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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423 showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg in 24 h and 14 day observation period. For repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407 extract was given at dose of 50, 200, and 800 mg/kg and limit dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days and compared with the control group given with the distilled water. The result showed no significant increase (P>0.05 in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine and haematological parameters. No significant decrease in feed consumption and body weight gain, also there were no treatment related gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, methanolic leaf extract of F. virens did not revealed any clinical signs of toxicity and mortality in both acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study at given dose and duration in Wistar albino rats. LD50 value may be more than 2000 mg/kg, can be classified as category 5 and indicating non-toxic nature of the methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens.

Pattar Jayashree

2012-12-01

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Effect of Trans Fatty Acids Consumption on Some Haematological Indices in Albino Wistar Rats  

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented...

Egbung, G. E.; Essien, E. U.; Atangwho, I. J.

2009-01-01

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Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

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Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

2012-01-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

Anurag Payasi

2010-04-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Tridham (TD), a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr) and subacute toxicity (28 days) and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies perfor...

Ravindran Jaganathan; Vijaya Ravinayagam; Sachdanandam Panchanadham; Shanthi Palanivelu

2012-01-01

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks) was used as a test model. Repeated immobilization stress significantly decreased glutathione (GSH), RNA and total protein levels, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were elevated in brain and liver tissues. Daily drinking of green or b...

Al-rejaie, Salim S.

2009-01-01

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Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats  

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Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

R. Arunkumar

2014-04-01

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Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestock)in Wistar Albino Rat  

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An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India), was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were adminis...

Ahmad, A. H.; Rekhe, D. S.; Ravikanth, K.; Maini, S.

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats  

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The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantl...

Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

2012-01-01

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Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available FC Onwuka1, KC Patrick-I wuanyanwu1, CK Nnodu1, O Erhabor21Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAbstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D of experimental male wistar albino rats (n = 8 for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8 served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01 > B (0.18 ± 0.01 > C (0.14 ± 0.01 > D (0.10 ± 0.01. The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.Keywords: calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine, antireproductive, antihypertensive drugs, gonadal steroid, and low libido

FC Onwuka

2010-03-01

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Hematobiochemical changes of lead Poisoning and amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263

Anjaneyulu Y.

2011-12-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD, a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr and subacute toxicity (28 days and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan

2012-08-01

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2. Effect of ghrelin hormone on ovary histology in female wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the ovary of immature and mature wistar strain female albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin hormone. Methods: Eighteen immature female albino rats (65 - 70 g and eighteen mature female albino rats (130 to 140 g were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups (two doses as low dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of ghrelin.Treatment groups were injected with ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were fixed in10 % buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of ovary was studied. Results: Administration of ghrelin indicates well defined changes like reduced number of graffian follicles, some of which show mild degenerative changes like disorganized cells. Reduction in number of corpus luteal cells, prominent Stromal tissues, congestion of blood vessels were also seen in the ovaries of animals in mature female rats of optimum dose. There was no significant change in histoarchitecture of immature ovary of treated groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight but decreased ovarian weight in treated animals when compared with control. Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the ovaries of mature albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and affects fertility.

S. Antony Selvi

2012-08-01

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HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

Kanakasabapathi Devaki

2011-09-01

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Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

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Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

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Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.  

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Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

2013-07-01

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1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn.) Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic...

2010-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

V. Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

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COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

2006-01-01

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ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

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Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg) produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic ind...

Mahalakshmi, R.; Rajesh, P.; Ramesh, N.; Balasubramanian, V.; Rajesh Kannan, V.

2010-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2013-11-01

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

Thamizh Selvam N

2011-11-01

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GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

Khumanthem Deepak Singh

2011-02-01

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Isolating globose Basal stem cells from albino wistar rats using a highly specific monoclonal antibody.  

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Introduction: Olfactory mucosa which is situated in the roof of the nasal cavity possesses an extremely peculiar and exceptional type of pluripotent stem cells called Globose Basal Cells (GBCs) which help in lifelong regeneration of the olfactory mucosa. Previous literature doesn't provide much knowledge on the cytological, histochemical and electrophysiological properties of these cells, as they have never been isolated in pure form. Material and Methods: Olfactory mucosa was obtained from six Albino Wistar rats by using standardized surgical and chemical separation procedures. GBCs were isolated by using different chemical, surgical and fluorescent techniques. Results: In this research work, we standardized the techniques for isolating these stem cells in pure form from rat olfactory mucosa by tagging them with GBC-III antibody and separating them from other epithelial cells by using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). GBC-III antibody is a mouse monoclonal IgM antibody which recognizes a 40 kDa surface antigen, which is a laminin receptor surface protein present on the GBCs. It is a highly specific marker for GBCs, unlike the earlier antibodies used, like GBC-I, which were nonspecific markers for GBCs and showed positive reactions, even with Horizontal Basal Cells (HBCs), sustentacular cells (Sus) and duct cells. This study also standardized the techniques for surgically excising the olfactory mucosa from the nasal septum and chemically separating the olfactory epithelium from the lamina propria. Conclusion: GBCs are an important group of cells which can be exploited in future to study and treat neuro-degenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis, brain ischaemia, etc. and spinal cord trauma, as they reside in a niche similar to the microenvironment in the central nervous system and have the similar ectodermal development as the neuronal and non-neuronal cells of the CNS. Moreover, olfactory epithelium is easily accessible for autologous transplantation of GBCs for different CNS disorders. PMID:24392361

Thakur, Avinash; Muniswami, Duraimurugan; Tharion, George; Kanakasabapathy, Indirani

2013-11-01

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Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20?C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.

Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

2012-09-01

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Impact of sperm retrieval [corrected] on testis and epididymis: an experimental study using Wistar albino rats.  

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The aim of this study was to analyze pathophysiological changes after testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) procedures. Twenty four mature male Wistar albino rats with a proven breeding history, weighing approximately 200-250 gm were used for the study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6), i.e., control, sham-control, unilateral TESA, and MESA. Using a 22G needle, the aspiration procedures were done in testis or caudal epididymis. At the end of 60 days of survival, blood samples were collected and processed for antisperm antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After euthanasia, testes and epididymides were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL technique. Serum antisperm antibody titer significantly increased in TESA (P < 0.001) when compared to MESA. Histomorphometric analysis indicated testicular alterations in TESA and MESA, with significant damage in TESA in both testes (P < 0.001). Following the MESA procedure, ipsilateral caudal and carpus epididymis showed significant alterations (P < 0.001) and no such alterations were seen in the ipsilateral caput and intact contralateral epididymis. TUNEL staining revealed an up-regulation of apoptosis in both contra- and ipsilateral testes of TESA. Needle prick had produced drastic and irreversible alterations in testis of TESA. Ensuing processes of immunological and inflammatory reaction had the potential to disrupt spermatogenesis and increase germ cell apoptosis. However, extrapolating conclusions from the experimental model to the clinic needs to be done cautiously. PMID:23758531

Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Suresh, Sekar; Manivannan, Monica; Prakash, Seppan

2013-10-01

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ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Sudeep Kumar Patra

2012-08-01

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Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male wistar albino rats  

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FC Onwuka1, KC Patrick-I wuanyanwu1, CK Nnodu1, O Erhabor21Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAbstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body we...

Fc, Onwuka; Kc, Patrick-i Wuanyanwu; Ck, Nnodu; et al

2010-01-01

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Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K

2011-03-01

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Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

Mirza Danish Baig

2014-04-01

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Effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino Wistar rats.  

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The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n = 6), treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p.) and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100%) (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p.), or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p.), were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA) (18 : 3, n - 3) on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic), and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis. PMID:24027769

Arya, Ekta; Saha, Sudipta; Saraf, Shubhini A; Kaithwas, Gaurav

2013-01-01

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Effect of Moringaoleifera leaf extract on cadmium induced renal toxicity in adult Wistar Albino rats  

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Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, a transitional metal, is an important industrial & environmental toxicant, adversely affecting various organs like liver, lungs, pancreas, testis, kidneys, etc., It has been found to cause a definitive oxidative stress on the kidneys of studied rats. Moringaoleifera, a perennial softwood herbal plant, having anti-oxidant, anti- inflammatory properties, etc., which has been advocated for centuries for its nutritional, medicinal & industrial uses, is most oftenlyused to combat toxicity of these materials.The present study was designed to find out the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Moringaoleiferaon kidney functions in cadmium exposed adult wistar rats. Four groups were allotted, with group I being the control. Pre-treatment with Moringaoleiferaleaf extract in cadmium exposed rats showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum urea&serum creatinine levels as compared to the cadmium alone treated rats. Therefore, the present study suggests that pre-treatment with Moringaoleiferaleaf extract improves the kidney functions which were affected by the toxic effect of cadmium. However, further investigations are needed to know the detailed mechanisms triggering these effects.

Pratik Kumar Chatterjee

2013-07-01

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Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

2011-01-01

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Wound healing activity of Origanum vulgare engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Wistar Albino rats.  

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The titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2·NPs) were synthesized utilizing Origanum vulgare under room temperature. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs excitation was confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 320 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed TiO2·NPs are spherical in shape and connected with one another. Dynamic light scattering analysis results specified high stability in nanoparticles, with an average particle size of 341 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks revealed the presence of bioactive functional groups in Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract much needed for the TiO2·NPs formation. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the TiO2·NPs are amorphous in nature. Furthermore, the green synthesized TiO2·NPs wound healing activity was examined in the excision wound model by measuring wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling, revealed significant wound healing activity in Albino rats. In conclusion, our results bared TiO2·NPs have delivered a novel therapeutic route for wound treatment in clinical practice. PMID:24682905

Sankar, Renu; Dhivya, Ravishankar; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-07-01

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1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn. Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were observed. Histological observation of pancreas also studied. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to alloxan treated rats showed significantly decrease in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, where as plasma insulin, hemoglobin, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly increased. Histopathological observation of pancreas reverses the trends towards normalcy. Hence, it can be concluded that Asteracantha longifolia leaf extracts may be prove to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to increase insulin secretion and enhance the antioxidant activity.

M. Muthulingam

2010-04-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

K. Konaté

2012-06-01

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The Quantitative Phytochemistry and Hypoglycaemic Properties of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The quantitative Phytochemistry and hypoglycaemic properties of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on normoglycemic wistar albino rats were investigated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica was bought in September 2012 from Gamboru market, Borno State, North eastern, Nigeria. One hundred and 50 g of aqueous product were prepared by reflux method from three hundred and 50 g of initial powdered sample. Phytochemical screening for biochemical and elemental contents were conducted. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids. Elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration, manganese, zinc and silicon is low, whereas the amount of nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead are negligible. Administration of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica in normoglycemic rats at the dosage of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 for four weeks significantly (pHyphaene thebaica crude mesocarp extract in the management of Diabetes mellitus in Borno State, Nigeria.

Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

K. Konaté

2011-02-01

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Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing in Wistar Albino rats.  

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Centella asiatica is a reputed medicinal plant used in the treatment of various skin diseases in the Indian system of medicine. The objective of the study presented in this article was to evaluate the wound-healing potential of the ethanolic extract of the plant in both normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing. The study was done on Wistar albino rats using incision, excision, and dead space wounds models. The extract of C asiatica significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model compared to controls (P < .001). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds (P < .001). Wet and dry granulation tissue weights, granulation tissue breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model also increased at statistically significant levels as shown. The extract of the leaves had the effect of attenuating the known effects of dexamethasone healing in all wound models (P < .001, P < .05). The results indicated that the leaf extract promotes wound healing significantly and is able to overcome the wound-healing suppressing action of dexamethasone in a rat model. These observations were supported by histology findings. PMID:16928669

Shetty, B Somashekar; Udupa, S L; Udupa, A L; Somayaji, S N

2006-09-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of ...

Tamta, A.; Chaudhary, M.; Sehgal, R.

2010-01-01

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Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers...

Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Igile Godwin, O.; Mgbeje, B. I. A.

2013-01-01

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Effect of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on White Blood Cells and Differential Leucocytic Count in Wistar Albino Rats  

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The effect of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica on white blood cell and differential leucocytic counts in wistar albino rats was evaluated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica collected were ground into fine powder, extracted by reflux method and subjected to phytochemical screening for biochemical principles. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac gly...

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Fatima Adamu Lawan; Kyari Abba Sanda; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi; Amina Ibrahim; Isa Adamu Gulani; Bitrus Wampana; Lateefat, Giwa I.; Yagana Kibon

2012-01-01

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The Quantitative Phytochemistry and Hypoglycaemic Properties of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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The quantitative Phytochemistry and hypoglycaemic properties of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm) on normoglycemic wistar albino rats were investigated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica was bought in September 2012 from Gamboru market, Borno State, North eastern, Nigeria. One hundred and 50 g of aqueous product were prepared by reflux method from three hundred and 50 g of initial powdered sample. Phytochemical screening for biochemical and elemental...

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Fatima Abba Lawan; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Amina Ibrahim; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Kyari Abba Sanda; Abubakar Muhammad Wakil; Ahmad Bello Thaluvwa

2012-01-01

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CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

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Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

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OXALIS CORNICULATA (WHOL PLANT EXTRACTS EXHIBIT ESTROGENIC ACTIVITIES IN WISTAR STRAIN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Studies are conducted to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of petroleum ether and ethanol extract of Oxalis corniculata whole plant. Both the extract at the dose level of 10 and 20 mg/100mg body weight were administrated for 7 days to ovariectomised rats, along with or without 1mg ethinyl estradiol. Suitable controls were maintained. The extract treated rats exhibited extragonic effect that include increase in uterine weight and vaginal epithelial cell cornification. The micrometric measerments of uterus and its components were increased and gland indicate high secretary activity. When the above extract were tested for estrogenic activity in 30 days old immunature rat the above estrogenic activity were confirmed along with early opening of vagina. Hence, the results indicate the potent estrogenic nature of petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Oxalis corniculata whole plant among which the former is more effective.

SARASWATI B. PATIL

2006-01-01

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Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters  

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Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters co...

2012-01-01

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Induction of epoxide hydrolase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase by phenethyl isothiocyanate in male Wistar albino rats.  

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Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06?µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6?µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0?µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

2014-01-01

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Concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of the wistar albino and wild black rats: a comparative study.  

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The concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in the major organs of Wistar albino (Rattus norvegicus) and wild black rats (Rattus rattus) were measured by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The copper levels in the kidneys and liver of the Wistar albino rats (WARs) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the wild black rats (WBRs). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of zinc in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain between the two study groups, but zinc was significantly higher in the spleen (p<0.05) and lower in the heart (p<0.05) of WAR, compared to WBRs. Iron was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the heart and spleen of WBRs, compared to WARs. There were no extreme differences in the organ concentrations of trace elements between the two species, but, cumulatively, the WARs tend to have higher metallic concentrations in their system than the WBRs. The potential of these differences on the experimental results should not be overlooked and will serve as basis to further consider the complex interrelationships of these animals in their microenvironments and macroenvironments. PMID:15131322

Olusola, A O; Obodozie, O O; Nssien, M; Adaramoye, A; Adesanoye, O; Odama, L E; Emerole, G O

2004-06-01

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High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI, latency period (LP, and tumor multiplicity (TM were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05 induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group.Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions.

Mahboobeh Ashrafi

2012-01-01

56

Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

Shishira Bharadwaj

2013-06-01

57

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001 reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly (P< 0.001 increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.

Vijay P

2008-01-01

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Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.  

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Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230?±?0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819?±?1.539?µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

2013-06-01

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Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Soldier Ant (Dorylus spp Meal in Partial Replacement for Fishmeal on Some Haematological, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Wistar Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and toxic effects of soldier ant meal as a supplement for fishmeal on some haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of wistar albino rats. Thirty rats aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments (T in a complete randomized design with six rats per treatment. The rats were fed with diets containing 0% (T1 (Control, 25 % (T2, 50 % (T3, 75 % (T4 and 100% (T5 soldier ant meal. The experimental diets and drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of three weeks. There were significant reduction (p<0.05 among T2, T3, T4 and T5 for red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb , mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC compared to the control treatment T1. Also, significant increase in the white blood cell count (WBC of the treated rats compared to the control treatment was observed. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the biochemical parameters among the treatments and enzymological study showed significant (p<0.05 increase in the activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in the liver and muscle of T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. It can be concluded that soldier ant meal has adverse effects on the haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of rats.

Odejayi A.O.

