Full Text Available Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 days. The animals were weighed once in a week and the food and water consumption was monitored every day. Behavioural changes in these animals were monitored every week using Rotarod, Actophotometer and William?s maze. Results: A significant increase in body weight, food and water consumption in rats could be recorded after 3rdand 4th week of treatment with 200mg/kg/day L. aspera. However, there were no changes in any of the behavioural responses in L. aspera treated groups compared to control. Conclusions: The unaltered neuro behavioural responses after L. aspera treatment indicate the safe nature of this medicinal plant. The significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggest a potential anabolic/ nutraceutical property of L aspera.. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 433-437
Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia
Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.
Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose a...
Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)
Meo, Sultan A.; Abdul M. Al-Drees; Sufia Husain; Muhammad M. Khan; Muhammad B. Imran
OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on serum testosterone levels in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This experimental interventional control study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period December 2006 to April 2008. A total of 34 male Albino rats [Wistar strain], 2 months of age, weighing 150-160 gm were used for the experiment. These an...
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.
Uduak Akpan Okon
Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645
Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572
A.J. Joshua; K.S. Goudar; A. Damodaran; N. Sameera; Amit, A.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were obs...
Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna
The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...
Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro
Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...
Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Uche, Ndidi S.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...
Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.
Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746
Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan
Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of ...
Bacanl?, Merve; Ayd?n, Sevtap; Taner, Gökçe; Gökta?, Hatice Gül; ?ahin, Tolga; Ba?aran, A Ahmet; Ba?aran, Nur?en
Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure. Ferulic acid (FA), a well-established natural antioxidant, has several pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of FA on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats. Sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes, liver and kidney cells of rats were evaluated by comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured. It is found that DNA damage in sepsis+FA-treated group was significantly lower than the sepsis group. FA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the sepsis-induced rats. It seems that FA might have ameliorative effects against sepsis-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25305738
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.
Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.
Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna
Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.
Konaté, K.; Souza, A.; R.R.R. Aworet Samseny; B. Batchelili; B. Marlaine; Lamidi, M.; Barro, N.; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J.; O. G. NACOULMA
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an ac...
Anusha Bhaskar; V Nithya
Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wo...
Ganesan, Balaraman; Anandan, Rangasamy; Lakshmanan, Pindath Thandayan
Stress can be defined as physical and psychological modifications that disrupt the homeostasis and the balance of organisms. Stress is known as one of the most important reasons of several diseases. In the present study, the anti-stress effect of betaine was evaluated with reference to its antioxidant property. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups such as control, betaine, restraint stress (6 h/day for 30 days), and betaine?+?restraint stress. The oxidative damage was assessed by ...
Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.
Khumanthem Deepak Singh
Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.
Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102
Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.
Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group â€“ I (control, Group â€“ II (Stressed Group. Group â€“II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20ËšC. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.
Mahboobeh Ashrafi; Seyedeh Zahra Bathaie; Saeid Abroun
Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) ...
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.
Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.
anil kashinath mali
Full Text Available Abstract: There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non – lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides
Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.
Mirza Danish Baig
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.
Arun Prabhakar Sithara
Full Text Available Background: Antidesma menasu is a folk plant of Euphorbiacae occurring in and around Udupi district in India. It is effectively used in folklore medicine for the management of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder and low backache. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the plant in Wistar albino rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of A. menasu were evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods:Eddy’s hot plate test and radiant heat test were used for investigation of analgesic effect. Effect of extract on the acute inflammation was investigated on Carrageenan induced paw oedema, and chronic inflammation was investigated on cotton pellet induced granuloma tissue formation test. The test extract was subjected for preliminary phytochemical examination as per standard methodology. Results: The test drug found to inhibit the carrageenan induced paw oedema significantly (p ? 0.05 and there was moderate increase in the latency period in the analgesic test. The results suggest that the test group has high signifi-cant anti-inflammatory potential and there is moderate analgesic activity. The histopathological examination of adrenal cortex, spleen and thymus showed a normal cytoarchitecture comparable with that of normal control group. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of the plant A. menasu revealed the presence of flovanoids, saponins, steroids and phenols. Conclusion: The data obtained supports the traditional folklore therapeutic claim about its anti-inflammatory and anal-gesic activity. Further scientific investigation is required to establish its analgesic and anti-inflammatory property in other experimental models and clinical settings.
Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K
Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 ? gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77). PMID:25906605
U. A. Utoh-Nedosa
Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were observed. Histological observation of pancreas also studied. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to alloxan treated rats showed significantly decrease in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, where as plasma insulin, hemoglobin, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly increased. Histopathological observation of pancreas reverses the trends towards normalcy. Hence, it can be concluded that Asteracantha longifolia leaf extracts may be prove to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to increase insulin secretion and enhance the antioxidant activity.
Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan
Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946. Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.
Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.
Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.
Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan
An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977
Salim S. Al-Rejaie
Full Text Available The effect of acute carvedilol (a third-generation nonselective ?-blocker pretreatment on gastric mucosal injury induced by 80% ethanol was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. The effects caused by pylorous ligation, accumulated gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucus secretions, levels of proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH in the stomach wall were investigated. The gastric ulcers were induced by administration of 1 mL of 80% ethanol, as a necrotizing agent into the stomach. Carvedilol pretreatment at two oral doses of 30 and 60 mg kg-1 body weight were found to protect against the ulcerogenic effects of ethanol. Same dose regimen of carvedilol offered significant protection against ethanol-induced damage on the parameters evaluated for histopathology. Furthermore, the pretreatment afforded a significant inhibition of pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, nucleic acids, proteins and NP-SH contents. Only higher dose of carvedilol provided inhibition of ethanol-induced increase in MDA concentration. The protective effects of carvedilol against gastric secretion or damage to the gastric-wall mucosa may be mediated through its effects on mucus production and NP-SH concentrations, possible free-radical scavenging ability and/or cytoprotective properties.
Hatice Gul Goktas
Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (Î±-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p<0.05. RA treatment in the sepsis-induced group was found to decrease the DNA damage significantly (p<0.05. In conclusion, RA might have a role in the prevention of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing DNA repair capacity of the animals.
Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G
Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802
S. Zahra Bathaie
Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.
Vishal Bhat; Arul Amuthan; Barizah Binti Mohamed Rosli; Nur Amirah Binti Khairuddin; Fatin Shahira Binti Md. Isa
Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV) and kalchunna thailam (KT) on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was crea...
Full Text Available Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV and kalchunna thailam (KT on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was created using scissors. Group 1 served as control with no drugs applied. Group 2, 3 and 4 were applied with mupirocin, KV and KT respectively daily until wound was completely healed. Parameters observed were % wound contraction rate and epithelialization period. Biopsy of wound for histology was taken on day 12 as well as the healed wound was taken after the wound was healed. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test by keeping p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Kalchunna thailam has increased wound contraction rate only during initial days, but not statistically significant. Kungiliya vennai treatment has increased vascularity with presence of tissue eosinophils when compared to control rats. There was a regeneration of adnexal skin structures in the Kungiliya vennai treated rats, which is not seen in other groups. The epithelialization period was significantly (p<0.001 hastened in Group 3 (15.83 days and 4 (15.17 days compared to control group (21.33 days. Conclusion: The topical application of kungiliya vennai and kalchunna thailam promoted wound healing in rats. Kungiliya vennai has the additional property of regenerating adnexal structures such as hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.
Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters co...
Full Text Available Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI, latency period (LP, and tumor multiplicity (TM were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05 induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group.Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions.
Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247
A. K. Brahmachari
Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.
Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233
A N Ezejiofor
Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; triglyceride (TG; total bilirubin (TB; conjugated bilirubin (CB; albumin (ALB and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ? 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05 when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB showed significant differences (P 0.05. The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate showed no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
Full Text Available Twenty male albino rats of the Wistar strain were placed in four experimental groups of five rats each. Group A (Reference group received a standard protein diet, Group B received a basal or protein-free diet, Group C received the F1-QPM diet, while Group D received common maize (CM diet. Water and feed were allowed ad libitum. Rats were fed for 21 days at the expiration of which indices of protein nutritional quality viz PER, NPU, NPR, TD and BV, were evaluated. The results showed that Group C rats had a higher (p0.05. Additionally, the protein contents of the F1-QPM and CM diets compared showed that though F1-QPM had a higher level of protein (11.80 ± 2.84% than CM (10.67 ± 0.31%, the difference was not significant (p>0.05. Quality protein maize (QPM maintained its high nutritional quality in spite of change in environment. Increased cultivation and utilization of QPM is recommended as this could help to alleviate hunger and protein malnutrition in developing countries.
O. Igile Godwin
Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.
Kovács, Zsolt; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Dobolyi, Arpád
We showed previously that the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was increased after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inosine (Ino) and muscimol alone whereas i.p. guanosine (Guo), uridine (Urd), bicuculline, theophylline and (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) alone decreased the SWD number in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. These drugs may exert their effects on absence epileptic activity mainly via proinflammatory cytokines-evoked increase in cortical excitability (such as LPS), GABAergic system (LPS, Ino, Urd, muscimol and bicuculline), glutamatergic system (LPS, Guo and MK-801) and adenosinergic system (LPS, Ino, Guo, Urd and theophylline). Both GABAergic system and glutamatergic system are involved in the pathomechanism of absence epilepsy, the LPS-evoked increase in absence epileptic activity and the pro- or antiepileptic effects of non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides Ino, Guo and Urd. Moreover, Ino, Guo and Urd have modulatory effects on inflammatory processes. Thus, we investigated whether Ino, Guo and Urd have also modulatory influence on LPS-evoked increase in SWD number using two different concentrations of each nucleoside in WAG/Rij rats. We demonstrated that Ino dose-dependently aggravated whereas Guo and Urd attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that different nucleosides have diverse effects on LPS-induced changes in absence epileptic activity. PMID:26365718
Full Text Available Background: Jawarish-e-Amla Sada (JAS; a polyherbal Unani formulation, is claimed as a potential hepatoprotective agent in traditional Unani medicine treatise. Aims and Objectives: Though, JAS has its composition recorded in ancient Unani texts, there have been minimal attempts to scientifically validate its hepatoprotective potential. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS in vivo. Materials and Methods: CCl 4 intoxicated Albino Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS (0.7 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with, silymarin. The efficacy was established on the basis of altered levels of biochemical markers and histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. Results and Discussion: Treatment with the aqueous slurry of JAS significantly reduced the level of biochemical markers in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. These findings were well-supported by the histopathological analysis of liver tissue. The effect shown by JAS was found to be at par with silymarin treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that CCl 4 induced liver damage can be ameliorated by traditional Unani formulation JAS. This justifies the traditional claim of JAS being a hepatoprotective agent.
Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde
The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. PMID:20570120
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain ( R eaction time. In the Tail immersion test the test drug significantly (P <0.001 reduced pain at 30 min when compared to the standard drug Aspirin at 60 min of oral administration. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : We can conclude that, Curcuma Amada possess analgesic activity which can be explained by animal models of pain. Probably, it acts by peripheral and central mechanisms. The combination of Curcuma Amada and Aspirin is synergistic
Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu
Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977
Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
Full Text Available This study evaluates qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties of Abrus precatorius leaves. The vitamins and therapeutic effect of methanol extract against tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in male Wistar albino rats. The results of phytochemical and vitamins indicates richness in saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids with value 30.05±0.22%, while vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, antioxidant and vitamins A, C and E was quantified. The liver damage was observed in the animals with significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP following the in traperitoneal administration of CCl4. The methanol extract caused significant decrease (p4 but were not treated. The extract showed potentials to mopping-up of free radicals generated by CCl4. The extract reduced lipid peroxidation in concentration dependent manner. The findings suggests that the extract have the capacity to improving liver functions and liver regeneration at high concentration. The extracts are safe for consumption, abundant phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins could offer reasonable protections against oxidative stress.
Avc?ba??, U?ur; Demiro?lu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akal?n, Hilmi Arkut; Özçal??kan, Emir; ?enay, Hilal; Türkcan, Ceren; Özcan, Ye?im; Akgöl, Sinan; Avc?ba??, Nesibe
In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12?±?0.01 and 1.79?±?0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440?min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60?min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results. PMID:24339009
Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U
The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940
Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C
Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p 0.05). Decreases (p 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant. PMID:24506054
The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are bes...
This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against ?-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in ?-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. ?-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100â€‰mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250â€‰mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250â€‰mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518
Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H
Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization) were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group): in this gro...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana. Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in CCl4 -treated rats only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana when compared to those administered CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in rats administered CCl4 alone. Histopathological examinations of rats administered CCl4 alone revealed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. These findings suggest that X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana may be protective against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats.
Shiva Shanker Rai
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate antiulcer potential of aqueous and ethanolic extract Clitoria ternatea in different experimental induced ulcer models in rats. In the present study different extracts [ethanolic (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and aqueous (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg extract of whole plant were examined in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Various parameters like volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, total acidity, ulcer index and antioxidant parameters were determined and compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control group animals following ulcer induction. Among different dose of alcoholic extract, high dose showed significant antiulcer activity in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced ulceration. The result of present study concluded that the alcoholic extract of whole plant of Clitoria ternatea has antiulcer activity in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The extract containing flavonoids show antiulcer activity, indicating the flavonoids component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.
Ghezzi Ana; Cambri Lucieli; Botezelli José; Ribeiro Carla; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria Alice
Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) ...
