose of 100 mg/kg, were investigated for the sake of comparison. Meclofenoxate, introduced in a single dose of 100 mg/kg, lowered the intensity of the convulsions in PTZ-kindled rats. Meclofenoxate treatment for 5 days had an even more pronounced inhibitory effect on PTZ kindling. As regards the convulsions induced by a single injection of a convulsive PTZ dose, meclofenoxate only tends to decrease the percentage of rats with tonic convulsion and the lethality. On the basis of the results of earlier studies, the role of the serotoninergic neurotransmitter system for the observed inhibitory effect of meclofenoxate on PTZ kindling in albino rats is discussed. PMID:3129904

Lazarova, M; Georgiev, V; Markovska, V; Genkova, M; Petkov, V D

1987-01-01

117

Modulatory Effect of Vitamin C on Genotoxic Effect of Endosulfan in Developing Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The genotoxic effect of endosulfan and the modulatory effect of vitamin C in growing albino rats were studied by bone marrow micronucleus assay. Seven days old male Wistar rats were treated with 3, 6, 9, 12mg/kg Endosulfan orally (10 pups/group),for up to 60 days, at intervals of 24h. For 2 more groups (n=10/group), Endosulfan 9mg/kg and 12mg/kg was administered along with vitamin C (20mg/kg). One more group of rats were treated with cyclophosphamide as positive control. The genotoxic effect was studied by bone marrow micronuclei assay.There was an increase in micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) and a decrease in PCE and P/N ratio in endosulfan treated rats. The effect was similar to the standard mutagen cyclophosphamide. In rats treated with vitamin C and endosulfan, there was an increase in PCE and P/N ratio and decrease in micronuclei in PCE and NCE. This could be due to the antimutagenic effect of vitamin C. Increase in micronuclei in endosulfan treated rats showed genotoxic effect of endosulfan. Decrease in micronuclei in animals treated with both endosulfan and vitamin C, showed antimutagenic effect of vitamin C.

S.D. Manjula; S. Benjamin; K. L. Bairy

2006-01-01

118

Oral Bioavailability of Simvastatin Novel Formulation in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the single dose oral bioavailability of two formulations of Simvastatin in albino rats. Plasma was analyzed for simvastatin using a sensitive, reproducible, accurate and validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, AUC0-?, Cmax, Tmax, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration for both formulations. Self-emulsifying Formulation of simvastatin showed a significant improvement in bioavailability (1.5 fold) as compared with the conventional tablets.

Singla.N; Gupta.G.D; Kohli.K; Jain

2009-01-01

119

Renal Lesions Induced by Pyrethroid Inhalation in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of pyrethroid inhalation was studied on the kidney of Albino rats. The results revealed that animals inhaled tetramethrin for 15 days showed a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histological examination of the kidney of treated animals indicated marked symptoms of renal tissues impairment. The renal tubules lost their characteristic appearance and their linning epithelial cells appeared with cytoplasmic vacuolation. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal blood vessels were congested. The intertubular spaces were infiltrated by inflammatory leucocytic cells. The magnitude of these changes was time-dependent, being more prominent after 15 days of treatment.

S. A. Sakr; H. A. Mahran; Y. A. Okdah

2001-01-01

120

[Delayed effect of exorphins on learning of albino rat pups  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The delayed effect of food-derived opioid peptides (exorphins) after chronic administration on postnatal days 1-14 on the learning of albino rat pups has been studied. Heptapeptide YPFPGPI (beta-casomorphin-7), pentapeptide YPLDL (rubiscolin-5) and pentapeptide YPISL (exorphin C) improved the development of the conditioned foraging reflex in a complex maze. Hexapeptide PFPGPI lacking the N-terminal tyrosine proved inefficient. Only beta-casomorphin-7 had an effect (negative) on passive avoidance conditioning. The obtained data confirm that exorphins (particularly, milk-derived beta-casomorphins) can have significant and long-term effects on the environmental adaptation of young mammals.

Dubynin VA; Malinovskaia IV; Beliaeva IuA; Stovolosov IS; Bespalova ZhD; Andreeva LA; Kamenski? AA; Miasoedov NF

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Delayed effect of exorphins on learning of albino rat pups].  

Science.gov (United States)

The delayed effect of food-derived opioid peptides (exorphins) after chronic administration on postnatal days 1-14 on the learning of albino rat pups has been studied. Heptapeptide YPFPGPI (beta-casomorphin-7), pentapeptide YPLDL (rubiscolin-5) and pentapeptide YPISL (exorphin C) improved the development of the conditioned foraging reflex in a complex maze. Hexapeptide PFPGPI lacking the N-terminal tyrosine proved inefficient. Only beta-casomorphin-7 had an effect (negative) on passive avoidance conditioning. The obtained data confirm that exorphins (particularly, milk-derived beta-casomorphins) can have significant and long-term effects on the environmental adaptation of young mammals. PMID:18491562

Dubynin, V A; Malinovskaia, I V; Beliaeva, Iu A; Stovolosov, I S; Bespalova, Zh D; Andreeva, L A; Kamenski?, A A; Miasoedov, N F

122

Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

1980-01-01

123

Visual attention task performance in Wistar and Lister hooded rats: response inhibition deficits after medial prefrontal cortex lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prefrontal cortex has traditionally been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes, including memory, attention and decision making. The detection of effects of prefrontal cortex lesions on attention has been shown to depend on the procedure used to assess the attentional process. We therefore investigated the effects of lesions of the prefrontal cortex in two different visual attention tasks, i.e. a three-choice serial reaction time task involving sustained and divided attention processes and a visual timing task involving sustained attention and response inhibition processes. In two rat strains that are frequently used in behavioural analysis, i.e. albino Wistar rats and pigmented Lister Hooded rats, lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex caused a deterioration of performance in both tasks, although the effect lasted much longer in the visual timing task. This latter task proved to be especially sensitive to detect the consequences of medial prefrontal cortex lesions, consisting of a loss of both attention control and response inhibition. In both attention tasks, Wistar rats performed less accurate and made more anticipatory responses than Listers. Strain differences could not entirely be attributed to possible visual deficits in albinos, which was also evident when locomotor activity in an open field and food-motivated behaviour in a hoarding paradigm were assessed. Due to slower habituation rates, Lister rats were more active and displayed little food hoarding behaviour. In Wistar rats, hoarding was disrupted by medial prefrontal cortex lesions, showing the effectiveness of the lesion. The results indicate that, although different rat strains provide different baseline levels of behaviour for testing lesion- or drug-induced behavioural changes, lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex do not only disrupt sustained attention processes, but also induce a strong impairment in response inhibition in both Wistar and Lister rats. PMID:10613496

Broersen, L M; Uylings, H B

1999-01-01

124

[Acid-base equilibrium, blood lactic acid and pyruvic acid in albino rats after muscular exertion under conditions of normal oxygen, hypoxia and hypoxia-hypercapnia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albino rats of the Wistar family were subjected at three subsequent equal trials of muscular work: the first in normoxyc conditions; the second in hypoxic normobaric conditions; the third in hypoxic-hypercapnic normobaric conditions. The modifications of the lactacidemia, pyruvicemia and acid-base balance were greatest at the end of hypoxic trial. Added CO2 (2%) sensitively reduced the acidificant effects of the muscular work on the acid-base balance.

Quatrini U; Licciardi A

1984-03-01

125

Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by treatment using aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. igneus (stem), and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in urolithiatic rats. From this study, we conclude that both the treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol had an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra.

Manjula K; Rajendran K; Eevera T; Kumaran S

2012-10-01

126

Effect of Costus igneus stem extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Costus igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol on calcium oxalate urolithiasis have been studied in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and oxalate. The increased deposition of stone-forming constituents in the urine, serum, and kidney homogenate of urolithic rats was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered by treatment using aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. igneus (stem), and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol. The calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney was significantly greater in ethylene glycol-induced urolithic rats. After administration of aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus, the deposition of calcium and oxalate was significantly lowered. Treatment with lupeol and stigmasterol significantly reduced the deposition of calcium and oxalate in the kidney, and also in the blood serum; the lipid profile serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 50 and 100 mg/kg were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in urolithiatic rats. From this study, we conclude that both the treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract of C. igneus (stem) and isolated compounds lupeol and stigmasterol had an inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate urinary stone. Lupeol and stigmasterol were identified from the stem of C. igneus by high-performance thin layer chromatography technique. The isolated compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C NMR spectra. PMID:22298189

Manjula, K; Rajendran, K; Eevera, T; Kumaran, S

2012-10-01

127

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum hepatic markers namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and increased plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation indices (TBARS and hydroperoxide). The present finding shows that the levels of enzymatic antioxidants namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in OXT intoxicated rats. Upon oral administration of caffeic acid (40 mg/kg body weight/day) there were decreased hepatic marker activities, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic antioxidants in OXT + Caffeic acid group compared to Normal + OXT group(P < 0.05). Our study suggests that caffeic acid has antioxidant property and hepatoprotective ability against OXT induced toxicity.

Jayanthi, R.

2010-01-01

128

Ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don. rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in alcohol induced free radical toxicity male albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats (150-200g) by administering alcohol (0.7ml/kg, orally) once daily for 7 days. CP (50mg/kg, orally) was given for 21 days. After 21 days treatment the selected enzymes such as Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were assayed in the liver tissue. The activities of SDH, G-6-PDH, MDH and GDH were decreased and LDH activity was increased in alcohol treated rats, but with Costus pictus rhizome treatment in alcohol treated rats these mitochondrial enzymes restored to normal levels. These results suggest that mitochondrial enzyme activities were increased with Costus pictus rhizome treatment. We conclude that Costus pictus rhizome treatment is beneficial to improve the mitochondrial enzymes activities during alcohol induced free radical stress.

V Maruthappan; K SakthiSree

2010-01-01

129

Protective effects of Capparis sepiaria root extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Capparis sepiaria L. known as Himsra is an important drug in Ayurveda. In this study extracts of the root of C. sepiaria were evaluated for their hepatoprotective potential on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. The extent of hepatoprotection was evaluated by estimating the serum levels of hepatic transaminases (SGPT and SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), and bilirubin (total and direct). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sepiaria significantly reduced the increased liver weight as well as serum levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and bilirubin, and normalized the reduced serum protein levels in the treated rats. These observations were supported by the results of histopathology studies as well. The extracts were also subjected to preliminary organic analysis and chromatographic studies including HPTLC finger print studies. The results indicate that the roots of C. sepiaria show significant hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, thus substantiating its use as a potential hepatoprotective drug.

Madhavan V; Pandey AS; Murali A; Yoganarasimhan SN

2012-01-01

130

Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA) on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E). A (control) received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05) in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.

Kolawole Victor Olorunshola; L.N. Achie; M.L. Akpomiemie

2011-01-01

131

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics/ Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Estudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día), ampicilina (4mg/100/día) y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día) por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducci (more) ón del diámetro (p Abstract in english Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (p(more) ), and epididymal epithelial height (EEH) in treated group of animals. A significant increase (p

Awobajo, F. O; Raji, Y; Akinloye, A. K

2010-12-01

132

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día), ampicilina (4mg/100/día) y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día) por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p<0,05) de los conductos del epidídimo (EDD), y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH) en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registró un aumento significativo (p <0,05) en el diámetro luminal del epidídimo (ELD) en todos los animales después de dos y tres semanas del período de recuperación. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relación a la toxicidad de estos antibióticos en los órganos reproductivos masculinos, además de la reducción de la concentración sérica de testosterona, disminución de la motilidad del esperma, disminución del recuento de espermatozoides y disminución en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las células de espermatogénesis como se reportó anteriormente.

F. O Awobajo; Y Raji; A. K Akinloye

2010-01-01

133

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water) on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group). Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2) included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2) in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2) included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3%) in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats). Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats).induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC), serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane) were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC) in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C) were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi; Q.H. Abdullah; S.A. Ibrahim

2012-01-01

134

Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 days), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer colla (more) teral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

Drumond, L.E.; Kushmerick, C.; Guidine, P.A.M.; Doretto, M.C.; Moraes, M.F.D.; Massensini, A.R.

2011-10-01

135

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-05-09

136

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD.

Tinkov AA; Polyakova VS; Nikonorov AA

2013-06-01

137

The Acute Hepatotoxic Effect of Halofantrine on Healthy and Uninfected Adult Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the likely effects of Halofantrine on liver enzymes in healthy and uninfected Wistar rats of both sexes. Thirty albino rats (randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 rats each) with body weight of 150 - 230 g were used for the 2-phase study. In phase 1, the drug was administered orally at Therapeutic (T) dose of 2.15 mg per 100 g body weight to 10 rats (5 males and 5 females) daily at 6 h interval for 18 h. Phase II was a recovery study involving 10 rats (5 males and 5 females) exposed to dose regimen as in phase 1 and sacrificed after 18 h withdrawal of treatment. The control-group made of 10 rats was given sterile water and rat feed ad-libitum. Halofantrine caused significant increase (p< 0.05) in the liver enzymes (ALK, ALT and AST) of the animals. Discontinuation of the drug use caused significant decrease in the liver enzymes values in the recovery group. The results suggested that halofantrine could induce hepatotoxicity in the treated animals.

I.O. Osonuga; O.A. Osonuga; A. Osonuga; A.A. Onadeko; A.A. Osonuga

2012-01-01

138

Behavioural Enpoints of Adult Wistar Rats, Following Aluminium Chloride Exposure  

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Full Text Available Aluminium is a ubiquitous element and the third most abundant element in the earth's crust, comprising approximately 8% of the earth’s crust, exceeded only by oxygen (47%) and silicon (28%).The elemental aluminium does not occur in its pure state but is always combined with other elements such as chloride, hydroxide, silicate, sulphate and phosphate. Patients on dialysis or on long-term treatment with total parenteral nutrition have been shown to accumulate this metal in different organs. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) was described as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory as well as tools in behavioural neuroscience. The objective of this study was to determine the behavioural endpoints of wistar rats, following the aluminium chloride exposure. Total of thirty wistar rats were used in this study. The wistar rats were divided into five groups; group I was the control, group II received 475 mg/kg, group III received 950 mg/kg, group IV received 1,425 mg/kg and group V received 1,900 mg/kg via oral intubation for a duration of Eight weeks.MWM was used to test for the behaviour of the wistar rats. We observed that at the first run, the wistar rats were trying to learn task; the second and third runs rather showed that wistar rats in the control group get to the platform faster (performed the task better) than the treated groups and the difference observed was significant at p<0.05.We therefore conclude that Aluminium chloride exposure has negative effects on behavioural endpoints and can impair learning and memory.

A.A. Buraimoh; S.A. Ojo; J.O. Hambolu; S.S. Adebisi

2011-01-01

139

The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

Hasan Kýlýçgün

2013-01-01

140

Veratric acid ameliorates hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An investigation was made to reveal the protective effects of veratric acid (VA), a phenolic acid against atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed with atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, and 0.5% 2-thiouracil) daily for 30 days and treated with VA (40 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 30 days. Rats fed with atherogenic diet showed significant (P < 0.05) elevation in the level of plasma lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid peroxides) and significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione) antioxidants in erythrocytes, plasma, and tissues (liver, kidney, and aorta). Oral administration of VA (40 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days to atherogenic diet fed rats markedly attenuates systolic, diastolic blood pressure and lipid peroxidation products. Further, VA treatment significantly improved enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels and showed beneficial effects on lipid profile in atherogenic diet rats. All the above alterations were supported by histopathological observations. These results indicate that oral administration of VA ameliorates atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats by its free radical scavenging; improving the antioxidants and lipid lowering properties.

Raja B; Saravanakumar M; Sathya G

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

DIMETHOATE INDUCED HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND ITS AMELIORATION WITH VITAMIN E IN WISTAR RATS (Rattus norvegicus)  

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Full Text Available In the present study 40 albino wistar rats were divided uniformly into four equal groups viz. I, II, III & IV. Group I served ascontrol and received groundnut oil. Group II and group III rats were orally administered with vitamin E @ 100 mg/kg b.wt. and dimethoate @ 40 mg/kg b.wt, respectively suspended in groundnut oil. Group IV rats were orally administered with both dimethoate & vitamin E @ 40 & 100 mg/kg b.wt, respectively for 28 days. The clinical signs observed were decreased physical activity, dullness, depression, diarrhea,piloerection, excessive sweating, salivation,mild tremor and conjunctivitis in group III rats. Similar signs with reduced severity and absence of conjunctivitis were seen in group IV rats. There was no mortality observed throughout study in any group. Body weight of rats was significantly (P < 0.05) decrease in group III and IV rats from 21st day onwards till the end of experiment. At theend of the experiment (28th day) there was significant (p < 0.05) improvement in body weight of group IV rats as compared to group III rats. Hematology reveled significant (P <0.05) decrease in Hb, PCV,total erythrocyte count & MCV and significant (P <0.05) increase in total leukocyte count in male and female rats of group III & IV as compared to group I. Significant improvement in hematologicalparameters were reported in group IV rats treated with dimethoate and vitamin E as compared to group III rats treated with dimethoate alone.

Mohammad Noor; D.V.Joshi; B.J.Patel; Kher A.C.; Patel Urvit P.; R. S. Ghasura

2012-01-01

142

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedip...

Brki? Zlata

143

Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats  

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Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg) after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (...

K.A. Sadariya; A.K. Gothi; S.D. Patel; S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker

144

Pineapple Juice Administration and Gastric Ulcer in Wistar Rats  

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Fruits have been part of the human diet and supplements. Present study was conducted to investigate pineapple juice (PJ) effects on Gastric Ulcer (GU), since dietary substances or supplements may predispose someone to GU. Thirty-six male wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g were used. They were divided i...