2013-10-01

60

Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica pod revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate and glycosides are present, while anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were absent, the fractionated pod extracts showed moderate carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids in ethyl acetate fraction and low amounts in N-butanol fraction. The residue fraction has all the phytochemicals mentioned in the fractionated portions except flavonoids that are absent. There was significant (p-1 of aqueous extract and 800 mg kg-1 of Ethyl-acetate and N-butanol fractionated 12-18 h post extract administration, respectively.

Fatima Abba Lawan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Glycaemic Activity of the Aqueous Pod Extract of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae in Normoglycemic and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Strain Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The study to evaluate glycaemic activity of aqueous pod extract of Acacia nilotica in normal and diabetic Wistar albino rats was conducted. Three hundred and fifty grams of the powdered sample were exhaustively extracted with distilled water using reflux method. Phytochemical investigation of the aqueous extract showed that carbohydrate, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in the extract. The concentrations of Fe, K and Mn in the Acacia nilotica pod extract were within safety limit. However, the concentrations of some other elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, Na, Cd and Cu were much lower than the acceptable levels. Elements like Pb, As and Mo were absent. There was significant (p-1 of aqueous extract at 12 and 18 h post administration. Conclusively it has been deduced from the in vivo study that the extract of this plant can be used in the management of hyperglycemic condition, hence can assist in the management of disease condition such as diabetes.

Amina Ibrahim

2013-01-01

62

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

63

Effect of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on White Blood Cells and Differential Leucocytic Count in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica on white blood cell and differential leucocytic counts in wistar albino rats was evaluated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica collected were ground into fine powder, extracted by reflux method and subjected to phytochemical screening for biochemical principles. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, Terpenes and Terpinoids. The elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration. The amount of zinc and silicon were low whereas, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead were negligible. The crude mesocarp extract administered at the dosages of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (pHyphaene thebaica in the management of parasitic and viral infections in North eastern region of Nigeria.

Amina Ibrahim

2012-01-01

64

Biochemical and Histologic Effect of Dietary Substitution with Solvent Extracted Neem Seed Cake of Albino Rats (wistar strain)  

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The performance of 20 albio rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks was investigated by feeding neem seedcake (NSC) after treatment with solvents. Group 1 and those of group II and III were fed experimental dietscontaining water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol processed neem seed cake respectively as a replacement forsoya bean for a period of 28days. Replacement of soya bean by water processed neem seed depressed thegrowth at the end of 4th week while for the other solvent processing 4th week was a p...

2009-01-01

65

Hepatoprotective effect of Cocculus hirsutus on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in Albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.

Sagar P. Thakare, Hitesh N. Jain, Savita D. Patil and Umesh M. Upadhyay

2009-12-01

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The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.  

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Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in vaginal opening values according to positive control. PMID:24487097

Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

2014-04-01

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Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.  

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Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 ?g (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature. PMID:23955305

Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

2013-11-01

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Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

69

Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.  

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The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. PMID:20570120

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

2011-11-01

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Uridine modulates neuronal activity and inhibits spike-wave discharges of absence epileptic Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats.  

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Pharmacological and functional data suggest the existence of uridine (Urd) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, simultaneous extracellular single unit recording and microiontophoretic injection of the pyrimidine nucleoside Urd was used to provide evidence for the presence of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of Long Evans rats. Twenty-two neurons in the thalamus (24% of recorded neurons) and 17 neurons in the cortex (55%) responded to the direct iontophoresis of Urd. The majority of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and cortex (82% and 59%, respectively) increased their firing rate in response to Urd. In contrary, adenosine (Ado) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) decreased the firing rate of all responding neurons in the thalamus, and the majority of responding neurons in the cortex (83% and 87%, respectively). Functional relevance of Urd-sensitive neurons was investigated in spontaneously epileptic freely moving Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 500mg/kg Urd decreased epileptic activity (210-270min after injection) in both rat strains. Intraperitoneal administration of 1000mg/kg Urd decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) between 150-270min and 90-270min in Long Evans and WAG/Rij rats, respectively. The effect of Urd was long-lasting in both rat strains as the higher dose significantly decreased the number of SWDs even 24h after Urd injection. The present results suggest that Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex may play a role in the antiepileptic action of Urd possibly via modulation of thalamocortical neuronal circuits. PMID:23707857

Kovács, Zsolt; Slézia, Andrea; Bali, Zsolt Kristóf; Kovács, Péter; Dobolyi, Arpád; Szikra, Tamás; Hernádi, István; Juhász, Gábor

2013-08-01

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Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica pod revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate and glycosides are present, while anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were absent, the fractionated pod extracts showed ...

Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Sanni Saka; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Kyari Abba Sanda; Amina Ibrahim; Fatima Abba Lawan; Ahmad Bello Thaluvwa; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don Pulp Oil on Serum Lipid Parameters in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was compounded using the oil extract (10%, whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%. After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p>0.05 alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%. Insignificant (p>0.05 increases in the weights (g 100 g-1 BW of the liver (2.91±0.17 to 3.38±0.25, kidney (0.36±0.06 to 0.40±0.02 and heart (0.32±0.02 to 0.33±0.04 were observed in the test group. No significant change (p>0.05 in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%, linoleic acid (28.6%,oleic acid (12.9%, stearic acid (5.0%, lauric acid (2.2%, linolenic acid (1.7% and myristic acid (0.9%. The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered.

C.N. Ezekwesili

2014-01-01

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Protective Response of Dried Stems of Cassia auriculata against Carbon Tetrachloride induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Chronic liver diseases commonly result in liver fibrosis. Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) is widely used for experimental induction of liver fibrosis. It is a potent heptotoxin producing centrilobular necrosis which causes liver injury. Five groups of 3 rats each were used. First group (normal control) was given 1 ml of liquid paraffin /kg b.wt. Daily for 21 days and kept as normal control. Rats of the second group were given the same dose of liquid paraffin, in addition CCl4 (30% in li...

Swathi, P.; Jagadeesh Kumar, T.; Madhu Babu, M.; Ch. Vijay

2011-01-01

74

Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Indian Medicinal Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden Shower in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn. (ELE in experimental rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models, while the antipyretic effect was evaluated using against TAB vaccine induced pyrexia. Various doses of ELE (50, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg kg-1b.wt., were tested for its anti-inflammatory effect and the results were compared with standard drugs (diclofenac and indomethacin. Results indicate that the ELE significantly inhibited both the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and cotton-pellet granuloma in a dose dependant manner. ELE at 250 and 500 mg kg-1b.wt., reduced TAB vaccine induced pyrexia in rats after 60 min, whereas at 750 mg kg-1b.wt., it reduced the vaccine induced elevated body temperature post 30 min of its administration. The results suggest that there exists a potential benefit in utilizing Cassia fistula Linn. in treating conditions associated with inflammation and fever. These properties can be attributed to the presence of phyto constituents present in ELE and the exact mechanism needs to be elucidated.

C.V.R. Mohan

2010-01-01

75

A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

1978-10-01

76

Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.

Al-Rejaie Salim

2012-03-01

77

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of {sup 14}C elimination, mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of {sup 14}C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of {sup 14}C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of {sup 14}C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Toxicokinetics Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

1998-04-01

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Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of a...

Ayfer Aktas; Serhan Tasdemir, M.; Cudi Tuncer, M.; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hüsnü Alper Bagriyanik

2011-01-01

79

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received ...

Raji, Y.; Ifabunmi, S. O.; Akinsomisoye, O. S.; Morakinyo, A. O.; Oloyo, A. K.

2005-01-01

80

Histopathological studies on the effect of bacteriocin producing Bacillus cereus isolate from ‘wara’ a local soft cheese on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs of Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aims: This study was done to generate a baseline data on the effect of Bacillus cereus and its bacteriocin on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs in both sexes at different concentration.Methodology and results: B. cereus and its bacteriocin were injected intramuscularly in male and female Wistar rats at doses equivalent to 102 CFU and 104 CFU dilutions. Body weights were also noted. The liver, kidney and reproductive organs of the animals were examined for histopathological changes. The liver of female rats administered B. cereus at 102 CFU showed portal and cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, diffuse hydropic degeneration and severe interstitial hemorrhages of the kidney was observed when 104 CFU of B. cereus was given. Male rats administered 102 CFU and 104 CFU of B. cereus showed diffuse hydropic degeneration and portal congestion of the liver while at 104 CFU the kidney showed diffuse, moderate interstitial cellular infiltration. This is more evident in the wistar rats administered with bacilli organism than the groups that received the bacteriocin. The reproductive organs of treated animals showed no pathological lesions. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups.Conclusion, significance and impact study: The absence of observable toxic effects of the bacteriocin of B. cereus on the sex organs, is not sufficient to determine the safety of this bacteriocin since pathological lesions were observed in the liver and kidney. We hereby suggest a further study on characterization and purification of this bacteriocin as a biopreservative in items not meant for human use or consumption.

Anyanwu, C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation  

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This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against ?-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in ?-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. ?-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

2010-02-01

82

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation.  

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This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against gamma-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in gamma-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. gamma-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. PMID:20118550

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

2010-01-01

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Design, formulation and optimization of valsartan transdermal gel containing iso-eucalyptol as novel permeation enhancer: preclinical assessment of pharmacokinetics in Wistar albino rats.  

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Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a transdermal gel formulation of valsartan using Box-Behnken design and to evaluate it for pharmacokinetic study. Methods: The independent variables were Carbopol 940 (X1), PEG 400 (X2) and ethanol (X3) while valsartan flux (Y1), Tlag (Y2) and gel viscosity (Y3) were the dependent variables. Iso-eucalyptol was added in all gel formulations as permeation enhancer except for control gel. Results: It was observed that the permeation rate of valsartan significantly increased in direct proportion to the ethanol concentration, but significantly decreased in direct proportion to polymer concentration. Lag time and viscosity decreased in reverse proportion to ethanol concentration. The optimized valsartan gel formulation (VGF-OPT) yielded flux of 143.27 ± 7.11 µg/cm(2)/h and 27.55 ± 2.51 µg/cm(2)/h across rat and human cadaver skin, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of VGF-OPT-transdermal therapeutic system containing iso-eucalyptol showed a significant increase in the bioavailability (2.52 times) compared with oral formulation of valsartan by virtue of better permeation through Wistar rat skin. Conclusion: It was concluded that the developed transdermal gel accentuates the flux of valsartan and could be used as an antihypertensive dosage form for effective transdermal delivery of valsartan. PMID:24830648

Ahad, Abdul; Aqil, Mohd; Kohli, Kanchan; Sultana, Yasmin; Mujeeb, Mohd

2014-08-01

84

Acute oral administration of Khat (Catha edulis aqueous extract elevates blood pressure and prolongs QT and QTC intervals in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of Khat (Catha edulis acute administration on blood pressure (BP and electrocardiogram (ECG in vivo. Methods: This study was performed between January and February 2009 at the Physiology Laboratory, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two groups of Wistar rats (n=10, weighing 190-200 g were divided into control group and Khat treated group. Throughout the study, arterial BP and ECG were recorded for 60 consecutive minutes. The data were collected and analyzed by Power Lab Data Acquisition System every 10 minutes, and were compared within and between the groups. Results: Oral administration of Khat resulted in significant time dependent increases in both systolic and diastolic BP with a maximum increase at minute 60 after extract administration (systolic BP - 34.1%; and diastolic BP - 46.2%. Heart rate was significantly increased at all minutes of the study with a maximum increase occurring at minute 40 (12.8%. There was a significant decrease in PR interval through the experiment, and the maximum decrease was observed at minute 40 (-15.2%. However, QT and QTc started to widen 20 minutes after extract administration with a maximum prolongation in both intervals to occur at minute 40 (QT - 11.6%; QTc - 9.1%. Conclusion: These newly reported changes in the ECG of rats after Khat administration should be a warning regarding the cardiac hazards of Khat chewing.

Fahaid H. Al-Hashem

2012-11-01

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WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY ON THE LEAVES OF ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. BY EXCISION, INCISION, AND DEAD SPACE MODEL ON ADULT WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the wound healing activity of the Indian medicinal plant Achillea millefolium L. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L was studied for its effect on wound healing in Wistar rats, using incision, excision, and dead space model at dose levels of 200mg/kg. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L. showed a definite, positive effect on wound healing with a significant increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight and wet weight content, and breaking strength of granulation tissue. In histopathological studies showed increased collagen when compared to the control. The efficacy of Achillea millefolium L. in wound healing may be due to the presence of active principles, which accelerate the healing process and confers breaking strength to the healed wound. So it is possible to conclude that, this plant has wound healing activity and there by justifying traditional claim.

S. Nirmala

2011-03-01

86

Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats  

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Chlorpirifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA) on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E). A (control) r...

2011-01-01

87

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

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The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built en...

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modlin?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

88

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

89

Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Indian Medicinal Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden Shower) in Wistar Albino Rats  

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The study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn. (ELE) in experimental rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models, while the antipyretic effect was evaluated using against TAB vaccine induced pyrexia. Various doses of ELE (50, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg kg-1b.wt.,) were tested for its anti-inflammatory effect and the r...

Gobianand, K.; Vivekanandan, P.; Pradeep, K.; Mohan, C. V. R.; Karthikeyan, S.

2010-01-01

90

Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.  

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In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

2014-01-01

91

Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats  

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In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500?mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150?min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and 500?mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500?mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and 500?mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Wali, Adil F.; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A.

2014-01-01

92

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

O.J. Olorunfemi

2012-04-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA.LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS.  

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Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hapatoprotective activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn (SHE against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 inducd hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the determination of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin. Histopathological studies were carried out.The serum biochemical analysis results suggest that the use of Ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model. Histopathological studies revealed that concurrent administration of the extract with CCl4 exhibited protective effect on the liver, which further evidenced its hepatoprotective activity.

M.Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

94

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study / Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal. Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvas [...] tatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.

Aktas, Ayfer; Serhan Tasdemir, M; Cudi Tuncer, M; Nergiz, Yusuf; Akkus, Murat; Bagriyanik, Hüsnü Alper.

95

Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups. PMID:23762462

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modli?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

96

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

97

Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentratio...

2011-01-01

98

The Effect of Scopolamine on Avoidance Memory and Hippocampal Neurons in Male Wistar Rats  

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Introduction: Cholinergic systems are involved in learning and memory. Scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, is used as a standard/ reference drug for inducing cognitive deficits in healthy humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of scopolamine on avoidance memory and number of neurons in rat’s hippocampus. . Methods: Thirty five male albino Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were used in this study. The rats were divided randomly into five gr...

2011-01-01

99

Corneal mineralization in wistar hannover rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently started using Wistar Hannover rats in Japan and are now collecting background data. We have been frequently observing corneal mineralization in Wistar Hannover rats of both the RccHan(TM):WIST and Crl:WI (Han) strains. In this study, details of corneal mineralization in Wistar Hannover rats were histopathologically and ultrastructurally investigated. According to the results, Wistar Hannover rats had a much higher incidence of corneal mineralization compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. The incidence of corneal mineralization was higher in males than females. According to the histological examination, mineral deposits were positive for calcium by von Kossa's method. Furthermore, in response to mineralization, keratocytes probably become active to play an important role against the mineralized substance. PMID:24155560

Hashimoto, Satomi; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Sato, Junko; Wada, Sou; Tsuchitani, Minoru

2013-09-01

100

Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n?=?10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n?=?10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n?=?10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20?mg/kg?b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2?mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50?mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100?mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200?mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p?rats. PMID:24116684

Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induce [...] d heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

T.G.G., Zotz; J.B. de, Paula; A.D.L., Moser.

102

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

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Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

2006-01-01

103

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

2006-01-01

104

Toxicological evaluation of Panchakola Avaleha, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, in albino rats  

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The present study was carried out to assess the safety of standardized Panchakola Avaleha on albino rats (Wistar strain). Animals were administered three doses of Panchakola Avaleha by oral routes, viz. higher (500 mg/kg/day), middle (250 mg/kg/day), and therapeutic dose (50 mg/ kg/ day) for 28 consecutive days. Effects of the test drug on hematological, biochemical, and histopathologic parameters were evaluated. This study revealed normal behavior, no mortality, and no significant changes in...

2012-01-01

105

DIURESIS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF POLYHERBALS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.

Naikwade Nilofar S

2011-06-01

106

Ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in male albino rats  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Costus pictus D. Don. rhizome on mitochondrial enzymes in alcohol induced free radical toxicity male albino rats. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats (150-200g) by administering alcohol (0.7ml/kg, orally) once daily for 7 days. CP (50mg/kg, orally) was given for 21 days. After 21 days treatment the selected enzymes such as Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), ...