Full Text Available From the past few decades, scientist interest focused in the area of improvement of therapy and development of microspheres by oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique. Aceclofenac (ACF is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory and diarrhoea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nausea, indigestion, pancreatitis, constipation the most common side effects. So the aim of the presentresearch work was to formulation designing, characterization and in-vivoanti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in rats. ACF loaded EC microspheres were developed by oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique with different ratio of drug and ethyl cellulose as a polymer in order to achieve high entrapment efficiency and prolongedrelease characteristics. The prepared microspheres were subjected for characterization byscanning electron microscopy (SEM, percent yield, Fourier transformer infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, percententrapment efficiency and percentdrug release. The size of microspheres formulations (F1 to F6 were in range of 10±2.1 to 51±2.7 ?m, percent yield 75.32±2.21 to 95.43± 1.13%, percent drug entrapment efficiency 55.87±2.03 to 87.53±2.12% and percent drug release 58.36 ± 0.32 to 94.68 ± 0.54 % up to 12 hrs. IR and XRD studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer; no degradation during microspheres preparation and stable at storage conditions. Then compare in-vivo activity of optimized microspheres formulations to standard drug in 120-200g of Albinowistar rats of either sex. The results of present study reflect that successfully prepared free flowing ACF loaded EC microspheres by o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique and significantly reduction in an inflammation observed when it compared to standard ACF and also showed significant analgesic activity in rats.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and bakerâ€™s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in meanÂ±SEM of 14.0Â±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. Itâ€™s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6Â±8.80 expressed in meanÂ±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.
: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally ...
Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.
Nwangwa, E. K.
In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24) albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8) weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Gro...
T.G.G., Zotz; J.B. de, Paula; A.D.L., Moser.
Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induce [...] d heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.
Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209
Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch
A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons. PMID:26064027
Naikwade Nilofar S
Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.
Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy
This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.
S. L. Baxla; R. H. Gora; P. Kerketta; KUMAR, N.; B. K. Roy; P. H. Patra
Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Curcuma longa against lead induced toxicity.Materials and Methods: For this study, 24 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group (n=8), group – I rats (n=8) were given lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) and group – II rats (n=8) were treated with Curcuma longa @ 500 mg/kg BW along with lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg BW (daily orally for 28 days). Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters and l...
Creel, D; Giolli, R A
The retinogeniculate fiber projections were studied by degeneration methods in several strains of rats with pigmentation in their eyes and pelts ranging from the intensely pigmented self phenotype to the albino. The ipsilateral retinogeniculate input in the self, Irish, and hooded rats, and rats with "bicolor fundus" is located medially within the dorsal alteral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and is seen as a single lamina of moderately dense degeneration. PMID:1270616
Thiago de Oliveira Assis; José Candido de Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia
The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were rela...
Wegwu, M. O.; K.C. Patrick- Iwuanyanwu; J.K. Okiyi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica) and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica) and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana). Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase...
Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao
Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the...
Lokesh K. Verma; Aruna K. Singh; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.
The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE) on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50), 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the antipyretic activity o...
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24 albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8 weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4 experimental groups (n = 6. Group I (Control rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group II ( diabetic rats received 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group III (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola and 1mL of 5% ethanol and Group IV, (Diabetic rats received 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola, 1 mL of 5% ethanol and 1 mL of honey.The extracts were administered twice daily for four (4 weeks. The blood glucose level and Lipid profile was analysed. The results shows that Garcinia kola has a significant (p<0.05 hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 decreased the level of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Triglyceride (TG and significantly (p<0.05 increase in the level of High density lipoprotein compared with the diabetic non-treated group. These findings if applied can be of help in the management of diabetic patients.
Full Text Available Animals affected with Trypanosoma evansi show rare serum hormonal disturbances. One of the important hormones for livestock is thyroxin, and the level of thyroxin may be reduced during the T. evansi infection. The objective of the study was to investigate thyroxin level during experimentally induced T. evansi infection in Wister albino rats. Wistar albino white rats (n=12 were challenged with the local strain of T. evansi (at 5x105 trypanosomes/animal subcutaneously. At the high parasitemia, blood was collected from the rats, and serum was separated, which was subjected for biochemical evaluation. Decreased total serum thyroxin (2.91 ±0.04 µg/dL and free thyroxin (1.30 ±0.05 ng/dL levels (p<0.01 were recorded in T. evansi infected rats as compared to the control group of rats. Along with lowered thyroxin levels, decreased levels of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, total leucocyte count, total serum proteins, albumin and glucose levels were recorded. On the other hand, significant increase (p<0.01 in cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were observed. Thus, it is concluded that trypanosomiasis induces stress on rat, which have direct effect on thyroid hormone.
Lokesh K. Verma
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.
Aruna K. Singh; Lokesh K. Verma; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE) in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the...
Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy
Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....
Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.
Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.
Zuhair Y. Al. Sahhaf
Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that the haemotocrite value, number of leucocytes (WBCs as well as the lymphocytes percentage were significantly increased in treated animals The platelets were significantly decreased. The results also showed that serum total protein was decreased while triglycerides showed insignificant increase in comparison with control. Cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased after 12 days of treatment. Histological examination of kidney of treated rats revealed impairment of the renal tissues.
Kolawole Victor Olorunshola
Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E. A (control received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05 in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.
Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.
GalvÃ£o Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval
A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...
L.E., Drumond; C., Kushmerick; P.A.M., Guidine; M.C., Doretto; M.F.D., Moraes; A.R., Massensini.
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 d [...] ays), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.
Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.
The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741
Aruna K. Singh
Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos
F. O Awobajo
Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day, ampicillin (4mg/100/day and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día, ampicilina (4mg/100/día y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p<0,05 de los conductos del epidídimo (EDD, y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registró un aumento significativo (p <0,05 en el diámetro luminal del epidídimo (ELD en todos los animales después de dos y tres semanas del período de recuperación. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relación a la toxicidad de estos antibióticos en los órganos reproductivos masculinos, además de la reducción de la concentración sérica de testosterona, disminución de la motilidad del esperma, disminución del recuento de espermatozoides y disminución en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las células de espermatogénesis como se reportó anteriormente.
Full Text Available Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja
Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the anima...
Syed Safiullah Ghori
Full Text Available The present study was designed to perform preliminary phytochemical screening, acute oral toxicity and to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of whole plant of Glycosmis pentaphylla ethanolic extract. .Glycosmis pentaphylla,whole plant was extracted using ethanol as solvent by soxhlet apparatus. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine test dose . The evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity was done using Triton X 100 and High Fat Diet induced hyperlipidemia models in Wistar albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Doses up to 2000mg/kg were found to be safe after acute toxicity tests. Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, SGPT, Total protein and glucose were measured. The results suggested that EGP (ethanolic extract.Glycosmis pentaphylla possess antihyperlipidemic activity against hyperlipidemia induced by Triton X 100 and also High Fat Diet induced experimental models.
Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 ?Gyh-1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 ?Gy h-1'). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 ?g/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)
Carbini, L; Dazzi, E; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L
Albino male rats of Wistar strain, weighing about 350 g., were administered orally a single dose of 2,50 mu C of retinol-C14 after a fast of 24 h. At intervals of 3 h and of 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days rats were killed; livers, kidneys, blood, white fat tissue and brown fat tissue were removed. Samples were dried and radioactivity was measured. From the results, expressed in mu C/g of dry tissue, it is clear that vitamin A is taken up by all tissues. After 3 days it decreases in all tissues, between the 3rd and 18th day, its rate is constant and the depletion is complete within 24 days. PMID:1037632
Shirodkar, Rupesh; Misra, Chandrasekhar; GH, Chethan; Shetty, Pallavi; Attari, Zenab; Mutalik, Srinivas; Lewis, Shaila
The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140?mg, 0.350?mg, and 0.875?mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experimen...
Igarashi, M; Kato, T; Ohnuma, H; Morita, Y; Kawanami, T; Sasaki, H
To clarify whether ubiquitin is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, and, if so, the expression is influenced by diabetes mellitus, we examined atherosclerotic (AS) lesions from Wistar fatty (WF) and Wistar lean (WL) rats immunohistochemically using an antibody against ubiquitin (AUb). Ten-week-old male WF and WL rats were treated to cannulize a silicon tube from the left carotid artery (LCA) to the descending aorta under chloral hydrate anesthesia and the tube was fixed. Age-matched WF and WL rats without cannulization were served as controls. Eight weeks after operation, 1 ml of 0.1% Evans blue solution was injected to all rats from the tail vein. 15 min latter, the aortae were removed, fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemical staining with AUb by the ABC method, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and elastica-Goldner (EG) stains were performed. In the cannulized group, focal areas of the luminal surface of the aorta were stained blue with Evans blue and these areas were microscopically confirmed as AS lesions in all WF and WL rats. In the control group, no Evans blue staining or AS lesions were observed. The destruction of the internal elastic lamina in AS lesions were seen with EG stain in the cannulized aorta of both WF and WL rats. No significant difference of the area ratio of intima/media was present between WF and WL rats in the cannulized group. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in AS lesions of both WF and WL rats. The present study suggests that ubiquitin plays a role in the formation of AS, and the condition of diabetes mellitus has little influence on ubiquitin expression and AS formation in this experimental model. PMID:8826096
Objective: To investigate the teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups, three Nikean dosage groups (300, 200, 100 mg/kg) and one negative control group. Nikean or normal saline was given via caudal vein injection for 10 days from the 10 th day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed at the 20th day of gestation, and parers and their fetuses were examined. Results: Compared to the control group, there was no difference in weight of pregnant rats in three Nikean dosage groups. No abnormality was observed in skeleton and internal organs of fetuses in three Nikean dosage groups. There were significant differences between three Nikean dosage groups and control group in fetal weight, trunk length and tail length in female and male rats. Conclusion: Nikean at the dose of 300, 200, 100 mg/kg showed a certain fetotoxicity but had no apparent teratogenesis in rats. (authors)
Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy
Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50) , daily for 10 days (short term) and 20 days (long term) to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucos...
Nagasawa, Mao; Ikeda, Hiromi; Kawase, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuiro
We previously reported that Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, have a characteristically abnormal serine metabolism in the brain, i.e., lower serine and cystathionine, which is a metabolite of serine, concentrations in the brain. To explore the mechanism underlying this abnormality, the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase and serine racemase, which are the enzymes involved in the serine metabolism, was investigated in the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats exhibited a significantly lower mRNA expression of cystathionine ?-synthase in the cerebellum in comparison with Wistar rats, while expression levels in the hippocampus did not differ between strains. Previous study indicated that the reduction of cystathionine ?-synthase in the brain induced cerebellar aplasia in mice. Therefore, the cerebellar size was compared between Wistar rats and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats displayed a lower ratio of cerebellum weight to whole-brain weight compared with Wistar rats of the same generation or similar body weight, suggesting that Wistar Kyoto rats exhibit smaller cerebellum. These results suggest that the lower mRNA expression of cystathionine ?-synthase in the cerebellum and the smaller size of cerebellum may be related to the depression-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats. PMID:26241765
Karine Moura de Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.
Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B
Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.
Morganstern, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz
The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain has been described as an animal model of depressive behavior that consumes significantly greater amounts of alcohol compared to the Wistar (WIS) rat strain. Since the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) type-2 (D2) receptors mediate reward-related behaviors, the present study measured the binding of [125I]-Iodosulpiride to D2 receptors in the brains of WKY versus WIS rats following 24 days of voluntary alcohol or water consumption. Alcohol consuming WKY rats showed a si...
Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.
Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.
Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.
Bruno Ikenna Aguh
Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.
Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day fo...
Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.
Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG
The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05) increase i...
Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil
The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol lev...
Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood
In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...
Johanna W. M. Arts
Full Text Available Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments transfer the animals internally to the testing room.
Weijs, W A; Dantuma, R
The masticatory apparatus in the albino rat was studied by means of electromyography and subsequent estimation of muscular forces. The activity patterns of the trigeminal and suprahyoid musculature and the mandibular movements were recorded simultaneously during feeding. The relative forces of the individual muscles in the different stages of chewing cycles and biting were estimated on the basis of their physiological cross sections and their activity levels, as measured from integrated electromyograms. Workinglines and moment arms of these muscles were determined for different jaw positions. In the anteriorly directed masticatory grinding stroke the resultants of the muscle forces at each side are identical; they direct anteriorly, dorsally and slightly lingually and pass along the lateral side of the second molar. Almost the entire muscular resultant force is transmitted to the molars while the temporo-mandibular joint remains unloaded. A small transverse force, produced by the tense symphyseal cruciate ligaments balances the couple of muscle resultant and molar reaction force in the transverse plane. After each grinding stroke the mandible is repositioned for the next stroke by the overlapping actions of three muscle groups: the pterygoids and suprahyoids produce depression and forward shift, the suprahyoids and temporal backward shift and elevation of the mandible while the subsequent co-operation of the temporal and masseter causes final closure of the mouth and starting of the forward grinding movement. All muscles act in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion. The pterygoids contract more strongly, the masseter more weakly during biting than during chewing. The wide gape shifts the resultant of the muscle forces more vertically and moreposteriorly. The joint then becomes strongly loaded because the reaction forces are applied far anteriorly on the incisors. The charateristic angle between the almost horizontal biting force and the surface of the food pellet indicates that the lower incisors produce a chisel-like action. Tooth structure reflects chewing and biting forces. The transverse molar lamellae lie about parallel to the chewing forces whereas perpendicular loading of the occlusal surfaces is achieved by their inclination in the transverse plane. The incisors are loaded approximately parallel to their longitudinal axis, placement that avoids bending forces during biting. It is suggested that a predominantly protrusive musculature favors the effective force transmission to the lower incisors, required for gnawing. By grinding food across transversely oriented molar ridges the protrusive components of the muscles would be utilized best. From the relative weights of the masticatory muscles in their topographical relations with joints, molars and incisors it may be concluded that the masticatory apparatus is a construction adapted to optimal transmission of force from muscles to teeth. PMID:1171253
I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet surviveÂ®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.