O.A. Oyesola; T.O. Oyesola; A.I. Izagbo

145

Effect of Splenectomy on PTZ Induced Epilepsy in Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Introduction:. With regard to the interactions between brain and spleen, in this research, the effect of splenectomy on PTZ-induced epilepsy in Wistar rats was studied Methods:. In this study, 48 male and female wistar rats were used in 3 groups. Experimental groups for each of the two sexes included the negative control, positive control and splenectomy. Negative controls did not undergo surgery. The incision was created in the positive control group, but the spleen was not removed. The spleen was removed in splenectomy group. After seven days, PTZ was injected and the ?initiation time of different convulsive stages in terms of seconds and score of seizures in the three groups with the same gender were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results:. Second stage of convulsive seizures in the splenectomy group of male rats in comparison with control groups decreased significantly. Fourth stage of seizure in female splenectomized rats in comparison with negative control group decreased significantly. Also score terms of seizures in both male and female rats were not significantly different in the three groups.. Conclusion: Splenectomy intensifies PTZ-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

Keivan Keramati; Hamid reza Alipour; Gholamhasan Vaezi

2012-01-01

146

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP) were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama; Bagchi Chiranjib; Sharma Abhishek; Majumdar G; Dutta C; Tripathi Santanu

2010-01-01

147

Gallic Acid Protects Against Immobilization Stress-Induced Changes In Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Stress triggers a wide range of body changes. Herbal medicines are rich in non specific antistress agents.Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antistress effect of gallic acid (GA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, on immobilization induced-stress in male albino Wistar rats.Methods: The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting the rats in 20 cm ? 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were post orally treated with GA at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations.Results:Treatment with GA significantly increased the food intake, body weight, organ weight (spleen, testis and brain) and the significant reduction was found in weight of liver, kidney, heart and adrenal glands, which was altered in stressed rats. GA also significantly reduced the elevated levels of plasma glucose, plasma and tissue cholesterol (CHL), triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipid (LDL), Very Low Density Lipid (VLDL) and also significantly increased the level of High Density Lipid (HDL). A significant decrease in hematological parameters like RBC count, total and differential WBC count was also found which were increased in immobilization stress.Conclusion: GA prevented the stress-induced physiological, biochemical and hematological changes, indicating the preventive effect against stress.

Shabir, Ahmad Rather; Sarumathi, A.; Anbu, S.; Saravanan, N.

2013-01-01

148

Studies on antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino rats.  

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Preliminary studies on the antifertility effect of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) on the gonads of male albino (Wistar) rats was investigated. An oral dose of crude ripe pawpaw seeds at 100 mg/kg body weight and 50 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 8 weeks. Histological observations at a high dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed degeneration of the germinal epithelium and germ cells, a reduction in the number of Leydig cells and the presence of vacuoles in the tubules. At a low dose of 50 mg/kg body weight little effect was observed. However, there was disorganization in some of the seminiferous tubules while others appeared normal. Leydig cells also appeared normal compared with the controls. At a high dose the epididymis showed many empty tubules containing degenerated spermatozoa and cell debris in the lumen. The epithelium appeared normal compared with the controls. At a low dose a milder effect was observed. The epithelial tissue appeared normal. A possible mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:10353163

Udoh, P; Kehinde, A

1999-05-01

149

[The effect of parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starch is an important energy source and can represent more than 60% of the calories of the human diet. The starch fraction resistant to enzymatic digestion is called resistant starch. When rice is parboiled, the starch retrogrades with the formation of type 3-resistant starch (retrograded), which presents beneficial effects on the health, since it acts as a prebiotic. In the present study three types of rice were selected, with high, medium and low amylose contents, with the objective of evaluating the effects of conventional and parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats. The samples with high and medium amylose contents were soaked for 6 h at 65 degrees C, and the low amylose sample for 7 h at 70 degrees C. The samples were subsequently autoclaved for 10 minutes at 0.7kgf x cm(-2). Six male Wistar rats were used for each treatment. Seven experimental diets were elaborated, formulated according to AIN-93M, the control diet and diets substituting the carbohydrate source with conventional or parboiled rice. Resistant starch was determined in the diets and glycemia monitored using glucose paper strips, the sample being blood obtained from the distal part of the rat's tail. For the glycemic curve, glycemia was measured in the fasting state and during 90 minutes post-prandial. The results indicated there were no significant differences between the diets formulated with high, medium and low amylose, parboiled or conventionally prepared, with respect to fasting or post-prandial glycemia in Wistar rats.

Helbig E; Días AR; Tavares RA; Schirmer MA; Elias MC

2008-06-01

150

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de Freitas; Kyvia Lugate Costa; Pamela Kelly Araújo Campos; Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de Melo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego de Paula; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta

2011-01-01

151

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissu (more) e and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Freitas, Karine Moura de; Costa, Kyvia Lugate; Campos, Pamela Kelly Araújo; Melo, Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de; Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego de; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da

2011-10-01

152

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concen...

S.K. Prasad; Alka Kulshreshtha; Taj N. Qureshi

153

Effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats.  

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We studied the effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration of a beta-casein fragment heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (1 mg/kg, 1 or 5 injections) activated proliferative processes in the myocardium and ectodermal and endodermal epithelium of newborn rats. PMID:19023971

Maslennikova, N V; Sazonova, E N; Timoshin, S S

2008-02-01

154

Effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats.  

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We studied the effect of beta-casomorphin-7 on DNA synthesis in cell populations of newborn albino rats. Intraperitoneal administration of a beta-casein fragment heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (1 mg/kg, 1 or 5 injections) activated proliferative processes in the myocardium and ectodermal and endodermal epithelium of newborn rats.

Maslennikova NV; Sazonova EN; Timoshin SS

2008-02-01

155

Petroleum Refining Chemicals Enhance Aflatoxin B1-induced Toxicities in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular cancer is one of the highest among the population in the tropics. This has been associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) a potent liver carcinogen elaborated as metabolite of Aspergillus fungi and some other fungi. Petrochemical refineries workers are in addition exposed to chemicals used in the refining of crude petroleum oil. Four petroleum-refining chemicals: N-methylpyrrolidone, Phenylenediamine, methylethylketone and Dialkylketonoxine, all obtained from a refinery situated in Nigeria were investigated in this study. Male Wistar albino rats, exposed subcutaneously to different amount of these chemicals and also orally given different concentrations of AFB1 in corn oil for 12 weeks, were observed to have higher levels of ?-glutamyl transferase enzyme activity in their livers and sera than the rats treated with either the chemicals or AFB1 only. They also have higher alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in their sera. The activities of these enzymes were also higher than those observed in control rats treated with the carrier vehicle of corn oil only. Micronuclei and histopathology analysis results correlate with the results obtained in the enzyme assays. We therefore concluded that the petrochemicals are significant factor in hepatocellular cancer development in the refinery workers.

Oyeronke A. Odunola; Michael A. Gbadegesin; Solomon E. Owumi; Anthony O. Uwaifo

2007-01-01

156

Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE) against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg) daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000): 493-496

Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Priscilla Kerketta; Reetu Toppo; Naveen Kumar; Birendra kumar Roy

2013-01-01

157

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar)  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain) was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c) injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg) was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001) weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight) for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP) of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001) increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg) possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

SAGAR DAWADA; VARSHA ZADE; DINESH DABHADKAR; SHITAL PARE

2012-01-01

158

Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01). Treated animals showed a notable depression of spermatogenesis. As a result of 100 mg/kg extract feeding, the preleptotene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, step-19 spermatids and the mature Leydig cells decreased by 74.36%, 80.03%, 79.87%, 32.37%, respectively. At this dose Leydig cell nuclear area and cytoplasmic area, as well as the cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells, were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. The reduced sperm count and motility resulted in 100% negative fertility at 100 mg/kg dose level. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content in the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed. The level of serum protein, cholesterol, billirubin, SGOT, SGPT, blood urea, and hematological indices were unaltered. In conclusion, Dendrophthoe falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis.

Gupta RS; Kachhawa JB; Sharma A

2007-01-01

159

Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01). Treated animals showed a notable depression of spermatogenesis. As a result of 100 mg/kg extract feeding, the preleptotene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, step-19 spermatids and the mature Leydig cells decreased by 74.36%, 80.03%, 79.87%, 32.37%, respectively. At this dose Leydig cell nuclear area and cytoplasmic area, as well as the cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells, were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. The reduced sperm count and motility resulted in 100% negative fertility at 100 mg/kg dose level. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content in the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed. The level of serum protein, cholesterol, billirubin, SGOT, SGPT, blood urea, and hematological indices were unaltered. In conclusion, Dendrophthoe falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis. PMID:18285304

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Sharma, A

2007-01-01

160

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP) in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid) urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus) and kidney (calcium and phosphorus) were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

Prathibhakumari P.V.; G. Prasad

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Training alters cardiac neuron sizes in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The action of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart is made through a group of neurons located on the surface of the atria. This study evaluated the effect of a chronic training protocol on the number and sizes of the cardiac neurons of Wistar rats. Whole mount preparations of the atria of 12-month old male sedentary and trained rats (40 weeks of running on a treadmill 3 times a week, 16 m/min) were assessed for number and size (maximal cellular profile area) of the cardiac neurons. The cardiac neurons were ascertained by using the NADH-diaphorase technique that stains the cell bodies of the neurons in dark blue. The number of cardiac neurons in the trained rats (P>0.05) did not change significantly. In the sedentary group there were small, medium sized and large neurons. However there was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats submitted to the training compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05). Previous studies have shown that electrophysiologically, the small neurons are more easily excitable than the large neurons. It is possible that the results of the present work reflect an adaptation mechanism of the cardiac neurons presumably with the objective of increasing the excitability of the neurons for the vagal action and resulting facilitation of the sinusal bradycardia observed at rest and in the exercise. We concluded that the training affects significantly the size of the cardiac neurons in Wistar rats.

RR de Souza; EF Gama; JM Santarém; W Jacob-Filho

2009-01-01

162

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus)  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT), tail length (TL), body length from nose to anus (BLNA), body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT), tail circumference (TC), tail diameter (TD), and ear length (EL) were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2) values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh; Abubakar Yahaya; Ibrahim Ado Saidu; Patrick Oluwagbemiga Ayeku; Alfred Aondover Agba

2013-01-01

163

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05) increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight). This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

164

Hepatoprotection: A Hallmark of Citrullus colocynthis L. against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups w...

Arshed Iqbal Dar; Ramesh Chandra Saxena; Suresh Kumar Bansal

165

Bioassay for carcinogenicity of rotenone in female Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotenone, a pesticide extracted from the Derris root, consistently was reported by a series of investigators to have induced mammary fibroadenomas in female Wistar rats when administered ip or by gavage in a sunflower (SF) oil or SF oil:chloroform vehicle. In contrast, no less than eight bioassays done in other laboratories with rotenone or rotenone-containing powders have given consistently negative carcinogenic results when different strains or species and different modes or vehicles of administration have been used. However, these studies were not designed to address the biological reproducibility of the positive data. Thus, the present study was designed to simulate conditions of the positive studies and to investigate a possible cocarcinogenic interaction between rotenone and chloroform. Each of eight treatment groups was assigned 72 weanling female Wistar rats. Groups were (1) untreated, (2) needle puncture, (3) SF oil:10% chloroform (SF oil:chloroform), (4) 1.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil:chloroform, (5) 2.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil:chloroform, (6) SF oil, (7) 1.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil, and (8) 2.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil. Rats were injected ip 5 days a week for 8 weeks (42 injection days) and subsequently held for 16 months. The appearance of palpable tissue masses was recorded; over 50 tissues from each rat were histologically evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in overall or individual tumor incidences among control and rotenone-treated groups. Specifically, neither incidence nor time-to-palpation of mammary fibroadenoma significantly differed among control and rotenone-treated groups, regardless of the vehicle of administration. Thus, rotenone was not carcinogenic, and rotenone and chloroform did not interact to produce a carcinogenic effect in female Wistar rats in the current study. Thus, previous reports of carcinogenic activity were not reproducible under similar experimental conditions. PMID:8504913

Greenman, D L; Allaben, W T; Burger, G T; Kodell, R L

1993-04-01

166

Bioassay for carcinogenicity of rotenone in female Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rotenone, a pesticide extracted from the Derris root, consistently was reported by a series of investigators to have induced mammary fibroadenomas in female Wistar rats when administered ip or by gavage in a sunflower (SF) oil or SF oil:chloroform vehicle. In contrast, no less than eight bioassays done in other laboratories with rotenone or rotenone-containing powders have given consistently negative carcinogenic results when different strains or species and different modes or vehicles of administration have been used. However, these studies were not designed to address the biological reproducibility of the positive data. Thus, the present study was designed to simulate conditions of the positive studies and to investigate a possible cocarcinogenic interaction between rotenone and chloroform. Each of eight treatment groups was assigned 72 weanling female Wistar rats. Groups were (1) untreated, (2) needle puncture, (3) SF oil:10% chloroform (SF oil:chloroform), (4) 1.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil:chloroform, (5) 2.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil:chloroform, (6) SF oil, (7) 1.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil, and (8) 2.0 mg/kg rotenone in SF oil. Rats were injected ip 5 days a week for 8 weeks (42 injection days) and subsequently held for 16 months. The appearance of palpable tissue masses was recorded; over 50 tissues from each rat were histologically evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in overall or individual tumor incidences among control and rotenone-treated groups. Specifically, neither incidence nor time-to-palpation of mammary fibroadenoma significantly differed among control and rotenone-treated groups, regardless of the vehicle of administration. Thus, rotenone was not carcinogenic, and rotenone and chloroform did not interact to produce a carcinogenic effect in female Wistar rats in the current study. Thus, previous reports of carcinogenic activity were not reproducible under similar experimental conditions.

Greenman DL; Allaben WT; Burger GT; Kodell RL

1993-04-01

167

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats/ Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%); Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/k (more) g, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT), e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas) notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%); B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submi (more) tted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia), and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks), it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.

Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de; Facco, Gilberto Gonçalves

2007-01-01

168

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%); B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia), and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks), it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%); Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT), e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas) notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão.

Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva; Iandara Schettert Silva; Daniel Martins Pereira; Ricardo Dutra Aydos; Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho; Gilberto Gonçalves Facco

2007-01-01

169

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arteria (more) l pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Imaizumi, Caio; Petenusso, Márcio; Ferreira, Celso

2010-01-01

170

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-01-01

171

Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50) , daily for 10 days (short ­term) and 20 days (long ­term) to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucose& T3 (short and long ­term); AST,ALT, and T4 (long-term). 2- Diazinon reduced the serum content of total cholesterol and protein in short­term treated rats. 3- Treatment of rats with diazinon did not alter activity of AST, ALT and T4 level at short ­term period .In addition ; ALP serum levels were not altered in both short and long ­term treated rats

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-01-01

172

Effects of Ballota nigra on glucose and insulin in alloxan-diabetic albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was investigated. Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was accompanied by several fold increases in plasma glucose. Administration of aqueous extract of B. nigra extract significantly reduced glucose in both healthy and diabetic rats. These results suggest that B. nigra possess hypoglycemic effects in rats and therefore, can be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:17627273

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

173

Effects of Ballota nigra on glucose and insulin in alloxan-diabetic albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was investigated. Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was accompanied by several fold increases in plasma glucose. Administration of aqueous extract of B. nigra extract significantly reduced glucose in both healthy and diabetic rats. These results suggest that B. nigra possess hypoglycemic effects in rats and therefore, can be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Nusier MK; Bataineh HN; Bataineh ZM; Daradka HM

2007-08-01

174

Analgesic activity of morphiceptin, beta-casomorphin-4, and deltakephalin in normotensive Wistar-Glaxo and spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of intraventricular injection of beta-casomorphin-4, morphiceptin and deltakephalin (DTLET) on hot water tail flick and tail compression responses were investigated in Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The effects of the mu agonist morphiceptin (20 nmol/rat), as assessed by the tail compression test, were significantly greater in SHR rats but did not differ between both strains when measured by tail flick latency. Opioid agonist deltakephalin (2 nmol/rat) in both tests elicited stronger analgesic effects in SHR as compared to WAG and these effects were blocked by naloxone in both tests used. beta-Casomorphin-4 exhibits moderate activity for mu receptors. In the tail flick test peptide (60 nmol/rat) produced an increase in latencies in SHR rats that was significantly greater than was observed in WAG rats. Naloxone pretreatment abolished the analgesic activity of beta-casomorphin-4 solely in the tail compression test in SHR. Analysis of the slopes of the dose-response curves seems to suggest that differences between the activity of these opioid peptides in SHR and WAG rats are based on a difference in the density and affinity of the subpopulation of the opioid receptors in these strains of rats.