Maruthappan, V.; Sakthisree, K.

2010-01-01

107

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding...

Sanganal, Jagadeesh S.; Jayakumar.K.; Jayaramu G.M.; V P Tikare, Paniraj K. L. And Swetha R.

2011-01-01

108

Gallic Acid Protects Against Immobilization Stress-Induced Changes In Wistar Rats  

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Background: Stress triggers a wide range of body changes. Herbal medicines are rich in non specific antistress agents.Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antistress effect of gallic acid (GA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, on immobilization induced-stress in male albino Wistar rats.Methods: The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting the rats in 20 cm ? 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were post orally treated with GA at a dose of 1...

2013-01-01

109

Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. PMID:22922192

Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

2012-09-01

110

Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats  

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Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE) against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were dete...

Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Priscilla Kerketta; Reetu Toppo; Naveen Kumar; Birendra kumar Roy

2013-01-01

111

Toxicological evaluation of Panchakola Avaleha, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, in albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to assess the safety of standardized Panchakola Avaleha on albino rats (Wistar strain). Animals were administered three doses of Panchakola Avaleha by oral routes, viz. higher (500 mg/kg/day), middle (250 mg/kg/day), and therapeutic dose (50 mg/ kg/ day) for 28 consecutive days. Effects of the test drug on hematological, biochemical, and histopathologic parameters were evaluated. This study revealed normal behavior, no mortality, and no significant changes in hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations.

Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Banerjee, Rita; Upadhyay, Sachhidananda; Mitra, Achintya; Hazra, Jayram

2012-01-01

112

Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.  

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Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between a...

Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

1982-01-01

113

HEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALBINO RATS FED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus CULTIVATED ON TWO TROPICAL TREES’ SAWDUST (Pycnanthus angolensis AND Spondias mombin)  

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Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae) and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae)) . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats) while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There wa...

Soji Fakoya

2013-01-01

114

Antipyretic Activity of Abutilon mauritianum (Jacq. Roots in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Ethanolic extract of Abutilon mauritianum roots (EEAMR was evaluated for its antipyretic activity. Methodology: The antipyretic activity was done using changes in rectal temperature influenced by brewer’s yeast (10mg/kg and lipopolysaccharide (0.3?g/kg induced pyrexia in rats. Forty-two male wistar albino rats weighing 160.39 ± 9.23g were used for the study and randomized into seven groups of six rats each. In the first experiment, all the rats were induced with pyresis using 10 mg/kg body weight of brewer’s yeast subcutaneously. Group I (negative control was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Rats in groups II (positive control, III and IV were given 100mg/kg p.o paracetamol (PCM, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o of EEAMR respectively. In the second experiment, the rats were induced with pyresis using 0.3 ?g/kg body weight of lipopolysaccharide (LPS intravenously. Group I (negative control was given 0.5 ml of distilled water while groups II (positive control and III were given 100mg/kg p.o paracetamol (PCM and 600 mg/kg p.o of EEAMR respectively. Results: The extract significantly lowered (P<0.05 the elevated rectal temperature in the brewer yeast and lipopolysaccharide induced pyretic models which was also dose dependent. The antipyretic effect of the extract was comparable to the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol (PCM. Conclusion: This revealed that the extract has an antipyretic activity and supports its use in managing fever.

Tosan Charles Akapa

2014-02-01

115

Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

Bahrami?, S.,

2014-05-01

116

Toxicological Effects of Cypermethrin on Female Albino Rats  

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A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of cypermethrin on reproduction of female albino rats. The experimental rats were fed cypermethrin at 50 mg/kg b. wt. continuously for a period of 2 and 4 weeks. Feed and water intake was also noted daily for control, vehicle treated and cypermethrin-treated rats. It was observed that there was no effect on feed and water intake in treated rats as compared to the control group. Chronic exposure to cypermethrin for 4 weeks resulted in loose fecal ...

Sangha, G. K.; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Khera, K. S.; Singh, Balwinder

2011-01-01

117

Gamma radiation effect on the adrenaloctomized albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats of 3 months old was carried out. Whole body irradiation (800, 600, 400, 200, and 0 rad) were performed after adrenalectomy, and the grade of corticosteroid in the blood plasma was then measured (Group A, B). Other groups of rats (group C, D) were injected with corticosteron and its effect on their survival was observed. The difference between its effect on the normal and that on the treated rats was not significant. It also showed that the neuro-endocrin reaction did not give beneficial effect on the irradiated rats. (author)

1976-01-01

118

Enhancement of ovulation by luteinizing hormone in cyclic albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of cyclic albino rats with equine luteinizing hormone (LH) on the afternoon of proestrus significantly enhanced ovulatory capacity. The number of ova shed and the healthy corpora lutea in the ovaries were significantly increased. Ovarian proteolytic enzymes also increased significantly with LH treatment. The histologically normal graafian follicles bound to become atretic in the vehicle-treated animals were altogether absent in the LH-treated rats on the day of estrus. These results indicate that LH enhances the number of ovulations by reducing the preovulatory follicles from atresia and facilitates their rupture by increasing the amount of proteolytic enzymes in them. A single injection of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) given separately was ineffective in inducing superovulation in cyclic albino rats. PMID:1680826

Kaur, C; Guraya, S S

1991-01-01

119

Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

Ashok, B K; Bhat, Savitha D; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-07-01

120

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar)  

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The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain) was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c) injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg) was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001) weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water. Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01 at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01 at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01 at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01. The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji

2005-01-01

122

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R

2013-01-01

123

ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.

Lokesh K. Verma

2012-07-01

124

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

2002-01-01

125

Anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats  

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The study investigated the anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. In this work, thirty six adult strain of albino wistar rats were used, which included six normal, diabetic untreated and twenty four diabetic treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneally injection of 60 mg/kg body weight dose of streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 ml fresh cold citrate buffer pH 4.5 in...

Mohammed, R. K.; Ibrahim, S.; Atawodi, S. E.; Eze, E. D.; Suleiman, J. B.; Ugwu, M. N.; Malgwi, I. S.

2013-01-01

126

Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.

K. Zaman

2012-01-01

127

Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats  

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Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC (Rutaceae), called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA) was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced...

2012-01-01

128

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

129

Megakaryocyte and platelet ultrastructure in the Wistar Furth rat.  

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Wistar Furth (WF) rats were studied and compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to determine if ultrastructural abnormalities in platelets or megakaryocytes could explain their macrothrombocytopenia. WF rats had one third of the platelet count of healthy rats and two times the platelet volume. Megakaryocyte number was decreased and the size of mature stage three megakaryocytes also was decreased. WF platelets had large membranous inclusions, and otherwise showed normal ultrastructural morpholo...

Leven, R. M.; Tablin, F.

1988-01-01

130

Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 [...] ± 3 days), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

Drumond, L.E.; Kushmerick, C.; Guidine, P.A.M.; Doretto, M.C.; Moraes, M.F.D.; Massensini, A.R..

131

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi

2012-01-01

132

Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.  

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Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

2001-11-01

133

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

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The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-06-01

134

Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat  

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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

2010-01-01

135

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ...

Valenti, Vitor E.; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Caio Imaizumi; Márcio Petenusso; Celso Ferreira

2010-01-01

136

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

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Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day, ampicillin (4mg/100/day and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día, ampicilina (4mg/100/día y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p<0,05 de los conductos del epidídimo (EDD, y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registró un aumento significativo (p <0,05 en el diámetro luminal del epidídimo (ELD en todos los animales después de dos y tres semanas del período de recuperación. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relación a la toxicidad de estos antibióticos en los órganos reproductivos masculinos, además de la reducción de la concentración sérica de testosterona, disminución de la motilidad del esperma, disminución del recuento de espermatozoides y disminución en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las células de espermatogénesis como se reportó anteriormente.

F. O Awobajo

2010-12-01

137

Behavioural Enpoints of Adult Wistar Rats, Following Aluminium Chloride Exposure  

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Full Text Available Aluminium is a ubiquitous element and the third most abundant element in the earth's crust, comprising approximately 8% of the earth’s crust, exceeded only by oxygen (47% and silicon (28%.The elemental aluminium does not occur in its pure state but is always combined with other elements such as chloride, hydroxide, silicate, sulphate and phosphate. Patients on dialysis or on long-term treatment with total parenteral nutrition have been shown to accumulate this metal in different organs. The Morris Water Maze (MWM was described as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory as well as tools in behavioural neuroscience. The objective of this study was to determine the behavioural endpoints of wistar rats, following the aluminium chloride exposure. Total of thirty wistar rats were used in this study. The wistar rats were divided into five groups; group I was the control, group II received 475 mg/kg, group III received 950 mg/kg, group IV received 1,425 mg/kg and group V received 1,900 mg/kg via oral intubation for a duration of Eight weeks.MWM was used to test for the behaviour of the wistar rats. We observed that at the first run, the wistar rats were trying to learn task; the second and third runs rather showed that wistar rats in the control group get to the platform faster (performed the task better than the treated groups and the difference observed was significant at p<0.05.We therefore conclude that Aluminium chloride exposure has negative effects on behavioural endpoints and can impair learning and memory.

A.A. Buraimoh

2011-11-01

138

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

Jain, Pankaj G.; Patil, Savita D.; Haswani, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

2010-01-01

139

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Aruna K. Singh

2014-04-01

140

The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

Hasan Kýlýçgün

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

DIMETHOATE INDUCED HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND ITS AMELIORATION WITH VITAMIN E IN WISTAR RATS (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available In the present study 40 albino wistar rats were divided uniformly into four equal groups viz. I, II, III & IV. Group I served ascontrol and received groundnut oil. Group II and group III rats were orally administered with vitamin E @ 100 mg/kg b.wt. and dimethoate @ 40 mg/kg b.wt, respectively suspended in groundnut oil. Group IV rats were orally administered with both dimethoate & vitamin E @ 40 & 100 mg/kg b.wt, respectively for 28 days. The clinical signs observed were decreased physical activity, dullness, depression, diarrhea,piloerection, excessive sweating, salivation,mild tremor and conjunctivitis in group III rats. Similar signs with reduced severity and absence of conjunctivitis were seen in group IV rats. There was no mortality observed throughout study in any group. Body weight of rats was significantly (P < 0.05 decrease in group III and IV rats from 21st day onwards till the end of experiment. At theend of the experiment (28th day there was significant (p < 0.05 improvement in body weight of group IV rats as compared to group III rats. Hematology reveled significant (P <0.05 decrease in Hb, PCV,total erythrocyte count & MCV and significant (P <0.05 increase in total leukocyte count in male and female rats of group III & IV as compared to group I. Significant improvement in hematologicalparameters were reported in group IV rats treated with dimethoate and vitamin E as compared to group III rats treated with dimethoate alone.

Mohammad Noor

2012-08-01

142

WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS ON ALBINO RAT: A RESEARCH  

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Aim: To evaluate the wound healing activity of C.quadrangularis on excision and incision woundmodels in albino rats.Materials and methods: The different extracts of C.quadrangularis are obtained by successive soxhlet extractionwith petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol were subjected to acute toxicity studies. The extracts were screenedfor wound healing properties in the excision and incision wound models in albino rats of either sex under light etheranaesthesia.Results: All the three extr...

2010-01-01

143

Histopathology of Small Intestine Induced by Cisplatin in Wistar Rats  

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Cisplatin or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) is a highly effective drug used to treat several cancers. Unfortunately, it was reported various clinical side effects of many tissues specifically liver, kidney. The study aims to investigate the pathology of small intestine upon cisplatin treatment at various doses using histological technique. Male Wistar rats wer...

Palipoch, Sarawoot; Punsawad, Chuchard; Chinnapun, Dutsadee; Suwannalert, Prasit

2013-01-01

144

Effect of indomethacin on colon of albino rat histopathological study  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are among the most widely used of all therapeutic agents. INDOMETHACIN is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID that reduces fever, pain and inflammation. It is similar to ibuprofen (Motrin and naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve. Indomethacin works by reducing the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are chemicals that the body produces to cause fever and pain that are associated with inflammation. Indomethacin blocks the enzymes that make prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 and thereby reduces the levels of prostaglandins. Methods: Adult albino rats were treated with INDOMETHACIN in a dose of 10 mg/kg/day orally. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week. Colon were preserved in 10%neutral formalin for 72 hours and processed for histological studies. RESULT: Microscopic examination revealed Increase in the number of columnar cells, goblet cells, and mitotic figures may be due to rapid regeneration following damage of epithelium.

Vinay Kumar

2013-08-01

145

The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat  

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"nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 recei...

Heydarpour F, Rostami A.

2008-01-01

146

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama

2010-01-01

147

Gallic Acid Protects Against Immobilization Stress-Induced Changes In Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Stress triggers a wide range of body changes. Herbal medicines are rich in non specific antistress agents.Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antistress effect of gallic acid (GA, a naturally occurring plant phenol, on immobilization induced-stress in male albino Wistar rats.Methods: The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting the rats in 20 cm ? 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were post orally treated with GA at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations.Results:Treatment with GA significantly increased the food intake, body weight, organ weight (spleen, testis and brain and the significant reduction was found in weight of liver, kidney, heart and adrenal glands, which was altered in stressed rats. GA also significantly reduced the elevated levels of plasma glucose, plasma and tissue cholesterol (CHL, triglycerides (TG, Low Density Lipid (LDL, Very Low Density Lipid (VLDL and also significantly increased the level of High Density Lipid (HDL. A significant decrease in hematological parameters like RBC count, total and differential WBC count was also found which were increased in immobilization stress.Conclusion: GA prevented the stress-induced physiological, biochemical and hematological changes, indicating the preventive effect against stress.

Shabir, Ahmad Rather

2013-02-01

148

STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

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Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

2008-01-01

149

A preliminary study on serum liver function indices of Diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis and chemoprotective potential of Eclipta alba in male Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of E. alba on liver function in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to identify the protective effect of Eclipta alba in experimental diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Sixty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to four groups of 16 rats each. DEN (0.01%, v/v was given in drinking water ad libitum and E. alba (50 mg/kg BW/day was administered per os either alone or in combination for 120 days. Serum protein, albumin and liver functional status enzyme profiles were studied. Results: Administration of DEN resulted in reduction in the body weights and DEN in combination with E. alba caused poor weight gain in male Wistar albino rats. Concurrent administration of E. alba with DEN significantly alleviated the effects of DEN on serum protein and albumin, while a partial protective effect was observed for other biochemical values and body weight. Conclusion: The designed study could establish the partial protective effect of E. alba in experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

R. Anoopraj

2014-06-01

150

Gap junction proteins in the light-damaged albino rat  

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Purpose Changes in connexin expression are associated with many pathological conditions seen in animal models and in humans. We hypothesized that gap junctions are important mediators in tissue dysfunction and injury processes in the retina, and therefore, we investigated the pattern of connexin protein expression in the light-damaged albino rat eye. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense light for 24 h. The animals were euthanized, and ocular tissue was harvested at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days after light damage. The tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blotting to analyze the expression of the gap junction proteins in the light-damaged condition compared to the non-light-damaged condition. Cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Results Intense light exposure caused increased TUNEL labeling of photoreceptor cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that connexin 36 (Cx36) was significantly increased in the inner plexiform layer and Cx45 was significantly decreased in the light-damaged retina. The pattern of Cx36 and Cx45 labeling returned to normal 7 days after light damage. Cx43 significantly increased in the RPE and the choroid in the light-damaged tissue, and decreased but not significantly in the retina. This elevated Cx43 expression in the choroid colocalized with markers of nitration-related oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine) and inflammation (CD45 and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1) in the choroid. Conclusions The results suggest that connexins are regulated differently in the retina than in the choroid in response to photoreceptor damage. Changes in connexins, including Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45, may contribute to the damage process. Specifically, Cx43 was associated with inflammatory damage. Therefore, connexins may be candidate targets for treatment for ameliorating disease progression.

Guo, Cindy X.; Tran, Henry; Green, Colin R.; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V.