Marisa Pascale Quintino
Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino
Shirodkar, Rupesh; Misra, Chandrasekhar; Gh, Chethan; Shetty, Pallavi; Attari, Zenab; Mutalik, Srinivas; Lewis, Shaila
The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats. PMID:26101786
Enas Abdul Raouf Mohammed Abdul-Baki; Mohamed Labib Salem; Merveet Anwar Mansour; Said Mohamed Abdou; Abdel-Aziz Awad Zidan
Background: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used in clinical practice to mobilize neutrophils alone or in combination with chemotherapy. However, its influence in physiological indices has not been addressed well in certain animal models such as Wistar rats. Aims: To evaluate the single and combinatorial effects of G-CSF and cyclophosphamide (CTX) on physiological indices in Wistar rat. Materials and Methods : NaÃ¯ve female Wistar rats were treated with subcutaneous injection ...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.
Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens and Eclipta alba (Ecl have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1 at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD. The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.
Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.
The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.
Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan; Raju Suresh Kumar; Bhagath Kumar Potu; Satheesha Nayak; Maneesh Mailankot
INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory ...
Inas S. Ghaly; Azza A.M. Abd Elfatah; Safaa M. Hanafy
The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...
Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H
Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...
Grewal, K K; Sandhu, G S; Kaur, Ranjit; Brar, R. S.; H.S. Sandhu
In the present investigation, the behavioral, morphological, and histopathological effects of cypermethrin, a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was ascertained in male and female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cypermethrin administered at repeated oral doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days produced varying degree of mild to moderate toxic symptoms and behavioral changes in both male and female rats. The lower dose produced very mild toxicosis characterized by intermittent diar...
Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B.K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration ...
Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan
Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three ...
Ibrahim H Jasim
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Lactobacillus acidophilus to reduce zearalenone toxicity in vital systems of albino white rats. Methods Fusarium graminearum isolate was tested to produce zearalenone toxin. L. acidophilus was used to reduce the toxin in rats. This ability was studied by many parameters such as biochemical and physiological parameters in addition to histological study. Results The results showed that L. acidophilus had the ability to reduce ...
Dazzi, E; Carbini, L; Padalino, A; Scarpa, A L; Lantini, T
We have determined the incorporation of retinol-C14 into liver mitochondrial membranes and blood cell stroma in albino male Wistar strain rats, fed with a vitamin A deficient diet for 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the vitamin A deficient period, rats were kept fasting for 24 hours and then administered orally retinol-C14 (1,25 microC). They were divided into groups and killed after 3 hours, 3, 6, 12 days from the administration of retinol-C14. The incorporation is very high in one-month deficient rats, it decreases as the experimental period and the intervals after the administration of retinol-C14 grow longer. PMID:582873
De Souza R.R.
Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.
Pradhan Manas Ranjan
Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.
Lopes Luiza da Silva
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.
Sareesh Naduvil, Narayanan; Raju Suresh, Kumar; Bhagath Kumar, Potu; Satheesha, Nayak; Maneesh, Mailankot.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks ol [...] d) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.
Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.
The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.
The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments
Tolstoj, V A; Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I
Trichinellosis treated with Mebendazole often leads to complications in the course of the disease in humans and animals as a result of intoxication and hyper-sensitization of an organism due to the massive destruction of parasites. This study was conducted to research Mebendazole incidence on lipid peroxidation processes (LPP) in rats' blood in Trichinella spiralis-infected and parasite-free albino rats. The research was conducted to evaluate erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum. The parameters of the SOD-MDA system in infected albino rats, which were treated or untreated with Mebendazole were analyzed. It was concluded that Mebendazole amplifies the LPP in the blood of both infected and parasite-free animals: in a dose of 150 mg/kg anthelmintic causes disturbances of biochemical homeostasis in the SOD-MDA system, thus working as a pro-oxidant. PMID:17186274
Anitha Uthandi; Karuppasamy Ramasamy
Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day), Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day), Group III: rats...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)
F.Z. Azzaoui; A.O.T. Ahami; A. Khadmaoui
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L-1 of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, ob...
F.Z. Azzaoui; A.O.T. Ahami; A. Khadmaoui
The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L-1) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a mot...
Lan, H.; Kendziorski, C M; J.D. Haag; Shepel, L A; Newton, M A; Gould, M. N.
In this study, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat was genetically characterized for loci that modify susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. We used a genetic backcross between resistant WKy and susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) rats as a panel for linkage mapping to genetically identify mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) loci underlying the resistance of the WKy rat. Rats were phenotyped for DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas and genotyped using microsatellite markers. To detect quantitative trait lo...
Shyam S Agrawal
Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.
Vitor E. Valenti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.
Nabi; A. Khouri; Haytham Daradka
We explore through this study blood parameters changes after 7 days treatment with Orchis anatolica (O. anatolica) plant roots ethanol extract in Albino rats. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was carried on to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract on blood glucose and insulin titer using Albino rats fasting for 18 hours. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels where determined throughout one hour period prior to a single treatment dose of 400mg/kg/BW O. anatolica ex...
Adeleye, G. S.
Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control, 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control, 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.
Ch. Sampath kumar; Rajender.Arutla; D.Swaroopa; K. Sridhar Rao
The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The ...
Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R
The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437
Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.
Arykerne Chamon do Carmo
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.
Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.
A time sequence study was performed on Wistar rats to investigate the early effects of radiation on the mechanical function and energy metabolism of the heart. Two series of rats were exposed to 20 Gy electron irradiation to a field including the heart and approximately a third of the lungs. The hearts were excised at varying time intervals (8-180 days) post irradiation. In one series of hearts the mechanical function was measured using the isolated perfused working rat heart model. At the end of the perfusion the hearts were freeze-clamped for analysis of the high energy phosphate contents (ATP, ADP, AMP and creatine phosphate). In the second series, mitochondria were isolated and the oxidative phosphorylation function measured polarographically (substrate: glutamate). Maximal depression of mechanical function was observed at 60 days post irradiation. Thereafter the work performance of these hearts improved significantly, almost reaching control levels after 180 days. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function (as measured on the total mitochondrial population) was significantly depressed 30-120 days post irradiation. As in the case of the mechanical changes, the depression was transient and after 180 days post irradiation, values similar to those of controls were obtained. Myocardial high energy phosphates remained unaltered throughout the experiment. (author)
Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Sonia, Araujo; Rafael, Borges.
Full Text Available Se investiga en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar, inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal con 5x10(4) tripomastigotes sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi, y preñadas 10 días después de la inoculación, los efectos de la infección aguda sobre la gestación, utilizando diferentes pruebas de diagnó [...] stico. Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english White Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were intraperitoneally inoculated with 5x10(4) blood form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and impregnated 10 days after inoculation. The effects of acute infection on gestation were examined using different diagnostic tests. Results showed significant diffe [...] rences (P
Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz
Full Text Available Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg e terbinafina (250 mg/kg em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP, hemograma completo e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25% dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas.Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg and terbinafine (250 mg/kg in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP, complete blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25% of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.
Ana Raquel Mano, Meinerz; Marlete Brum, Cleff; Patrícia da Silva, Nascente; Márcia de Oliveira, Nobre; Luiz Filipe Damé, Schuch; Tatiana de Ávila, Antunes; Melissa O., Xavier; Mário Carlos Araújo, Meireles; João Roberto de Braga, Mello.
Full Text Available Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg) e terbinafina (250 mg/kg) em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP), hemograma co [...] mpleto e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25% dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas. Abstract in english Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg) and terbinafine (250 mg/kg) in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP), comple [...] te blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25% of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.
Full Text Available As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.
Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos
Pankaj G. Jain
Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.
Norshalizah Mamikutty; Zar Chi Thent; Shaiful Ridzwan Sapri; Natasya Nadia Sahruddin; Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof; Farihah Haji Suhaimi
Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such...
Ford, R.J.; Becker, F.F.
Trypan blue is an azo dye widely used for testing cell viability. The dye has been identified as a mutagen and a carcinogen. In some strains of rats, particular Wistar rats, chronic exposure induces a reticuloendothelial neoplasm, predominantly in the liver. These tumors were studied with the use of immunologic cell membrane markers, electron microscopy, and histochemistry to characterize tumor cell type. The authors have studied this tumor in two inbred lines of Wistar rats to compare the ef...
Bheemshetty S. Patil
Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.
Priscilla Flores, Silva; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Flávia Sirotheau Correa, Pontes; Suzana Rodrigues, Ramos; Laís Cordeiro, Mendes; Louize Caroline Marques, Oliveira.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil on jaw defects repair in Wistar rats treated with bioglass or adipose tissue. METHODS: A jaw defect was randomly created in forty-two rats and filled with bioglass or adipose tissue. The two groups (Gbio and Gcell) were subdivided in three subgroups w [...] ith seven animals each according to gavage administration: control (distillated water), oil (copaiba oil) and melox (meloxicam). Euthanasia was performed after forty post-operative days. The bone formation was analyzed regarding the histological aspects. RESULTS: The osteoclasts activity was observed only in four subgroups (p=0.78). Regarding the osteoblasts presence, it was very similar between the subgroups, the difference was due to Gcell-melox (p=0.009) that presented less osteoblastic activity. The inflammatory cells were more evident in Gcell-melox subgroup, however, there was no difference in comparison with the other subgroups (p=0.52). Bone formation was observed in all subgroups, just two animals showed no bone formation even after 40 days. More than 50% of bone matrix mineralization was observed in 56% (23 animals) of the analyzed areas. The bone matrix mineralization was not different between subgroups (p=0.60). CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups that received copaiba oil showed bone repair, although not statistically significant in comparison to subgroups treated whit meloxicam or controls. Copaiba oil administered by gavage had no effect on bone repair in this experimental model.
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.
Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud
The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha) and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt). The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt)...
Musa E.M; EL Badwi S.M; Jah Elnabi M.A; Osman E. A; Dahab M. M
In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day a...
Full Text Available Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and spirulina alone groups. Lead acetate treated group shows sevier histological changes were noticed and lead acetate along spirulina treated group cell recover was observed.
Full Text Available The multipurpose medicinal plant, Ruta graveolens used widly as a traditional treatment for many diseases. The present study was carried out on Wistar rats to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of R. graveolens seeds at two different doses 50 and 200 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. The rats were allotted to five groups, each of six rats. One group served as control. Two groups were given aqueous extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day and other two groups were given methanolic extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. The mortality and weight gain, serobiochemical and hematological parameters were recorded in addition to pathological changes. Study showed that, it has a toxic effects reflected in depression on body weight and alterations in some serum parameters which accompanied with fatty changes and beginning of hemorrhage in liver and kidneys, also alterations in globulins and urea concentration in groups 3 and 5 were observed. Animals that received the lowest concentration treatment suffered no significant hematological alteration. From the current experiment we concluded that toxicity from oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day of R. graveolens seeds extracts for 4 weeks was sever as evidenced by consistent extensive damage to liver and kidney exemplified by necrosis, fatty changes, heomorrhage, congestion and depression in growth. No significant changes were observed for all the measured parameters at concentrations 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks administered orally. Consumption ofR. graveolens seeds extract at 50 mg/kg/day was not toxic and safe for use.
Samuel dos Santos, Valença; Milena Leonarde, Kloss; Frank Silva, Bezerra; Manuella, Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring, Silva; Luís Cristóvão, Porto.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), e [...] xposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The a [...] nimals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.
Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.
Sandra Maria Barbalho
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.
Sandra Maria, Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado, Spada; Erick Prado de, Oliveira; Márcio Emilio, Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida, Martuchi; Náyra Coelho, Leite; Renata Maeda, Deus; Vivianne, Sasaki; Lucas Silva, Braganti; Marie, Oshiiwa.
Full Text Available Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divid [...] idos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed wi [...] th supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.
Liu, Tiancheng; Li, Hong; Ding, Guohui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Yunqin; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yixue
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and ...
Gökçek-Saraç, Çi?dem; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Jakubowska-Do?ru, Ewa
Strain-related differences in animals' cognitive ability affect the outcomes of experiments and may be responsible for discrepant results obtained by different research groups. Therefore, behavioral phenotyping of laboratory animals belonging to different strains is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the variation in allothetic visuospatial learning in most commonly used laboratory rat strains: inbred Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD), outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (W/SD), and outbred Long Evans (LE) rats. All rats were trained to the arbitrary performance criterion of 83 % correct responses in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze allowing for simultaneous evaluation of both working and reference memory. In the present study, testing albino versus pigmented and inbred versus outcrossed rats revealed significant strain-dependent differences with the inbred SD rats manifesting lower performance on all learning measures compared to other strains. On the other hand, the outcrossed W/SD rats showed a lower frequency of reference memory errors and faster rate of task acquisition compared to both LE and W rats, with W rats showing a lower frequency of working memory errors compared to other strains. In conclusion, albinism apparently did not reduce the animals' performance in the allothetic visuospatial learning task, while outcrossing improved the spatial learning. A differential effect of strain on the contribution of each error type to the animals' overall performance was observed. The strain-dependent differences were more pronounced between subpopulations of learning-deficient individuals ("poor" learners), and generally the reference memory errors contributed more to the final behavioral output than did the working memory errors. PMID:25537841
Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.
Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity
N. N. Patel
Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate produced no appreciable changes at recommended 0.062 mg/kg body weight dose level. The findings observed at 0.250 mg/kg body weight methotrexate dose level are of public health significance and regulatory importance due to its hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic character.
Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 ± 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 ± 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 ± 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for ?-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the ?-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.
The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation
Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Saeed ZAREIN-DOLAB; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah
Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver ...
Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246
A O Adegoke
Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05. The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity
The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.
Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro
In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression. PMID:26004533
The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property
Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.
Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.
Elio, Moreno B; Maidé, Méndez I; Maritza, Alarcón M; Sonia, Araujo A; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh.
Full Text Available En este trabajo investigamos en ratas Wistar crónicamente infectadas con Trypanosoma cruzi, la reactivación de la infección durante la gestación y después del parto, mediante un estudio parasitológico, inmunológico, histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Los resultados mostraron un control de las par [...] asitemias patentes y/o subpatentes; títulos elevados de anticuerpos específicos anti-T. cruzi, detectándose en las ratas gestantes una disminución en los niveles de IgG y un incremento significativo de la IgM (P Abstract in english Wistar rats with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection were subjected to a parasitological, immunological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for a reactivation of the infection during gestation and after giving birth. Results showed a control of patent and/or sub-patent parasitemia [...] s; high concentrations of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies, a moderate reduction in IgG levels and a significant increase in IgM (P
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels
In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed
Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.
High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.
Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase
Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.
Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired â€˜tâ€™ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.
Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.
Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.
Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy
The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM) aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight) and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM) water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt). After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for...
The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)
Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin
Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol / Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol
Matthew Olugbenga, Oyeyemi; Deborah Adejoke, Adeniji.
Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas las características morfológicas y hematológicas de 15 ratas albinas Wistar, macho, entre 12 y 14 semanas y con un peso corporal de 150 - 180g. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con pellet preparado comercialmente y con agua fresca ad libitum. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos d [...] e 5 ejemplares cada uno. El Grupo A sirvió como control; Grupo B fue tratado con cloranfenicol en dosis de 25mg/kg de peso corporal durante 20 días, mientras que el Grupo C recibió este tratamiento durante 25 días. El esperma utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo desde la cauda del epidídimo, donde las aberraciones morfológicas fueron determinadas a partir del conteo de espermatozoides, después de ser teñidos con la tinción de Wells y Awa. Los resultados del espermiograma puso de manifiesto que el volumen fue disminuyendo a medida que la dosis de cloranfenicol aumentaba. El porcentaje de motilidad en el grupo A (89,0 ± 2,45%), fue diferente significativamente (p Abstract in english The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain) aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats [...] were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body weight per os for 20 days; while Group C was treated for 25 days. Semen used in this study was obtained from the caudal epididymides while morphological aberrations were determined from spermatozoa counted after stained with Wells and Awa stain. Results of the spermiogram showed that the volume was decreasing as the prolonged dosage of chloramphenicol increases. The percentage motility in Group A (89.0 + 2.45%), differed significantly (p
Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.
Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P management of male infertility. PMID:26401398
Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats
Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T
Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840
Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.
Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-Î±), Interleukin-1Î² (IL-1Î²) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damages.
Shama I.Y. Adam
Full Text Available The present study was planned in order to investigate the effects of various oral doses of water extract of Syzygium aromaticum buds, emphases of its effect were placed on changes of the growth, serological, hematological and pathological characteristics of Wistar rats. Water extract of Syzygium aromaticum was fed to Wistar rats at 50, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for two weeks. Impairment of growth and hepatonephrotoxicity were observed in the rats of all groups. These changes were correlated with alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and total protein, cholesterol and urea concentration and hematology.
Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M
Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:24021428
Electrical stimulation of the sinoatrial node region of isolated atria in medium containing physostigmine (0.1 micrograms/ml) produces a negative chronotropic effect whose intensity and duration depend mainly on the amount of acetylcholine released from postganglionic parasympathetic fibres endings. This technique was used to study functional maturation of the given neurones during postnatal development of albino rats. Preparations from animals of different ages were stimulated with 2-second bursts of rectangular pulses (frequency 50 Hz, pulse duration 0.02 ms, voltage 22.5--27.5 V) and frequency changes of the preparation were registered by recording extracellular action potentials. At 10 days the negative chronotropic effect is very weak and at 15 days it is only slightly stronger, but at 18 days it is almost the same as in adult animals. At 24 and 34 days the reaction is somewhat stronger than in adulthood. It can be concluded from these observations that functional maturation of the postganglionic parasympathetic neurones innervating the sinoatrial node in albino rats occurs between the 10th and 20th day of postnatal life. PMID:160578
It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)
Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one
Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani
The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…
Almoeiz Y. Hammad
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.
Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Vojtko, R.; Villaris, R.; Varga, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Kristová, V.
Ro?. 114, ?. 10 (2013), s. 553-555. ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rats * Wistar-Kyoto rats * acetylcholine * norepinephrine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2013
Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.
Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.
Kuntscherová, J; Vlk, J
Changes in the acetylcholine (ACh) content and concentration in the atrial tissue of albino rats between the third day of postnatal life and adulthood were studied. The ACh content (ng in whole atria) rose during the whole of the period in question, from 5.6 ng at 3--4 days to 307.5 ng in adult rats. The ACh concentration (micrograms/g fresh tissue) rose up to the 53rd day after birth, when it attained adult values. The fastest increase in both the ACh content and concentration was observed between the 10th and the 17th postnatal day, when it amounted to over 46% of the total concentration increase between the third day of life and adulthood. PMID:160579
The testes weights as well as the histopathological changes of testes and epididymes of albino rats exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation in doses 100, 200 and 400 rad for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days were investigated. Testes weights were reduced in rats exposed to 200 and 400 rad for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological changes of testes and epididymes varied according to the degree of irradiation. The degree and intensity of damage to the organs was in proportion to the intensity of irradiation. With the small dose (100 rad) there was degeneration of the primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm cells. With higher doses (200 and 400 rad) there were degeneration and necrosis of the spermatogenic cells and spermatogonia, hyalinization of the interstitial tissue, as well as connective tissue proliferation around the epididymal tubules
Full Text Available Aim and objective: Leucas cephalotes is traditionally used as an emmenagogue. The present aim of the study is to evaluate and explore the antifertility effect of chloroform and alcoholic flowers extract of Leucas cephalotes. Material and method: Using soxhlet, extraction for 48 hrs with solvents chloroform and ethanol, flower extract was prepared. Anti-implantation, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were evaluated using albino female rat animals. Result and conclusion: The chloroform and alcoholic extract was found to be more potent in causing significant anti-implantation activity at the tested dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The extracts further showed more significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. It revealed that administration of extract with ethinyl estradiol causing significant anti-estrogenic activity. Thus it can be concluded that chloroform and alcoholic extract of Leucas cephaloteshas antifertility activity.
Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679
Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which
Fuzik, J; Gellért, L; Oláh, G; Herédi, J; Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Nagy, D; Kincses, Z T; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Toldi, J
Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute effects of 4VO-induced global ischemia on the spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. The ECoG was isoelectric during the 10 min of global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats and the first burst (FB) was seen 10-13 min after the start of reperfusion. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the FB was detected immediately after the start of 4VO or a few seconds later. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) in Wistar rats decreased to 45% in 5 min after FB, and after 25 min it was approximately 40%. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the BSR was 55% immediately after the FB and it decreased steeply to reach 0% by 10 min. There was also a significant difference between the two strains in the frequency composition of the ECoG pattern. The power spectral densities of the two strains differed virtually throughout the post-ischemic state. The histological results (Evans Blue, Cresyl Violet and Fluoro Jade C stainings) supplemented the electrophysiological data: the neuronal damage in the CA1 pyramids in Wistar rats was severe, whereas in the Sprague-Dawley animals it was only partial. These observations clearly demonstrate that the use of different rat strains (e.g. Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley) can be a source of considerable variability in the results of acute experiments on global ischemia and it is important that the laboratory rats used in such experiments should be carefully chosen. PMID:23103797
Y. Damodar Singh; Rahul Singh Arya
Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatm...
Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour
Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.
Adeyemi, O. S.; T. C. Elebiyo
Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20?mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...
Vania Gomes de Moura, Mattaraia; Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares, Moura.
Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada ga [...] iola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes) foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in [...] each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.
Zeinab E. Hanafy
Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium
This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-?) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio
Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição. Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05 obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose.
Gregersen, Søren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B; Sønderstgaard Thorup, Anne C; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld
-glucagon, HbA1c, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Liver, muscle, and adipose samples were used for RT-PCR. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were performed. RESULTS: HbA1c increased during intervention, and was...... supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six week old male ZDF (n = 60) and Wistar rats (n = 44) were used in a 13 week study. P-glucose, p-insulin, p...
Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Atif, Muhammad
The study aims to evaluate the diuretic effect and acute toxicity of a crude aqueous extract of Nigella sativa using animal models. To evaluate the diuretic activity of the plant, Albino rats were divided into five groups. The control group received normal saline (10 mL/kg), the reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and the test groups were administered different doses (i.e., 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of the crude extract by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. However, urinary pH remained unchanged during the course of the study. The diuretic index values showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. The Lipschitz values demonstrated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 46% diuretic activity compared with furosemide. With regard to the acute toxicity study, no lethal effects were observed among Albino mice even at the higher dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract of Nigella sativa, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary volume and modified the concentration of urinary electrolytes, and there was observed no signs of acute toxicity associated with the crude extract. Further studies are encouraged to isolate the pure phytochemical responsible for diuresis. PMID:25850208
Full Text Available Background: This study provides further evidence for improvement of memory by oral consumption of nutmeg. The present study was undertaken with an objective to study the effects of oral administration of nutmeg on memory boosting and regaining. Methods: Here we investigate the influence of oral intake of nutmeg on behavioral task performance by using T-maze and radial arm maze and physiological measures relative to a milk control group. Results: We have observed significant memory boosting and memory regaining effects of nutmeg when administered orally. This effect may be due to facilitation of acetylcholine activity by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity of nutmeg. Hence we recommend further research in this area by investigating compound metabolism to optimize quantification of memory performance following nutmeg consumption.
Khumanthem Deepak Singh; S Haja Sherief; S. Sengottuvelu; Lalitha, V.; Sivakumar, T
The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold ...
Thiago de Oliveira, Assis; José Candido de, Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa, Maia.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda [...] fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and in [...] flammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.
Thiago de Oliveira Assis
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos.
Yu, M C; Nichols, P. W.; Zou, X. N.; Estes, J.; Henderson, B.E.
Epidemiological evidence has implicated Chinese salted fish as a human nasopharyngeal carcinogen. In the present study, 221 Wistar-Kyoto rats aged 21 days were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. Rats in group 1 (high dose group) were fed a powder diet of one part Chinese salted fish to three parts certified rat chow during the first 18 months. Similarly, rats in group 2 (low dose group) were fed a powder diet of one part salted fish to five parts rat chow for 18 months. Ra...
The aim of the study was to investigate the bacteriological effects of different diets by Streptococcus mutans counts on 50 Swiss albino rats inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519 serotype c. A powdered form of standard basal diet meeting rats' nutritional needs was used in combination with diets containing different percentages of starch, sucrose and xylitol for 90 days. Dental plaque samples were collected at the end of the experiment and S. mutans and total bacterial counts w...
Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.
1 Ezejindu D.N; Chinweife K. C.
This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twenty eight days...
Abbas Ali Keshtkar; Abdoljalal Marjani; Anneh Mohammad Gharravi; Mohammad Jafar Golalipour
This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking water. Animals in Treatment Group 1 and 2 received 0.2% PAA daily for 4 weeks and 2% PAA daily for 4 weeks, respectively. After the animals had been sacrificed hematological parameters examined. ...
Nian-zhao, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian-bo, Zhang; Jun, Chen.
Full Text Available Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voi [...] ding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P
The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.
Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)
Gupta, Rajnish; Kachhawa, Jai B S; Gupta, R S; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Sharma, M C; Dobhal, M P
This study was conducted to evaluate the antifertility potential of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) in male albino rats with their phytochemical evaluations. Phytochemical examination showed that plant is rich in active constituents, i.e. ?-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol and thevetigenin. T. peruviana stem bark methanol extract (TPMtE) administered orally to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant reduction in body weight, while the weight of reproductive organs reduced significantly. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed; however, cholesterol was increased significantly. TPMtE also caused a decline in spermatogenic elements, i.e. preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatids and mature Leydig cells. At this dose level Leydig cell nuclear diameter, seminiferous tubular diameter and Sertoli area were significantly reduced (p?peruviana inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing a herbal male contraceptive. PMID:21466267
Ángela C, MORA H; Diana M, ARAGÓN N; Luis F, OSPINA G.