Widy-Tyszkiewicz E; Cz?onkowski A

1989-05-01

175

Preliminary assessment of potential toxicity of methylated soybean protein and methylated ?-lactoglobulin in male Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylated soybean protein (MSP) and methylated ?-lactoglobulin (MLG), previously confirmed for their antibacterial and antiviral activities, were tested for their potential toxicity in Wistar male Albino rats as one single dose (2500, 5000 and 10,000mg/kgbody wt) or as repeated daily dose (500 and 2500mg/kgbody wt/day) over 28days to assess potential toxicity. Single acute administration of very high doses (2500, 5000 and 10,000mg/kgbody wt) of MSP and MLG did not produce any mortality. Changes in body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, histo-pathological images of selected organs, serum albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio, cholesterol, triglycerides and electrolytes were all within normal amounts in the rats fed with these two methylated proteins and not significantly different from controls. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and urea were slightly reduced by the administration of these two modified proteins indicating the absence of any adverse effect on hepatic or renal functions. PMID:23835286

Sitohy, Mahmoud; Osman, Ali; Gharib, Ahmed; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

2013-07-05

176

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P) glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra), bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®), was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05) increase in HDL- cholesterol (47%) and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%), triglycerides(48%), total cholesterol (39%) and LDL- cholesterol (55%). P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-01-01

177

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

2009-01-01

178

Evaluation of the possible protective role of quercetin on letrozole-induced testicular injury in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to appraise the possible adverse effects of quercetin against the aromatase inhibitor letrozole-induced developmental toxicity potential in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Control male albino rats were received vehicles used for flavonoids and vehicle used for letrozole. The rats in the first experimental group received letrozole at 0.04?mg/kg body weight (bwt) for 3 months. The second experimental group was treated with the flavonoid quercetin by gavage at a dose of 50?mg/kg bwt for 10 consecutive days after letrozole administration. RESULTS: Major treatment-related effects of letrozole included a dose-dependent increase in hormone levels and lipid peroxidation following exposure to 0. 04?mg/kg letrozole; and severe abnormalities with severe cellular deformation and disorganization in both spermatogenic and interstitial cells. The seminiferous tubules of the testes of the animals given quercetin and letrozole exhibited a rather normal appearance and the measured hormone levels were restored to nearly the normal levels. CONCLUSION: Exposure doses of letrozole that are equal to the daily recommended human dose has toxic effects on the spermatogenic lineage in rats, while simultaneous treatment of quercetin and letrozole could prevent the deleterious effects on testicular tissue caused by letrozole administration.

Selim ME; Aleisa NA; Daghestani MH

2013-05-01

179

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

180

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

2013-06-15

 
 
 
 
181

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p

2013-01-01

182

Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg) after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC), blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose) and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00). All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05) from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000): 449-452

K.A. Sadariya; A.K. Gothi; S.D. Patel; S.K. Bhavsar and A.M. Thaker

2010-01-01

183

Normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage in wistar rat  

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Full Text Available The biochemical indicators of wistar rat under low oxygen concentration, such as brain water content, necrosis, lactic acid and Na+-K+-ATPase, was detected to evaluate normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage and to investigate the mechanism of wistar rat brain injury. Histopathological changes in brain tissue induced by hypoxia were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1?) expression in brain was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the level of lactic acid was positively correlated with the degree of hypoxia, while concentration-dependent decrease in total Na+-K+-ATPase activity was observed. Compared with the control group, hypoxia group had a significant difference on brain water content under severe hypoxic conditions, the rate of brain necrosis increased obviously, followed by the increase of lactic acid level and the decrease of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Histopathological analysis of brain confirmed that there was neuronal cell death in hippocampal gyrus. HIF-1? expression enhanced the hypoxia adaptation capability of the rat model through regulating the expressions of multiple genes. Lactic acid, Na+-K+-ATPase and HIF- 1? played an important role in brain injury as a possible mechanism.

Ding-Yu Hu; Qin Li; Bo Li; Rong-Ji Dai; Li-Na Geng; Yu-Lin Deng

2009-01-01

184

Protective effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel sulfate stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and increases serum nitric oxide concentration by overproduction of reactive nitrogen species due to nitrosative stress. The present study was undertaken to assess possible protective role of L-ascorbic acid as an antioxidant against nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats. We studied the effect of the simultaneous treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g b. wt.; orally) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g b. wt.; i.p.) on nitric oxide synthesis by quantitative evaluation of serum i-NOS activities, serum and lung nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and protein concentrations of Wistar strain male albino rats. We have further studied histopathological changes in lung tissue after nickel sulfate treatment along with simultaneous exposure of L-ascorbic acid. Nickel sulfate treatment significantly increased the serum i-NOS activity, serum and pulmonary nitric oxide concentration and decreased body weight, pulmonary somatic index, serum and lung L-ascorbic acid and protein concentration as compared to their respective controls. Histopathological changes induced by nickel sulfate showed loss of normal alveolar architecture, inflammation of bronchioles, infiltration of inflammatory cells and patchy congestion of alveolar blood vessels. The simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid and nickel sulfate significantly improved all the above biochemical parameters along with histopathology of lung tissues of rats receiving nickel sulfate alone. The study clearly showed a protective role of L-ascorbic acid against nickel induced nitrosative stress in lung tissues. PMID:23463385

Hattiwale, Shaheenkousar H; Saha, Sikha; Yendigeri, Saeed M; Jargar, Jameel G; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

2013-03-06

185

Hepatoprotective Effect of Enicostemma littorale blume and Eclipta alba During Ethanol Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens) and Eclipta alba (Ecl) have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1) at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD). The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.

P. Baranisrinivasan; E.K. Elumalai; C. Sivakumar; S. Viviyan Therasa; E. David

2009-01-01

186

Protective effect of L-ascorbic acid on nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nickel sulfate stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and increases serum nitric oxide concentration by overproduction of reactive nitrogen species due to nitrosative stress. The present study was undertaken to assess possible protective role of L-ascorbic acid as an antioxidant against nickel induced pulmonary nitrosative stress in male albino rats. We studied the effect of the simultaneous treatment with L-ascorbic acid (50 mg/100 g b. wt.; orally) and nickel sulfate (2.0 mg/100 g b. wt.; i.p.) on nitric oxide synthesis by quantitative evaluation of serum i-NOS activities, serum and lung nitric oxide, L-ascorbic acid and protein concentrations of Wistar strain male albino rats. We have further studied histopathological changes in lung tissue after nickel sulfate treatment along with simultaneous exposure of L-ascorbic acid. Nickel sulfate treatment significantly increased the serum i-NOS activity, serum and pulmonary nitric oxide concentration and decreased body weight, pulmonary somatic index, serum and lung L-ascorbic acid and protein concentration as compared to their respective controls. Histopathological changes induced by nickel sulfate showed loss of normal alveolar architecture, inflammation of bronchioles, infiltration of inflammatory cells and patchy congestion of alveolar blood vessels. The simultaneous administration of L-ascorbic acid and nickel sulfate significantly improved all the above biochemical parameters along with histopathology of lung tissues of rats receiving nickel sulfate alone. The study clearly showed a protective role of L-ascorbic acid against nickel induced nitrosative stress in lung tissues.

Hattiwale SH; Saha S; Yendigeri SM; Jargar JG; Dhundasi SA; Das KK

2013-04-01

187

Bacterial promotion of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinically, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis (BRON) only occurs in the jaw (BRONJ). We aimed to determine differences between the jaw and other bones, as well as the relationship between periodontal pathogens and BRON. Twelve male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: group Z (n=6) were subcutaneously injected with zoledronic acid weekly for 4 weeks; group C (n=6) were injected with saline. One week after the final injection, rats in both groups were divided into three subgroups: Aa subgroup was injected with freeze-dried Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans into bone marrow of the mandibles and femurs, while CFA and saline subgroups were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or saline using the same protocol. Four weeks after those injections, the rats were euthanized. Areas of osteonecrosis were measured histologically. Statistically, rats in group Z showed significantly wider osteonecrosis areas in both mandibles and femurs with each type of local injection than rats in group C. In group Z, mandibles and femurs stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans or CFA had significantly wider osteonecrosis areas than those stimulated with saline. We have developed a rat model with BRONJ-like lesions. Our results showed BRON to develop not only in the jaw but also in other types of bone following an inflammatory stimulus.

Tsurushima H; Kokuryo S; Sakaguchi O; Tanaka J; Tominaga K

2013-08-01

188

SCREENING OF ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF HINGU (FERULA NARTHEX BIOSS) ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Alcohol and Aqueous extracts of Hingu (Resinous exudates of Ferula narthex Bioss) were as tested to screen anti-epileptic effect on albino rats by using MES Method. Results were analyzed using unpaired “t”test, and found that aqueous extract has shown significant (at the level P<0.001) result in controlling Maximal electro-shock induced convulsions.

Gundakalle Mahadev B.; Kulkarni Y.R; Torgal S.S

2012-01-01

189

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS/ EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el (more) vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 ra (more) ts each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Pascale Quintino, Marisa; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Uchiyama Nakamura, Mary; Martins Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo; Espiridião, Silvia; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

2003-01-01

190

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals) or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals) for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005) when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg). These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

R.R. De Souza; E.F. Gama; R.D.A. Silva; J.C. Heimann; L.B.M. Maifrino; E.A. Liberti

2000-01-01

191

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals) or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals) for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks o (more) n HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005) when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg). These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

De Souza, R.R.; Gama, E.F.; Silva, R.D.A.; Heimann, J.C.; Maifrino, L.B.M.; Liberti, E.A.

2000-07-01

192

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan; Raju Suresh Kumar; Bhagath Kumar Potu; Satheesha Nayak; Maneesh Mailankot

2009-01-01

193

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were teste (more) d for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Nayak, Satheesha; Mailankot, Maneesh

2009-03-01

194

Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

Lopes Luiza da Silva; Machado Hélio Rubens; Lachat João-José

2003-01-01

195

4. Effect of piper nigrum on stomach of wistar rat  

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Full Text Available Adult male and female wistar rats (n=30) weighing between 150 g and 250 g were randomly assigned into experimental (n=24) and control (n=6) groups. The rats in the Experimental groups received a mixed diet of feed consistency of crushed piper nigrum fruits ( CPNF) to rat mash in a ratio of 50:50 (Group A-higher doses) and 25:75 (Group B- minimum doses) and water ad libitum for 3, 5 and 7 days. The rats in the control group received equal amount of rat mash without crushed piper nigrum fruits, for the same number of days. The rats were sacrificed on the 4th, 6th and 8th day. The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for histological and histochemical procedure. The body weights of the rats were recorded before and during treatment. The Histological finding after 3 and five 5 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits (CPNF) showed no significant changes in the histology of the stomach. There were vacuolations in the mucosa of the stomach after 7 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits. The histological changes in the stomach were marked both in the experimental groups that received the higher doses (of feed consistency in the ratio of 50:50 of crushed piper nigrum fruits to rat mash) for seven days. The decrease in the body weight in the experimental groups was not significant (P>0.05). The Results shows that consumption of crushed piper nigrum fruits for three (3) is five (5) days may not be harmful, but consumption continuously for seven (7) days even when used with minimum doses may be detrimental to health.

Enobong Bassey; Clement Jackson; Aquaisua Aquaisua; Emmanuel Bassey; Godwin Ekpe

2011-01-01

196

[Uptake of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and erythrocyte stroma of albino rats on a vitamin A-free diet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have determined the incorporation of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and blood cell stroma in albino male Wistar strain rats, fed with a vitamin A deficient diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the vitamin A deficient period, rats were kept fasting for 24 hours and then administered orally retinol-C14 (1,25 microC). They were divided into groups and killed after 3 hours, 3, 6, 12 days from the administration of retinol-C14. The incorporation is very high in one-month deficient rats, it decreases as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer.

Dazzi E; Carbini L; Padalino A; Scarpa AL; Lantini T

1978-01-01

197

Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da carência nutricional de zinco na gestação e prole de ratas Wistar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Submetemos ratas Wistar adultas (90 dias) com peso entre 180 e 220 gramas a diferentes tipos de carência nutricional de zinco (Zn; grave: 2,6 ppm; moderada: 9,0 ppm e sem carência 81,6 ppm) durante 6 semanas. Após esse período foram acasaladas com machos normais e não observamos diferenças quanto fertilidade e esterilidade entre os animais caren (more) tes. Durante a gestação, parte dos animais continuaram recebendo o mesmo tipo de ração e parte recebeu ração sem carência. Com relação ao grupo sem carência três outros grupos foram formados: um que passou a receber dieta com carência grave, outro moderada e o terceiro continuou sem carência. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observamos entre os animais submetidos à carência aguda ou crônica tendência a menor ganho ponderal durante a gestação, menor peso da ninhada, níveis séricos de Zn materno e de "pool" de RN mais baixos. Observamos de modo significante, menor número de RN vivos entre os animais submetidos à carência grave reforçando o papel do Zn durante a gestação. Abstract in english Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal (more) diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic) had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool) blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

Solé, Dirceu; Rieckmann, Brigitte; Lippelt, Raquel Mattos Costa; Lippelt, Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci; Amâncio, Olga Maria Silverio; Queiroz, Suzana de Souza; Naspitz, Charles Kirov

1995-02-01

198

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L) ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C– aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05) to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg), while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg) has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns), antiulcer.

Mohua* Sengupta*; Mohua Sengupta

2013-01-01

199

EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANTS (VITAMIN C) ON TISSUE CERULOPLASMIN FOLLOWING RENAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION IN WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of vitamin C on tissue ceruloplasmin level following renal reperfusion Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into Group I, II & III The Gr. II the experimental groups) were subjected to ischemia for 60 minutes followed by 24 hrs of reperfusion. The Gr.III were pre- treated with vitamin C ( 20mg/kg.bw ) for 30 days followed by 60 minute ischemia & 24hrs of reperfusion. After the experimental procedure was over; the kidneys were removed and homogenized. The homogenized tissue was used for biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation & ceruloplasmin Result: A significant in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (MDA) and increase in tissue ceruloplasmin level was observed in Group II compared to those in Group I (normal control). However, the pre- treated group (GroupIII) showed an increase in the levels of ceruloplasmin and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in comparison to group II.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that administration of vitamin C prior to renal ischemia reperfusion protect the renal tissue from the free radical induced reperfusion injury.

Vinodini N A; Yogesh Tripathi; Raghuveer CV; Anu Ranade; Asha Kamath; Sheila Pai

2012-01-01

200

Histological findings in the Wistar rat cornea following UVB irradiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute clinical effect of UVR on the eye is photokeratitis, which is an inflammatory state that might be regarded as the sunburn of the eye. In this study, we used a rat model to assess the histological injuries induced in the intact rat cornea following its exposure to UVB radiation. A total of 15 two-months-old female Wistar rats were purchased from the Animal Facility of "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The rats were fed ad libitum and kept under standard conditions with a 12 hours light/dark cycle. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control group (no UVB exposure), group II (a single exposure to a dose of 45 mJ UVB/cm(2) for 47 seconds), group III (a single exposure to 90 mJ UVB/cm(2) for one minute and 57 seconds), group IV (a single exposure to 180 mJ UVB/cm(2) for three minutes and 57 seconds), and group V (a single exposure to 360 mJ UVB/cm(2)² for five minutes and 26 seconds). After 24 hours of recovery, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The rat eyes were extracted, harvested and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The eye samples were then processed through paraffin technique for further histological examination. We found that, following the UVB exposure, the cornea showed significant inflammatory responses (infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes), hemorrhage and gross damages such as superficial and deep ulcerous keratitis and epithelial exfoliation. The severity of these findings was associated with the increase of UVB radiation intensity and exposure period. PMID:23771066

Mure?an, Simina; Filip, Adriana; Mure?an, Adriana; ?imon, Viorica; Moldovan, R; Gal, A F; Micl?u?, V

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Histological findings in the Wistar rat cornea following UVB irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acute clinical effect of UVR on the eye is photokeratitis, which is an inflammatory state that might be regarded as the sunburn of the eye. In this study, we used a rat model to assess the histological injuries induced in the intact rat cornea following its exposure to UVB radiation. A total of 15 two-months-old female Wistar rats were purchased from the Animal Facility of "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The rats were fed ad libitum and kept under standard conditions with a 12 hours light/dark cycle. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control group (no UVB exposure), group II (a single exposure to a dose of 45 mJ UVB/cm(2) for 47 seconds), group III (a single exposure to 90 mJ UVB/cm(2) for one minute and 57 seconds), group IV (a single exposure to 180 mJ UVB/cm(2) for three minutes and 57 seconds), and group V (a single exposure to 360 mJ UVB/cm(2)² for five minutes and 26 seconds). After 24 hours of recovery, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The rat eyes were extracted, harvested and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The eye samples were then processed through paraffin technique for further histological examination. We found that, following the UVB exposure, the cornea showed significant inflammatory responses (infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes), hemorrhage and gross damages such as superficial and deep ulcerous keratitis and epithelial exfoliation. The severity of these findings was associated with the increase of UVB radiation intensity and exposure period.

Mure?an S; Filip A; Mure?an A; ?imon V; Moldovan R; Gal AF; Micl?u? V

2013-01-01

202

The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Hematological Indices in Wistar Rats  

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This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking ...

Mohammad Jafar Golalipour; Anneh Mohammad Gharravi; Abbas Ali Keshtkar; Abdoljalal Marjani

203

Co-trimoxazole in chronic renal failure--a controlled experiment in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Co-trimoxazole failed to cause a deterioration in renal function, as measured by pre- and posttreatment plasma urea levels, in groups of Wistar rats with either normal renal function or surgically induced chronic renal failure. In addition tubular necrosis was not produced. Co-trimoxazole does not appear to be extremely toxic to the Wistar rat kidney. PMID:862374

Robinson, M F; Campbell, G R; Craswell, P W

1977-01-01

204

Co-trimoxazole in chronic renal failure--a controlled experiment in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Co-trimoxazole failed to cause a deterioration in renal function, as measured by pre- and posttreatment plasma urea levels, in groups of Wistar rats with either normal renal function or surgically induced chronic renal failure. In addition tubular necrosis was not produced. Co-trimoxazole does not appear to be extremely toxic to the Wistar rat kidney.

Robinson MF; Campbell GR; Craswell PW

1977-01-01

205

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects.

Sakr SA; El-Shenawy SM; Al-Shabka AM

2012-01-01

206

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

2011-11-03

207

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (pin vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.