2014-01-01

151

Retinal projections to the subcortical visual system in congenic albino and pigmented rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In contrast to the primary visual pathway, little is known about the organization of retinal input to most nuclei of the subcortical visual system in albino mammals. The subcortical visual system is a large group of retinorecipient nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencephalon. These areas mediate a range of behaviors that include both circadian and acute responses to light. We used a congenic strain of albino and pigmented rats with a mutation at the c locus for albinism (Fischer 344-c/+; LaVail MM, Lawson NR (1986) Development of a congenic strain of pigmented and albino rats for light damage studies. Exp Eye Res 43:867-869) to quantitatively assess the effects of albinism on retinal projections to a number of subcortical visual nuclei including the ventral lateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventral lateral preoptic area (VLPO), olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), posterior limitans (PLi), commissural pretectal area (CPA), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Following eye injections of the neuroanatomical tracer cholera toxin-beta, the distribution of anterogradely transported label was measured. The retinal projection to the contralateral VLH, PLi, CPA and IGL was enhanced in albino rats. No significant differences were found between albino and pigmented rats in retinal input to the VLPO, OPN and vLGN. These findings raise the possibility that enhanced retinofugal projections to subcortical visual nuclei in albinos may underlie some light-mediated behaviors that differ between albino and pigmented mammals. PMID:16996223

Fleming, M D; Benca, R M; Behan, M

2006-12-01

152

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de Freitas

2011-10-01

153

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC g [...] roup, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de, Freitas; Kyvia Lugate, Costa; Pamela Kelly Araújo, Campos; Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de, Melo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego de, Paula; Sérgio Luis Pinto da, Matta.

154

Effects of Dietary Advanced Lipid Oxidation End-products on Colitis Healing in Albino Rats  

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This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups) of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored accor...

2013-01-01

155

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was meas...

Brki? Zlata

2004-01-01

156

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L.) as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

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The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP) on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided ...

Afify, Abd El-moneim M. R.; Romeilah, Ramy R. M.; Osfor, Mahmoud M. H.; Elbahnasawy, Amir S. M.

2013-01-01

157

Alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas Wistar con infección chagásica aguda, durante la gestación / Hematological and blood glucose alterations in Wistar rats with acute chagasic infection during gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio se investigaron las alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus) cepa Wistar, con infección chagásica aguda, antes y durante la gestación. Muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas de los grupos A, B, C y D de ratas a los 0, 6, 12 y 20 días de la p [...] reñez para la realización de pruebas de diagnóstico hematológico y de glicemia. El análisis estadístico de los resultados conseguidos reveló cambios significativos (p Abstract in english The present study examined hematological alterations and blood glucose levels variations in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with acute chagasic infection during gestation. Blood samples were taken from A, B, C and D groups of rats at 0, 6, 12 and 20 days after impregnation for hematological d [...] iagnosis and glycemia tests. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant changes (p

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Marítza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo-Y; Stelliana C, Moreno; Rafael, Borges.

158

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

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The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day fo...

Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa

2009-01-01

159

Hepatoprotective effect of Curcuma longa against lead induced toxicity in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Curcuma longa against lead induced toxicity.Materials and Methods: For this study, 24 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group (n=8, group – I rats (n=8 were given lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg bodyweight (BW and group – II rats (n=8 were treated with Curcuma longa @ 500 mg/kg BW along with lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg BW (daily orally for 28 days. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters and lead concentration in liver were estimated.Results: Oral administration of lead acetate for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant increase of Lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Reduced glutathione (GSH and increase in lead accumulation in liver. Treatment with Curcuma longa@ 500 mg/kg BWsignificantly (P< 0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, (p< 0.05 AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in GSH levels and as compared to lead acetate treated group. But there was no significant difference in SOD level and lead concentration in liver when compared with lead acetate treated group.Conclusions: The study concludes that supplementation of Curcuma longa @ 500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against lead inducedhepatotoxicity

S. L. Baxla

2013-07-01

160

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

SAGAR DAWADA

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Petroleum Refining Chemicals Enhance Aflatoxin B1-induced Toxicities in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular cancer is one of the highest among the population in the tropics. This has been associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 a potent liver carcinogen elaborated as metabolite of Aspergillus fungi and some other fungi. Petrochemical refineries workers are in addition exposed to chemicals used in the refining of crude petroleum oil. Four petroleum-refining chemicals: N-methylpyrrolidone, Phenylenediamine, methylethylketone and Dialkylketonoxine, all obtained from a refinery situated in Nigeria were investigated in this study. Male Wistar albino rats, exposed subcutaneously to different amount of these chemicals and also orally given different concentrations of AFB1 in corn oil for 12 weeks, were observed to have higher levels of ?-glutamyl transferase enzyme activity in their livers and sera than the rats treated with either the chemicals or AFB1 only. They also have higher alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in their sera. The activities of these enzymes were also higher than those observed in control rats treated with the carrier vehicle of corn oil only. Micronuclei and histopathology analysis results correlate with the results obtained in the enzyme assays. We therefore concluded that the petrochemicals are significant factor in hepatocellular cancer development in the refinery workers.

Oyeronke A. Odunola

2007-01-01

162

Training alters cardiac neuron sizes in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The action of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart is made through a group of neurons located on the surface of the atria. This study evaluated the effect of a chronic training protocol on the number and sizes of the cardiac neurons of Wistar rats. Whole mount preparations of the atria of 12-month old male sedentary and trained rats (40 weeks of running on a treadmill 3 times a week, 16 m/min were assessed for number and size (maximal cellular profile area of the cardiac neurons. The cardiac neurons were ascertained by using the NADH-diaphorase technique that stains the cell bodies of the neurons in dark blue. The number of cardiac neurons in the trained rats (P>0.05 did not change significantly. In the sedentary group there were small, medium sized and large neurons. However there was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats submitted to the training compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05. Previous studies have shown that electrophysiologically, the small neurons are more easily excitable than the large neurons. It is possible that the results of the present work reflect an adaptation mechanism of the cardiac neurons presumably with the objective of increasing the excitability of the neurons for the vagal action and resulting facilitation of the sinusal bradycardia observed at rest and in the exercise. We concluded that the training affects significantly the size of the cardiac neurons in Wistar rats.

RR de Souza

2009-09-01

163

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh

2013-03-01

164

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

165

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT, e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão.

Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

2007-01-01

166

HYPOCHOLESTEROLAEMIC EFFECT OF SPIRULINA AND LIV-52 IN LEAD INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS  

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Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P<0.01) in the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL Cholesterol and a significant decreases in the level of serum HDL cholesterol, when compared to normal and control group of albino rats. Administration of either Liv-52 alone or in combination with spirulina produced a well ...

Jeyaprakash, K.; Chinnaswamy, P.

2004-01-01

167

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

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The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol lev...

Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil

2009-01-01

168

Effects of Ballota nigra on glucose and insulin in alloxan-diabetic albino rats.  

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The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was investigated. Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus was accompanied by several fold increases in plasma glucose. Administration of aqueous extract of B. nigra extract significantly reduced glucose in both healthy and diabetic rats. These results suggest that B. nigra possess hypoglycemic effects in rats and therefore, can be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:17627273

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

169

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC) is also given to another group to support the results at the concentr...

Prasad, S. K.; Alka Kulshreshtha; Qureshi, Taj N.

2009-01-01

170

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al) and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME) and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M) plus Ba...

2013-01-01

171

Histopathological Effect of Piper guineese Extract on Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of Piper guineese extract, known as a spice and seasoning and also used in treatment of different ailment such as malaria was investigated in rats. Twenty four wistar rats were obtained, weighed and divided into four groups of six per group. They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad- libitum for two weeks period of acclimatization. Different concentrations of Piper guineese extract were administered to three of the experimental groups. 25, 50 and 75 mg/100 g, while the fourth group received 100% tap water and served as control. The study lasted 21 days. The results obtained showed slightly reduced agility, loss of appetite in animals treated with higher concentration of extract. Sections through the kidneys and livers of the sacrificed animals showed alteration of their normal cyto-architecture, some of which were pathological. The result of the present study suggests that Piper guineese could be toxic at certain dosage and over prolonged periods.

O.A. Ebeye

2007-01-01

172

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

173

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

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The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

2013-06-15

174

Normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage in wistar rat  

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Full Text Available The biochemical indicators of wistar rat under low oxygen concentration, such as brain water content, necrosis, lactic acid and Na+-K+-ATPase, was detected to evaluate normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage and to investigate the mechanism of wistar rat brain injury. Histopathological changes in brain tissue induced by hypoxia were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE. Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1? expression in brain was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the level of lactic acid was positively correlated with the degree of hypoxia, while concentration-dependent decrease in total Na+-K+-ATPase activity was observed. Compared with the control group, hypoxia group had a significant difference on brain water content under severe hypoxic conditions, the rate of brain necrosis increased obviously, followed by the increase of lactic acid level and the decrease of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Histopathological analysis of brain confirmed that there was neuronal cell death in hippocampal gyrus. HIF-1? expression enhanced the hypoxia adaptation capability of the rat model through regulating the expressions of multiple genes. Lactic acid, Na+-K+-ATPase and HIF- 1? played an important role in brain injury as a possible mechanism.

Ding-Yu Hu

2009-12-01

175

Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 ? 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B ? No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C ? the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with Chlorpyrifos. These changes were markedly different from the control rats. Hence this study brought into light the renal toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos which was found to be significant at high dose level. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 465-475

Rekha

2013-08-01

176

The potential effect of berberine in mercury-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is the third most dangerous heavy metal after arsenic and lead. Mercury's toxicity brings serious risks to health through negative pathological and biochemical effects. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of berberine (BN) in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 0.4mg/kg bwt) for 7days. Treatment with HgCl2 induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production along with a concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. HgCl2 intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of urea and creatinine in serum. BN (100mg/kg bwt) treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production, whereas it increased glutathione content. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were also restored concomitantly when compared to control after BN administration. BN also inhibited the apoptotic effect of HgCl2 by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney tissues proved the protective effect of BN against HgCl2 toxicity. These results demonstrated that BN augments antioxidant defense against HgCl2-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepato- and reno-protective agent. PMID:24751971

Othman, Mohamed S; Safwat, Gehan; Aboulkhair, Menna; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2014-07-01

177

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals) or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals) for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes [...] of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P

R.R., De Souza; E.F., Gama; R.D.A., Silva; J.C., Heimann; L.B.M., Maifrino; E.A., Liberti.

178

SCREENING OF ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF HINGU (FERULA NARTHEX BIOSS ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Alcohol and Aqueous extracts of Hingu (Resinous exudates of Ferula narthex Bioss were as tested to screen anti-epileptic effect on albino rats by using MES Method. Results were analyzed using unpaired “t”test, and found that aqueous extract has shown significant (at the level P<0.001 result in controlling Maximal electro-shock induced convulsions.

Gundakalle Mahadev B.

2012-06-01

179

Influence of continuous microwave irradiation of low intensity on the behaviour of albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of a single 10 min exposure of albino rats to microwaves (6 GHz, 0.2 MW/cm2) on their orientative-trying reaction. The locomotive activity, attentiveness and trying activity of the experimental animals were found to increase

1985-01-01

180

Safety evaluation of Monascus purpureus red mould rice in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monascus purpureus MTCC 410-fermented rice (red mould rice) is one of the food supplements to lower blood-lipid levels and monacolins have been proven to be the main active constituents in red mould rice (RMR). In this study, we have assessed the safety of RMR by conducting toxicological studies in albino rats. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted on both sexes of albino rats. Feeding acute doses of RMR at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg body weight to rats did not cause any symptoms of toxicity or mortality. Similarly, dietary feeding of RMR at 2.0%, 4.0%, 8.0% and 12.0% level (w/w) for 14 weeks did not produce any significant changes in food intake or gain in body weight of the experimental rats compared to control rats. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters, macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organs and serum clinical enzyme levels between the experimental and control groups. Moreover, the rats fed with RMR showed a significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both serum and liver. The results showed that toxicity studies with RMR of M. purpureus did not cause any toxic effects in albino rats. PMID:19410627

Kumari, H P Mohan; Naidu, K Akhilender; Vishwanatha, S; Narasimhamurthy, K; Vijayalakshmi, G

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

R.R. De Souza

2000-07-01

182

Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.  

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Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250?gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2?cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

2014-05-01

183

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone. After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan

2009-03-01

184

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks ol [...] d) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Nayak, Satheesha; Mailankot, Maneesh.

185

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

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Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole

Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H

2013-04-01

186

Ameliorative effect Trichosanthes dioica root against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats.  

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The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic induced toxicity in male albino rats. TDA (5 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile; hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable ameliorative effect against arsenic induced organ toxicity in male albino rats mediated by alleviation of arsenic induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms. PMID:22387601

Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

2012-05-01

187

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Ghaly, Inas S.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

188

Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  

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Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period o...

Maruthappan V; Shree K

2010-01-01

189

4. Effect of piper nigrum on stomach of wistar rat  

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Full Text Available Adult male and female wistar rats (n=30 weighing between 150 g and 250 g were randomly assigned into experimental (n=24 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the Experimental groups received a mixed diet of feed consistency of crushed piper nigrum fruits ( CPNF to rat mash in a ratio of 50:50 (Group A-higher doses and 25:75 (Group B- minimum doses and water ad libitum for 3, 5 and 7 days. The rats in the control group received equal amount of rat mash without crushed piper nigrum fruits, for the same number of days. The rats were sacrificed on the 4th, 6th and 8th day. The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for histological and histochemical procedure. The body weights of the rats were recorded before and during treatment. The Histological finding after 3 and five 5 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits (CPNF showed no significant changes in the histology of the stomach. There were vacuolations in the mucosa of the stomach after 7 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits. The histological changes in the stomach were marked both in the experimental groups that received the higher doses (of feed consistency in the ratio of 50:50 of crushed piper nigrum fruits to rat mash for seven days. The decrease in the body weight in the experimental groups was not significant (P>0.05. The Results shows that consumption of crushed piper nigrum fruits for three (3 is five (5 days may not be harmful, but consumption continuously for seven (7 days even when used with minimum doses may be detrimental to health.

Enobong Bassey

2011-05-01

190

Toxic Impacts of Cypermethrin on Behavior and Histology of Certain Tissues of Albino Rats  

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In the present investigation, the behavioral, morphological, and histopathological effects of cypermethrin, a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was ascertained in male and female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cypermethrin administered at repeated oral doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days produced varying degree of mild to moderate toxic symptoms and behavioral changes in both male and female rats. The lower dose produced very mild toxicosis characterized by intermittent diar...

Grewal, K. K.; Sandhu, G. S.; Kaur, Ranjit; Brar, R. S.; Sandhu, H. S.

2010-01-01

191

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

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The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus) (Ogiri) and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no sign...

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajayi, David Dais

2009-01-01

192

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats  

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Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration ...

Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

193

ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC STALK EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL LINN ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.

Pradhan Manas Ranjan

2013-01-01

194

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g was divided randomly into four groups (n=6 and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C– aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05 to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg, while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns, antiulcer.

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

195

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

196

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

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Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day), Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day), Group III: rats...

2011-01-01

197

Mortality associated with using medetomidine and ketamine for general anesthesia in pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats.  

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Medetomidine and ketamine are injectable drugs that can be used in combination to induce general anesthesia in rats. After noticing a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in pregnant Wistar rats given medetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia, the authors further investigated the effects of this combination of anesthetic drugs in both pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats. The time to recumbency and the duration of general anesthesia were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Pregnancy status did not affect the rats' pulse rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation or perfusion index during 2 h of anesthesia. Pregnant rats had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than nonpregnant rats at all time points, though blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups. The mortality rate was ?15% both for nonpregnant rats and for pregnant rats. Researchers using medetomidine and ketamine to anesthetize Wistar rats should carefully monitor the rats in order to minimize mortality. PMID:24845007

Callahan, Lauren M; Ross, Simone M; Jones, Megan L; Musk, Gabrielle C

2014-06-01

198

Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory  

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Previous studies showed that a proportion of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity. However, investigations have not yet been carried out on Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300–400g) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. B...

Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Hugo Macedo; Moura Filho, Oseas F.; Ferreira, Celso

2011-01-01

199

Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory  

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Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calc...

Valenti, Vitor E.; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Hugo Macedo Junior; Moura Filho, Oseas F.; Celso Ferreira

2011-01-01

200

Impact of Lead Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Recognition Memory and Motor Activity of Wistar Rat  

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The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L-1 of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor a...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Impact of Aluminum Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Body Weight and Recognition Memory of Wistar Rat  

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The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L-1) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body we...

2008-01-01

202

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Agrawal Shyam S

2012-12-01

203

Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weightand serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability andsperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependentcomplete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for furtherstudies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Shyam S Agrawal

2012-12-01

204

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

Vitor E. Valenti

2010-01-01

205

Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a [...] standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control) or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v) for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P

D.T., Furuya; R., Binsack; U.F., Machado.