Full Text Available La diabetes es un trastorno metabólico crónico de gran alcance epidemiológico. Numerosos estudios han demostrado que la diabetes mellitus se encuentra asociada al incremento de la formación de radicales libres derivados del oxígeno y a la disminución del potencial antioxidante del organismo, generan [...] do el daño oxidativo de algunos componentes de la célula tales como las proteínas, carbohidratos, lípidos y ácidos nucleicos. Este trabajo pretende establecer, en ratas Wistar, la relación dosis-respuesta de estreptozotocina frente a los niveles de glucosa y a diferentes parámetros del estatus antioxidante. Como marcadores del daño asociado a las especies de oxígeno reactivas se evaluó la actividad enzimática de catalasa y de superóxido dismutasa, la capacidad antioxidante total del plasma y la peroxidación lipídica. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian una clara relación de la dosis de estreptozotocina con los niveles de glucosa y los parámetros de estrés oxidativo evaluados luego de 20 días de la inducción de la diabetes experimental. Abstract in english Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is associated to free radicals increase derived from oxygen and to the organism potential antioxidant decrease generating oxidative damage of some cell components like proteins, nucleic acids, carbohyd [...] rates and lipids. After 20 days of administration of streptozotocin in Wistar rats, we have found a relationship between levels of blood glucose and some markers from antioxidant status. We evaluate oxidative stress markers like catalasa and superoxide dismutase acivities, ferric reducing ability of plasma and thiobarbituric acid reactive species.
The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)
Nasseer Ahmad Shah
Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284
Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K
The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846
The negative chronotropic effects of acetylcholine were studied in the isolated atria of the hearts of albino rats aged 2, 15, 29 and 47 days and adult. In untreated preparations, i.e. with full cholinesterase activity, the strongest effects were observed in newborn animals; with advancing age the reaction grew weaker. If cholinesterase activity was inhibited with physostigmine, the differences between the various age groups were obliterated. It is thus evident that the actual acetylcholine sensitivity of the sinoatrial node tissue does alter during postnatal life, but that growing cholinesterase activity reduces the amount of acetylcholine diffusing from the medium into the acetylcholine receptor zone. The change which takes place in cholinesterase activity in the myocardial tissue during postnatal life is so great that is must be taken into account when considering the development of cholinergic control of cardiac function. PMID:6459593
Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha
To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263
Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.
The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depressive behavior and exhibits hyper-responsiveness to stressful stimulation when compared to other rat strains. We have demonstrated that WKY rats consume 200% more alcohol under naïve conditions as compared to their outbred counterparts, Wistar (WIS) rats. The present study was designed to understand the influence of stress and alcohol consumption on central dopamine type-2 (D2) receptor sites in these two behaviorally dis...
Jastrz?bska, Joanna; Frankowska, Ma?gorzata; Szumiec, ?ukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Ma?gorzata
Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. PMID:26192911
Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy
Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.
Emne Hammoud Gumieiro; Márcio Abrahão; Ricardo Schmitutz Jahn; Helena Segretto; Maria Tereza de Seixas Alves; Ulf Nannmark; Gösta Granström; Luciano Lauria Dib
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma was applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were desanguinated after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. ...
J Amini Mahabadi; H Hassani Bafrani; H Nikzad; A TAHERIAN; Salehi, M.
Studies show that some antioxidants are effective in improving male infertility. According to several antioxidant compounds that exist in sesame seed, this study was designed and carried out to the effects of sesame seed diet consumption on adult male rats testis structure and sex hormones. This experimental study was carried out on 30 adults Wistar rat, 200 g that obtained from laboratory animal center at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Rats were divided into experimental and control ...
Ganchrow, J R; Seltzer, Z; Bitchacho, N
Small-diameter fibers present in gustatory peripheral nerves have historically been suspected of relaying information about the bitter quality of a taste stimulus. Neonatally injected capsaicin irreversibly destroys a proportion of unmyelinated C- and some A delta-fibers. Consummatory responses to increasing concentrations of quinine and other chemical solutions following neonatal capsaicin injection were compared to those of untreated and vehicle-injected control Sabra albino rats. Capsaicin-treated rats significantly increased their withdrawal thresholds to noxious, CO2 laser-generated heat pulses verifying treatment effectiveness. Furthermore, neonatal capsaicin treatment diminished sensitivity to pungent capsaicin solutions in mature rats. However, there were no group differences in quinine intake, suggesting that the full array of unmyelinated fibers associated with taste buds is not essential for the transmission of bitter taste. Capsaicin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in intake of normally highly preferred sodium chloride and sucrose concentrations. These results were probably not due to loss of peripheral unmyelinated afferent fibers per se, but rather to secondary central changes. PMID:1484858
Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt. After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period. Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01 in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.
Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group, 100 mg/kg (Group 2, 200 mg/kg (Group 3 and 500 mg/kg (Group 4 body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05 in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05 in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.
Ch. Sampath kumar
Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5% less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01, but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10% had most wound shrinkage and organization.
Enas A. M. Khalil
Full Text Available Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p. paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALTand alkaline phosphatase (ALP accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins, vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST,(ALTand (ALPassociated with nearly normal hepatocyte architecture. In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.
Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging
Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah
Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.
Elio A, Moreno; Martha, Ramírez A; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Juana, Villarreal; Sonia, Araujo; Nora, Mogollón; Anajulia, González; Gloria, Premoli.
Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en crías de ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar de segunda generación. El curso de la infección chagásica fue evaluado en las ratas infectadas inicialmente (RII) inyectadas con las f [...] ormas metacíclicas del parásito, en las crías de la primera (C1ªG) y segunda generación (C2ªG), mediante pruebas de diagnóstico seroparasitológicas y molecular (PCR). En las RII se demostró infección aguda caracterizada por parasitemias patentes entre los 12 y 45 días post-inoculación (pi), e incremento en la respuesta inmune humoral con títulos desde 1:64 y 1:2048; en la fase crónica se evidencio ausencia de parasitemias y mantenimiento de una moderada respuesta humoral en el 100% de las madres. Las C1ªG no presentaron tripomastigotes en la sangre circulante, la prueba de IFI, reveló seropositividad apreciable en el 75% de los sueros. En las C2ªG, los exámenes directos de sangre y el hemocultivo, resultaron negativos; los xenodiagnósticos mostraron un 18,2% de positividad. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas (IFI y ELISA) detectaron un 31,8% y 34,1% anticuerpos circulantes anti-T. cruzi. La PCR aplicada a los sueros, presentó un bajo porcentaje de muestras positivas (6,8%) y en los tejidos (corazón y músculo esquelético) se observó una alta positividad de 54,5% y 45,4%, respectivamente. La presencia de formas flageladas en la sangre, la persistencia de la serología positiva por anticuerpos humorales transferidos vía materna y la permanencia de restos de ADN de T. cruzi en sueros y tejidos en un número importante de crías, confirma la infección congénita a su progenie, en segunda generación. Estos resultados son de gran importancia para una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita. Abstract in english The results of the experimental study concerning the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation strain Wistar albino rats are presented. The course of the Chagas infection was evaluated in rats initially infected with the metacyclic forms of the parasite (RII) in first (C1stG) [...] and second (C2ndG) generation offspring using parasitological, serological and molecular (PCR) diagnostic tests. In the RII, an acute infection characterized by patent parasitemias between 12 and 45 days post-inoculation and an increase in the humoral immune response with titers of 1:64 and 1:2048 in the chronic phase demonstrated the absence of parasitemia and maintenance of a moderate humoral response in 100% of the mothers. The C1stG did not show tripomastigotes in the blood circulation and the IIF test showed considerable seropositive in 75% of the sera. In C2ndG, direct blood and hemoculture exams performed were negative, while 18.2% of the xenodiagnosis were positive. The serological tests used (IIF and ELISA) detected 31.8% and 34.1% anti-T. cruzi circulating antibodies. The PCR applied to the serum presented a low percentage of positive (6.8%) samples and in tissues (heart and skeletal muscle) high positives of 54.5% and 45.4% respectively were observed. The presence of flagellated forms in the blood, the persistence of serological positive for humoral antibodies transferred by the mother and the permanence of remaining DNA of the T. cruzi in serum and tissues in a significant number of offspring confirm the congenital infection to their offspring in the second generation. These results are of great importance for the better understanding of the epidemiology of Chagas disease.
Mehdizadeh, Roya; Parizadeh, Mohammad–Reza; Khooei, Ali-Reza; Mehri, Soghra; HOSSEINZADEH, Hossein
Objective(s): This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) aqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.
Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari; Leila Hosseinzadeh; Yalda Shokoohinia; Majid Aslany; Mohammad Kamali-Nejad
OBJECTIVE: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total e...
Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh
Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae) is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory) potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by pylorus ligation. Preliminary phytochemical s...
Lei, Yanlin; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.
Previous studies have shown that the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is more sensitive to stressors and consumes significant quantities of alcohol under basal as well as stressful conditions when compared to other strains. Given that the glutamate neurotransmitter system has been implicated in depression and addiction, the goals of the present study were to investigate the effects of stress and stress-alcohol interactions on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the rat brain. Thus this stud...
M-Shirazi, Minoo; Taleban, Fourugh-Azam; Abadi, Ali Reza; SABETKASAEI, Masoumeh
BACKGROUND: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. METHODS: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil) during pregnancy ...
SONG, HOU-PAN; LI, XIN; YU, RONG; ZENG, GUANG; YUAN, ZHEN-YI; WANG, WEI; HUANG, HUI-YONG; CAI, XIONG
The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.
Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M
Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused by nicotine to a significant level. PMID:26409179
Full Text Available Abstract When this has been developed medicines from natural ingredients to control diabetes mellitus most of these materials have been studied and shown to be effective as an alternative therapy. This study aimed to determine the effect of polyphenols Klika ongkea Mezzetia parviflora Becc. To decrease blood glucose levels induced streptozotosin wistar rats STZ and to determine the concentration of how the effect is not significantly different from the control group of drugs. In this study used Wistar rats were 120 tails are divided into six treatment groups the first group of healthy controls were given Na. CMC 1 group II were given pain control STZ 40 mg kg body weight of mice group III was given the drug control galvus vildagliptin group IV V and VI are given polyphenols Klika ongkea each 100mg kg and 300mg kg for 21 day. The results showed that administration of polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg kg body weight of rats and 300 mg kg body weight of mice as a protective effect on the decreased levels of blood glucose Wistar rats induced by STZ and giving polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg kg body weight of rats and 300 mg kg rat as protective effect was not significantly different the effect of galvus vildagliptin 0.9 mg 200 gBW mice.
Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Amal H. Atta
Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...
Full Text Available The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus has been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research, for a long time. It is an interesting fact that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and its ways of fixation. The aim of this study is to define clearly and according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria principles, the liver and its way of fixation in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were used, with a weight between 250 and 450 g. They were dissected in fresh, after been euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium intraperitoneal. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward dorsal.La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, no existen descripciones detalladas del peritoneo digestivo de la rata wistar. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma clara y acorde a los principios de la Nómina Anatómica Veterinaria el peritoneo en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron ochenta y ocho ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus de entre 250 y 450 g. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal.
Richard, Möller; Noelia, Vazquez; Diana, Teliz; Virginia, Méndez.
Full Text Available La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus) ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, no existen descripciones detalladas del peritoneo digestivo de la rata wistar. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma cl [...] ara y acorde a los principios de la Nómina Anatómica Veterinaria el peritoneo en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron ochenta y ocho ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus) de entre 250 y 450 g. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal. Abstract in english The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) has been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research, for a long time. It is an interesting fact that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and its ways of fixation. The aim of this study is to define cl [...] early and according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria principles, the liver and its way of fixation in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were used, with a weight between 250 and 450 g. They were dissected in fresh, after been euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium intraperitoneal. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward dorsal.
Ahmed, N. A. [???? ??? ???? ????
The principal objective of this study was to determine the modifications induced by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin in the concentrations of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine(E) in selected brain and spinal cord regions of male albino rats. A group of 30 rats were injected intraperitoneally every other day with cyfluthrin at 1/4 LD50 dose level for 18 days. Other two groups (30 rats each) were daily given cyfluthrin intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 1/8 ...
Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla
Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 ?g/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre?pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall density. The sensitive endpoints in male rats were TEB numbers, both in the whole gland and in the zone C, the overall? and the highest density. The overall density was sensitive in both male and female rats and was considered a good representative of both branching and budding of the gland. The number of TEBs in zone C was representative of the number of TEBs in the whole gland. Further studies in older Wistar rats and with weak oestrogenic compounds could be performed to validate mammary gland examination as an endpoint in reproductive toxicity studies and to examine how early life environmental exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer.
Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery
Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)
The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 ?g). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)
Esmaeil Vesali; Bardia Najafi; Siavash Sharifi; Asghar Dehghan; Arash Esfandiari
Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly...
Noorah S. AL-Sowyan
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn’t show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.
The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards
The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters
Slavíková, J; Vlk, J; Hlavicková, V
In experiments on adult albino rats the authors used the substances BW 284 C51 (1.5-bis(allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)-pentane-3-one-dibromide) as a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ethopropazine (10-(2-diethylaminopropyl) phenothiazine hydrochloride) as a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) to determine the two enzyme activities in atrial homogenates and to investigate changes after AChE or BuChE inhibition of the negative chronotropic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on atria incubated in vitro. AChE accounted for only 12% and BuChE for 88% of the total ability of atrial homogenates to hydrolyse acetylcholine. The concentration of exogenous ACh needed to reduce the spontaneous frequency of contractions of the isolated right atrium by 30, 60, or 90/min fell by 78%, 79% and 84% respectively after BW 284 C51 inhibition of AChE and by 95%, 94% and 94% after simultaneous inhibition of AChE and BuChE. The significance of AChE in control of the negative chronotropic effect of ACh is thus evidently significantly greater than would correspond to the percentual proportion of AChE in cholinesterase activities in the atria of the rat heart. In can be assumed that AChE is functionally associated with parasympathetic innervation of the heart and that it is probably present in a high concentration in the primary pacemaker region. PMID:6217470
P. Vikrama Chakravarthi
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159
Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
Sahar Mohamed Kamal
Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-Î± (TNF-Î± with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-Î± levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The present study suggests that lacidipine has some important protective effects on liver of hypertensive irradiated albino rats.
Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism
Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10â€“50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.
Antonio Magdiel, Velázquez Méndez; Benito, Reyes Trejo; José Guadalupe, Álvarez Moctezuma; José Luis, Rodríguez-de la O.
Full Text Available Previamente se estudió la Acrocomia mexicana colectada en Tamaulipas, de la que se aisló la coyolosa, sustancia que disminuyó los niveles de glucosa sanguínea en rata y ratón. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto hipoglucémico de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de raíces de A. mexicana [...] en ratas Wistar por administración oral. Dichos extractos, redujeron los niveles de glucosa en sangre en ratas normoglicémicas. El extracto de metanol fue percolado por cromatografía en columna para dar las fracciones F1 a F5, donde la fracción F5 fue la más activa. Del análisis cromatográfico de los extractos preparados de esta planta, se aislaron e identificaron ?-sitosterol, estigmasterol, y manitol identificado como su derivado acetilado por medio de un estudio de difracción de rayos-X. Abstract in english A previous study of Acrocomia mexicana of an accession localized at Tamaulipas afforded coyolosa, this substance decreased the blood glucose level in rats and mice. In the present study, the hypoglycemic effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from roots of A. mexicana collected from Chia [...] pas State was evaluated. Oral administration of these extracts in normoglycemic rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose. The methanol extract was percolated over a silica gel column to afford five fractions F1 to F5, which decreased the blood glucose levels in rats. Fraction 5 (F5) was the most active. All the extracts were analyzed over column chromatography to yield ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and mannitol identified as its acetyl derivative by means of an X-ray diffraction study.
Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk
Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...
Hawazen A. Lamfon; Faiza A. Mahboub
Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infil...
Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu
The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...
Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...
Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad
Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It's well recommended to use variable doses and different periods of treatment to evaluate the best dose and period
Giliano Nicolini Verzeletti; Eduardo José Gaio; Daniele Sigal Linhares; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing
Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13), which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat) for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11) regularly fed rats. Ligature-in...
Guilherme Veras, Mascena; Maria Cecília Santos Cavalcanti, Melo; Diego Nery Benevides, Gadelha; Thárcia Kiara Beserra, Oliveira; Carlos Teixeira, Brandt.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcome of severe peritonitis in rats with increasing age. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats stratified in three groups: group I - six month-old; group II - 12 month-old; and group III - 18 month-old, underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis (6 ml/kg rat), and were [...] treated with intravenous meropenem. The survival animals were followed-up for 45 days. The variables were expressed by their mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). p
VM, Costa; H, Langoni.
Full Text Available The milk of experimentally infected rats was investigated for the presence and possible transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) female rats were divided into three groups and orally inoculated with bradyzoites. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the parasite [...] in the milk. Transmission to the offspring was verified by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), modified agglutination test (MAT), bioassay tests and PCR. Rat milk samples were PCR-positive, pups were serum-reactive to T. gondii and tissue samples also presented positive DNA results through PCR.
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of pancreas of untreated group of rats showed hyperplasia of pancreatic duct, necrosis, fatty changes, haemorrhages between pancreatic cells. The rats treated with Phyllanthus amarus extracts showed no pathological lesions.
Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung
This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and alb...
Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol
Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi
Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body weight per os for 20 days; while Group C was treated for 25 days. Semen used in this study was obtained from the caudal epididymides while morphological aberrations were determined from spermatozoa counted after stained with Wells and Awa stain. Results of the spermiogram showed that the volume was decreasing as the prolonged dosage of chloramphenicol increases. The percentage motility in Group A (89.0 + 2.45%, differed significantly (p Fueron estudiadas las características morfológicas y hematológicas de 15 ratas albinas Wistar, macho, entre 12 y 14 semanas y con un peso corporal de 150 - 180g. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con pellet preparado comercialmente y con agua fresca ad libitum. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos de 5 ejemplares cada uno. El Grupo A sirvió como control; Grupo B fue tratado con cloranfenicol en dosis de 25mg/kg de peso corporal durante 20 días, mientras que el Grupo C recibió este tratamiento durante 25 días. El esperma utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo desde la cauda del epidídimo, donde las aberraciones morfológicas fueron determinadas a partir del conteo de espermatozoides, después de ser teñidos con la tinción de Wells y Awa. Los resultados del espermiograma puso de manifiesto que el volumen fue disminuyendo a medida que la dosis de cloranfenicol aumentaba. El porcentaje de motilidad en el grupo A (89,0 ± 2,45%, fue diferente significativamente (p <0,05 en comparación con el Grupo B (72,0 ± 3,74% y Grupo C (66,0 ± 2,45%. El mismo patrón se observó en los porcentaje de habitabilidad, aberración morfológica y la concentración de espermatozoides. Esto indica que la prolongación de la dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad en los animales machos. Por lo tanto, se concluye y recomienda que una prolongada dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad o esterilidad, así que no debe utilizarse en animales machos destinados a la cría y en los programas de inseminación artificial.
Inas S. Ghaly
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.
Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C
In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229
Gregersen, Soren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B.; Sonderstgaard Thorup, Anne C.; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of milk protein on glucose metabolism have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with specific milk protein fractions could prevent diabetes and differentially alter tissue gene expression. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six wee...
Gregersen, Søren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B; Sønderstgaard Thorup, Anne C; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of milk protein on glucose metabolism have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with specific milk protein fractions could prevent diabetes and differentially alter tissue gene expression. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six week o...
Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo, Galvão; Cassiano Kuchenbecker, Rösing; Maria Beatriz Cardoso, Ferreira.
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1) e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras [...] ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2). Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas), as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1) and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around sec [...] ond upper molars (G2). After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.
Full Text Available Globimetulla browni is a specie of African mistletoe (Lorantheceae and is hemi-parasitic in nature. It was studied for ascribed/folkloric antidiabetic properties. Stretozotocin which is well known for its selective pancreatic $-cell cytotoxicity was used to induce type 1 diabetes in the experimental rat model Glibenclamide was used as a standard antidiabetic drug in streptozotocin induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycaemic agents. The extracts from this specie significantly increased the body weights of the albino rats with the extracts effectively controlling the increase in the glucose levels in the diabetic group of rats which could be attributed to its antihyperglycemic effects. Further, the antihyperglycemic activities of the extracts was associated with an increase in plasma insulin level, suggesting an insulinogenic activity of the plant extract.
Full Text Available Globimetulla browni is a specie of African mistletoe (Lorantheceae and is hemi-parasitic in nature. It was studied for ascribed/folkloric antidiabetic properties. Stretozotocin which is well known for its selective pancreatic Î²-cell cytotoxicity was used to induce type 1 diabetes in the experimental rat model. Glibenclamide was used as a standard antidiabetic drug in streptozotocin induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycaemic agents. The extracts from this specie significantly increased the body weights of the albino rats with the extracts effectively controlling the increase in the glucose levels in the diabetic group of rats which could be attributed to its antihyperglycemic effects. Further, the antihyperglycemic activities of the extracts was associated with an increase in plasma insulin level, suggesting an insulinogenic activity of the plant extract.
The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 Î¼1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 Î¼1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 Î¼1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 Î¼1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.
Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa
Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.
Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader and Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed
Full Text Available Background: Disorders of testicular function may have their origins in fetal or early life as a result of abnormal development. Laminin-1 is emerging as the key molecule in early embryonic basement membrane assembly. Accumulating evidence supported the idea that extracellular matrix (ECM molecules and mesenchymal cells might influence Sertoli and spermatogenic cell functions. Aim of the work: detecting the changes in the distribution and prevalence of laminin-1 assembly during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens in albino rats. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and divided into six groups (n= 5 each according to the age (postnatal day. These were one day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postnatal. Specimens were fixed and processed, sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stain for laminin-1. The area percent of positive laminin immunostaining was measured and results were statistically analyzed. Results: at day one postnatal, the testis was formed of solid un-canalized cords of seminiferous tubules with abundant laminin expression in the cells of the cords. With advancement of development the cords were luminized and the laminin expression declined to involve the basement membrane and the apical portions of the Sertoli cells at the 8th week postnatal. The epididymis at postnatal day one had a small diameter and narrow lumen and laminin expression involved the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining. As development proceeded the expression became confined to the apical portion, the site of stereocilia together with its presence in the basement membranes. The same pattern of changes in laminin expression together with morphological appearance was detected in the vas deferens. Conclusion: The present study was able to demonstrate a change in the distribution as well as the prevalence of laminin-1 immunoreactivity within the testis, epididymis and vas. During the period of postnatal development starting at postnatal day one up to 8 weeks postnatal. This would reflect an essential role for laminin in early postnatal period of development
Liu, Tiancheng; Li, Hong; Ding, Guohui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Yunqin; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yixue
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and 2834 CNV deletion, 1796 protein affecting SNVs or indels) by comparative genome analysis and identified 192 potential T2D-associated genes. The genes with variants are further refined with prior knowledge and public resource including variant polymorphism of rat strains, protein-protein interactions and differential gene expression. Finally we have identified 15 genetic mutant genes which include seven known T2D related genes (Tnfrsf1b, Scg5, Fgb, Sell, Dpp4, Icam1, and Pkd2l1) and eight high-confidence new candidate genes (Ldlr, Ccl2, Erbb3, Akr1b1, Pik3c2a, Cd5, Eef2k, and Cpd). Our result reveals that the T2D phenotype may be caused by the accumulation of multiple variations in GK rat, and that the mutated genes may affect biological functions including adipocytokine signaling, glycerolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, T cell receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. We present the genomic difference between two closely related rat strains (GK and Wistar) and narrow down the scope of susceptible loci. It also requires further experimental study to understand and validate the relationship between our candidate variants and T2D phenotype. Our findings highlight the importance of sequenced-based comparative genomics for investigating disease susceptibility loci in inbreeding animal models. PMID:26529237
García-San Frutos, Miriam; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; De Solís, Alain J; Andrés, Antonio; Arribas, Carmen; Carrascosa, José M; Ros, Manuel
Insulin, like leptin, is considered as a lipostatic signal acting at a central level. Aging and age-associated adiposity have been related to the development of leptin resistance in Wistar rats. In the present article, hypothalamic insulin response during aging has been studied in Wistar rats. Thus, the effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin during a week on food intake and body weight as well as insulin signal transduction after acute intracerebroventricular insulin administration have been studied in 3-, 8-, and 24-month-old rats. To explore the possible role of age-associated adiposity, these experiments were also performed in 8- and 24-month-old rats after 3 months of food restriction to reduce visceral adiposity index to values below those of young animals. Intracerebroventricular administration of insulin during a week was more efficient at reducing food intake and body weight in 3-month-old rats than in 8- and 24-month-old rats. Hypothalamic insulin-stimulated insulin receptor, GSK3, AKT, and p70S6K phosphorylation decreased with aging. Insulin receptor and IRS-2 phosphoserine was increased in 24-month-old rats. Food restriction improved both insulin responsiveness and insulin signaling. These data suggest that Wistar rats develop hypothalamic insulin resistance with aging. This can be explained by alterations of the signal transduction pathway. The fact that food restriction improves central insulin response and signal transduction points to the age-associated adiposity as a key player in the development of central insulin resistance. PMID:17673515
Flavia de Oliveira; Luci Rezende Bevilacqua; Carlos Alberto Anaruma; Silvia de Campos Boldrini; Edson Aparecido Liberti
PURPOSE: Thermal injury causes catabolic processes as the body attempts to repair the damaged area. This study evaluated the effects of a scald injury on the morphology of muscle fibers belonging to a muscle distant from the lesion. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into control (C) and scalded (S) groups. Group S was scalded over 45% of the body surface, standardized by body weight. Rats in both groups were euthanized at four, seven and 14 days following the injury. The middle portion...
Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34
Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan
Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin
Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.
Purpose: Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer. Method: Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology. Result: When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group. Conclusion: For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.
Karine Moura de, Freitas; Antônio José, Natali; Wellington, Lunz; Kyvia Lugate Cardoso, Costa; Rodrigo Paula, Leite; Heidi, Dolder; Sérgio Luis Pinto da, Matta.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether colon cancer (CC) and chronic swimming exercise alter rat testis. Eleven weeks old rats were distributed into control group (n=6) and the groups that were induced to develop CC by dimethylhydrazine injections (nEG, EG0, EG2 and EG4; n=10 each group). In [...] the group nEG, the rats did not swim, whereas groups EG0, EG2 and EG4, underwent a swimming program with distinct loads (0, 2 and 4% of body mass, respectively) for 35 weeks. The morphometry, stereology and cell counts showed damage caused by the CC on the germ epithelium. These results were noteworthy since this was the first report to associate the CC with testicular damage. Swimming exercise had no significant role in reducing, or increasing the CC effects on the testis, despite having slightly improved the testis structure of the exercised rats without load. In conclusion, CC caused testis impairment, which could not be avoided by the swimming exercise.