J. Okpuzor; H. Ogbunugafor; G.K. Kareem

2009-01-01

208

Enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanism by pitavastatin and rosuvastatin on obesity-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: There has been a steady increase in the epidemiology of obesity over the last 30 years with developed countries leading the way. Oxidative stress was believed to be the principle contributor to the development of cardiovascular disorders that linked with obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanism by Pitavastatin (PTV) and Rosuvastatin (RSV) on obesity-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. METHODS: Fifty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups. High fat diet (HFD, 20 g/day/rat) pellets were given for 28 days to produce obesity-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Oral administration of HFD along with PTV, RSV and Orlistat [(HFD for 28 days + from 8th day PTV (1 mg/kg), RSV (5 mg/kg) and Orlistat (10 mg/kg) to 28th day] were given respectively. RESULTS: Both PTV and RSV produced significant (p?

Ansari JA; Bhandari U; Haque SE; Pillai KK

2012-01-01

209

Preretinal neovascularization induced by experimental retinal vein occlusion in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retinal ischemia and neovascularization have been demonstrated in several animal models. To determine 1) whether the retinal or preretinal neovascularization can be induced in albino rats by retinal vein occlusion and 2) the type and rate of occurrence on neovascularization, we occluded retinal veins in albino rats by photodynamic thrombosis. After anesthesia, each of 36 rats received an injection of rose bengal photosensitive dye, and their veins underwent argon green laser treatment. Half or all the major retinal veins were occluded in 12 eyes and in 24 eyes, respectively. Ten control rats underwent the same procedures but the laser beam was directed between major retinal vessels. In 46 control eyes, rose bengal dye was seen to have perfused without laser treatment. Retinal detachment developed in most vein occluded eyes within one day of venous occlusion, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. On follow-up at two weeks, only four of 24 eyes (16.7%) had undergone occlusion of all retinal veins showed new preretinal vessels on the optic disc. In these four eyes, severe disturbance of both retinal arterial and venous blood flow was observed, but no other eyes showed such severe combined disturbance. These data suggest that preretinal neovascularization in albino rats can be induced by this minimally traumatic method and that venous occlusion is severe enough to compromise arterial blood flow for a certain threshold period, thus inducing the development of preretinal neovascularization.

Ham DI; Chang K; Chung H

1997-06-01

210

Preretinal neovascularization induced by experimental retinal vein occlusion in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal ischemia and neovascularization have been demonstrated in several animal models. To determine 1) whether the retinal or preretinal neovascularization can be induced in albino rats by retinal vein occlusion and 2) the type and rate of occurrence on neovascularization, we occluded retinal veins in albino rats by photodynamic thrombosis. After anesthesia, each of 36 rats received an injection of rose bengal photosensitive dye, and their veins underwent argon green laser treatment. Half or all the major retinal veins were occluded in 12 eyes and in 24 eyes, respectively. Ten control rats underwent the same procedures but the laser beam was directed between major retinal vessels. In 46 control eyes, rose bengal dye was seen to have perfused without laser treatment. Retinal detachment developed in most vein occluded eyes within one day of venous occlusion, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. On follow-up at two weeks, only four of 24 eyes (16.7%) had undergone occlusion of all retinal veins showed new preretinal vessels on the optic disc. In these four eyes, severe disturbance of both retinal arterial and venous blood flow was observed, but no other eyes showed such severe combined disturbance. These data suggest that preretinal neovascularization in albino rats can be induced by this minimally traumatic method and that venous occlusion is severe enough to compromise arterial blood flow for a certain threshold period, thus inducing the development of preretinal neovascularization. PMID:9283155

Ham, D I; Chang, K; Chung, H

1997-06-01

211

Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at higher dose against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxic models and were comparable to that of Liv-52.The resultant hepatoprotective activity of Livactine could be due to its free radical scavenging property of the ingredients.

Candasamy Mayuren; Vudumula Varun Reddy; Srikakulam Vishnu Priya; Vallampatla Anusha Devi

2010-01-01

212

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Agrawal Shyam S; Kumar Ashok; Gullaiya Sumeet; Dubey Vishal; Nagar Ashish; Tiwari Poonam; Dhar Parul; Singh Varun

2012-01-01

213

Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l.) in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Shyam S Agrawal; Ashok Kumar; Sumeet Gullaiya; Vishal Dubey; Ashish Nagar; Poonam Tiwari; Parul Dhar; Varun Singh

2012-01-01

214

Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l.) in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weightand serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability andsperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependentcomplete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for furtherstudies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Shyam S Agrawal; Ashok Kumar; Sumeet Gullaiya; Vishal Dubey; Ashish Nagar; Poonam Tiwari; Parul Dhar; Varun Singh

2012-01-01

215

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study....

T O Kusemiju; O E Yama; A O Okanlawon

216

Liver Regenerative Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Linn. Against Alcohol Induced Liver Cell Injury in Partially Hepatectomised Albino Rats  

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The present study investigates the liver regenerative effect of Phyllathus amarus Linn against alcohol induced liver cell injury in partial hepatectomised albino rats. The oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus extracts increases the activities of thymidine kinase in regenerating ra...

P. Chattopadhyay; S.S. Agrawal; A. Garg

217

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.

Brki? Zlata

2004-01-01

218

Data on Wistar Hannover rats from an immunotoxicity study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to collect data on immunological parameters from Wistar Hannover rats at 8, 10, 19, and 32 weeks of age. Low leukocyte parameter cell counts, serum globulin concentration, and T, B, and NK lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood at each time point; low T, B, and NK splenocyte counts; and high, or tendencies toward high, thymocyte counts at 10 weeks of age were noted in females when compared with males. KLH-specific antibody production increased gradually with age in both sexes. The immunological data noted for leukocyte parameters, the serum globulin concentration, and immunophenotyping (peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus) relating to chronological changes and sex differences may be useful in assessing drug-related immunotoxicity in this strain.

Yamatoya H; Kawaguchi H; Fukuda T; Kadokura H; Yamashita R; Yoshikawa T; Shiraishi M; Miyamoto A; Miyoshi N

2012-01-01

219

Infestation of Wistar rats with Tunga penetrans in different microenvironments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a zoonotic ectoparasitosis that causes considerable morbidity in affected populations. The type of microenvironment that facilitates infestation of hosts by Tunga penetrans has not been investigated. In this study, we exposed 30 laboratory-raised Wistar rats, a suitable model for the infestation, at six different places characterized by different microenvironments in a hyperendemic fishing village in northeastern Brazil. During a period of two weeks, the animals were monitored and the number of embedded fleas was documented. The number of lesions varied considerably according to the microenvironment and was highest in a cage placed at the far end of a compound of a household affected by tungiasis. No penetration was observed inside houses. Results indicate that in this endemic area transmission of T. penetrans seems to occur mainly outdoors. PMID:17426167

Witt, Lars; Heukelbach, Jörg; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Harms, Gundel; Feldmeier, Hermann

2007-04-01

220

Malignant intracranial teratoma in a juvenile Wistar rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intracranial malignant teratoma was identified in a 91-day-old male Wistar rat manifesting central nervous system-related clinical signs. This tumor occupied the right midbrain and portions of the right caudal cerebrum and cranioventral cerebellum. Microscopically, the tumor contained intermingled cartilage, bone (with medullary hematopoietic tissue), fibrous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, fat, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, serous and mucoserous glands, and neural tissue with ependymal and choroid plexus epithelia. Poorly differentiated cells with primitive cartilaginous matrix were present throughout the lining of lateral ventricles, in the aqueduct of Sylvius, and in meninges overlying normal cerebellar tissue indicating tumor metastasis occurred via cerebrospinal fluid. This neoplasm was not identified in extracranial sites and hence was considered a primary intracranial malignant teratoma with metastases via cerebrospinal fluid.

Reindel J; Bobrowski W; Gough A; Anderson J

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effect of bisphenol-A on insulin signal transduction and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of adult male albino rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The estrogenic monomer bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of epoxy resins, plastic food and beverage containers, leading to ubiquitous human exposure. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA have profound effects on mice endocrine pancreas. It increases pancreatic insulin content and favors postprandial hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male mice. Skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin-signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of male rat. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I: control (vehicle treated) and groups II and III were administered with BPA orally (20 and 200 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although there was no change in the levels of insulin receptor (IR), Akt (protein kinase B) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) messenger RNA, BPA significantly decreased the IR, Akt and GLUT4 protein levels (both plasma membrane and cytosolic fraction) of the gastrocnemius muscle. There was an increase in serum insulin and decrease in serum testosterone levels but fasting blood glucose level remained unaltered. In conclusion, BPA has adverse effects on phosphorylation of Akt, GLUT4 translocation and (14)C-glucose oxidation.

Indumathi D; Jayashree S; Selvaraj J; Sathish S; Mayilvanan C; Akilavalli N; Balasubramanian K

2013-09-01

222

Effect of bisphenol-A on insulin signal transduction and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of adult male albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The estrogenic monomer bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of epoxy resins, plastic food and beverage containers, leading to ubiquitous human exposure. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA have profound effects on mice endocrine pancreas. It increases pancreatic insulin content and favors postprandial hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male mice. Skeletal muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin-signaling molecules and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle of male rat. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I: control (vehicle treated) and groups II and III were administered with BPA orally (20 and 200 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although there was no change in the levels of insulin receptor (IR), Akt (protein kinase B) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) messenger RNA, BPA significantly decreased the IR, Akt and GLUT4 protein levels (both plasma membrane and cytosolic fraction) of the gastrocnemius muscle. There was an increase in serum insulin and decrease in serum testosterone levels but fasting blood glucose level remained unaltered. In conclusion, BPA has adverse effects on phosphorylation of Akt, GLUT4 translocation and (14)C-glucose oxidation. PMID:23424204

Indumathi, D; Jayashree, S; Selvaraj, J; Sathish, S; Mayilvanan, C; Akilavalli, N; Balasubramanian, K

2013-02-19

223

Efeitos de doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol em ratos Wistar Effects of high doses of terbinafine and itraconazole in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg) e terbinafina (250 mg/kg) em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP), hemograma completo e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25% dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas.Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg) and terbinafine (250 mg/kg) in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP), complete blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25% of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.

Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz; Marlete Brum Cleff; Patrícia da Silva Nascente; Márcia de Oliveira Nobre; Luiz Filipe Damé Schuch; Tatiana de Ávila Antunes; Melissa O. Xavier; Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles; João Roberto de Braga Mello

2007-01-01

224

Efeitos de doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol em ratos Wistar/ Effects of high doses of terbinafine and itraconazole in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg) e terbinafina (250 mg/kg) em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP), hemograma completo e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado (more) sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25% dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas. Abstract in english Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg) and terbinafine (250 mg/kg) in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP), complete blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished (more) the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25% of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.

Meinerz, Ana Raquel Mano; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Schuch, Luiz Filipe Damé; Antunes, Tatiana de Ávila; Xavier, Melissa O.; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Mello, João Roberto de Braga

2007-03-01

225

Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control) or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v) for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05). In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05), despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

Furuya D.T.; Binsack R.; Machado U.F.

2003-01-01

226

Effects of microwave radiation on wistar rats with walker tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finding non-conventional methods to cure malignant tumors using microwave fields at athermic power levels was the aim of this work. A number of 22 WISTAR rats were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinogenic cells. When the induced tumors were about 85-1000 mm3, 10 from these animals were kept as controls and 12 were irradiated with microwave electromagnetic field in 7.5 GH -10.5 GHz frequency range. Microwave power was at athermic levels (under 10 mW/cm2). For each irradiating session (different for each animal and also different from a treatment session to another one for the same animal), the microwave frequency was chosen to have a resonance in power absorption. The irradiation session was interrupted when the power absorption in the animal body became constant (about 10 min). There were about 30-40 irradiation sessions for each experience animal, depending on tumoral remission. All the control animals died after 3 weeks from carcinogenic cells inoculation. For 10 irradiated rats a total and definitive tumoral remission was established; 8 animals are still alive (Dec. 1999), healthy and capable of reproduction. For 2 experience animals there was a tumoral recurrence after 50 days and they died; another 2 rats died in two months after experience but from different causes. It is possible to consider the hypothesis that animals and tumors are a compact resonance assembly which changes in time. By microwave irradiation the entropy was adjusted to normal level allowing animal healing. (authors)

2001-01-01

227

Radiation-induced damage of the Wistar Rat heart  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A time sequence study was performed on Wistar rats to investigate the early effects of radiation on the mechanical function and energy metabolism of the heart. Two series of rats were exposed to 20 Gy electron irradiation to a field including the heart and approximately a third of the lungs. The hearts were excised at varying time intervals (8-180 days) post irradiation. In one series of hearts the mechanical function was measured using the isolated perfused working rat heart model. At the end of the perfusion the hearts were freeze-clamped for analysis of the high energy phosphate contents (ATP, ADP, AMP and creatine phosphate). In the second series, mitochondria were isolated and the oxidative phosphorylation function measured polarographically (substrate: glutamate). Maximal depression of mechanical function was observed at 60 days post irradiation. Thereafter the work performance of these hearts improved significantly, almost reaching control levels after 180 days. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function (as measured on the total mitochondrial population) was significantly depressed 30-120 days post irradiation. As in the case of the mechanical changes, the depression was transient and after 180 days post irradiation, values similar to those of controls were obtained. Myocardial high energy phosphates remained unaltered throughout the experiment. (author)

1993-01-01

228

The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg) including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

2008-01-01

229

Age-related retinal function changes in albino and pigmented rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of old age (3 vs. 18 months) on the retinal function of albino (Sprague-Dawley [SD]) and pigmented (Long-Evans [LE]) rats. METHODS: Electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded in both albino (SD; 3 months old n = 16, 18 months old n = 16) and pigmented (LE; 3 months n = 16, 18 months n = 5) rats. Data are analyzed for photoreceptor, ON-bipolar, and retinal ganglion cell (RCG) amplitudes as well as photoreceptor and ON-bipolar cell sensitivities. RESULTS: In the pigmented strain, senescence results in decreased photoreceptor output, but ON-bipolar and retinal ganglion cell amplitudes were preserved, due to a relative increase in ON-bipolar cell sensitivity. In the albino rats, although ageing decreased both photoreceptor and ON-bipolar cell amplitudes, increased photoreceptor sensitivity produced a relative sparing of retinal ganglion cell amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Both strains show evidence of retinal plasticity with senescence, albeit at different retinal levels. The exact mechanisms underlying sensitivity changes require further investigation. Nevertheless, given the findings of previous human studies, pigmented rats appear to be a more appropriate model for human ageing. Future work using animals to study the effect of ageing need careful consideration in strain selection.

Charng J; Nguyen CT; Bui BV; Vingrys AJ

2011-01-01

230

HEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALBINO RATS FED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus CULTIVATED ON TWO TROPICAL TREES’ SAWDUST (Pycnanthus angolensis AND Spondias mombin)  

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Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae) and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae)) . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats) while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There was a significant decrease (P > 0.05) in the Packed Cell Volume (34.0%), Red Blood Cell (3.2 x 1012/L), White Blood Cell (3.5 x 103/L), Mean Corpuscular Volume (8.0 g/fL) and Hemoglobin (11.33 g/dL) of the rats fed with protein free diet compared to the rats fed with the mushroom composed diet (PCV, 40.0%; RBC, 5.0 x 1012/L; WBC, 8.5 x 103/L; MCV, 90.0 g/fL and Hb, 13.33 g/dL. The values obtained from the rats fed mushroom composed diet however compared favourably with the results obtained in rats fed with the soybean composed diet (positive control) which is given as (PCV, 35.0%; RBCs, 6.6 x 1012/L; WBCs, 6.5 x 103/L), MCV (93.0 g/fL) and Hb, 11.67 g/dL. It was therefore concluded that the hematological parameters of the experimental animals was not in any way affected as a result of consumption of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivated on sawdust of these two tropical trees.

Soji Fakoya

2013-01-01

231

Noninvasive assessment of vascular structure and function in conscious rats based on in vivo imaging of the albino iris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experimental techniques allowing longitudinal studies of vascular disease progression or treatment effects are not readily available for most animal models. Thus, most existing studies are destined to either study individual time points or use large cohorts of animals. Here we describe a noninvasive technique for studying vascular disease that is based on in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in the iris of albino rats. Using a slit-lamp biomicroscope, images of the LPCA were taken weekly in conscious normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 10) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 10) for 10 wk. Using imaging software, we found that lumen diameter was significantly smaller and the wall-to-lumen (W/L) ratio larger in SHR than in WKY. Wall thickness was not different. Blood pressure correlated with the W/L ratio. Histology of the abdominal aorta also revealed a smaller lumen diameter and greater W/L ratio in SHR compared with WKY. Corneal application of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine elicited a dose-dependent vasodilation of the LPCA that could be antagonized by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that the pilocarpine response is mainly mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Consistent with endothelial dysfunction in SHR, pilocarpine-induced vasodilation was greater in WKY rats than in SHR. These findings indicate that in vivo imaging of the LPCA allows assessment of several structural and functional vascular parameters in conscious rats and that the LPCA responds to disease insults and pharmacologic treatments in a fashion that will make it a useful model for further studies.

Stauss HM; Rarick KR; Leick KM; Burkle JW; Rotella DL; Anderson MG

2011-06-01

232

Noninvasive assessment of vascular structure and function in conscious rats based on in vivo imaging of the albino iris  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental techniques allowing longitudinal studies of vascular disease progression or treatment effects are not readily available for most animal models. Thus, most existing studies are destined to either study individual time points or use large cohorts of animals. Here we describe a noninvasive technique for studying vascular disease that is based on in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in the iris of albino rats. Using a slit-lamp biomicroscope, images of the LPCA were taken weekly in conscious normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 10) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 10) for 10 wk. Using imaging software, we found that lumen diameter was significantly smaller and the wall-to-lumen (W/L) ratio larger in SHR than in WKY. Wall thickness was not different. Blood pressure correlated with the W/L ratio. Histology of the abdominal aorta also revealed a smaller lumen diameter and greater W/L ratio in SHR compared with WKY. Corneal application of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine elicited a dose-dependent vasodilation of the LPCA that could be antagonized by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that the pilocarpine response is mainly mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Consistent with endothelial dysfunction in SHR, pilocarpine-induced vasodilation was greater in WKY rats than in SHR. These findings indicate that in vivo imaging of the LPCA allows assessment of several structural and functional vascular parameters in conscious rats and that the LPCA responds to disease insults and pharmacologic treatments in a fashion that will make it a useful model for further studies.