206

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.

Brki? Zlata

2004-01-01

207

Effects of microwave radiation on wistar rats with walker tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finding non-conventional methods to cure malignant tumors using microwave fields at athermic power levels was the aim of this work. A number of 22 WISTAR rats were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinogenic cells. When the induced tumors were about 85-1000 mm3, 10 from these animals were kept as controls and 12 were irradiated with microwave electromagnetic field in 7.5 GH -10.5 GHz frequency range. Microwave power was at athermic levels (under 10 mW/cm2). For each irradiating session (different for each animal and also different from a treatment session to another one for the same animal), the microwave frequency was chosen to have a resonance in power absorption. The irradiation session was interrupted when the power absorption in the animal body became constant (about 10 min). There were about 30-40 irradiation sessions for each experience animal, depending on tumoral remission. All the control animals died after 3 weeks from carcinogenic cells inoculation. For 10 irradiated rats a total and definitive tumoral remission was established; 8 animals are still alive (Dec. 1999), healthy and capable of reproduction. For 2 experience animals there was a tumoral recurrence after 50 days and they died; another 2 rats died in two months after experience but from different causes. It is possible to consider the hypothesis that animals and tumors are a compact resonance assembly which changes in time. By microwave irradiation the entropy was adjusted to normal level allowing animal healing. (authors)

2001-10-02

208

The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

2008-07-01

209

Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

1969-05-01

210

Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats  

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The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compare...

2008-01-01

211

Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx Diet and Histopathological Changes in Liver of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx was fermented with and without wood ash. The proximate composition revealed that the sample fermented without wood ash had the highest protein content of 14.7 ? 2.5%. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.05 in the antinutrient content (phytate and tannin with a reduction of between 1.21-1.32% in tannin and 488.8?3.7-827.3?3.7mg/100g in phytate. The unfermented sample had phytate and tannin of 2143.6 ? 0.8mg/100g and 5.30 ? 1.1% respectively. The effect of calyx diet on the morphology of the liver was investigated in albino rats. The results suggest that in high doses, roselle calyx may have some toxic effects on the liver. There was decrease in growth in albino rats on all the treatments except for the control diet where there was no increase in growth.

A.O. Ojokoh

2006-01-01

212

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

Thoudam Bhaigyabati

2012-03-01

213

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

1994-01-01

214

Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats  

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Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK a...

Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

2009-01-01

215

Protective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on alcohol and heated sunflower oil induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and various hepatic lesions are grouped under the term alcoholic liver disease. This is an extremely common disease with a high mortality. Alcoholics, along with alcohol, consume high fat diet and are susceptible to permanent liver damage. The current treatment modalities are inadequate and the need for effective treatment without side-effects is increasing. The present work tested the protective role of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous leaf extract on alcohol and heated sunflower oil-induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were used for this study. This study analyzed the variation in lipid profiles; cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids in liver, histopathological changes, and the activities of liver marker enzymes in the plasma. The liver damage was apparent with the increase in the activities of AST and ALT in the rats treated with alcohol + heated sunflower oil (?PUFA). Treatment with P.niruri protected the liver from damage, and prevented the release of the liver markers enzymes. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were increased significantly in the alcohol + ?PUFA group. Administration of P.niruri extract effectively reduced their levels. The phospholipid levels, which were decreased in the liver of the alcohol + ?PUFA group, were positively modulated by treatment with P.niruri. The histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, one could conclude that the P.niruri leaf extract effectively protects the system against alcohol and ?PUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and has a definite anti-hyperlipidemic potential. PMID:20843268

Latha, P; Chaitanya, D; Rukkumani, R

2010-10-01

216

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

Fatemeh Hassani

2012-01-01

217

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats  

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The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Me...

Roop, J. K.; Dhaliwal, P. K.; Guraya, S. S.

2005-01-01

218

ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

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Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of th...

Suresh, B.; Dhanasekaran, S.; Elango, K.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.

1995-01-01

219

An evaluation of sub-acute toxicity of Chrozophora senegalenses on albino rats  

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Sub-acute toxic effects of the plant Chrozophora senegalenses which has been claimed by the Hausa/Fulani traditional healers to have some medicinal properties like anti-diarrhea, syphilis, typhoid fever and conjunctivitis has been analyzed in this study. The experimental albino rats were administered a graded doses of the aqueous extract orally for 28 days after which the blood and serum samples were collected for hematology and blood chemistry. No significant difference (p>0.05) ...

Ebbo, A. A.; Ibrahim, S. B.; Ismaila, M. S.

2011-01-01

220

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

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The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari) on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cell count (WBC)(Total and differential) were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and P...

Adegoke, A. O.; Bamigbowu, E. O.; George-opuda, M. I.; Awopeju, T. A.; Braid, S. A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Biochemical Alterations Due to Overcrowding Stress Induction in Healthy Albino Rats  

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Exposure to stressful situations is among the most common human experiences. This study investigated changes in some lipids and biochemical parameters in male albino rats fed with an ad libitum diet for 7 days. Biochemical parameters studied were glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, globulin, albumin, GPT and GOT. The mean weight of the animals at day 7 showed an insignificant increase in the stressed group compared with the me...

Al-qudah, Maisa M.; El-qudah, Jafar M.; Hassan Al-Omran; Khataibeh, Moayad H.; Algroom, Rania M.; Maher Obeidat

2012-01-01

222

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

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In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the b...

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

223

Central relaxin-3 administration causes hyperphagia in male Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relaxin-3 (INSL-7) is a recently discovered member of the insulin superfamily. Relaxin-3 mRNA is expressed in the nucleus incertus of the brainstem, which has projections to the hypothalamus. Relaxin-3 binds with high affinity to the LGR7 receptor and to the previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPCR135. GPCR135 mRNA is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system, particularly in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The presence of relaxin-3 and these receptors in the PVN led us to investigate the effect of central administration of relaxin-3 on food intake in male Wistar rats. The receptor involved in mediating these effects was also investigated. Intracerebroventricular injections of human relaxin-3 (H3) to satiated rats significantly increased food intake 1 h post administration in the early light phase [0.96 +/- 0.16 g (vehicle) vs. 1.81 +/- 0.21 g (180 pmol H3), P relaxin-2, which binds the LGR7 receptor but not GPCR135, did not increase feeding. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression did not change after acute intracerebroventricular H3. These results suggest a novel role for relaxin-3 in appetite regulation. PMID:15845619

McGowan, B M C; Stanley, S A; Smith, K L; White, N E; Connolly, M M; Thompson, E L; Gardiner, J V; Murphy, K G; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

2005-08-01

224

Histopathological evolution of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty Wistar rats were inoculated, by the intracardiac route, with 0.5 ml each of a yeast phase suspension of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Utero strain. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals post-infection, at which time their lungs, heart, liver, spleen and kidneys were removed, fixed and stained for study. The parameters of interest for the lung specimens were: (a) extent of the lesions; (b) number of fungi; (c) presence of a lymphomononuclear halo. Extrapulmonary lesions were also sought. Until the fourth month post-infection, the lesions were progressive in nature, contained great numbers of viable fungi, and were surrounded by an important lymphomononuclear halo which tended to be confluent. At four and a half months p.i., the extent of the pulmonary lesions was reduced, the granulomas were less compact with fewer viable fungi, macrophages showed microvacuolation, and the lymphomononuclear halo was less pronounced. Extrapulmonary lesions, which were frequently identified in the first months post-infection, diminished from the seventh month onwards. The histological characteristics of extrapulmonary lesions were always the same as those found in the lungs. Infection tended to be controlled by the animals from the fourth month, but without complete resolution of the lesions. PMID:10360321

Iovannitti, C A; Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Elías Costa, M R

1999-04-01

225

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

226

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC, exposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0 e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7, concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7% nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%. Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%, no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70% e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%. Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%, com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively, together with a control group (exposed to room air. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3 and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2, concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%. The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%, in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%, and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%. However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%, with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%. CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos Valença

2007-12-01

227

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar / Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), e [...] xposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The a [...] nimals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos, Valença; Milena Leonarde, Kloss; Frank Silva, Bezerra; Manuella, Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring, Silva; Luís Cristóvão, Porto.

228

Teratogenic vulnerability of Wistar rats to diphenyl ditelluride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of single maternal subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.12 mg/kg diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2, diluted in canola oil at days 6, 10 or 17 of gestation were evaluated in Wistar rats. The reduction of body weight gain was statistically significant at GD9, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD6; at GD13, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD10, and at GD20, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD17, when compared to respective control groups. External and internal fetal soft tissues examination was performed on day 20 of gestation. Single maternal injection at day 10 of gestation resulted in appearance of malformation in fore- and hind-limbs, absent or short tail, subcutaneous blood clots, exophthalmia, hydrocephalus and absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue in fetuses on day 20 of gestation. Besides (PhTe)2 reduced fetal body and cerebral weight, kidney length, measurements of body dimension and provoked 73% of fetal mortality. Subcutaneous administration of (PhTe)2 on day 17 of gestation was associated with 94% mortality, hydrocephalus and edema. Histological evaluations of fetal brain demonstrated displaced brain tissue with absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue when diphenyl ditelluride was administered in GD10. Histological evaluation of fetal head exposed at GD17 revealed a decrease of the brain volume with consequent dilation of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent tissues were thinner than that of control group tissues. No fetal changes were observed after administration of (PhTe)2 at day 6 of gestation. Thus (PhTe)2 can be teratogenic to rat fetuses and toxic for dams. The late fetal stages of rat prenatal development appeared uniquely sensitive to organic tellurium exposure

2005-02-14

229

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divid [...] idos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed wi [...] th supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.

Sandra Maria, Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado, Spada; Erick Prado de, Oliveira; Márcio Emilio, Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida, Martuchi; Náyra Coelho, Leite; Renata Maeda, Deus; Vivianne, Sasaki; Lucas Silva, Braganti; Marie, Oshiiwa.

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Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.

Sandra Maria Barbalho

2009-10-01

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Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver of adult wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of alcoholic diseases in the liver is well documented. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant. Our aim was to investigate in vivo whether KV may attenuate oxidative stress in liver of Wistar albino rats following chronic ethanol administration. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 7.5% or 45% ethanol at 3 g/kg of body weight daily for 8 weeks. Rats were treated with KV at 200 mg/kg of body weight for the same duration. Treatment was by oral gavage. Integrity of liver was assessed by determining the levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The antioxidant status was monitored by determining the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Experimentally, chronic ethanol administration led to hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the increase in levels of serum ALT, AST, and ALP. Ethanol also enhanced the formation of MDA in the liver. Specifically, MDA was elevated by 70% and 98% in animals treated with 7.5% and 45% ethanol, respectively. Levels of hepatic SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH were significantly (P < .05) reduced by ethanol treatment. Co-administration of KV during ethanol treatment inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities. These findings demonstrated that KV could have a beneficial effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage in liver of Wistar rats caused by chronic ethanol administration. PMID:19627207

Adaramoye, O A; Awogbindin, I; Okusaga, J O

2009-06-01

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SEQUESTRATION PROPERTY OF SPIRULINA AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE ALBINO WISTER RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS  

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Full Text Available Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and spirulina alone groups. Lead acetate treated group shows sevier histological changes were noticed and lead acetate along spirulina treated group cell recover was observed.

K.Hemalatha

2013-03-01

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Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Pimidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (Pimidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. PMID:24759051

Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

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Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

235

Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study  

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Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

Nahed Ahmed Omar

2012-07-01

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Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats  

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Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blo...

Muhammad, S. A.; Bilbis, L. S.; Saidu, Y.; Adamu, Y.

2012-01-01

237

Effects of Alkaline mineral waters on experimental Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Studies on a natural therapeutic mineral water aim to obtain scientific data with which to substantiate its medical use in prevention and improving the health status of patients with various disorders. The natural mineral water used in our experiments has been recommended by physicians to treat various pathologies such as digestive disorders (chronic gastritis with hyperacidity, gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic colitis, chronic constipation, hepatobiliary problems (biliary dyskinesia, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, associated diseases: neurasthenia, migraine disorder. These recommendations are based on the general chemical content and physical properties of the water, studied few decades ago. Natural water quality is determined generally by all mineral or organic substances, dissolved gases, particulate matter and living organisms present in it. The chemical content of the water reveals the presence of some trace minerals, such as Li or B. In the light of the new knowledge about the role of these trace elements in organism, we designed an controlled experiment to obtain data about the changes that are produced by the ingestion of the alkaline mineral water in the biological status of Wistar rats and to extrapolate our findings at the human organism.

Munteanu Constantin

2013-05-01

238

Cytogenetic and hormonal investigations of gamma irradiated Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cytogenetic data from bone marrow cells and hormonal changes in the gonadial axis were investigated in male Wistar rats, severely gamma irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy. The structural chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells were recorded quantitatively, while luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TS) were determined in blood plasma by radioimmunological methods. A strictly defined dose dependence in yield of cells with aberrations, chromatide and chromosome fragments and total amount of breaks was found in the bone marrow cells analyzed. Statistical models were used for data processing. A correlation was estimated between irradiation dose and the levels of LH and FSH in the blood plasma as well as of TS content produced by Leidig's testis cells. LH and FSH levels were reduced considerably below the norm by almost all irradiation doses and were maintained low from the day 1 to 40 post irradiation, while TS content decreased at high irradiation doses (2.0 and 4.0 Gy), but was above the norm at low doses. 4 tabs.; 5 figs.; 24 refs

1989-01-01

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Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

2008-12-01

240

Combined and individual administration of diethyl phthalate and polychlorinated biphenyls and its toxicity in female Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants and known to act as xenoestrogens. PCBs and diethyl phthalate (DEP) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because both are used as plasticizers and in various other industrial applications. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the interactive toxicity of DEP and PCBs in young female Wistar rats. Healthy young female albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 100g (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups of six each. Group I female rats were fed on normal diet and water ad libitum. Group II female rats were maintained on normal diet mixed with corn oil at 16.5mg/kg diet/day and 0.94mg/kg body weight/day as oil control. Groups III and IV female rats were given Clophen A60 and DEP dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/(kgdietday), which is approximately equal to 2.85mg/(kgbodyweightday), individually to each group. Group V female rats received a mixture of DEP and Clophen A60, each dissolved in corn oil mixed with the diet at 50mg/(kgdietday), which is approximately equal to 2.85mg/(kgbodyweightday). Treatment was carried out for 150 days and after the completion of treatment, serum and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters in the serum and liver were assessed. Liver weight to body weight ratio showed significant increase in Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. In the three treated groups, there was significant decrease in liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). Alanine amino transferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the liver of the three treated groups and in the serum of Clophen A60 and DEP alone treated groups and significant decrease only in the serum of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Significant increase in liver and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was observed in the three treated groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased only in the serum of the Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas significant decrease in the serum and liver of DEP alone treated rats was observed. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cholesterol levels were highly significant in the liver and serum of DEP treated rats. In addition, cholesterol level was significantly increased in the liver and serum of Clophen A60 treated rats and only in the liver of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was significantly increased in the liver of Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats and highly significant increase in the serum of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. There was significant increase in triglyceride levels in the liver and serum of Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas significant increase in triglyceride levels in the serum of DEP alone treated rats was observed. Glycogen levels were significantly increased in the liver of Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas serum glucose levels showed significant decrease, but in Clophen A60 alone treated rats showed significant increase in liver glycogen and serum glucose, whereas DEP alone treated rats showed significant increase in only serum glucose levels. Lipid peroxidation was increased in the liver of DEP treated rats, which was highly significant, compared to significant increase in Clophen A60 and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats. Histology of liver showed severe vacuolation, loss of hepatic architecture and granular deposits in the hepatocytes of DEP and Clophen A60+DEP treated rats, whereas in Clophen A60 alone treated rats, hepatocytes showed hyper pigmentation mild loss of hepatic architecture in centrilobular and periportal area. PMID:21783644

Pereira, Contzen; Rao, C Vaman

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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EFFECT OF STRESS - INDUCED MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVEL IN DIFFERENT BRAIN TISSUES IN SELECTIVE SUBCORTICAL LESIONED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Brain is the target for different stressors because of its high sensitivity to stress induced degenerative conditions. A number of pathological conditions of the brain have been implicated due to free radical formation. Subcortcial structures are known to influence stress responses. Among them, the amygdala nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus has been linked in the regulation of stress responses. The present study was aimed to elucidate the comparative analysis of amygdala and paraventricular nucleus in regulating the acute and chronic stress-induced malondialdehyde level in different brain tissues. Wistar albino rats were divided into amygdala lesioned and PVN lesioned groups. Each group was further subdivided into lesioned control group and lesioned stress group. The lesioned stress group animals were subjected to acute and chronic types of swimming and immobilization stress with bilateral lesions of nucleus of amygdala and PVN. Each subgroup contained ten animals. MDA levels of cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and cerebellum were estimated. Exposure to acute and chronic swimming stress in amygdala lesioned groups showed a significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 increase in the hypothalamus lipid peroxidation level when compared to the PVN lesioned swimming stress groups. Exposure to acute stressors significantly increased (p < 0.001 the cerebellar lipid peroxidation level in the amygdala lesioned groups when compared to the PVN lesioned groups. Based on the present study, it appears that the amygdala nucleus has a prominent role in decreasing the stress induced free radical formation in brain tissues. It is our attempt to put forth the evidence for greater involvement of the amygdala in the prevention of stress- induced free radicals formation

Sheila R Pai

2013-06-01

242

Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat  

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Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

2007-10-01

243

Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats  

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Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver ...

Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

2012-01-01

244

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5 serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol level of rats fed on yogurt with or without XO enrichment but a fair reduction in serum glucose content was noted. XO as a functional ingredient can be incorporated in formulating dairy products with improved health benefits like lowering glucose levels.

Semee Mumtaz

2009-01-01

245

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

246

Reactivación de la infección chagásica en ratas Wistar gestantes / Reactivation of the Chagasic Infection in Wistar Rats in Gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo investigamos en ratas Wistar crónicamente infectadas con Trypanosoma cruzi, la reactivación de la infección durante la gestación y después del parto, mediante un estudio parasitológico, inmunológico, histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Los resultados mostraron un control de las par [...] asitemias patentes y/o subpatentes; títulos elevados de anticuerpos específicos anti-T. cruzi, detectándose en las ratas gestantes una disminución en los niveles de IgG y un incremento significativo de la IgM (P Abstract in english Wistar rats with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection were subjected to a parasitological, immunological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for a reactivation of the infection during gestation and after giving birth. Results showed a control of patent and/or sub-patent parasitemia [...] s; high concentrations of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies, a moderate reduction in IgG levels and a significant increase in IgM (P

Elio, Moreno B; Maidé, Méndez I; Maritza, Alarcón M; Sonia, Araujo A; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh.

247

Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK and Wistar rats (P control at the end of experimental period in GK rats. Insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides tended to be decreased by MLP treatment in GK rats. All other biochemical parameters were not changed by MLP administration in GK rats. Collectively, these findings support that MLE has significant postprandial hypoglycemic effect in both non-obese diabetic and healthy animals, which may be beneficial as food supplement to manage postprandial blood glucose. Inhibitions of glucose transport as well as alpha-glucosidase in the small intestine were suggested as possible mechanisms related with the postprandial hypoglycemic effect of MLE. PMID:20098579

Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

2009-01-01

248

Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders. PMID:23673728

Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

2013-07-01

249

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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Full Text Available In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M plus Bacopa monniera (BME extract respectively, for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the medulla oblongata was removed and processed to examine the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS and antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Oxidative stress was promoted in medulla oblongata following Aluminum administration. In contrast, BME extract exerted an antioxidant action which was related with an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, evidences from light microscopic images clearly demonstrating that Al-M-induced neuronal changes, which were minimized by BME treatment, architecture of medulla oblongata in Al-M+BME treated group was almost similar to the control.

K. Mallikarjuna

2013-01-01

250

Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days. After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P < 0.05 in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days. However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Maruthappan V

2010-01-01

251

Effects of Ballota nigra on blood biochemical parameters and insulin in albino rats.  

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Ingestion of aqueous 70% ethanol extract of Ballota nigra (400 mg/kg body weight for 7 days) by albino rats (n=10) was investigated to study its effects on glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), troponin I (TnI), serum creatine kinase (CK), total protein, total bilirubin and blood urea. Ballota nigra extract caused a significant decrease in blood glucose, total serum cholesterol and CK levels. Blood levels of TnI, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein and blood urea were unchanged. The hypoglycemic effect of Ballota nigra extract on albino rats was further investigated by conducting a glucose tolerance test intraperitoneally (IPGTT). Healthy rats that were fasting for 18 hours followed by administration of a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract of Ballota nigra, orally. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels (after 15, 30, and 45 minutes) with a significant increase in serum insulin level (after 15 and 30 minute) was noted. These results suggest that, the crude extract of Ballota nigra have hypoglycemic, insulin-releasing and cholesterol lowering effects in rats. PMID:17627272

Nusier, Mohamad K; Bataineh, Hameed N; Bataineh, Ziad M; Daradka, Haytham M

2007-08-01

252

The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

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The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

2008-09-01

253

ESTROGEN INDUCED OVARIAN DAMAGE LEADING TO CARCINOGENESIS IN ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the ovarian damage, leading to carcinogenesis after administration of estrogen was assessed. A highly potent semisynthetic 17b oestradiol estrogen, ethinyl oestradiol (EO was administered @500 ?g/kg, orally, weekly to the rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 for 12, 16 and 20 weeks, respectively. The rats of group 1 were given saline alone to serve as control. On the 13th week (Group 2, the ovarian tissues revealed severe vascular congestion and fibrosis at many places. Most of the ovarian parenchyma was replaced by fibrovascular connective tissues. On the 17th week (Group 3, more severe histopathological changes were seen. Degeneration, necrosis, fibrosis of follicular tissues, presence of homogenous mass in the lumen, infiltration of lymphocytes and thickening of blood vascular walls were quite conspicuous. On the 21st week (Group 4, these changes were much more severe and marked. Extensive fibrosis, including severe degeneration and necrosis of follicular tissues were observed. Interestingly, the papillary proliferation in surface epithelium and hyperplasia of follicular cells were observed, indicating the ovarian carcinogenesis. The extent and severity of ovarian damage were time dependent, suggesting that EO (estrogen at the dose of 500 ?g/kg, orally, weekly after prolonged period (20 weeks may cause more severe damage, leading to carcinogenesis in the rat ovary.

S. Madhuri

2011-02-01

254

Metoprine induced behavioral modifications and brain regional histamine increase in WAG/Rij and Wistar rats.  

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The effects of metoprine, an inhibitor of histamine N-methyltransferase, on open field activity and brain regional histamine (HA) content were examined in rats with mixed, absence and audiogenic, epilepsy (WAG/Rij-AGS), rats with audiogenic epilepsy (Wistar-AGS) and in non-epileptic control rats (Wistar-nAGS). HA content was increased by metoprine (20mg/kg, i.p.) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus of the rats from all three tested groups. However, WAG/Rij rats showed a lower rate of metoprine-induced HA accumulation in the striatum and thalamus than Wistar rats. For the open field test, the main effect of metoprine (20mg/kg, i.p.) was a general increase of locomotor activity although distinctive features, such as hyperlocomotion and exaggerated sniffing, were characteristic for the epileptic rats (WAG/Rij-AGS and Wistar-AGS, respectively). Individual rats from all the groups showed stereotyped behavior of shuttle type and head bobbing. Electroencephalographic data obtained in WAG/Rij-AGS rats confirmed that metoprine-induced behavioral activation was accompanied by suppression of spike-wave discharges, the main hallmark of absence seizures. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of the histamine catabolism may induce motor activation of particular patterns in epileptic rats and provoke stereotyped behavior. PMID:22503455

Samotaeva, Irina S; Birioukova, Lidiya M; Midzyanovskaya, Inna S; Kuznetsova, Galina D; Bazyan, Ara S; Tuomisto, Leena

2012-08-01

255

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

2009-01-01

256

RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS  

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The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

2007-01-01

257

22Na+ and 86Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats  

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To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined

1988-01-01

258

Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test  

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Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.

Suresha RN

2013-03-01

259

Some Biochemical Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Phyllanthus amarus Aquoeus Extacts on Normaglycemic Albino Rats  

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The effect of aqueous extract of the w hole plant of Phyllanthus amarus was assessed for somebiochemical effect in albino rats. Different doses (50, 100 and 200mg/kg bodyweight) of crude extract wasadministered Intraperitoneal for 14 consecutive days. Glucose tolerance test shows that there was significant(p < 0.05) reduction in the serum blood glucose from 30minites up to 120minites for animals treated with 50mgand 200mg body weight while from 120minites up to 180minites there was no signifi...

2010-01-01

260

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

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Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.). The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. ...

Rucha Upadhyay; Narendra Deo Pandey; Shahid Suhail Narvi; Amita Verma; Bahar Ahmed

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duratio...

Muthuviveganandavel, V.; Muthuraman, P.; Muthu, S.; Srikumar, K.

2011-01-01

262

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

1981-01-01

263

Effect of Commiphora myrrha extract on some physiological parameters and histological changes in diabetic albino rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM) aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight) and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM) water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt). After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for...

2005-01-01

264

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal), A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal), A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil) and A4 = con...

2009-01-01

265

Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

266

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase

2014-01-01

267

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (p<0.05 in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malonyldialdehyde (MDA levels, while the level of triacylglycerol decreased (p<0.05 compared to control. HPLC analysis showed that the crude and ethyl acetate fractions showed phenolic compounds, apigenin and naringin but only naringin was present in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that endogenous Naringin may be acting in vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.

J. Okpuzor

2009-01-01

268

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods: ? The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal, A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal, A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil. Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh

2009-03-01

269

Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar  

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This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG), fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG), fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive th...

Ferreira Medeiros Franc?a Cardozo, L.; Leal Soares, L.; Cardozo Brant, L. H.; Alves Chagas, M.; Alves Pereira, V.; Coca Velarde, L. G.; Teles Boaventura, G.

2011-01-01

270

Experimental intravenous inoculation of Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis bacilli in albino rats: a histopathological and bacteriological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scleroma, chronic specific granuloma of the nose and upper respiratory tract, is endemic in Egypt and many other countries. The exact pathogenesis of the disease as regards the aetiological role of Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis is contradictory. This work investigated the effect of experimental intravenous injection of K. rhinoscleromatis in albino rats to demonstrate that the micro-organism can fulfil Koch's postulates. Micro-organisms were isolated from biopsy specimens taken from nasal lesions of 10 patients in the granulomatous stage of scleroma. Specimens were subjected to bacteriological and histopathological examinations to confirm the diagnosis. A 100 microl volume of freshly prepared bacterial inoculum containing 10(8) cfu/ml was injected weekly in the tail vein of each of 30 albino rats for 5 consecutive weeks. Biopsy specimens were taken from sacrificed animals and subjected to bacteriological and histopathological examinations. Positive histopathological diagnosis of scleroma was reported in the nose of 66.7% of rats, the larynx of 46.7%, the lungs of 26.7% and liver of 20% of rats. Bacteriological techniques were successful in revealing K. rhinoscleromatis from the nose of 36.7% of rats, the larynx of 30% and the lungs of 20% of rats. Various techniques were carried out to demonstrate the micro-organisms in tissue sections. Two histochemical stains for bacteria were employed: silver and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains. Immunoperoxidase technique using Klebsiella capsular type 3 antiserum was applied. It gave positive results in 66.7% of the 6 stained liver sections in spite of negative bacteriological cultures. The histiocytic nature of the Mikulicz cells was confirmed using alpha-1 antitrypsin, an immunohistochemical marker of histiocytes, and by studying the ultrastructural features of Mikulicz cells using the transmission electron microscope. PMID:11603790

Gaafar, H A; Bassiouny, M; El Mofty, M; Badour, N M; Nour, Y A

2000-03-01

271

Effects of administration of Embelin and Curcumin on lipid peroxidation, hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense and hematopoietic system during N-nitrosodiethylamine/Phenobarbital-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of administration of Embelin (EMB) and Curcumin (CUR) on lipid peroxidation, hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense and hematopoietic cells were examined during N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA-200 mg kg(-1)body wt, single I.P injection) initiated and Phenobarbital (PB-0.05% in drinking water orally for 13 weeks) promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar strain male albino rats. DENA/PB-induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant drop in the hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense, increased lipid peroxidation and histological alterations like dysplasia, and atypical cells with abnormal chromatin pattern. Treatment with Curcumin (100 mg kg(-1)body wt) and Embelin (50 mg kg(-1)body wt) prevented the drop in hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense, decreased lipid peroxidation, minimized the histological alterations induced by DENA/PB, but showed toxic effects on the hematopoietic cells. Results indicate the beneficial effects of Embelin and Curcumin against oxidative tissue damage during chemically-induced hepatocarinogenesis in rats. PMID:16477385

Sreepriya, Meenakshisundaram; Bali, Geetha

2006-03-01

272

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1993-03-01

273

THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

2008-01-01

274

Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment during gestation in WKY and Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) were examined in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) "depressive- and anxious-like" rats and Wistar rats. During gestation, dams lived in standard cages or in EE cages. Their behavior during gestation and lactation was observed. On weaning day, they were tested in the forced swimming test, and corticosterone concentration was measured from their plasma. The offspring, reared in standard environment, were tested as juveniles or young adults in the elevated plus maze, open field and forced swimming tests. Corticosterone concentration in feces was analyzed. EE offspring showed more anxiety-like behaviors and less activity, compared to controls. Effects were more prominent in youth than in adulthood and in Wistar rats more than in WKY. EE lowered corticosterone concentration in young WKY rats' feces. EE induced changes in the dams' behavior during gestation and lactation. These changes in dams' behavior could be mediators of the effects on the offspring. PMID:22595039

Rosenfeld, Ateret; Weller, Aron

2012-08-01

275

Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

Almoeiz Y. Hammad

2013-08-01

276

Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats  

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The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral...

2011-01-01

277

Brief light as a practical aversive stimulus for the albino rat  

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Bright light was an effective aversive stimulus for Wistar rats in punishment, escape, and avoidance paradigms. Contingent punishment of lever-pressing maintained by concurrent schedules of food delivery shifted presses to an alternate lever, and depressed overall response rates. Periodic non-contingent presentation of the light prompted escape responding (head entry into a hole). Unsignaled avoidance contingencies were not effective, but pre-pulse signaling of light supported avoidance behav...

2010-01-01

278

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar / Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade varian [...] do entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 a [...] nd 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Rodrigues, Nilson Rodnei; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de.

279

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

2010-01-01

280

Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera) Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

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Grape seed extracts (GSE) are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negati...

Waggas, Abeer M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight) and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH con...

2007-01-01

282

Quantitative Analysis of Formation of Active Avoidance Behavior in the Hippocampus Coagulated and Intact White Albino Rats  

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Unsupervised cluster analysis is proposed for analysis of active avoidance formation in three groups of albino rats: 1) intact; 2) with electrolytic lesions of neocortex over the dorsal hippocampus; and 3) with electrolytic lesions of dorsal hippocampus. The term “behavior vector” has been introduced to assess quantitatively the behavior of rats while learning. The proposed approach enables to assess active avoidance behavior in rats simultaneously by all the test parameters: 1) reaction ...

2012-01-01

283

Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

2011-01-01

284

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

285

Fundamental interstrain differences in cortical activity between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats during global ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute effects of 4VO-induced global ischemia on the spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. The ECoG was isoelectric during the 10 min of global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats and the first burst (FB) was seen 10-13 min after the start of reperfusion. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the FB was detected immediately after the start of 4VO or a few seconds later. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) in Wistar rats decreased to 45% in 5 min after FB, and after 25 min it was approximately 40%. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the BSR was 55% immediately after the FB and it decreased steeply to reach 0% by 10 min. There was also a significant difference between the two strains in the frequency composition of the ECoG pattern. The power spectral densities of the two strains differed virtually throughout the post-ischemic state. The histological results (Evans Blue, Cresyl Violet and Fluoro Jade C stainings) supplemented the electrophysiological data: the neuronal damage in the CA1 pyramids in Wistar rats was severe, whereas in the Sprague-Dawley animals it was only partial. These observations clearly demonstrate that the use of different rat strains (e.g. Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley) can be a source of considerable variability in the results of acute experiments on global ischemia and it is important that the laboratory rats used in such experiments should be carefully chosen. PMID:23103797

Fuzik, J; Gellért, L; Oláh, G; Herédi, J; Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Nagy, D; Kincses, Z T; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Toldi, J

2013-01-01

286

Pulmonary carcinogenesis in the F344 and Wistar rat after inhalation of plutonium dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired 239PuO2. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher in control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 104 Rat-Gy for F344 rats but about 210 lung tumors per 104 Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more open-quotes sensitiveclose quotes than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled 239PuO2. 31 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

1995-11-01

287

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

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Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomized into 8 groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, Ib, IIb, IIIb, IV and V respectively (n=5). Groups Ia-IIIa and Ib-IIIb were treated for 4 and 8 weeks with Carica papaya bark...