Rarick, Kevin R.; Leick, Katie M.; Burkle, Jason W.; Rotella, Diane L.; Anderson, Michael G.

2011-01-01

233

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão Paulo; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2000-01-01

234

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina/ Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água (more) destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, re (more) spectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Carmo, Arykerne Chamon do; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

2000-03-01

235

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

Pankaj G. Jain; Savita D. Patil; Nitin G. Haswani; Manoj V. Girase; Sanjay J. Surana

2010-01-01

236

A noninvasive method for early detection of MNNG-induced gastric cancer of male Wistar rat: ultrasonic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and there is no accurate method for its screening and diagnosis, especially in small animals. Here, we explain the application of B-mode ultrasound imaging (BMUI) for screening of gastric changes in the rat. Thus, male Albino Wistar rats, weighing 100-120 grams were randomly divided into two groups. The control group rats (n=10) were given water as routine; the remaining (n=90), were given N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 100 ?g/mL) in drinking water ad libitum for 40 weeks. Fifteen rats were killed at different time intervals and the others were sacrificed after 55 weeks. The BMUI of the stomach of animals after MNNG administration show some changes compared with the normal groups. Pathologic investigations of the stomach indicate cancer induction at different levels. The sensitivity and specificity of BMUI is 96.6% and 78.78%, respectively. Thus, it is a useful method of diagnosis of gastric cancer in rats.

Miri H; Bathaie SZ; Mohagheghi MA; Mokhtari-Dizaji M; Shahbazfar AA

2011-05-01

237

A noninvasive method for early detection of MNNG-induced gastric cancer of male Wistar rat: ultrasonic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages and there is no accurate method for its screening and diagnosis, especially in small animals. Here, we explain the application of B-mode ultrasound imaging (BMUI) for screening of gastric changes in the rat. Thus, male Albino Wistar rats, weighing 100-120 grams were randomly divided into two groups. The control group rats (n=10) were given water as routine; the remaining (n=90), were given N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 100 ?g/mL) in drinking water ad libitum for 40 weeks. Fifteen rats were killed at different time intervals and the others were sacrificed after 55 weeks. The BMUI of the stomach of animals after MNNG administration show some changes compared with the normal groups. Pathologic investigations of the stomach indicate cancer induction at different levels. The sensitivity and specificity of BMUI is 96.6% and 78.78%, respectively. Thus, it is a useful method of diagnosis of gastric cancer in rats. PMID:21458142

Miri, Hamidreza; Bathaie, S Zahra; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali

2011-03-31

238

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

1994-01-01

239

Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) Calyx Diet and Histopathological Changes in Liver of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx was fermented with and without wood ash. The proximate composition revealed that the sample fermented without wood ash had the highest protein content of 14.7 ? 2.5%. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the antinutrient content (phytate and tannin) with a reduction of between 1.21-1.32% in tannin and 488.8?3.7-827.3?3.7mg/100g in phytate. The unfermented sample had phytate and tannin of 2143.6 ? 0.8mg/100g and 5.30 ? 1.1% respectively. The effect of calyx diet on the morphology of the liver was investigated in albino rats. The results suggest that in high doses, roselle calyx may have some toxic effects on the liver. There was decrease in growth in albino rats on all the treatments except for the control diet where there was no increase in growth.

A.O. Ojokoh

2006-01-01

240

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg) for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

Thoudam Bhaigyabati; Ramya J; K. Usha

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Audiogenic seizures in unilaterally sensitized and monaurally stimulated Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of previous studies (Pierson, M. and Swann, J., Epilepsia, 32 (1991) 1-9) have demonstrated that exposure of Wistar rats to noise on day 14 results in audiogenic seizure susceptibility. Experiments reported here examined whether unilateral susceptibility could be induced in rats by monaural restriction of this noise exposure. Behavioral attributes of seizures on day 28 were compared in groups that were: binaurally noise-exposed/binaurally tested, binaurally noise-exposed/monaurally tested, monaurally noise-exposed/binaurally tested and monaurally noise-exposed/monaurally tested. Effects of left- and right-ear exposures and tests were assessed separately. Unilateral susceptibility was evident since seizures could be elicited later only by stimulation of the originally noise-exposed ear. Seizures were behaviorally different in monaurally noise-exposed and binaurally noise-exposed animals. Convulsions, directional reversals during running episodes, and relatively short latencies occur only in binaurally noise-exposed rats. These behaviors occur with either monaural or binaural stimulation. Initial, running direction was random in binaurally stimulated/binaurally noise-exposed rats, but was fixed in all other groups depending on which ear was exposed in either sensitization (day 14) or testing (day 28). Right- and left-ear sensitizations or tests resulted in left-directed and right-directed running onsets respectively. Previous studies of the effect of selective CNS lesions in instances of unilateral or bilateral susceptibility have led to the understanding that seizure initiation in unilaterally susceptible animals is mediated by the crossed ascending auditory pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pierson M

1992-03-01

242

Cardiovascular and electrocardiographic parameters after tonin administration in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to understand the mechanisms of interaction between tonin-angiotensin and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) we evaluated, "in vivo" and "in vitro", in Wistar rats, cardiovascular and electrocardiographic parameters after tonin administration. Arterial pressure (AP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded in awake animals before and after tonin administration. Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function in isolated heart in the presence of tonin and video motion edge detection system was used to evaluate the effect of tonin upon contractile function of isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. After tonin infusion rats presented significantly higher diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) as compared with control. The ECG analysis revealed shorter RR interval, increase in the low-frequency (LF) range of the heart rate variability (HRV) power (%) and decrease in the high-frequency (HF) of HRV power (%). Isolated hearts perfused with tonin presented an increase in the arterial coronary pressure (ACP) and decline in the ventricular systolic tension (ST), maximal (dT/dt+) and minimal (dT/dt) contractility. The rates of contraction and relaxation of isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes were significantly increased due to the presence of tonin. The angiotensin II (Ang II) levels in the coronary sinus effluent increased in the presence of tonin in a dose-dependent manner and the effect of tonin upon ACP was completely blocked by candesartan. Tonin is able to generate the vasoconstrictor peptide Ang II in the isolated heart of the rat and the cardiovascular response induced by tonin was completely blocked by candesartan, an indication that the action of Ang II on Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors is the major mechanism of the heart effects. Tonin affects cardiomyocyte contractile function which may be due to interference with Ca(2+) handling.

Damasceno DD; Lima MP; Motta DF; Ferreira AJ; Quintão-Junior JF; Drummond LR; Natali AJ; Almeida AP; Pesquero JL

2013-02-01

243

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO) involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g) kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg), a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p.), prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOS)in the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

Fatemeh Hassani; Manizheh Karami; Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan; Poopak Eftekhari Yazdi

2012-01-01

244

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), exposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos Valença; Milena Leonarde Kloss; Frank Silva Bezerra; Manuella Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring Silva; Luís Cristóvão Porto

2007-01-01

245

Histopathology of Small Intestine Induced by Cisplatin in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) is a highly effective drug used to treat several cancers. Unfortunately, it was reported various clinical side effects of many tissues specifically liver, kidney. The study aims to investigate the pathology of small intestine upon cisplatin treatment at various doses using histological technique. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: group 1 intraperitoneal (IP) injected with normal saline; group 2, 3, 4, and 5 were injected (IP) with cisplatin at 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively. On day 3, rats were weighed and small intestines were collected. This study found that cisplatin significantly reduces BW at all concentrations compared with saline group. Histological analysis of small intestine induced by cisplatin illustrating various pathologies includes hemodynamic change (hemorrhage), reversible injuries (distortion of mucosal architecture, development of subepithelial space, and lifting of epithelial layer from the lamina propria), and irreversible injuries (degenerative changes of villi, sloughing of necrotic villi into intestinal lumina, and loss of villi). Additionally, cellular adaptations also were elicited including hyperplasia of lamina propria and columnar epithelium lining villi, and atrophy of villi. In conclusion, cisplatin administrations lead to pathologies of small intestine, consequently causing weight loss which severity depends on its concentrations.

Sarawoot PALIPOCH; Chuchard PUNSAWAD; Dutsadee CHINNAPUN; Prasit SUWANNALERT

2013-01-01

246

Maternal and developmental toxicity of ayahuasca in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant beverage initially used by shamans throughout the Amazon region during traditional religious cult. In recent years, ayahuasca has also been used in ceremonies of a number of modern syncretic religious groups, including pregnant women. However, no documented study has been performed to evaluate the risk of developmental toxicity of ayahuasca. METHODS: In the present work, maternal and developmental toxicity was evaluated in Wistar rats. Ayahuasca was administered to pregnant rats in three different doses [the equivalent typical dose (TD) administered to humans, five-fold TD and 10-fold TD] during the gestational period (6-20 days). RESULTS: Dams treated with the highest ayahuasca dose showed maternal toxicity with decrease of weight gain and food intake. Visceral fetal findings were observed in all treatment groups. Skeletal findings were observed in the intermediate- and high-dose groups. The fetuses deriving from the highest dose group also presented a decrease in body weight. CONCLUSIONS: From these results, it is possible to conclude that there is a risk of maternal and developmental toxicity following ayahuasca exposure and that the level of toxicity appears to be dose-dependent.

Oliveira CD; Moreira CQ; de Sá LR; Spinosa Hde S; Yonamine M

2010-06-01

247

[Growth of Wistar rats jaws following single dose of vincristine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the chemotherapy of malignant diseases the cytostatic Vincristine is often used. Since literature data showed the negative effects of Vincristine on young cells of the healthy developing tissue, only animals were used in experiment of Vincristine testing. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the growth of the rat's maxilla and mandible in relation to time intervals following a single dose of Vincristine. The experiment concerned 80 Wistar rats of both sexes. Experimental animals (46) were subcutaneously injected, in the neck wrinkle, a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg BW of Vincristine, on the 7th or 8th postnatal day. The control group consisted of 34 untreated animals. Both treated and untreated animals were sacrificed on the 24th, 42nd and 57th postnatal day, respectively, by decapitation. Following isolation and removal of soft tissue remnants jaws were radiographed using Siemens X-ray dental device. Morphometric measurements were performed with the following parametres: front and rear width and height of the maxillary arc, sagittal and vertical dimensions and coronal length of mandibular incisors. Values were statistically computed and elaborated by Student t-test. The significant level was 5% (p less than 0.05). The results showed that the mean values of the majority of parametres of both jaws were significantly lower in the group of treated animals compared to untreated group.

Jakovljevi? A; Sedlecki S; Pap K

1991-11-01

248

[Effects of muscular exertion in a hypoxic and hypoxic-hypercapnic respiratory environment on acid-base equilibrium and blood lactic acid in the albino rat raised in hypoxic hypoxia from birth  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albino rats of the Wistar family were raised from the time of birth in the normobaric hypoxic environment. They were subjected at two subsequent equal trials of muscular work: the first in hypoxic normobaric conditions; the second in hypoxic hypercapnic conditions (CO2 = 2%). The modifications of the lactacidemia and acid-base balance at the end of the first trial are modest, lower than these observed in previous studies in normoxic rats. Added CO2 sensitively reduced the effects of the muscular work on the examined parameters.

Quatrini U; Licciardi A

1984-03-01

249

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline o...

T.G. Sivasankaran; R. Udayakumar; K. Panjamurthy; V. Albert Singh

250

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.

Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa

2009-01-01

251

Therapeutic effect of Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed/linseed) fixed oil on acute and chronic arthritic models in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to assess the activity/anti-inflammatory potential of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, turpentine oil-induced joint oedema, formaldehyde and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in Wistar albino rats. The oil intraperitoneally, significantly inhibited the castor oil-induced diarrhoea and turpentine oil-induced exudative joint oedema in a dose-dependent manner. Significant inhibitory effect of L. usitatissimum fixed oil was observed in formaldehyde-induced proliferative global oedematous arthritis when given intraperitoneally, with significant checking of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase. Further, L. usitatissimum fixed oil showed a significant dose-dependent protective effect against CFA-induced arthritis as well. Secondary lesions produced by CFA due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction were also reduced in a significant manner. Anti-inflammatory activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil can be attributed to the presence of alpha linolenic acid (57.38%, an omega-3 fatty acid, 18:3, n-3) having dual inhibitory effect on arachidonate metabolism resulting in suppressed production of proinflammatory n-6 eicosanoids (PGE(2), LTB(4)) and diminished vascular permeability. These observations suggest possible therapeutic potential of L. usitatissimum fixed oil in inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.

Kaithwas G; Majumdar DK

2010-06-01

252

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin) group (B) and normal saline group (G) serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

K.A. Sanda; U.K. Sandabe; M.S. Auwal; I. Bulama; T.M. Bashir; F.A. Sanda; I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

253

Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen) Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix) on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick) were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

Nahed Ahmed Omar

2012-01-01

254

Iron deficiency causes duodenum mucosal hyperplasia in male Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of an iron-deficient diet to Wistar rats resulted within 14 days in reduced serum iron concentrations, a microcytic hypochromic anemia, characteristic for impaired hemoglobin synthesis, and an increase of duodenal epithelial cell proliferation. After 5 weeks of iron deficiency, hypochromic microcytic anemia and a clear increase of duodenum weight but no pronounced effects on cell proliferation was observed. Increased duodenum weights corresponded to significant increases in mucosal area, indicating a diffuse, simple mucosal hyperplasia. The sequence of events following iron depletion thus appears to be: (1) reduced serum iron levels, (2) induction of hypochromic microcytic anemia, (3) increased duodenal epithelial cell proliferation, and (4) increased duodenal weight (increased mucosal area). Iron deficiency anemia was rapidly reversible after a 2-week recovery period. However, increased duodenum weights were still noted at that time. Intramuscular iron supplementation in animals fed with iron-deficient diet maintained body iron levels not below normal values, and neither anemia nor increased duodenum cell proliferation were detected after 14 days. A 5-week iron supplementation period resulted in slightly increased serum iron values, and slightly decreased duodenal epithelial cell proliferation. Thus, increased duodenum mucosal hyperplasia was shown to be secondary to depletion of body iron and anemia and reflects an attempt to increase iron absorption to counteract iron deficiency. PMID:18358645

Cunha, G Coelho-Palermo; van Ravenzwaay, B; Mellert, W; Kaufmann, W

2008-01-30

255

Iron deficiency causes duodenum mucosal hyperplasia in male Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Administration of an iron-deficient diet to Wistar rats resulted within 14 days in reduced serum iron concentrations, a microcytic hypochromic anemia, characteristic for impaired hemoglobin synthesis, and an increase of duodenal epithelial cell proliferation. After 5 weeks of iron deficiency, hypochromic microcytic anemia and a clear increase of duodenum weight but no pronounced effects on cell proliferation was observed. Increased duodenum weights corresponded to significant increases in mucosal area, indicating a diffuse, simple mucosal hyperplasia. The sequence of events following iron depletion thus appears to be: (1) reduced serum iron levels, (2) induction of hypochromic microcytic anemia, (3) increased duodenal epithelial cell proliferation, and (4) increased duodenal weight (increased mucosal area). Iron deficiency anemia was rapidly reversible after a 2-week recovery period. However, increased duodenum weights were still noted at that time. Intramuscular iron supplementation in animals fed with iron-deficient diet maintained body iron levels not below normal values, and neither anemia nor increased duodenum cell proliferation were detected after 14 days. A 5-week iron supplementation period resulted in slightly increased serum iron values, and slightly decreased duodenal epithelial cell proliferation. Thus, increased duodenum mucosal hyperplasia was shown to be secondary to depletion of body iron and anemia and reflects an attempt to increase iron absorption to counteract iron deficiency.

Cunha GC; van Ravenzwaay B; Mellert W; Kaufmann W

2008-04-01

256

Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

2008-12-01

257

[Acid-base balance, blood lactate, blood pyruvate, and L/P ratio in albino rats raised in normobaric, hypoxic hypoxia for one or two generations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albino rats Wistar family raised in normobaric hypoxic environment (10% O2 in N2) since one or two generations showed a displacement of the acid-base balance of the arterial blood towards acidosis and an increase of blood lactate and pyruvate when compared with normoxic controls. Found differences were significant in all considered parameters except for lactate-pyruvate ratio. Moreover in hypoxic animals of second generation these differences were quantitatively less strong. In effect when we compared the two groups of hypoxic animals between them, they showed significant differences-estimated with Duncan's test - in the pH, B.E., S.B., lactate and pyruvate values. All the above mentioned differences pointed out less blood acidification and less increase of lactate and pyruvate in hypoxic animals of second generation. The results seem to indicate the beginning of adaptative processes to the extraordinary hypoxic normobaric environment in albino rat and the evolution of these processes when named species remain in hypoxic environment for more than one generation.

Quatrini U; Licciardi A; Morici G

1989-04-01

258

Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

259

Reactivación de la infección chagásica en ratas Wistar gestantes/ Reactivation of the Chagasic Infection in Wistar Rats in Gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo investigamos en ratas Wistar crónicamente infectadas con Trypanosoma cruzi, la reactivación de la infección durante la gestación y después del parto, mediante un estudio parasitológico, inmunológico, histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Los resultados mostraron un control de las parasitemias patentes y/o subpatentes; títulos elevados de anticuerpos específicos anti-T. cruzi, detectándose en las ratas gestantes una disminución en los niveles d (more) e IgG y un incremento significativo de la IgM (P Abstract in english Wistar rats with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection were subjected to a parasitological, immunological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for a reactivation of the infection during gestation and after giving birth. Results showed a control of patent and/or sub-patent parasitemias; high concentrations of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies, a moderate reduction in IgG levels and a significant increase in IgM (P(more) d absence of flagellate forms of T. cruzi in the amniotic fluid. Histopathology showed parasitic persistence in cardiac muscle fibers and in the uterus, mild myocarditis and myositis with signs of chronicity; moderate inflammatory infiltrate, without parasitism in the placenta stroma or brain. Immunohistochemical examination showed the presence of a nest of amastigotes in the skeletal muscle with abundant antigen deposits in sections of the heart, uterus, brain and placenta, revealing the presence of trypomastigotes in the tissue. Finally, the factors that might lead to a reactivation of T. cruzi infection in gestating Wistar rats are discussed.

Moreno B, Elio; Méndez I, Maidé; Alarcón M, Maritza; Araujo A, Sonia; Lugo de Yarbuh, Ana

2005-06-01

260

Combined and individual administration of diethyl phthalate and polychlorinated biphenyls and its toxicity in female Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants and known to act as xenoestrogens. PCBs and diethyl phthalate (DEP) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because both are used as plasticizers and in various other industrial applications. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the interactive toxicity of DEP and PCBs in young female Wistar rats. Healthy young female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 100g (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups of six each. Group I female rats were fed on normal diet and water ad libitum. Group II female rats were maintained on normal diet mixed with corn oil at 16.5mg/kg diet/day and 0.94mg/kg body weight/day as oil control. Groups III and IV female rats were given Clophen A60 and DEP dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/(kgdietday), which is approximately equal to 2.85mg/(kgbodyweightday), individually to each group. Group V female rats received a mixture of DEP and Clophen A60, each dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/(kgdietday), which is approximately equal to 2.85mg/(kgbodyweightday). Treatment was carried out for 150 days and after the completion of treatment, serum and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters in the serum and liver were assessed. Liver weight to body weight ratio showed significant increase in Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. In the three treated groups, there was significant decrease in liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). Alanine amino transferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the liver of the three treated groups and in the serum of Clophen A60 and DEP alone treated groups and significant decrease only in the serum of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Significant increase in liver and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was observed in the three treated groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased only in the serum of the Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas significant decrease in the serum and liver of DEP alone treated rats was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cholesterol levels were highly significant in the liver and serum of DEP treated rats. In addition, cholesterol level was significantly increased in the liver and serum of Clophen A60 treated rats and only in the liver of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was significantly increased in the liver of Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats and highly significant increase in the serum of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. There was significant increase in triglyceride levels in the liver and serum of Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas significant increase in triglyceride levels in the serum of DEP alone treated rats was observed. Glycogen levels were significantly increased in the liver of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas serum glucose levels showed significant decrease, but in Clophen A60 alone treated rats showed significant increase in liver glycogen and serum glucose, whereas DEP alone treated rats showed significant increase in only serum glucose levels. Lipid peroxidation was increased in the liver of DEP treated rats, which was highly significant, compared to significant increase in Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Histology of liver showed severe vacuolation, loss of hepatic architecture and granular deposits in the hepatocytes of DEP and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas in Clophen A60 alone treated rats, hepatocytes showed hyper pigmentation mild loss of hepatic architecture in centrilobular and periportal area.

Pereira C; Rao CV

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats  

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An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into ...

V.I. Borikar; C.R. Jangde; Preety Philip; D.S. Rekhe and S.K. Atole

262

Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies.

Gupta RS; Kachhawa JB

2007-05-01

263

Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies. PMID:17446020

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S

2007-02-27

264

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol level of rats fed on yogurt with or without XO enrichment but a fair reduction in serum glucose content was noted. XO as a functional ingredient can be incorporated in formulating dairy products with improved health benefits like lowering glucose levels.

Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil

2009-01-01

265

In vivo hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes following Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus L administration to normotensive Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the whole plant aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic intervals in albino rats. METHODS: This study was carried out in 2 stages at the Research Laboratory, Physiology Department, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. First, the effects of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamics and electrocardiograph in 54 Wistar male rats were assessed, then the mechanisms underlying the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes observed in the first stage were evaluated in 48 rats of the same species. RESULTS: The C. aronia administered at escalating doses (0.05-20 microgram/kg) produced a dose-time-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Higher doses (15 and 20 microgram/kg) produced the most significant reduction in both HR and MAP, and induced sinus node suppression and progressive atrio-ventricular blockade. The underlying mechanism of the induced bradyarrhythmia appeared to be due to the direct stimulation of the muscarinic receptor M2 and possible blockade of beta-receptors, while the hypotension was caused by enhanced nitric oxide release. No significant alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) components were observed. CONCLUSION: The administration of the C. aronia syn. Azarolus extract induced bradyarrhythmia and hypotension, without alteration in the ECG components.

Shatoor AS

2013-02-01

266

In vivo hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes following Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus (L) administration to normotensive Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effects of the whole plant aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic intervals in albino rats. Methods: This study was carried out in 2 stages at the Research Laboratory, Physiology Department, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. First, the effects of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L) on the hemodynamics and electrocardiograph in 54 Wistar male rats were assessed, then the mechanisms underlying the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes observed in the first stage were evaluated in 48 rats of the same species. Results: The C. aronia administered at escalating doses (0.05-20 µg/kg) produced a dose-time-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Higher doses (15 and 20 µg/kg) produced the most significant reduction in both HR and MAP, and induced sinus node suppression and progressive atrio-ventricular blockade. The underlying mechanism of the induced bradyarrhythmia appeared to be due to the direct stimulation of the muscarinic receptor M2 and possible blockade of beta-receptors, while the hypotension was caused by enhanced nitric oxide release. No significant alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) components were observed. Conclusions: The administration of the C. aronia syn. Azarolus extract induced bradyarrhythmia and hypotension, without alteration in the ECG components. 

Abdullah S. Shatoor

2013-01-01

267

The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2008-01-01

268

Effects of Ballota nigra on blood biochemical parameters and insulin in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats.

Nusier MK; Bataineh HN; Bataineh ZM; Daradka HM

2007-08-01

269

Effects of Ballota nigra on blood biochemical parameters and insulin in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats. PMID:17627272

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

270

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

Sakr SA; Abo-El-Yazid SM

2012-11-01

271

Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats. PMID:22082829

Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

2011-11-14

272

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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Full Text Available In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME) and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M) plus Bacopa monniera (BME) extract respectively, for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the medulla oblongata was removed and processed to examine the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) and antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx). Oxidative stress was promoted in medulla oblongata following Aluminum administration. In contrast, BME extract exerted an antioxidant action which was related with an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, evidences from light microscopic images clearly demonstrating that Al-M-induced neuronal changes, which were minimized by BME treatment, architecture of medulla oblongata in Al-M+BME treated group was almost similar to the control.

T. Madhavi; B. Mahitha; K. Mallikarjuna; N. John Sushma

2013-01-01

273

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2003-01-01

274

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

Flamarion dos Santos Batista; Osvaldo Malafaia; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho; Nicolau Gregory Czeczko; João Carlos Domingues Repka

2004-01-01

275

Delayed behavioral effects of beta-casomorphin-7 depend on age and gender of albino rat pups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic administration of beta-casein heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI, 1 mg/kg daily) to 10-23-day-old albino rat pups produced delayed anxiolytic effects, which were more pronounced in female than in male rats. Experimental findings confirm our assumption on the important role of nutritional opioids in brain development in newborn mammals.

Dubynin VA; Malinovskaya IV; Ivleva YA; Andreeva LA; Kamenskii AA; Ashmarin IP

2000-11-01

276

Delayed behavioral effects of beta-casomorphin-7 depend on age and gender of albino rat pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic administration of beta-casein heptapeptide beta-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI, 1 mg/kg daily) to 10-23-day-old albino rat pups produced delayed anxiolytic effects, which were more pronounced in female than in male rats. Experimental findings confirm our assumption on the important role of nutritional opioids in brain development in newborn mammals. PMID:11182807

Dubynin, V A; Malinovskaya, I V; Ivleva, Y A; Andreeva, L A; Kamenskii, A A; Ashmarin, I P

2000-11-01

277

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control) received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment) received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment) received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy; P. Sreenivasula Reddy; M.R. Shivalingam; B. Appa Rao; K. Sindhura; G. Vasavya Sindhu; M. Vijay Bhaskar Reddy

2010-01-01

278

RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property.

2007-01-01

279

Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata roots in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pongamia pinnata root has been advocated in Ayurveda for treatment of various inflammatory and infective conditions including ulcers. Sequential petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. pinnata roots when administered in the dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p. in rats was found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity while pentobarbitone-induced 'sleep time' was reduced by all the extracts except petroleum ether which, however, enhanced it. They were also found to possess antiulcer effects when administered either by i.p. (45 min before) or oral route (45 min before or for 4 days) against restraint-stress or pylorus-ligated gastric ulcers in rats, the maximum protection being afforded by petroleum ether and ethanol extracts. The mechanism of antiulcer effect could either be due to decrease in acid-pepsin secretion and augmentation of mucin secretion as observed with ethanol extract, while petroleum ether extract might be producing the effect by virtue of its anti-stress activity.

Singh RK; Nath G; Acharya SB; Goel RK

1997-08-01

280

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal), A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal), A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil) and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil). Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh; Syed Naeemulhassan Naqvi; Zahid Ali Kaim Khani

2009-01-01

282

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

2011-01-01

283

Efeitos da semicarbazida no esqueleto de ratos Wistar em crescimento/ Effects of semicarbazide on skeleton of growing Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effects of semicarbazide hydrochloride on skeletal tissues were evaluated using Wistar rats. In the animals submitted to the administration of semicarbazide, radiological examination showed bone and articular alterations with growth plates enlargement. Histological exams showed irregular patterns and proliferation of chondrocytes and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical exams showed PCNA positive reaction in pre- and hypertrofic chondroc (more) ytes. These results confirm that semicarbazide induces important changes in skeletal tissues and that has potential utility in experimental osteolathryrism

Ramos, A.; Pereira, A.; Cabrita, A.S.; Capela e Silva, F.

2012-04-01

284

Histomorphological Effect of the Aqueous Root-Bark Extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) on the Liver and Kidney of Albino Rats  

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The aqueous root-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) was screened for its chemical constituents, median lethal dose and its histomorphological effect on the liver and kidney of albino rats. A total of 114 adult albino rats of both sexes weighing between 150-320 g were used in this study. T...

S.H. Garba; J. Prasad; U.K. Sandabe

285

Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

2010-01-01

286

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel; P. Muthuraman; S. Muthu; K. Srikumar

2011-01-01

287

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1993-03-01

288

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed.

Patil S; Kanase A; Varute AT

1993-03-01

289

THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

2008-01-01

290

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar/ Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 m (more) m de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of heig (more) ht, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Rodrigues, Nilson Rodnei; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de

2010-01-01

291

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues; Olavo Biraghi Letaif; Alexandre Fogaça Cristante; Raphael Martus Marcon; Reginaldo Perilo Oliveira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

2010-01-01

292

Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats  

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Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Et...

I G Bako; A M Mabrouk; S M Abubakar; A Mohammed

293

Leukocytic Response and Spleen Morphology of Albino Rats Exposed to Graded Levels of Lead Acetate  

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Full Text Available Aim. The study investigated the leukocytic response and spleen morphology of albino rats exposed to graded dose levels of lead acetate. Material and Methods. Four groups of 5 rats received lead acetate treatment per os for 14 days, as follows: group A (0.25 mg/kg body weight), group B (0.50 mg/kg body weight), group C (1.00 mg/kg body weight) and group D (no lead acetate treatment-control). Thereafter, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC) and histomorphology of the spleen were assessed. Total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and histomorphology of rats that received the lead acetate treatment were compared to control rats. Results. Results have shown that the administration of lead acetate to rats led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in TLC with an increase in the number of lymphocytes (p < 0.05). The number of absolute monocytes and neutrophils in the lead acetate exposed rats were significantly (p < 0.05) low. The microscopic changes from the spleen sections of the lead acetate treated rats suggest immune alteration and splenic damage. Conclusion. Therefore the study confirms the risk of experiencing immunosuppression for humans and other species that may be exposed to lead.

Ikechukwu Reginald Obidike; Wilfred Sunday Ezema; Lawrence Okonkwo Aka; Samuel Chukwuneke Udem; Gladys Chinelo

2010-01-01

294

Efectos de la infección chagásica aguda en ratas wistar gestantes/ Effects of acute chagasic infection on gestating wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se investiga en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar, inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal con 5x10(4) tripomastigotes sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi, y preñadas 10 días después de la inoculación, los efectos de la infección aguda sobre la gestación, utilizando diferentes pruebas de diagnóstico. Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas (P (more) durante la primera y segunda semana de gestación, registrándose a los 12 días de la gravidez niveles de parasitemias de hasta 55 ± 3 y 27 ± 9 trips/mm³ de sangre. Anticuerpos anti-T. cruzi fueron detectados en los sueros de las ratas infectadas, mostrando diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english White Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were intraperitoneally inoculated with 5x10(4) blood form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and impregnated 10 days after inoculation. The effects of acute infection on gestation were examined using different diagnostic tests. Results showed significant differences (P (more) r impregnation of 55 ± 3 and 27 ± 9 tryps/mm³. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies were found in the serum of infected rats, showing differences (P

Moreno, Elio A; Araujo, María A; Alarcón, Maritza E; Lugo de Yarbuh, Ana; Araujo, Sonia; Borges, Rafael

2006-10-01

295

Establishment of SHG-44 human glioma model in brain of wistar rat with stereotactic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To establish solid intracerebral human glioma model in Wistar rat with xenograft methods. Methods: The SHG-44 cells were injected into brain right caudate nucleus of previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rats with stereotactic technique. The MRI scans were performed at 1 week and 2 weeks later after implantation. After 2 weeks the rats were killed and pathological examination and immunohistologic stain for human GFAP were used. Results: The MRI scan after 1 week of implantation showed the glioma was growing, pathological histochemical examination demonstrated the tumor was glioma. Human GFAP stain was positive. The growth rate of glioma model was about 60%. Conclusion: Solid intracerebral human glioma model in previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rat is successfully established

2004-01-01

296

Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats  

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An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were...

Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

297

Hemotoxicity Induced by Chronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Wistar Rats: Mitigating Effect of Vitamin C  

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The study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on chronic chlorpyrifos-induced hematological alterations in Wistar rats. Twenty adult male rats divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each were exposed to the following regimens: group I (S/oil) was administered soya oil (2?mL/kg?b.w.), while gr...

Ambali, Suleiman F.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Esievo, King A. N.; Ojo, Samuel A.

298

Anti-mutagenic Potential of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) in Wistar Rats  

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This study was designed to evaluate the anti-mutagenic potential of Myristica fragans (Nutmeg) in male rats. Twenty male wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The treatment groups were administered doses corresponding to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 b.wt. of nutmeg...

U.B. Ekaluo; Y.B. Ibiang; E.V. Ikpeme; P.B. Ekpo

299

Clinicopathological Effects of Various Levels of Dietary Ambrosia maritima on Wistar Rats  

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The present study deals with the clinicopathological and biochemical effect of A. maritima on male Wistar rats. Ambrosia maritime is claimed to have several medicinal properties and used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. The plant was fed to rats at 2...

S.E.M. Barakat; F.A. Al-Hizab; A.O. Bakheit

300

Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hepatic Glycogenosis in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  

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We studied the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on hepatic microscopic anatomy and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Seventy-five Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control; diabetic; diabetic+AIE; AIE only; and d...

Oluwole B. Akinola; Olufunke O. Dosumu; Oluwafunmike S. Akinola; Laura Zatta; Luciana Dini; Ezekiel A. Caxton-Martins

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

Sakr SA; El-Gamal EM

2013-09-01

302

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

2008-01-01

303

Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. RESULTS: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

Sakr SA; Zoil Mel-S; El-Shafey SS

2013-07-01

304

WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON ALBINO RAT: A RESEARCH  

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Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the wound healing activity of C.quadrangularis on excision and incision woundmodels in albino rats.Materials and methods: The different extracts of C.quadrangularis are obtained by successive soxhlet extractionwith petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol were subjected to acute toxicity studies. The extracts were screenedfor wound healing properties in the excision and incision wound models in albino rats of either sex under light etheranaesthesia.Results: All the three extracts showed significant increase in wound contraction and formation of scar in incisionwound model. These extracts showed significant increase in the breaking strength of resutured incision wound ascompared to control group(p<0.001). Phytosterol, triterpenes, glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins andcoumarin have been reported to be present in C.quadrangularis.Conclusion: The result of the present study indicate that methanol extract of C.quadrangularis has more significantwound healing property than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts in excision and incision wound models.

*1A. Mohanty, 2P.K. Sahu, 1C.Das.

2010-01-01

305

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment.

Roy RK; Thakur M; Dixit VK

2008-08-01

306

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-05-14

307

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF ORIGIN (MOOLASTHANA) OF RAKTAVAHA STROTAS IN ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, believes in the existence of the things, which are beyond the perception of most intellectual human approach. Strotas [fine network/meshwork of large or small channels (excluding blood vessels and nerves) with micro or macroscopic spaces meant for various types of secretion and excretion of useful and waste product] and its origin is such part of sharir (i.e. body) which is beyond the capacity of human being to prove it practically. They are found in cell-tissue-organ-system and thus occupy the whole body. Origin of Strotas is difficult to show in human being hence, Albino Rat, is selected to prove its existence. Out of 14 strotas (as described by carak), an attempt is made to verify and determine the Origin of Raktavaha Strotas only in Albino Rat. Raktavaha strotas are those micro-macro hollow channels where Rakta Dhatu i.e. blood and its content, are formed, conducted, metabolized and are transformed in to newer substances to meet the need of life.