Kusemiju, T. O.; Yama, O. E.; Okanlawon, A. O.

2011-01-01

288

Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats  

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Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

V.O. Ogugbuaja

2004-12-01

289

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats have been studied to find out the possible mechanism of hepatoprotection. It was observed that extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb has reversal effects on the levels of above-mentioned parameters in paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb functions as a hepatoprotective agent and this hepatoprotective activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb may be due normalization of impaired membrane function activity.

Jha Urmilesh

2011-04-01

290

6. Reproductive toxicity of Capparis aphylla (Roth. in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth. on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was observed. The administration of ethanolic extract at varied doses led to alteration in both the histoarchitecture of testis, mainly caput epididymis and erratic spermatogenesis have been documented. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by whole plant ethanolic extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive.

P. Revathi

2010-08-01

291

Exploring Hepatotoxicity of Benomyl: Histological and Histochemical Study on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Benomyl, a fungicide of the benzimidazole group applied against a wide range of fungal diseases of crops and vegetables. The effects of benomyl on the hepatic tissue of albino rats were investigated. Treating rats with benomyl at a dose level of 1/10 LD50 three times/week for three weeks induced various histopathological changes in the liver, such as hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and fatty degeneration. Histochemical investigations revealed reduction in total carbohydrates, total proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA in the hepatic cells. These alterations were time-dependent and were obvious in animals treated with benomyl for 3 weeks. It is speculated that one or more metabolites of benomyl may be responsible for the hepatotoxicity recorded in the present work.

Saber A. Sakr

2004-01-01

292

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-10-01

293

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina / Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

294

Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento / Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada ga [...] iola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes) foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in [...] each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.

Mattaraia, Vania Gomes de Moura; Moura, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares.

295

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats / Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto n [...] ormal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição). Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle) durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05) obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on [...] the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group). Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls) were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05) obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.

Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo.

296

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição. Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05 obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose.

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

2010-12-01

297

Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat  

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Background: Phyllanthus amarus is commonly used for treatment such as in gastro, urogenital diseases and infection. However, it is speculated to have some toxic effects such as renal tubular damage. Aims: This study was to investigate the histological effects of chronic administration of the herb on kidney of adult Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats ea...

2010-01-01

298

Effect of Thymoquinone on Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

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The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The rats were pretreated orally (using rats feeding needle) with different doses (5, 10 and 20 mg kg?1 body weight) of TQ for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5 g kg?1) was injected. Silymarin was used as standard hepato-protective agent for comparison. The activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aci...

Alsaif, Mohammed A.

2007-01-01

299

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the milk of experimentally infected Wistar female rats  

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The milk of experimentally infected rats was investigated for the presence and possible transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) female rats were divided into three groups and orally inoculated with bradyzoites. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the parasite in the milk. Transmission to the offspring was verified by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), modified agglutination test (MAT), bioassay tests and PCR. Rat milk samples were PCR-po...

Vm, Costa; Langoni, H.

2010-01-01

300

Gravimetric and morphometric assessments in Wistar rats with experimental diabetes mellitus type 1 and cardiac failure  

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Diabetes mellitus type 1 and cardiac failure were experimentally induced in 55 Wistar adult rats. The animals were divided in four groups and treated as follows: group 1 (streptozotocin and adriamycin), group 2 (streptozotocin), group 3 (adriamycin), group 4 (healthy control rats). 70 days after administration, the rats were euthanized. Body weight, cardiac weight and liver weight were assessed. Cardiac gravimetric values were completed with the assessment of longitudinal diameter and transve...

Ciobotaru E.; Militaru M.; Braslasu C.M.; Braslasu E.D.; Soare T.; Joita S.; Dinescu G.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

BCG Induces Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in the Wistar Rat Model  

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Our understanding of the correlation of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-mediated immune responses and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still limited. We have recently characterized a Wistar rat model of experimental tuberculosis (TB). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in this model. Upon Mtb challenge, BCG vaccinated rats controlled growth of the bacilli earlier than unvaccinated rats. Histopathology analysis o...

Singhal, Amit; Mathys, Vanessa; Kiass, Mehdi; Creusy, Colette; Delaire, Baptiste; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dartois, Ve?ronique; Kaplan, Gilla; Bifani, Pablo

2011-01-01

302

HEALING POTENTIAL OF GEL CONTAINING EXTRACT OF OUGEINIA OOJEINENSIS ON EXCISION WOUNDS IN WISTAR RATS  

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: To investigate the wound healing potency of ethanol and aqueous bark extracts of O. oojeinensis. Excision wound model was used to evaluate the wound healing activity of both the extracts on wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups and each group has six rats. The group I was untreated and considered as control group. The group II was treated with neomycin cream and treated as stan...

Ram Kumar Sahu; Vivek Kulshrestha; Sourabh Kothiya; Pavan Yadav; Amit Roy

2010-01-01

303

Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar  

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Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.). Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour befo...

Asuntha, G.; Prasannaraju, Y.; Sujatha, D.; Kvsrg, Prasad

2010-01-01

304

Wound healing activity of Cassia occidentalis L. in albino Wistar rats  

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The wound healing property of methanolic crude extract of Cassia occidentalis L. leaves and a pure compound Chrysophanol isolated from it was evaluated in excision, incision and dead space wound models. The parameters studied included rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization in excision wound model. Tensile strength in incision wound model and granulation tissue dry weight in dead space model were assessed along with histopathological examinations. Chrysophanol was found ...

Sheeba, M.; Emmanuel, S.; Revathi, K.; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

2009-01-01

305

ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC) against renal I/R injury by its effect o...

2012-01-01

306

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos.

Thiago de Oliveira Assis

2010-12-01

307

Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1) and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2). After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females...

Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira

2003-01-01

308

Acute Oral and Parenteral Toxicity of 1,3-Bis(2-Chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea (Bcnu), Administered to Male Albino Rats.  

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The acute toxicity of 1-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, mol. wt. 214.07) was evaluated following single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration to male albino rats. The compound was prepared in sterile saline, at a concentration of...

H. Feinman T. W. Tusing

1966-01-01

309

The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats  

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This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twent...

2013-01-01

310

Chemopreventive effects of embelin and curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of embelin (50 mg/kg/day), a benzoquinone derivative of Embelia ribes, and the effects of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), the active principle of Curcuma longa, against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-initiated and phenobarbital (PB)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis were studied in Wistar rats. They were able to prevent the induction of hepatic hyper plastic nodules, body weight loss, increase in the levels of hepatic diagnostic markers, and hypoproteinemia induced by DENA/PB treatment. Hence, results of our study suggest the possible chemopreventive effects of embelin (EMB) and curcumin (CUR) against DENA/PB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. PMID:16009505

Sreepriya, M; Bali, Geetha

2005-09-01

311

The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

Zeinab E. Hanafy

2007-09-01

312

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

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Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

H. Saikia

2011-04-01

313

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02, and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03, which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5 and (0.51±0.03 respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem

2003-03-01

314

Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats Estudo do corpo caloso de ratos Wistar submetidos à hidrocefalia experimental  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.OBJETIVO: A hidrocefalia causa inúmeros danos cerebrais, especialmente nas estruturas ao redor dos ventrículos cerebrais. As crianças com hidrocefalia apresentam déficits nas aquisições não verbais mais do que nas verbais, nem sempre revertidos com o tratamento precoce. Como o corpo caloso tem um papel essencial nas aquisições não verbais, é provável que as lesões nesta estrutura estejam envolvidas com as disfunções cognitivas dessas crianças. Este trabalho procura estabelecer as alterações causadas pela hidrocefalia, induzida pela injeção de caulim intracisternal ao corpo caloso de ratos Wistar em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Sete, 14 e 21 dias após a injeção, os animais foram sacrificados, sendo o corpo caloso dissecado e processado para estudo das fibras axonais. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os ratos com 7 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia apresentaram um atraso na mielinização em relação aos controles. Em ratos com 14 dias de evolução da hidrocefalia, o corpo caloso mostrou recuperação da mielina, mas em ratos com hidrocefalia com 21 dias de evolução, as fibras apresentavam-se lesadas e reduzidas em número.

Luiza da Silva Lopes

2003-01-01

315

Observations on Chromosomal Aberrations Following the Administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Carica papaya Seeds for Contraception in Albino Rats and Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.

S. Goyal

2011-01-01

316

Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of septilin on irradiated male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.

2008-01-01

317

Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida On Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty adult male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Ferula assafoetida on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic Ferula assafoetida treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen content levels were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that Ferula assafoetida treatment led to a significant improve in hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen and increased percentage of body weight change caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. Ferula assafoetida treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood

2005-12-01

318

Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

2011-01-01

319

EVALUATION OF ANTI DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF MARSILEA MINUTA LINN AGAINST ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was design with an aim to evaluate the Ethanolic leaf extract of Marsilea minuta Linn (EEMM. The study was performed on ethanolic extract of MM leaf in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and alloxan-induced diabetes models in albino rats. Three weeks treatment of diabetic animals with EEMM (250 and 500 mg/kg showed significant check in rise of blood glucose compared to untreated diabetic rats along with improved complete lipid profile. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were estimated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and serum triglyceride content were found to be significantly reduced (p<0.05 in EEMM treated rats and the extract also showed the potent elevation in the level of serum HDL cholesterol. On the basis of analysis of data obtained during the study, it may be concluded that EEMM leaf is having significant antihyperglycemic potential and can be further fractionated in order to get a responsible constituent for this very action.

S.Madhu

2012-08-01

320

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

2011-01-01

322

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

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The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus...

2001-01-01

323

Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

2004-01-01

324

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

325

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

326

Antioxidant effect of beta-carotene on hypoxia induced oxidative stress in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia is known to induce oxidative stress in organisms leading to tissue injury. In the present study beta-carotene (BC) given at 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) in reducing the oxidative stress induced by hypoxia was evaluated on male albino rats. Hypoxia exposure caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma and tissues, a concurrent decrease in blood glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), plasma protein and plasma BC content. Hemoglobin concentration, Red blood corpuscles (RBC) and White blood corpuscles (WBC) count were also increased under hypoxia. BC supplementation reversed the trend, inducing a significant decrease (P<0.05) in MDA and subsequent increase in plasma and tissue GSH levels in animals exposed to hypoxia. Blood GPx and plasma protein also increased significantly in BC supplemented animals. BC supplementation did not alter the changes in Hb concentration, RBC and WBC count. BC has potent antioxidant activities in reducing the oxidative stress induced by hypobaric hypoxia. PMID:11801375

Sarada, S K S; Dipti, P; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Kain, A K; Sairam, M; Sharma, S K; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

2002-02-01

327

Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.  

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The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

2004-01-01

328

Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

1997-11-01

329

Effect of Diet Contains Sesame Seed on Adult Wistar Rat Testis Efecto de la Dieta con Semillas de Sésamo sobre el Testículo de la Rata Wistar Adulta  

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Studies show that some antioxidants are effective in improving male infertility. According to several antioxidant compounds that exist in sesame seed, this study was designed and carried out to the effects of sesame seed diet consumption on adult male rats testis structure and sex hormones. This experimental study was carried out on 30 adults Wistar rat, 200 g that obtained from laboratory animal center at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Rats were divided into experimental and control ...

Amini Mahabadi, J.; Hassani Bafrani, H.; Nikzad, H.; Taherian, A.; Salehi, M.

2013-01-01

330

A new method for the experimental induction of secundary biliary cirrhosis in wistar rats Novo modelo experimental de obstrução biliar em ratos Wistar  

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The aim of this study was to describe a method for the induction of experimental secondary biliary fibrosis (SBF). Forty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to hepatic duct obstruction (OB group) for thirty days without ligature, section or cannulization causing interruption of biliary flow. This technique was carried out by simple traction of the bile duct passing it through the xiphoid appendix. Nine rats were submitted to a sham operation for bile duct stricture and seven rats comprised the c...

Gracinda De Lourdes Jorge; Luiz Sergio Leonardi; Ilka de Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin; Silva Jr, Orlando Castro E.; Cecilia Amelia Fazzio Escanhoela

2001-01-01

331

Late morphological changes in the molar pulp of wistar rats with alloxan induced diabetes  

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The aim of this study was examination of late changes in the dental pulp of rats with experimental diabetes. The experiment involved 36 male albino rats, initially 35 days old and 89.45±9.95 g body wight. The animals were separated into 6 equal groups. The first (T1), third (T2) and fifth (T3) groups of animals were given a single dose of alloxan tetrahydrate approximately 80 mg/ kg body weight. Just before the application, the substance was dissolved in physiological saline, and each animal...

Radujkovi?-Kuburovi? Gordana; Vukobratovi? Siniša; Jovovi? ?ur?ica

2003-01-01

332

Transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en ratas Wistar de segunda generación / Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en crías de ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar de segunda generación. El curso de la infección chagásica fue evaluado en las ratas infectadas inicialmente (RII) inyectadas con las f [...] ormas metacíclicas del parásito, en las crías de la primera (C1ªG) y segunda generación (C2ªG), mediante pruebas de diagnóstico seroparasitológicas y molecular (PCR). En las RII se demostró infección aguda caracterizada por parasitemias patentes entre los 12 y 45 días post-inoculación (pi), e incremento en la respuesta inmune humoral con títulos desde 1:64 y 1:2048; en la fase crónica se evidencio ausencia de parasitemias y mantenimiento de una moderada respuesta humoral en el 100% de las madres. Las C1ªG no presentaron tripomastigotes en la sangre circulante, la prueba de IFI, reveló seropositividad apreciable en el 75% de los sueros. En las C2ªG, los exámenes directos de sangre y el hemocultivo, resultaron negativos; los xenodiagnósticos mostraron un 18,2% de positividad. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas (IFI y ELISA) detectaron un 31,8% y 34,1% anticuerpos circulantes anti-T. cruzi. La PCR aplicada a los sueros, presentó un bajo porcentaje de muestras positivas (6,8%) y en los tejidos (corazón y músculo esquelético) se observó una alta positividad de 54,5% y 45,4%, respectivamente. La presencia de formas flageladas en la sangre, la persistencia de la serología positiva por anticuerpos humorales transferidos vía materna y la permanencia de restos de ADN de T. cruzi en sueros y tejidos en un número importante de crías, confirma la infección congénita a su progenie, en segunda generación. Estos resultados son de gran importancia para una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita. Abstract in english The results of the experimental study concerning the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation strain Wistar albino rats are presented. The course of the Chagas infection was evaluated in rats initially infected with the metacyclic forms of the parasite (RII) in first (C1stG) [...] and second (C2ndG) generation offspring using parasitological, serological and molecular (PCR) diagnostic tests. In the RII, an acute infection characterized by patent parasitemias between 12 and 45 days post-inoculation and an increase in the humoral immune response with titers of 1:64 and 1:2048 in the chronic phase demonstrated the absence of parasitemia and maintenance of a moderate humoral response in 100% of the mothers. The C1stG did not show tripomastigotes in the blood circulation and the IIF test showed considerable seropositive in 75% of the sera. In C2ndG, direct blood and hemoculture exams performed were negative, while 18.2% of the xenodiagnosis were positive. The serological tests used (IIF and ELISA) detected 31.8% and 34.1% anti-T. cruzi circulating antibodies. The PCR applied to the serum presented a low percentage of positive (6.8%) samples and in tissues (heart and skeletal muscle) high positives of 54.5% and 45.4% respectively were observed. The presence of flagellated forms in the blood, the persistence of serological positive for humoral antibodies transferred by the mother and the permanence of remaining DNA of the T. cruzi in serum and tissues in a significant number of offspring confirm the congenital infection to their offspring in the second generation. These results are of great importance for the better understanding of the epidemiology of Chagas disease.

Moreno, Elio A; Ramírez A, Martha; Alarcón, Maritza E; Lugo de Yarbuh, Ana; Villarreal, Juana; Araujo, Sonia; Mogollón, Nora; González, Anajulia; Premoli, Gloria.