Vaikos Chandrashekhar Dattatraya; Kamthe Amol Baban

2011-01-01

308

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01) as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

2012-01-01

309

The effects of glutathione on malondialdehyde expression and seminiferous tubule damage in experimental testicular torsion-detorsion in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Testicular damage caused by ischemia reperfusion injury can be determined by malondialdehyde (MDA) expression and grading of the histopathological damage to seminiferous tubules. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Tationil Glutathione administration on testicular damage following experimental torsion and detorsion. METHODS: Eighteen Wistar albino rats, 5.5-6 months old and weighing 250-300 g, were divided into three equal groups. In the first group (T), torsion was created by rotating the left testis 720° in a clockwise direction and maintained for 4 h. In the T/D group, after 4 h of torsion, detorsion was performed and maintained for 3 h. In the T/D-GLUT group, we injected 25 mg iv gluthatione before performing detorsion (onset time of agent is ±5 min). RESULTS: The lowest malondialdehyde (MDA) expression was observed in the T/D-GLUT rats (P < 0.05). Grading of the histopathological damage to seminiferous tubules showed the damage to be worst in T/D and least in T/D-GLUT rats (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Tationil Glutathione inhibits formation of reactive oxygen species in testicular tissue during ischemia and reperfusion injury caused by experimental torsion and detorsion in Wistar rats.

Bilommi R; Nawas BA; Kusmayadi DD; Diposarosa R; Chairul A; Hernowo BS

2013-04-01

310

Allergic reactions compared between BN and Wistar rats after oral exposure to ovalbumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is currently no validated animal model for evaluating the potential allergenicity of food proteins. This study aimed to compare the allergic reactions between BN and Wistar rats after oral exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) by studying immune responses and clinical manifestations. Female BN and Wistar rats were orally exposed to OVA on days 1 and 14, and thereafter daily from day 15 to day 42. Sera and plasma were screened for OVA-specific antibodies and histamine. On day 49, all the OVA-sensitized animals were orally challenged with OVA before blood pressure was measured. One day later (on day 50), histopathology and differential cell counts were performed. The results indicate that oral exposure of BN rats to OVA yielded IgE, IgG, and IgG(2a) antibody responses that were generally of higher levels than those observed in Wistar rats (p < 0.05). However, the Wistar rats presented with more serious clinical manifestations and histopathologic changes that could have serious implications for any OVA-induced anaphylaxis. The studies here proved that OVA-sensitized BN and Wistar rats evinced different immune responses and clinical manifestations; these outcomes suggested that the two rat strains might differ in their immunologic mechanisms of allergy and that there was no correlation between immune responses and the severity of clinical symptoms. To be clear, the data from these studies should be viewed as 'preliminary', as only a single protein allergen was examined. Accordingly, further studies are needed to compare the allergic reactions between BN and Wistar rats by using purified strong-, weak-, and non-allergenic proteins based on the experiments reported here. PMID:23110332

Sun, Na; Zhou, Cui; Pu, Qiankun; Wang, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Che, Huilian

2012-10-31

311

Allergic reactions compared between BN and Wistar rats after oral exposure to ovalbumin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is currently no validated animal model for evaluating the potential allergenicity of food proteins. This study aimed to compare the allergic reactions between BN and Wistar rats after oral exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) by studying immune responses and clinical manifestations. Female BN and Wistar rats were orally exposed to OVA on days 1 and 14, and thereafter daily from day 15 to day 42. Sera and plasma were screened for OVA-specific antibodies and histamine. On day 49, all the OVA-sensitized animals were orally challenged with OVA before blood pressure was measured. One day later (on day 50), histopathology and differential cell counts were performed. The results indicate that oral exposure of BN rats to OVA yielded IgE, IgG, and IgG(2a) antibody responses that were generally of higher levels than those observed in Wistar rats (p < 0.05). However, the Wistar rats presented with more serious clinical manifestations and histopathologic changes that could have serious implications for any OVA-induced anaphylaxis. The studies here proved that OVA-sensitized BN and Wistar rats evinced different immune responses and clinical manifestations; these outcomes suggested that the two rat strains might differ in their immunologic mechanisms of allergy and that there was no correlation between immune responses and the severity of clinical symptoms. To be clear, the data from these studies should be viewed as 'preliminary', as only a single protein allergen was examined. Accordingly, further studies are needed to compare the allergic reactions between BN and Wistar rats by using purified strong-, weak-, and non-allergenic proteins based on the experiments reported here.

Sun N; Zhou C; Pu Q; Wang J; Huang K; Che H

2013-01-01

312

6. Reproductive toxicity of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was observed. The administration of ethanolic extract at varied doses led to alteration in both the histoarchitecture of testis, mainly caput epididymis and erratic spermatogenesis have been documented. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by whole plant ethanolic extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive.

P. Revathi; B. Vani; I. Sarathchandiran; B. Kadalmani; K. Prakash Shyam; K. Palnivel

2010-01-01

313

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L) Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively.), compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which

Musa E.M; EL Badwi S.M; Jah Elnabi M.A; Osman E. A; Dahab M. M

2011-01-01

314

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.). The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.

Rucha Upadhyay; Narendra Deo Pandey; Shahid Suhail Narvi; Amita Verma; Bahar Ahmed

2010-01-01

315

Investigation into the nephrotoxicity of Nigerian bonny light crude oil in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ? 0.05) in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg), and a significant decrease (p ? 0.05) in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

Orisakwe OE; Njan AA; Afonne OJ; Akumka DD; Orish VN; Udemezue OO

2004-09-01

316

Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg), and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

O. E. Orisakwe; A. A. Njan; O. J. Afonne; Akumka D. D; V. N. Orish; O. O. Udemezue

2004-01-01

317

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity.

Pandya PN; Aghera HB; Ashok BK; Acharya R

2012-10-01

318

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-10-01

319

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of...

Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

320

THE ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTION OF GERMANIUM DIOXIDE : II. THE SOURCE OF THE ERYTHROCYTHEMIA PRODUCED BY GERMANIUM DIOXIDE IN THE ALBINO RAT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A histological comparison of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, circulating young erythrocytes, and differential count in mature male and female albino rats receiving germanium dioxide with their litter controls not receiving this compound was made. It was found that the livers of the test animals in ...

Hammett, Frederick S.; Nowrey, Joseph E.

 
 
 
 
321

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

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This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE) on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respect...

Y. Raji; A.O. Morakinyo; O.S. Akinsomisoye; A.K. Oloyo; P.R.C. Esegbue-Peters; Olufadekemi T. Kunle-Alabi

322

Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus asperifolia on Cardiac Enzymes and Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats  

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The effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ficus asperifolia on cardiac enzymes and lipid profile in albino rats was checked in this study. Ficus asperifolia is a highly medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of ailments ranging from ...

B.P. Omoniwa; C.D. Luka; O. Soji-Omoniwa

323

Body and Organ Weight Changes Following Administration of Aqueous Extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl on White Albino Rats  

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Administration of aqueous extracts of Ficus exasperata. Vahl at doses 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg-1 body weight to male albino rats resulted in a significant (P=> 0.05) increase in body weight in all test group mean relative kidney and liver weights increased significantly in all ...

Ijeh Ifeoma Irene; C.A. Agbo Chukwunonso

324

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review/ Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de re (more) visión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Ar (more) ticles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.

Assis, Thiago de Oliveira; Araújo Filho, José Candido de; Maia, Maria Bernadete de Sousa

2010-12-01

325

Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. METHODS: PREGNANT RATS WERE ARRANGED INTO TWO GROUPS: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. RESULTS: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

El-Sayyad HI; Sakr SA; Badawy GM; Afify HS

2011-08-01

326

RAPD assessment of in vivo induced genotoxicity of raw and treated wastewater to albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied to assess the potential genotoxicity of wastewater to albino rats. Cluster analysis using the Euclidean distance resulted in two clusters; one includes the control rats and the treated wastewater-injected rats (join at a distance of 0.57). The other one includes the rats injected with the raw wastewater (joins the first cluster at a distance of 0.6). Results confirm the ability of both raw and treated wastewater to in vivo induce genotoxic effects to rats. This demonstrates that the treatment process does not remove all mutagens found in raw wastewater completely. Consequently, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation poses health and environmental hazard. Therefore, we recommend genotoxicity testing be used to monitor the quality of wastewater effluents, in addition to the traditional tests used. Besides, hazardous chemicals from laboratories should be separated and treated differently. Finally, RAPD test is a reliable one that can be applied to evaluate in vivo genotoxic effects of chemicals. PMID:23417158

Swaileh, K M; Barakat, S O; Hussein, R M

2013-02-17

327

CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL ESTRÉS OXIDATIVO EN RATAS WISTAR DIABÉTICAS POR ESTREPTOZOTOCINA OXIDATIVE STRESS CARACTERIZATION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-DIABETIC WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La diabetes es un trastorno metabólico crónico de gran alcance epidemiológico. Numerosos estudios han demostrado que la diabetes mellitus se encuentra asociada al incremento de la formación de radicales libres derivados del oxígeno y a la disminución del potencial antioxidante del organismo, generando el daño oxidativo de algunos componentes de la célula tales como las proteínas, carbohidratos, lípidos y ácidos nucleicos. Este trabajo pretende establecer, en ratas Wistar, la relación dosis-respuesta de estreptozotocina frente a los niveles de glucosa y a diferentes parámetros del estatus antioxidante. Como marcadores del daño asociado a las especies de oxígeno reactivas se evaluó la actividad enzimática de catalasa y de superóxido dismutasa, la capacidad antioxidante total del plasma y la peroxidación lipídica. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian una clara relación de la dosis de estreptozotocina con los niveles de glucosa y los parámetros de estrés oxidativo evaluados luego de 20 días de la inducción de la diabetes experimental.Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is associated to free radicals increase derived from oxygen and to the organism potential antioxidant decrease generating oxidative damage of some cell components like proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. After 20 days of administration of streptozotocin in Wistar rats, we have found a relationship between levels of blood glucose and some markers from antioxidant status. We evaluate oxidative stress markers like catalasa and superoxide dismutase acivities, ferric reducing ability of plasma and thiobarbituric acid reactive species.

Ángela C MORA H; Diana M ARAGÓN N; Luis F OSPINA G

2009-01-01

328

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D) of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02), and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03), which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5) and (0.51±0.03) respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem

2003-01-01

329

Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of the environment with antimony compounds may affect human health through the persistent exposure to small doses over a long period. Sixty growing male albino rats, weighing 43-57 grams, utilized in this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received 6 mg/kg body weight antimony trisulfide daily for 8 weeks with drinking water, and those of group III received the same dose by the same route for 12 weeks. The Malpighian renal corpuscles showed distortion, destruction and congestion of glomerular tuft, vacuoles in the glomeruli, peritubular haemorrhage, obliteration of Bowman’s space, and thickening with irregularity of Bowman’s membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules demonstrated patchy loss of their brush border, thickening of the basement membrane with loss of its basal infoldings, disarrangement of the mitochondria, pleomorphic vacuoles in the cytoplasm, apical destruction of the cells, apical migration of the nuclei, and absence of microvilli. On the other hand, peri-tubular hemorrhage, apical vacuolation, small atrophic nuclei, swelling of mitochondria, obliteration of the lumina, destruction of cells, and presence of tissue debris in the lumina, were observed in the distal convoluted tubules. The present work demonstrated the hazardous effect of antimony on the renal function as evidenced by the significant increase of the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. In conclusion, this study proposed that continuous oral administration of antimony for 8 and 12 weeks has hazardous toxic effect on the structure and function of the kidney in growing albino rat. Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended to avoid the use of any drinking water contaminated with antimony compounds and forbidden its use in infants and children foods.

Rashedy, Ahmed H; Solimany, Adnan A; Ismail, Ayman K; Wahdan, Mohamed H; Saban, Khalid A

2013-01-01

330

Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats/ Estudo do corpo caloso de ratos Wistar submetidos à hidrocefalia experimental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A hidrocefalia causa inúmeros danos cerebrais, especialmente nas estruturas ao redor dos ventrículos cerebrais. As crianças com hidrocefalia apresentam déficits nas aquisições não verbais mais do que nas verbais, nem sempre revertidos com o tratamento precoce. Como o corpo caloso tem um papel essencial nas aquisições não verbais, é provável que as lesões nesta estrutura estejam envolvidas com as disfunções cognitivas dessas crianças. Este trabalh (more) o procura estabelecer as alterações causadas pela hidrocefalia, induzida pela injeção de caulim intracisternal ao corpo caloso de ratos Wistar em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Sete, 14 e 21 dias após a injeção, os animais foram sacrificados, sendo o corpo caloso dissecado e processado para estudo das fibras axonais. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os ratos com 7 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia apresentaram um atraso na mielinização em relação aos controles. Em ratos com 14 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia, o corpo caloso mostrou recuperação da mielina, mas em ratos com hidrocefalia com 21 dias de evolução, as fibras apresentavam-se lesadas e reduzidas em número. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries (more) to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

Lopes, Luiza da Silva; Machado, Hélio Rubens; Lachat, João-José

2003-01-01

331

Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats Estudo do corpo caloso de ratos Wistar submetidos à hidrocefalia experimental  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.OBJETIVO: A hidrocefalia causa inúmeros danos cerebrais, especialmente nas estruturas ao redor dos ventrículos cerebrais. As crianças com hidrocefalia apresentam déficits nas aquisições não verbais mais do que nas verbais, nem sempre revertidos com o tratamento precoce. Como o corpo caloso tem um papel essencial nas aquisições não verbais, é provável que as lesões nesta estrutura estejam envolvidas com as disfunções cognitivas dessas crianças. Este trabalho procura estabelecer as alterações causadas pela hidrocefalia, induzida pela injeção de caulim intracisternal ao corpo caloso de ratos Wistar em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Sete, 14 e 21 dias após a injeção, os animais foram sacrificados, sendo o corpo caloso dissecado e processado para estudo das fibras axonais. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os ratos com 7 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia apresentaram um atraso na mielinização em relação aos controles. Em ratos com 14 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia, o corpo caloso mostrou recuperação da mielina, mas em ratos com hidrocefalia com 21 dias de evolução, as fibras apresentavam-se lesadas e reduzidas em número.

Luiza da Silva Lopes; Hélio Rubens Machado; João-José Lachat

2003-01-01

332

Chemopreventive effects of embelin and curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of embelin (50 mg/kg/day), a benzoquinone derivative of Embelia ribes, and the effects of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), the active principle of Curcuma longa, against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-initiated and phenobarbital (PB)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis were studied in Wistar rats. They were able to prevent the induction of hepatic hyper plastic nodules, body weight loss, increase in the levels of hepatic diagnostic markers, and hypoproteinemia induced by DENA/PB treatment. Hence, results of our study suggest the possible chemopreventive effects of embelin (EMB) and curcumin (CUR) against DENA/PB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

Sreepriya M; Bali G

2005-09-01

333

Chemopreventive effects of embelin and curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of embelin (50 mg/kg/day), a benzoquinone derivative of Embelia ribes, and the effects of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), the active principle of Curcuma longa, against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-initiated and phenobarbital (PB)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis were studied in Wistar rats. They were able to prevent the induction of hepatic hyper plastic nodules, body weight loss, increase in the levels of hepatic diagnostic markers, and hypoproteinemia induced by DENA/PB treatment. Hence, results of our study suggest the possible chemopreventive effects of embelin (EMB) and curcumin (CUR) against DENA/PB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. PMID:16009505

Sreepriya, M; Bali, Geetha

2005-09-01

334

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects of crude aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (Mango) stem bark on body weight and haematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats of both sexes weighing between 75 g and 125 g were used. At least 14 mL of the test aqueous extract of the plant was administered to each rat in the group for a period of 14 days. Observations showed that the extract of the medicinal plant have some effects on the haematopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of PCV (haematocrit), erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet counts and lymphocytes, while the haemoglobin (Hb) and neutrophil levels were decreased. The test plant also caused an increase in the weights of the rats. Therefore, it is not possible that its use can advance any adverse effects on haematological parameters.

Nwinuka, Nwibani M.; Monanu, Michael O.; Nwiloh, Barine I.

2008-01-01

335

Effects of honey on the histology of liver in adult Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Honey, containing mainly fructose and glucose, is either taken as curative agent or substitute for refined sugar,yet its chronic effect on liver morphology has not been reported. This study reports an investigation into thehistological changes in adult Wistar rats exposed to chronic consumption of honey. Twenty adult Wistar rats (170- 200 grams) were divided into four groups of five rats each. The rats were fed daily with 0%, 20%, 30%, and40% of honey mixed with 100, 80, 70 and 60 grams of animal chow in groups I, II, III and IV respectively for eightweeks. Histological analysis of the liver showed distortion of the radial arrangement of the sinusoids, hepaticnecrosis and desquamated wall of the central vein in the treated groups, while the control rats appeared normal.The damage noticed was dose-dependent. Chronic consumption of honey may increase the risk of hepaticdamage.