333

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day, Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day, Group III: rats were fed with combined mixture of 70% of high-fat diet with 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day, Group IV: rats were fed a high fat diet was administered with pioglitazone (25mg/kg of body weight via intravenous in each day, Group V: rats were fed combined mixture of 70% standard laboratory pellet and 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (thirteen week period. High fat fed rat registered significantly increase in body weight and liver weight at the end of experimental period. The high fat fed rat substantially elevated its serum and liver tissue AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin with decreased in total protein levels. Whereas the levels of all parameterssignificantly restored towards normalization by the sesame meal treatment. The results obtained suggest that the sesame meal have potent hepatoprotective action on high fat fed rats. A comparison of the performance in both sesame meal and pioglitazone treatment on high fat fed rat in respect of hepato-protective role is clearly indicate that the sesame meal treatment was more or less very equal to the result of pioglitazone as well as to the normal level.

Anitha Uthandi

2011-12-01

334

Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500?mg/kg and 800?mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

335

Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development  

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Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67): received the ?-cytotoxic agent...

Saito Felipe H; Damasceno Débora C; Kempinas Wilma G; Morceli Glilciane; Sinzato Yuri K; Taylor Kristin N; Vc, Rudge Marilza

2010-01-01

336

Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats  

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Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

2011-04-01

337

Passive transfer of diabetes from BB/W to Wistar-Furth rats.  

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Autoimmune diabetes can be transferred to young, diabetes prone BB/W rats by injecting them intravenously with concanavalin A (Con A)-treated spleen cells from acute diabetic BB/W donors. This study describes the transfer of diabetes to the normal Wistar-Furth strain of rats using a similar procedure. For the successful transfer of diabetes it was necessary to immunosuppress recipient animals with a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 24-48 h before administering Con A-stimul...

Koevary, S. B.; Williams, D. E.; Williams, R. M.; Chick, W. L.

1985-01-01

338

Genetic Susceptibility to Experimental Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis in the Wistar Kyoto Rat  

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In experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), a model of Goodpasture's disease, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats immunized with collagenase-solubilized glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or the recombinant NC1 domain of the ?3 chain of type IV collagen [?3(IV)NC1] develop anti-GBM antibodies and focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. However, Lewis (LEW) rats, which share the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype, are resistant to EAG development. A geno...

Reynolds, John; Cook, Paul R.; Behmoaras, Jacques; Smith, Jennifer; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Tadros, Susan; Tee, Jonathan; Salama, Alan D.; Evans, David J.; Aitman, Timothy J.; Cook, H. Terence; Pusey, Charles D.

2012-01-01

339

Histological Observations of the Testis of Wistar Rats Following the Oral Administration of Cotecxin (dihyroartemisinin  

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Full Text Available Cotecxin has been reportedly used in the treatment of malaria with high clinical effect and low toxicity. This study therefore, tried to examine the effects of cotecxin on the histology of the testis of wistar rats. A total of twenty four (24 male wistar rats were the subjects used in this experiment. The wistar rats were divided into three groups with each group containing eight (8 rats. Different concentrations of cotecxin were administered orally to the wistar rats which had an average weight of 150 g. Group I is the control group, Group II received 3.42 mg/kg and Group III were given 17.10 mg/Kg. The duration of administration was seven days. After which four (4 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day. The remaining twelve rats were equally sacrificed on the 15th day and immediately fixed in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed and stained in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The changes observed on the eighth day in the testis were disarray of the spermatogenic cells and disorientation of the testis. These changes were observed to have been disappearing and normal histological features being restored in those rats sacrificed at the 15th day. It was therefore concluded that cotecxin has negative effect on the histology of the testis during administrations and these effects were reversible some days after stoppage of the administration. This suggests that cotexcin could be safe but It’s prolong usage may be discouraged.

T. Murdakai

2011-10-01

340

NMDA Receptors are Altered by Stress and Alcohol in Wistar-Kyoto Rat Brain  

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Previous studies have shown that the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is more sensitive to stressors and consumes significant quantities of alcohol under basal as well as stressful conditions when compared to other strains. Given that the glutamate neurotransmitter system has been implicated in depression and addiction, the goals of the present study were to investigate the effects of stress and stress-alcohol interactions on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the rat brain. Thus this stud...

Lei, Yanlin; Tejani-butt, Shanaz M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Brachial Plexus Morphology and Vascular Supply in the Wistar Rat  

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Introduction: The rat is probably the animal species most widely used in experimental studies on nerve repair. The aim of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of the morphology and blood supply of the rat brachial plexus. Material and Methods: Thirty adult rats were studied regarding brachial plexus morphology and blood supply. Intravascular injection and dissection under an operating microscope, as well as light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were u...

Almeida, Ma; Casal, D.; Mafra, M.; Mascarenhas-lemos, L.; Martins-ferreira, J.; Ferraz-oliveira, M.; Amarante, J.; Goyri-o Neill, J.

2013-01-01

342

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

O. A Komolafe

2012-06-01

343

Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption in Wistar rats from five different suppliers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the mechanism of action of ethanol and the neurobiological substrates for alcohol use disorders is challenging. In search of this knowledge, it is imperative to use valid animal experimental models. The Wistar rat is one example of a commonly used strain that also exert foundation stock for several rat lines selectively bred for high and low voluntary ethanol intake. Different studies report varying ethanol intake in Wistar rats posing the question of whether this is because of the methodological differences or the rat strain. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats from five different suppliers. Rats from B&K Universal, UK (BK); Charles River, Germany; Harlan Laboratories, IN (Hsd); Harlan Laboratories, The Netherlands (RccHan™); and Taconic, Denmark were exposed to a three-bottle free-choice paradigm with intermittent 24 h access to 5 and 20% ethanol and water three times per week for 6 weeks. A general finding was that the RccHan™ rats differed significantly from the other groups. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ group had the highest median ethanol intake of 3.85 g/kg/24 h, whereas the BK rats had the lowest intake of 1.84 g/kg/24 h. The preference for ethanol was also different throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ rats had the highest preference of approximately 80%, whereas the BK rats had the lowest preference around 25%. During the 6-week drinking period, only the Hsd rats increased their ethanol intake, as evidenced by a significant increase of 5% ethanol intake. Although all rats are of Wistar origin, they display profound differences in voluntary ethanol consumption depending on the supplier. The choice of Wistar can therefore have implications for the outcome and make comparisons between studies difficult. The present findings highlight the supplier as an important parameter to consider when planning and performing preclinical animal studies in the field of alcohol research. PMID:21168301

Palm, Sara; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

2011-09-01

344

Anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The study investigated the anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. In this work, thirty six adult strain of albino wistar rats were used, which included six normal, diabetic untreated and twenty four diabetic treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneally injection of 60 mg/kg body weight dose of streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 ml fresh cold citrate buffer pH 4.5 into 16 h-fasted rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided as follows: Group I served as normal control, Group II served as diabetic untreated rats, while Group III to Group VI received 200, 400 and 800mg/kg b w of the extract and glibenclamide 10mg/kg b w respectively by orally by gavages for a period of 28 days. The animals were weighed weekly to determine the change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was measured after every seven days. After the last day of treatment, blood samples were collected from the animals from each group on the 29th day by cardiac puncture in 16 hours fasted animals for the determination of haematological parameters. The results obtained in this present study showed that the blood glucose level was significantly (pth, 21st and 28th day when compared to diabetic control group. There was a statistically significant increase (pth days. In conclusion, the plant extract showed a significant hypoglycemic as well as erythropoetic effects in the diabetic animals, justifying its use traditionally in the management of diabetes mellitus.

R.K. Mohammed

2013-03-01

345

Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

2010-01-01

346

SCREENING OF ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF KUSHMANDA FRUIT (BENINCASA HISPIDA THUMB IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of juice and aqueous extract of Benincasa hispida Thumb fruit in Albino Rats. Two drug samples were prepared i.e. Benincasa hispida fruit juice and aqueous extract. MES Model was adopted to observe the seizure control activity of tested drug. Flexion, clonus, recovery time, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of Steroids, Alkaloids, Starch, Hexosugars, Monosaccharide’s and Proteins. Swarasa (Juice at the dose of 0.9 ml/200 gm of rat shows significant protection against the shock induced convulsions (Significant at the level of P<0.05. Aqueous extract at dose 100mg/200 gm of rat shown lesser protection compare to the Swarasa (Significant at the level P<0.05. Nasal and orbital bleeding is observed in control and standard group but it is absent in test groups. Study reveals Benincasa hispida fruit juice possesses anticonvulsant activity.

Raghuveer

2012-03-01

347

Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

2009-10-01

348

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Full Text Available

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.

Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel

2011-04-01

349

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

Amir S.M. ELBAHNASAWY

2013-02-01

350

SCREENING OF SEIZURE CONTROL ACTIVITY OF KUSHMANDA FRUIT (Benincasa hispida Thumb IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of juice and aqueous extract of Benincasa hispida Thumb fruit in Albino Rats.Two drug samples were prepared i.e. Benincasa hispida fruit juice and aqueous extract. MES Model was adopted to observe the seizure control activity of tested drug. Flexion, clonus, recovery time, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of Steroids, Alkaloids, Starch, Hexosugars, Monosaccharide’s and Proteins. Swarasa (Juice at the dose of 0.9 ml/200 gm of rat shows significant protection against the shock induced convulsions (Significant at the level of P<0.05. Aqueous extract at dose 100mg/200 gm of rat shown lesser protection compare to the Swarasa (Significant at the level P<0.05. Nasal and orbital bleeding is observed in control and standard group but it is absent in test groups. The Benincasa hispida fruit juice possesses anticonvulsant activity.

Raghuveer

2012-04-01

351

Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p. paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALTand alkaline phosphatase (ALP accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins, vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST,(ALTand (ALPassociated with nearly normal hepatocyte architecture. In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.

Enas A. M. Khalil

2004-06-01

352

Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

Sheeja E

2009-01-01

353

Effect of Commiphora myrrha extract on some physiological parameters and histological changes in diabetic albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt. After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period. Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01 in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.

Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy

2005-09-01

354

Effect of honey on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a potentially serious adverse effect of antituberculosis treatment (ATT regimens containing isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Many in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that honey possess antioxidant property and hepotoprotective property but there is no systematic work available to test the effect of honey on antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hence present study was carried out to explore the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of honey with its antioxidant activity against hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs (Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide in albino rats. Methods: Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with antitubercular drugs (Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide was studied by assessing parameters such as Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Serum total protein, Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA and Serum Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD. The effect of Honey as co-administration and administration after establishment of hepatotoxicity on above parameter was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by Histopathological examination of liver. Results: Honey significantly reversed changes in serum levels of AST, ALT, MDA, SOD, total protein and also histopathological changes produced by Antitubercular drugs. It was found that honey significantly prevented as well as reversed Antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity and antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The results of present study show that honey has significant prophylactic and therapeutic value against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 177-181

Rakhamaji D. Chandane

2013-04-01

355

CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT  

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Full Text Available The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 or 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The results clearly indicate that a significant increase (P<0.01 in lymphocyte and eosinophil percent and a significant decrease (P<0.01 in neutrophil and monocyte percent at low and medium dose but at higher dose their percentage increases within the normal values. This investigation indicates not only the benefits and drawback of raw garlic but also its uses in regulation of certain parameters for well-being of individuals.

Sashank Srivastava and P. H. Pathak*

2012-06-01

356

Effect of the Overcrowding Stress on Fundus of Stomach in Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.

Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah

2012-07-01

357

Behavioral differences in three Wistar Han rat lines for emotional reactivity, cognitive processing and ethanol intake.  

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Many laboratories obtain their experimental animals from commercial suppliers and are therefore dependent on their conditions and breeding schedules. A breeding stop or the substitution of a particular rat line by the supplier forces the customers to abandon their conventional test animals and to re-establish all behavioral paradigms with a new rat line. Therefore, it is vital to know whether behavioral differences emerge in various breeding lines of the same rat strain. In a recent case, the commercial supplier Harlan Laboratories GmbH is substituting the previous HsdHan:WIST line of Wistar rats with the RccHan:WIST line descending from a different breeding stock. We therefore tested animals of both lines (RccHan:WIST and HsdHan:WIST from Harlan Laboratories GmbH) as well as Wistar rats of the same line but obtained from a different supplier (Janvier) in a broad range of behavioral paradigms. We observed differences in locomotor activity, in classical anxiety-related paradigms (elevated plus maze and light/dark emergence test), as well as in object recognition memory and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). We also found differences in ethanol intake and preference, but not regarding the intake of a palatable food reward and a bitter solution (quinine). These results demonstrate considerable variations in the behavioral phenotype between different breeding lines of the same Wistar rat strain and aim to increase the awareness of behavioral scientists for line and supplier differences affecting animal behavior. PMID:23306104

Goepfrich, Anja A; Gluch, Christian; Friemel, Chris M; Schneider, Miriam

2013-02-17

358

Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats.  

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It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A-E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

Adebiyi, Olamide E; Abatan, Mathew O

2013-09-01

359

Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats  

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Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A. G.; Atta, Amal H.

2011-01-01

360

Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Psidium guajava Leaves Water Extract on Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.

E.U. Etuk

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Thirteen-week repeated dose toxicity of Siraitia grosvenori extract in Wistar Hannover (GALAS) rats.  

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Siraitia grosvenori extract has been used as a food additive. As a part of the safety assessment of the extracts, a 13-week repeated dose toxicity study was performed in Wistar Hannover (GALAS) rats. Male and female rats were divided into five groups consisting of eight animals each and given diet containing 0%, 0.04%, 0.2%, 1%, and 5% of S. grosvenori extract for 13 weeks. During the experiment, no deaths were observed in any groups, and there were no remarkable changes in general appearance, body weight, food and water consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, organ weight and histopathological findings between the control and treated groups. On the basis of these data, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of S. grosvenori extract in Wistar Hannover rats was considered to be 5% (2520 mg/kg/day in males and 3200 mg/kg/day in females) or more. PMID:17316947

Jin, Meilan; Muguruma, Masako; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Okamura, Miwa; Kashida, Yoko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

2007-07-01

362

Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats  

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Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

1986-03-05

363

Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

Chambô-Filho A.

2005-01-01

364

Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats  

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Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

1986-03-05

365

Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats  

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A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Diazepam is currently used in clinical practice for the treatment of pregnant women. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether inclusion of immunotoxicity parameters would lead ...

Loveren H van; Ah, Piersma; Wh, Jong; Ej, Waal

2007-01-01

366

Regional catecholamine concentrations in brain and spinal cord of male albino rats treated with the synthetic pyrethroid cyfluthrine  

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The principal objective of this study was to determine the modifications induced by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin in the concentrations of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine(E) in selected brain and spinal cord regions of male albino rats. A group of 30 rats were injected intraperitoneally every other day with cyfluthrin at 1/4 LD50 dose level for 18 days. Other two groups (30 rats each) were daily given cyfluthrin intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 1/8 ...

Ahmed, N. A.

1997-01-01

367

Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.  

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The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

2000-01-01

368

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin)...

Sanda, K. A.; Sandabe, U. K.; Auwal, M. S.; Bulama, I.; Bashir, T. M.; Sanda, F. A.; Mairiga, I. A.

2013-01-01

369

Evaluation of diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of cissampelos pareira in albino rats.  

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Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01(**), p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with standard Furosemide. PMID:24995192

Sayana, Suresh Babu; Khanwelkar, Chitra C; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

2014-05-01

370

Impact of Aluminum Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Body Weight and Recognition Memory of Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity, on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L-1 of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a motor activity, object recognition memory (NOR and brain aluminum concentration has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the open field test and to the novel object recognizing memory test. The results have showed a significant decrease in rats` body weight (p<0.05. Though, no significance was registered for motor activity. Nevertheless, a high significance is showed for recognition memory compared to control rats (p<0.01, especially at the end of testing period, even the difference between control and aluminium treated rats in brain aluminum levels was not significant.

F.Z. Azzaoui

2008-01-01

371

ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

Kashinath Hadimur

2013-06-01

372

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus (Ogiri and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05 than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no significant difference in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.5 than control while the low density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05 in the fermented melon seed oil diet. The Ogiri oil diet had significantly reduced LDL/HDL ratio compared with the control while the palm kernel oil diet had a higher LDL/HDL ratio. The result implies that fermented melon seed oil (Ogiri oil appears to have hypolipidemic effect while dietary intake of palm kernel oil could pose a risk for coronary artery disease on long term basis.

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle

2009-01-01

373

Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it?s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

374

Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats  

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The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

2005-01-01

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Possible Hepatoprotective Effects of Lacidipine in Irradiated DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-? levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The