JI Wilson

2011-01-01

336

TO INVESTIGATE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM. SEED EXTRACT ON PARACETAMOL AND D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of 95% methanolic extract was investigated against D-Galactosamine  and paracetamol  induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Silymarin was used as the reference standard at 50mg/kg orally and it showed effect in both the hepatotoxicity models. Rats were divided in 5 groups each group contains 6 animals. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total). In histopathological study was also carried out.The 95% methanolic extract of fruit of Macrotyloma uniflorum (MEMUS) at the dose of (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) produced a dose dependant  reduction in biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total) as well as in morphological parameters in D-Galctosamine and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The histopathological study further supported the hepatoprotective activity of the test extract. Maximum protection was seen at 400mg/kg Macrotyloma uniflorum seed extract. The results of the present investigation indicated that Macrotyloma uniflorum seed has significant hepatoprotactive properties.

HITESHKUMAR BHOGILAL PARMAR

2012-01-01

337

A Comparative Study on the Urinary System of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus Waterhouse) and the Wistar Rat  

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A comparative study was carried out on the urinary system of the African Giant Rat (AGR) and the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean liveweight of the AGR and WR were 863.590±33.740 and 140.625±6.078 g, respectively. The mean kidney weight of the male and female AGR and WR...

B.I. Onyeanusi; A.A. Adeniyi; J.O. Ayo; C.S. Ibe; C.G. Onyeanusi

338

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group.

Stovolosov IS; Dubynin VA; Kamensky AA

2011-01-01

339

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group. PMID:21240335

Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

2011-01-01

340

Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

2008-01-01

342

EVALUATION OF ANTI DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF MARSILEA MINUTA LINN AGAINST ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was design with an aim to evaluate the Ethanolic leaf extract of Marsilea minuta Linn (EEMM). The study was performed on ethanolic extract of MM leaf in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and alloxan-induced diabetes models in albino rats. Three weeks treatment of diabetic animals with EEMM (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant check in rise of blood glucose compared to untreated diabetic rats along with improved complete lipid profile. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were estimated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were found to be significantly reduced (p<0.05) in EEMM treated rats and the extract also showed the potent elevation in the level of serum HDL cholesterol. On the basis of analysis of data obtained during the study, it may be concluded that EEMM leaf is having significant antihyperglycemic potential and can be further fractionated in order to get a responsible constituent for this very action.

S.Madhu; V.Kannabirran; P.Royal Frank; M.Sathish Reddy; N.Gnanasekar

2012-01-01

343

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral) And Ddb (Hepato Protective) Drugs In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG) , total protein (TP) albumin (ALB) , Iron (Fe) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-01-01

344

Methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: influence on methylphenidate self-administration and reinstatement in comparison with Wistar rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant given for extended periods of time as a treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The long-term effects of the drug are not yet known, and it is speculated that repeated exposure may produce drug dependence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of repeated methylphenidate treatment on methylphenidate self-administration and reinstatement in the most validated animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and Wistar rat, strain representing the "normal" heterogeneous population. METHODS: Rats were administered intraperitoneally with saline or methylphenidate (2 mg/kg) for 14 days, prior to experiments. Thereafter, responses for intravenous methylphenidate under the fixed ratio (FR1 and FR3) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules were assessed. Extinction experiments followed, as well as tests to determine the ability of intraperitoneal administration of methylphenidate (2 and 5 mg/kg) to reinstate extinguished drug-seeking behaviors in rats. RESULTS: Previous exposure to methylphenidate enhanced methylphenidate self-administration in Wistar rats but not in SHR (FR3). Methylphenidate pretreatment reduced responding for methylphenidate in SHR but did not affect self-administration behaviors of Wistar rats (PR). Methylphenidate pre-exposure robustly reinstated drug-seeking behaviors in Wistar rats, but not in SHR. CONCLUSION: The contrasting effects of repeated methylphenidate treatment in methylphenidate self-administration and reinstatement in Wistar and SHR, and the increased susceptibility of the Wistar rat strain to the reinforcing effects of methylphenidate indicate that "normal" individuals are more likely to develop psychological dependence to the drug and experience relapse. Meanwhile, the clinical use of methylphenidate may not produce drug dependence or relapse in ADHD patients.

dela Peña I; Yoon SY; Lee JC; dela Peña JB; Sohn AR; Ryu JH; Shin CY; Cheong JH

2012-05-01

345

Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C  

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg); group II was gi...

Muftau Shittu; Suleiman F. Ambali; Joseph O. Ayo; Mohammed Y. Fatihu; Mohammed M. Sulaiman; Lukuman S. Yaqub

346

The effects of sub-lethal doses of smokeless tobacco (snuff) on certain hematological and hemostatic parameters in Wistar rats  

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Objective: We investigated the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of orogastrically-administered tobacco on some hematological and hemostatic parameters of Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty young male Wistar rats with weights between 170-220 g were used for the study. The oral LD50 for the tobacco snuff...

Ukoha Ukoha; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Stephen Maduka

347

Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

2004-01-01

348

Research: ALTERATIONS IN HEMATOCELLULAR COMPONENTS OF ALBINO RATS DUE TO METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Amaranthus spinosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s scenario people rely on herbal medicines for health care, because the other treatment options available are more expensive and are often associated with serious side effects. Therefore, there should be scientific documentation of information on the safety/toxic risk potentials of plants. Present study is therefore designed to study the hematocellular indices i.e. Red blood cell count (RBC), White blood cell count ( WBC) and Hemoglobin (Hb), following oral administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus at a dose of 250mg/kg body weight in albino rats. The study was carried out by single and daily administration of dose for 5, 7 & 14 days. Results revealed that the RBC and WBC count as well as Hb% was significantly altered due to administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus.

Ankita Srivastava*; Kusum Singh; Tariq Gul; Vinita Ahirwar

2011-01-01

349

Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Histochemical results showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins in hepatic tissues. Moreover, liver function enzymes (ALT, AST) were elevated in sera of carbendazim-treated animals. Coadministration of EGB with Carbendazim improved the hisological and histochemical changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, EGB treatment leads to a significant decrease in ALT and AST. According to the present results, it is concluded that EGB can improve the hepatotoxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of Ginko biloba extract.

Faiza A. Mahboub; Hawazen A. Lamfon

2013-01-01

350

Haemato-biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Khaya senegalensis Stem Bark on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

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The haemato-biochemical effects of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis were tested against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. All rats were treated orally for 8 days. Rats in group 1 served as control group and received disti...

S.M.A. El Badwi; A.O. Bakhiet; E.H. Abdel Gadir

351

[Effects of ethanol on GTP binding protein function in rat cerebral cortex: strain difference between Wistar and Fischer 344 rats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of ethanol on GTP-binding protein of cortical adenylate cyclase (AC) system in the Wistar and Fischer 344 rats was examined. In both Wistar and Fischer 344 rats, ethanol (100mM) potentiated Gpp (NH) p-stimulated AC activity and decreased EC50 for Gpp (NH)p in the cerebral cortical membrane (CCM). Ethanol treatment also augmented Mn-stimulated AC activity in Wistar CCM, whereas there was no significant change in Fischer 344 CCM. IC50 calculated from the Gpp (NH)p (0.01-0.3 microM) inhibition of forskolin-stimulated AC was decreased by ethanol treatment in Wistar CCM, but this was not the case in Fischer 344 CCM. There was no appreciable change in ADP-ribosylation of Gs and Gi in CCM with pertussis or cholera toxin. These results suggest that ethanol in vitro enhances the Gi function as well as affecting the Gs function in Wistar rat cortical AC system, and the effect of ethanol on Gi protein are different in Wistar and Fischer 344 CCM.

Hatta S; Ohshika H; Ashizawa T; Ozawa H; Koike Y; Takahata N; Saito T

1990-06-01

352

Comparison of the alcohol-preferring P rat to the Wistar rat in behavioral tests of impulsivity and anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the selectively bred alcohol preferring P rat displays impulsive and anxiety-related behaviors, as have been noted in Type 2 human alcoholics, P rats were compared with outbred Wistar rats, the strain from which P rats were derived, on a series of behaviors reflecting impulsivity and anxiety. The two groups were also compared on their volitional consumption of ethanol. When compared with the Wistar rats, the P rats preferred a higher concentration of ethanol and imbibed a much greater amount of ethanol when they were offered their preferred concentration. However, the behavioral tasks produced inconsistent results. The P rats completed 100 bar presses for food in less time when tested on a constant reinforcement schedule, which suggests that they are hyperactive compared to Wistar rats. However, the P rats also emitted a higher percentage of reinforced responses on differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL)-10s and gnawed less from a cork stopper, which suggests that they are less impulsive and possibly neophobic. The two groups did not differ on emergence into or activity in an open field, their activity in or open-arm duration in the elevated plus maze, or performance on DRL-5s and DRL-15s. Collectively, the behavioral data suggest that P rat does not serve as a model for the anxiety and impulsiveness associated with the Type 2 alcoholic individual. PMID:9469729

McMillen, B A; Means, L W; Matthews, J N

1998-02-01

353

Comparison of the alcohol-preferring P rat to the Wistar rat in behavioral tests of impulsivity and anxiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether the selectively bred alcohol preferring P rat displays impulsive and anxiety-related behaviors, as have been noted in Type 2 human alcoholics, P rats were compared with outbred Wistar rats, the strain from which P rats were derived, on a series of behaviors reflecting impulsivity and anxiety. The two groups were also compared on their volitional consumption of ethanol. When compared with the Wistar rats, the P rats preferred a higher concentration of ethanol and imbibed a much greater amount of ethanol when they were offered their preferred concentration. However, the behavioral tasks produced inconsistent results. The P rats completed 100 bar presses for food in less time when tested on a constant reinforcement schedule, which suggests that they are hyperactive compared to Wistar rats. However, the P rats also emitted a higher percentage of reinforced responses on differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL)-10s and gnawed less from a cork stopper, which suggests that they are less impulsive and possibly neophobic. The two groups did not differ on emergence into or activity in an open field, their activity in or open-arm duration in the elevated plus maze, or performance on DRL-5s and DRL-15s. Collectively, the behavioral data suggest that P rat does not serve as a model for the anxiety and impulsiveness associated with the Type 2 alcoholic individual.

McMillen BA; Means LW; Matthews JN

1998-02-01

354

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC) is also given to another group to support the results at the concentration of 3 mg/kg body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Diabetic control received vehicle. Body weight showed significant increase (MK and PG: p<0.05, CR and GBC: p<0.001) after 15 days of treatment with herbal extract when compared with the control. Blood glucose level on 15th day of treatment become significantly low (p<0.001). At the termination of the experiment (on 15th day) the urine glucose and ketone were absent in herbal treated group which was present in the diabetic control. Histological study of the pancreas also assesses the results of body weight and blood glucose level. Islets of diabetic control group were damaged, shrunken in size and infiltration of lymphocytes was observed. While islets of herbal extracts treated rats were comparable to normal rats. Many rounds and elongated islets were evenly distributed through out the cytoplasm. No significant histological alteration was found in glomeruli or any other segment of kidney tubule in STZ induced diabetic rats. In herbal extract treated group no difference was found in kidney tubules when compare with their respective diabetic control. Findings of the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of leaves of MK, PG and CR at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about significant beneficial effects in various physiological/ histological parameters altered during diabetic manifestations and these effects are quite comparable with glibenclamide (a standard drug used to treat diabetes mellitus).

S.K. Prasad; Alka Kulshreshtha; Taj N. Qureshi

2009-01-01

355

Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy

2008-01-01

356

Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract) was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12) and 76.7% (8 of 12) vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

Mathew Joe; Thomas V; Thomas Issac

2003-01-01

357

Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on lipid peroxidation, nucleic acids and protein against restraint stress in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Effect of restraint stress on brain oxidative stress parameters and their modulation by Ocimum sanctum Linn(OS) were evaluated in male albino rats. Rats were subjected to restraint / immobilization stress 3h/day for 6consecutive days. Post administration of aqueous extract of OS (100 mg/kg for 6 consecutive days) wasgiven following restraint stress. MDA a marker of lipid peroxidation, nucleic acids and proteins wereestimated in cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Exposure to restraint stress caused a significantelevation in the rate of lipid peroxidation, reduction in nucleic acids and proteins as compared to control in allthree regions of brain of male albino rats. Post treatment of aqueous extract of OS prevented the stressinduced changes in these biochemical parameters. The results of the study indicate the protective nature ofOS on different regions of brain against the detrimental effect of restraint stress.

I Tabassum; ZN Siddiqui; SJ Rizvi

2009-01-01

358

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day), Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day), Group III: rats were fed with combined mixture of 70% of high-fat diet with 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day), Group IV: rats were fed a high fat diet was administered with pioglitazone (25mg/kg of body weight) via intravenous in each day, Group V: rats were fed combined mixture of 70% standard laboratory pellet and 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day). The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (thirteen week) period. High fat fed rat registered significantly increase in body weight and liver weight at the end of experimental period. The high fat fed rat substantially elevated its serum and liver tissue AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin with decreased in total protein levels. Whereas the levels of all parameterssignificantly restored towards normalization by the sesame meal treatment. The results obtained suggest that the sesame meal have potent hepatoprotective action on high fat fed rats. A comparison of the performance in both sesame meal and pioglitazone treatment on high fat fed rat in respect of hepato-protective role is clearly indicate that the sesame meal treatment was more or less very equal to the result of pioglitazone as well as to the normal level.

Anitha Uthandi; Karuppasamy Ramasamy

2011-01-01

359

ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

360

Evaluation of the Toxicity of Pradosia huberi Extract during the Preimplantation in Wistar Rats  

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The treatment during the embryonic preimplantation phase of Wistar rats with the Pradosia huberi extract did not interfere with the water and feed consumption, as well as upon the body-weight gain. However, it has expressed a decrease of the uterine implant number, followed by the preimplantation lo...

Rocha, Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista; Sousa, Liliane de Queirós; Mota, Clélia de Alencar Xavier; Santos, Elane Cristina S.

 
 
 
 
361

Developmental effects of Di 2 ethylhexylphthalate on ovarian follicles in Wistar rats  

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"nBackground: In the recent years, concerns have been raised about the incidence of reproductive disorders in human populations. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to Di 2 ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) on postnatal development of ovary in Wistar rat offspring...

Dorostghoal M; Moazedi AA; Ghalambaz E

362

Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)  

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This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin...

Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida

363

Nutritional Merits of a Ginger-Spiced Cheese Fed to Male Wistar Rats  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional merits of ginger-spiced cheese in terms of body weight gain and feed utilization, blood lipid profile and implantation of micro-organisms in the gastrointestinal tract of consumers. Four groups of male Wistar rats of 9 per group housed 3 per cage...

S.D. Mendi; C.W. Nain; M.Y. Mfopit; A. Tanya; M.F. Carl Mbofung

364

BCG Induces Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in the Wistar Rat Model  

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Our understanding of the correlation of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-mediated immune responses and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still limited. We have recently characterized a Wistar rat model of experimental tuberculosis (TB). In the present ...

Singhal, Amit; Mathys, Vanessa; Kiass, Mehdi; Creusy, Colette; Delaire, Baptiste; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dartois, Véronique

365

Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats  

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Wistar rats of 6–8 weeks in age weighing between 120–150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD50) and carbofuran (50% LD50) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD50 of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms o...

Rai, Devendra K.; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

366

Amikacin Induces Renal Morphohistological Alterations in Wistar Rats/ Alterações Morfohistológicas Renais Induzidas pela Amicacina em Ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi investigar as alterações morfohistológicas da amicacina em ratos. Ratos Wistar machos com idade de 8-12 meses e peso 200-250 g foram mantidos em temperatura (23±2°C) ambiente controlada com ciclos claro/escuro 12/12h. 25 ratos foram distribuídos em 5 grupos experimentais, cada grupo com 5 animais. 4 grupos receberam uma dose diária de amicacina de 15 mg/Kg pela via intraperitoneal. O grupo-controle foi tratado com 0,9% solu? (more) ?ão salina por 28 dias. Aos grupos I, II, III e IV foram administrados pela via intraperitoneal amicacina por 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, respectivamente. Lâminas de tecido renal foram coradas com o reagente PAS e examinadas pela microscopia de luz. A morfologia das estruturas coradas pelo PAS do glomérulo renal foi avaliada nos diferentes grupos experimentais através de scores aplicando-se análise estatística de Kruskal-Wallis e Teste de comparação múltipla de Dunn’s com nível de signi?cância de 5%. Os resultados da microscopia mostraram que os rins dos grupos tratados com amicacina por 3 a 4 semanas apresentaram necrose celular (p Abstract in english The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the morphohistological effects of amikacin in rats. Male Wistar rats aged 8-12 weeks and weighing 200-250g were placed in a temperature (23±2°C) controlled room in which a 12/12h light: dark cycle was maintained. Twenty-?ve rats were randomly assigned to ?ve experimental groups of ?ve animals each that received daily treatment with 15 mg/kg of amikacin intraperitoneally. The control group was tre (more) ated with 0.9% saline for 28 days. Groups I, II, III and IV were injected intaperitoneally with amikacin for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. Renal tissues slides were stained with PAS reagent and examined light microscopy. The morphology of the PAS stained structures of the renal glomeruli was evaluated in the different experimental groups using scores. The renal morphohistology and the morphologic analysis of PAS staining were analysed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons Test (5% statistical signi?cance). The results show microscopically that kidneys in the groups treated with amikacin for 3 and 4 weeks showed marked cellular necrosis (p

Sousa, Vanessa Barboza de; Dutra, Ilana Jozi Pereira; Lucena, Hévio Freitas de; Medeiros, Hilkéia Carla de Souza; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; Araújo Júnior, Raimundo F. de; Araújo, Aurigena A.; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa

2009-11-01

367

Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. RESULTS: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats.

Anantha KC; Siva RC; Manohar RA

2012-10-01

368

WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5%) less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01), but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10%) had most wound shrinkage and organization.

Ch. Sampath kumar; Rajender.Arutla; D.Swaroopa; K. Sridhar Rao

2012-01-01

369