Inas Z.A. Abdallah
Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory cel s infiltration, while aspartame group showed no histopahtological alterations. It could be recommended that the use of saccharin as an artificial sweetener should be restricted, while aspartame should not be administered to diabetic. When it is necessary to use artificial sweeteners, fresh fruits and vegetables should be ingested as they act as scavengers for the liberated free radicals and help to delay the postprandial rise in blood glucose level.
Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.
Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (?HR/?MAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 ?g/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8?g/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.
Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.
Marco, Cossio-Bolaños; Rossana, Gómez Campos; Rodrigo, Vargas Vitoria; Rosalvo Tadeu, Hochmuller Fogaça; Miguel de, Arruda.
Full Text Available Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta for [...] ma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional. Abstract in english Introduction: Wistar rats are one of the most popular strains routinely used for research in the laboratory to serve as an important research tool, so it requires strict control of variables such as age, sex and body weight, and Thus to extrapolate the results to the human model. Objective: To devel [...] op reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats according to chronological age and somatic maturation from a noninvasive. Methodology: The subjects studied were 731 male Wistar rats transversely. We assessed age, body weight and body surface. LMS method was used to construct percentile curves based on weight and somatic maturation. Results: The proposed physical growth curves are used to track the physical growth and nutritional status diagnosis of male Wistar rats. Budgets by cutting points are: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97. Conclusion: The results suggest that scientists from different areas can use such references, in order to extrapolate somatic growth phases of the laboratory rat and the human model is a non-invasive alternative to assess growth and nutritional status.
Mohamed Mohamed Soliman
Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1ÃŽÂ² and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1ÃŽÂ², IL-6 and TNF-ÃŽÂ² expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.
Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**
Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of MCHC was recorded after the recovery period of tenuate treated group. Skin-fold thickness of the three regions tested (gluteal, back and belly revealed significant decrease in all the treated groups except the belly region in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant decrease after treatment for 30 days. Significant decrease of skin-fold thickness of different regions still present after the recovery period of 15 days in the three treated groups except the back region of mirapro-N and the belly region of apple-lite- treated rats which showed insignificant decrease. Percent of organs weight/body weight were affected according the type of tested drug, while apple-lite- caused non significant changes, mirapro-N caused significant increase in hepatosomatic ratio and cardiosomatic ratio, and significant decrease in gonadosomatic ratio. On the other hand, tenuate resulted in a significant increase in percentage weight of kidneys and hepatosomatic ratio and significant decrease of gonadosomatic ratio after treatment for 30 days. After the recovery period, apple-lite revealed significant decrease in brain/b.wt. ratio, while mirapro-N still affected kidneys, gonadosomatic ratio and brain and tenuate still affected gonadosomatic ratio and brain; they recorded significant decrease. The physical measurement of vital signs, i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded insignificant change after treatment with apple-lite, mirapro-N and tenuate for 30 days, but significant increase of rectal temperature was recorded in the tenuate group of the treated rats. After recovery period insignificant changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of the treated rats were observed in the three treated groups.
Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.
The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509
Shyamlal Singh Yadav
Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.
Full Text Available Ochratoxins are potent mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Incidence of ochratoxin A (OT-A in feed and natural occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animals have been reported from various parts of the world, including India. In this study, we report the immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxin A in rats. The cell mediated immune responses, as assessed by 2, 4-di-nitro-chloro-benzene (DNCB induced contact hypersensitivity reaction and macrophage function test ( NO2- production assay were found to be decreased significantly in OT-A intoxicated rats as compared with those in controls. Humoral immune response, assessed by antibody titres against sheep red blood cells, was also found to be decreased in toxin fed rats. The haemato-biochemical alterations such as leucopenia, lymphopenia and hypoproteinemia associated with OT-A toxicity were also indicative of immunosuppression. These findings suggest that OT-A induces the suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and must be taken into account while dealing with cases of vaccination failure or frequent bacterial and viral infections in livestock and poultry.
The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose
Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-?, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-? ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues
The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain
Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.
Full Text Available Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae, a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o in the experimental model and the effects were compared with Diphenylhydantoin in MES method as standard and normal saline as control. The Vitex-negundo in the doses 1000 mg/kg has significant effect and 2000mg/kg p.o showed protection against MES to a highly significant extent. Test drug in the dose (1000 mg/kg, po showed 60% protection in clonic seizures. It also decreased number and duration of convulsions significantly.These findings suggested that Vitex-negundo possesses anticonvulsant activity against MES induced convulsions. Vitex-negundo may be useful as an adjuvant therapy along with standard anticonvulsants and can possibly lower the requirement of Diphenylhydantoin and other anti convulsant drugs, Ethanol leaf extract of vitex ningundo significantly (P<0.01 decreased the duration of tonic extensor phase in MES-induced seizures. TheVitex-negundo extract showed a maximum inhibition (80% mortality against MES-induced seizures.Thus, it has been concluded that ethanolic extract of Vitex-negundo possesses anti-epileptic activity.
Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation
Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio
Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10?l of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-? level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel. PMID:23085269
Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Rats in treatment group received 10 mg of the extract per rat. The period of the study divided into 7 and 14 days period. Half of the rats in each group (n = 5 were euthanized at final day of each period and the ovaries removed for preparating of histology sections. Number and diameter of corpus luteum, thickness of theca interna layer and number of all follicles were evaluated in each left and right ovaries. Results showed that number of corpus luteum and diameter of theca interna increased in treatment group as compared with control group. Number of secondry and graafian follicles after 14 days treatment were be higher than control and 7 days treatment. The present results indicated that Tribulus terrestris induces corpus luteum formation and growth and therefore beginning of puberty with its LH-like activity.
Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R
A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ?110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The Islet cell hyperplasia was found to be more frequent in male rats at ?110 weeks of age. PMID:26414849
Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken
4-tert-Octylphenol is a non-ionic surfactant used as a detergent, emulsifier and wetting agent. It is generally accepted that it acts as a weak estrogenic substance when evaluated in in vitro and in vivo short-term screening assays. The sensitivity of animal species (mouse versus rat), strain (inbred versus outbred) has been a matter of concern when selecting assay type for testing of estrogenicity of chemicals. The present study was designed to investigate whether the choice of different animal strain, could affect the outcomes of studies. Fischer and Wistar adult male rats were exposed to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 mug/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol benzoate decreased the weight of all investigated reproductive organs, decreased sperm production and increased seminiferous tubular degeneration in both strains. More progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology were observed in the Fischer rats. Oral administration of octylphenol at 400 mg/kg bw to both rat strains increased prolactin levels but had no effect on LH, FSH, testosterone or inhibin. In the octylphenol-treated Fischer rats the weights of the seminal vesicles and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle were significantly decreased, whereas only the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle was affected in Wistar rats. The weights of all other reproductive organs and sperm count were unaffected. It is concluded that there might be an organ specific difference in sensitivity between the two strains with the Fischer rat being the most sensitive rat model as demonstrated mainly by the more progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology in estradiol benzoate-treated Fischer rats but also by the decrease in seminal vesicle weight in octylphenol-treated rats.
Saito Felipe H; Damasceno Débora C; Kempinas Wilma G; Morceli Glilciane; Sinzato Yuri K; Taylor Kristin N; Rudge Marilza VC
Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67): received the ?-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc...
Barbalho, Sandra M.; Débora C. Damasceno; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Vanessa Sellis da Silva; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Marie Oshiiwa; Flávia M. V. Farinazzi Machado; Claudemir Gregório Mendes
This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of...
Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Ladefoged, Ole
A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cells were observed, and in the Sertoli cells the cytoplasmatic intermediate filament vimentin collapsed. In the immunohistochemical investigation the androgen receptor distribution was unchanged between the...
Pinto Lívia MS; Holanda-Pinto Sergio A; Neves Julliana CS; de Souza Carolina M; Carvalho Rosimary S; Brito Gerly AC; de Andrade Geanne M
Abstract Background The present study investigated the effects of venlafaxine, an antidepressant drug with immunoregulatory properties on the inflammatory response and bone loss associated with experimental periodontal disease (EPD). Materials and Methods Wistar rats were subjected to a ligature placement around the second upper left molar. The treated groups received orally venlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/kg) one hour before the experimental periodontal disease induction and daily for 10 days. Vehi...
D‘Souza, Urban J.A.
The antimetabolite, 5-fluorouracil is widely used in the treatment of cancers. Although its toxic effects on testis causing germinal epithelial sloughing, tubular atrophy and generation of multinucleated cells were reported, its effect on spermatogenesis has not been studied. Hence the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 5-fluorouracil on epididymal sperm count. Male Wistar rats were employed in the study (n=5 per group). The animals were injected (i.p) with five consecutiv...
Schulz, Angela; Hänsch, Jonna; Kuhn, Kristina; Schlesener, Maria; Kossmehl, Peter; Nyengaard, Jens R; Wendt, Norbert; Huber, Matthias; Kreutz, Reinhold
The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat represents a genetic model with an inherited nephron deficit and exhibits mild hypertension and progressive albuminuria, which is more pronounced in males than females. Previously, we demonstrated in a consomic strain that replacement of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 6 normalized the nephron deficit and suppressed albuminuria development, suggesting a link between the two findings. Here we tested the role of a second major locus linked to albuminuri...
Jameel, Mohammed Khaleel; Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv; Dawane, Jayashree; Padwal, Meghana; Joshi, AR; Pandit, V A; Melinkeri, RR
Background: Stress indicates the response or reaction of an organism to the environmental circumstances and their outcomes. Acute stress is well known to trigger several hormonal alterations in animals. An increase in glucocorticoid concentration can represent intensity of discomfort or distress experienced by an animal. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various physical stress models on serum cortisol level in Wistar male rats.
Hugo Juárez Olguín; Miriam Carrasco Portugal; Janett Flores Pérez; Angélica Camacho Vieyra; Carmen Flores Pérez; Alfonso Alfaro Rodríguez
The study analyzed the effect of mannitol on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amikacin. Adult Wistar rats were treated as follows: Group 1 (G1) received mannitol for three days, Group 2 (G2) received mannitol plus 10 mg/kg of amikacin simultaneously, and Group 3 only amikacin. The PK study was conducted on the 4th day. For which, blood samples were drawn at fixed times during 24 h and immunoenzymatically analyzed. Results revealed significant differences (p
João Armando BRANCHER
Full Text Available The right side facial nerves of 20 Wistar rats were trans-sectioned, and the extremities were approximated with one plain epineural suture stitch and surrounded by a BioFill® sheath. The observed histological changes were proliferation of fibrous tissue, invasion of the nervous tissue by mastocites and fibroblasts and presence of collagen fibrils. The use of de BioFill ® sheath offers advantages because they are responsible for the better direction of the nerve fibers.
Azeredo, Francine Johansson; de Araújo, Bibiana Verlindo; Haas, Sandra Elisa; Torres, Bruna; Pigatto, Maiara; de Andrade, Cristiane; Dalla Costa, Teresa
The aims of this study were to evaluate free levels of fluconazole (FCZ) in the kidneys of healthy and Candida albicans-infected Wistar rats using microdialysis and to establish the relationship between free renal and total plasma levels under both conditions. Microdialysis recovery rates were determined in vitro by dialysis, and retrodialysis recovery rates were determined in vivo by retrodialysis. The recovery rate was around 50%, independent of the method, drug concentration, or condition ...
Manju Roy and Sushovan Roy
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effect of Psidium.guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Significant (P<0.05 increased glucose serum urea nitrogen and serum creatinine was observed whereas non significant decrease in total protein, calcium and phosphorus was observed. It is concluded that kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired up to some extent by AEPG50. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 82-83
Sunday Abraham Musa
Full Text Available Among the environmental contaminants, lead is one of the most hazardous to living matter. In mammals, the main target is the central nervous system, particularly in the young. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant which is a substance that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. This study investigated Experiment the protective effect of ascorbic acid on the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats following oral administration of different doses of Lead acetate. Thirty adult Wistar rats of average weight of 215g were used in this study. The animals were divided into five (5 groups of six animals per group and were administered different doses of lead acetate (60mg/kg bwt of 1/10th LD50 and 30mg/kg bwt of 1/20th of LD50 and ascorbic acid (4.3mg/kg bwt orally over a period of three (3 weeks.Group 1 (control was administered distilled water and Group 2 and 3 were administered 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg of Lead acetate respectively while Group 4 and 5 were given co-administration of 30mg/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid and 60gm/kg of Lead acetate 4.3mg/kg of ascorbic acid respectively. Histopathologically, Lead acetate induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats and it was also observed that ascorbic acid prevents or minimize lead-induced cellular damage in the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats.
Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud
Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.
This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis
Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)
Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.
Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.
A.C., Issy; V., Castania; M., Castania; C.E.G., Salmon; M.H., Nogueira-Barbosa; E. Del, Bel; H.L.A., Defino.
Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be u [...] sed for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.
Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.
Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration
de Castro Barra, Patrícia Mendonça; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; Alvarenga, Marcelo Bonnet; de Sousa, Rafael Arromba; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal
The purpose of this work was to measure the amounts of selected mineral elements (sodium, calcium, iron, selenium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese) in the liver of Wistar rats and evaluate possible correlations between the levels of these minerals and the lipid metabolism in the studied animals. Three experimental groups each containing six Wistar rats were designed. Each group was fed a different diet. The control group was fed a diet prepared with fresh soybean oil and named control group--CG. The second group (named experimental group B--EGB) and third group (named experimental group C--EGC) were fed a diet containing soybean oil that had been used to fry different foods for four or ten cycles, respectively. The mineral elements in Wistar rat livers were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Only the elements calcium and selenium differed significantly between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant reduction of 33% for Ca and 41% for Se in the EGB in comparison to the control group. The reduction in mineral concentration, especially Se, is the result of interactions with fatty acid metabolism. The animals in the EGC exhibited more intracytoplasmic accumulation of fat and more intense vasodilatation, in relation to the other groups. Collectively, evidence hereby collected suggests that impaired dietary lipid quality in otherwise balanced diets can reduce hepatic Se levels and potentially harm liver function. PMID:25957597
Glaucia Babeto, Carmona; Renan Kleber Costa, Teixeira; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Flavia Sirotheau Correa, Pontes; Eloisa Helena Aguiar, Andrade; Felipe Paiva, Fonseca; Ricardo Miranda Brito, Costa; Francideise Martins, Carvalho.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of andiroba oil on the periodontitis in rats. METHODS: The periodontitis was induced by the placement of cotton ligatures around the cervix of the second upper molars on fifteen rats, and waiting fifty days. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups: sa [...] line group, andiroba oil group and meloxican group, differentiated by substance used in the treatment of periodontitis. The groups received the respective substance by gavage for seven days, after the periodontitis induced. It was analyzed the score of inflammatory cells and the measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest. RESULTS: The andiroba oil group (p=0.008) and meloxican group (p=0.0347) show a less score of inflammatory cells than saline group, however there weren't difference between them (p=0.2754). Regarding the analysis of measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest, there was no difference between groups studied (p=0.3451). CONCLUSION: Andiroba oil decreased the quantity of inflammatory cells, however, it didn't have an effect on the measurement of alveolar bone loss, like the treatment with Meloxican®.
JÃ¸rgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling; Jakobsen, K.
Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...
Datta, P. K.; B K Diwakar; S Viswanatha; K N Murthy; K A Naidu
Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) leaves and seeds are used in India as food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC) seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 –5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce ...
G. Riet-Correa; C.G. Fernandes; Pereira, L.A.V.; D.L Graça
Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1), 2 (group 2), 4 (group 3), 6 (group 4)...
G.O. Obochi; S.P. MALU; M. Obi-Abang; Y. Alozie; M.A. Iyam
Effect of garlic extracts on MSG induced fibroid in wistar rats was studied. Fifteen rats were randomly assigned into 3 study groups. The animals in Group 1 (the control) received a placebo of 5.0 mL distilled water via gastric intubation. The animals in the Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 100 mg MSG/kg, or a combination of 100 mg MSG/kg + 100 mg garlic/kg, respectively in a total volume of 5.0 mL vehicle. However, the animals in Group 3 were treated with MSG only for 30 days before the comm...
Gal Adrian F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Astaxanthin (ASTA is a fat-soluble xanthophyll with powerful antioxidant functions. It is extracted from e.g. salmon, an important food source for certain human populations known to have a reduced risk of tumor development. It is possible that ASTA plays a role in cancer chemoprevention in such populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ASTA on chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis using N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea (MNU in immature Wistar rats. Methods Thirty-six 37 days old juvenile female Wistar rats were at random allocated to 4 groups of which Groups 1 and 2 received a single dose of 55 mg MNU/kg body weight. The effects of ASTA was evaluated by giving rats of Groups 2 and 4 a dose of 50 mg ASTA/kg/day for the entire duration of the study. Group 3 rats received feed added alimentary oil. Necropsy and histopathological examinations were carried out on each rat 14 months after the administration of MNU. Haematological values and antioxidative status were determined. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities in hepatic tissue. Lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins was determined in protein extracts from the liver. Results Tumor development occurred only in rats of Groups 1 and 2, i.e. MNU exposed animals. Frequency of tumor development in general and average number of tumors per animal were insignificant between these two groups. Mammary gland tumors developed in equal frequencies in Group 1 and 2 rats, respectively. Although only rather few tumors were found in the mammary glands, a substantial number of other tumors were found in Group 1 and 2 rats, but at equal rates. Biochemical analyses showed significant higher levels of GPx, malondialdehyde and dinitrophenylhydrazine in Group 1 rats that for rats in all other groups thus indicating protective effects of ASTA on MNU induced hepatic oxidative stress. Conclusions Supplementation with ASTA did not reduce tumorigenesis induced by MNU in Wistar rats. However, supplementation with ASTA seemed to have anti-inflammatory effects.
Shama I. Younis
Full Text Available Trichodesma africanum is not recognized in Sudanese folk medicine and villagers of Northern Kordofan State have observed casualties among grazing livestock as a result of consuming the plant when other pasture plants are scarce. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects on Wistar rats of various levels of dietary T. africanum aerial parts through clinical, biochemical, hematological and pathological parameters. T. africanum aerial parts were fed to rats at 2, 5, 10 and 20% of the standard diet for 12 weeks. Incorporation of T. africanum aerial parts in diet at 20% was lethal to Wistar rats 6-7 weeks after treatment and caused severe hepatonephrotoxicity and depression in growth and soft feces prior to death. These findings were accompanied by macrocytic normochromic type, leukocytosis due to lymphocytosis and alterations in hematology, serum enzyme activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, cholesterol and urea and other serum constituents. The results of the present study indicated that T. africanum aerial parts were toxic to rats when fed at 2, 5 and 10% of the diet for 12 weeks and lethal to rats when fed at 20% of the diet for 6-7 weeks of treatment. Our conclusion from this study is that T. africanum is toxic to livestock and can result in dysfunction of various organs, alteration in serbiochemical and hematological parameters, in addition to that; it may cause death if consumed in elevated doses.
Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir
The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity. PMID:24558798
A., Fontes-Pereira; D.P., Matusin; P., Rosa; A., Schanaider; M.A., von Krüger; W.C.A., Pereira.
Full Text Available A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter ( [...] FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.
Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn . Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.
Ernesto Antonio, Figueiró-Filho; Geraldo, Duarte; Patrícia, El Beitune; Silvana Maria, Quintana; Alessandra Cristina, Marcolin.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a ação diabetogênica de drogas anti-retrovirais em ratas prenhes e o prognóstico perinatal das crias. MÉTODOS: estudo com ratas fêmeas prenhes adultas da raça Wistar, pesando entre 200-230 g. Foram testadas a azidotimidina (AZT), lamivudina (3TC) e nelfinavir (NFV), cujas dosagens [...] foram padronizadas em 10 vezes a dose utilizada em gestantes, proporcionalmente ao peso dos animais. Foram avaliados sete grupos, incluindo o controle, contendo 10 ratas por grupo. O início do experimento foi o dia zero da prenhez e as cesarianas realizadas no 21º dia, após decapitação, sendo os fetos contados e pesados. Procedeu-se a dosagens de glicemia, insulina, glucagon e lactato no 21º dia. Avaliou-se também o peso do tecido adiposo retroperitoneal. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o teste t de Student para a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: os grupos tratados com 3TC, AZT + 3TC e AZT + 3TC + NFV demonstraram alterações com a redução das médias de ganho de peso materno diário, do peso da gordura retroperitoneal e peso das crias (grupo controle: 6,2 g; grupos contendo 3TC: 4,1 a 5,6 g), bem como dos valores de lactato (grupo controle: 5,8 mmol/mL; grupos contendo 3TC: 3,2 a 3,7 mmol/mL), quando comparados ao controle. Todos os grupos tratados com drogas anti-retrovirais apresentaram redução significativa do número de fetos por ninhada (grupo controle: 14,7; grupos medicamentos: 11,1 a 12,7) e dos valores séricos de insulinemia (grupo controle: 6,2 µUI/mL; grupos medicamentos: 2,1 a 2,7 µUI/mL) e elevação da glucagonemia (grupo controle: 88,2 pg/mL; grupos medicamentos: 99,7 a 120,7 pg/mL). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre o grupo controle e tratados nos valores de glicemia. CONCLUSÕES: o uso de anti-retrovirais em ratas prenhes causa interferência no metabolismo glicídico dos animais durante o período de prenhez, provocando significativa redução do número das crias. Observou-se que o uso do 3TC resultou em menor ganho de peso materno e das crias, redução de insulina e lactato e elevação do glucagon. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to experimentally evaluate the diabetogenic effects of antiretroviral drugs on pregnant Wistar rats and the perinatal effects on the offspring. METHODS: adult female pregnant Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were used. The antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and nelfinavir [...] (NFV) were used alone and in association at daily doses of ten times the dose normally used in pregnant women, proportionally to the animal's body weight. Seven groups were studied, including the control. The experiment started on day 0 of pregnancy and the pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 21. The fetuses were counted and weighed. Blood determinations of glucose, insulin, glucagon and lactate were performed on day 21. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue was weighed. Data were analyzed statistically by Student's t-test. RESULTS: the groups treated with 3TC, ZDV + 3TC and ZDV + 3TC + NFV showed decreasing values of maternal daily body weight gain, retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight and weight of fetuses (control group: 6.2 g; 3TC group variation: 4.1-5.6 g). The serum lactate levels were also decreased when compared to the control in these groups (control group: 5.8 mmol/mL; 3TC group variations: 3.2-3.7 mmol/mL). All antiretroviral-treated groups showed a decreasing number of fetuses when compared to the control (control group: 14.7; drug group variation: 11.1-12.7). All treated groups also showed decreasing serum values of insulin (control group: 6.2 µIU/mL; drug group variation: 2.1 to 2.7 µIU/mL) and increasing serum levels of glucagon when compared to the control (control group: 88.2 pg/mL; drug group variation: 99.7 to 120.7 pg/mL). There was no statistical significance of glucose levels when comparing treated groups to the control. CONCLUSIONS: the antiretroviral drugs interfered in carbohydrate metabolism of pregnant rats and reduced the number of fetuses. 3TC caused less maternal body weig
Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A
This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change. PMID:24000694
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the protective effects of Huqi extractum, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on salivary glands against radiation in Wistar rats. Methods: One hundred Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-exposure group, untreated group, and low-, medium- and high-dose Huqi groups. Local irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays with a single dose of 15 Gy was applied to the salivary glands of the Wistar rats except the sham-exposure group. After 3- and 40-day treatment, saliva was collected. Colorimetric method, iodine-amylase colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect concentrations of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+ and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA and activity of salivary amylase. Pathological changes of salivary gland tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin straining. Results: After 3-day administration, radiation-induced salivary gland injuries were obvious and prevalent in irradiated rats. Comparing with the sham-exposure group, saliva concentration of sIgA and body weight were reduced in other irradiated groups, except those in the high-dose Huqi group, while salivary amylase level was increased. At 3-day phase, pathologic changes of the salivary glands were featured as swelling acinus plasm and vacuolation. At 40-day phase, atrophy of gland cells was dominant. After 40-day administration, there were no significant differences between the high-dose Huqi group and sham-exposure group in sIgA and amylase levels and body weight, and according to the histological examination, no significant difference was revealed under the optical microscope.Conclusion: Chinese herbal medicine is helpful for the recovery of the salivary glands from the radiation injury, morphologically and functionally in rats.
Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T3) thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body ?-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels were recorded after ?-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body ?-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of ?-irradiation on serum T3 and T4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by ?-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21
Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and further highlight the inherent heterogeneity of the Wistar strain. The overall results put focus on the importance of thoroughly considering the animals used to aid in study design and for comparison of reported results.
I G Bako; Abubakar, M S; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A.
Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...
Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3
Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.
Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production
Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.
The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections 14C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers
Dr. Al-Hassan M. Izunya
Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the histological effects of oral administration of normal anddouble normal doses of artesunate on the histology of the liver in wistar rats. The rats were divided into threegroups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the controlgroup. Group A rats were given 4 mg/kg b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2 mg/kg b.w daily fornext for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8 mg/kg2 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4 mg/kg b.wdaily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mashpurchased from Edo feeds and Flour M ill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given water ad libitum. On day eightof the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The livers were carefullydissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after Hand E method showed sinusoidal congestion with cytoplasmic vacuolation (hepatocyte oedema and mildinflammation of the portal tracts. Our study suggests that artesunate at normal dose has a toxic effect on theliver cells and could be a potential hepatotoxic drug. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimedat corroborating these observations be carried out and self-medication with artesunate should be discouraged.
Full Text Available The study of the effects of oral administration of aluminium chloride on the Hippocampus of wistar rats was designed in order to ascertain whether the small daily amount of aluminium that gain access to the body produce any damage to the hippocampus. This investigation was carried out using 50 female adult wistar rats.The animals were divided into five groups; 10 rats per group (cage. Stock solution of aluminium chloride was prepared (2 g/L or 2 mg/mL. Different concentrations of aluminium were administered to different groups orally. Group I was control, while Groups II-V were given 0.4, 1, 2, and 3 mg, respectively per each rat with an average weight of between 150-200 g for duration of twelve (12 weeks. The animals were humanly sacrificed using chloroform and then the brain tissues were fixed immediately in Bouin’s fluid. The brain sections (hippocampus were processed through the routine tissue processor. The stained samples were examined by means of light microscope for histological changes. Histological examinations showed clumpy of cell neurons, or reduced pyramidal cells and scant,y neurofibrillary tangle which was an indication of neurodegeneration in the treated groups when compared to the control. It was however, concluded that the oral administration of aluminium chloride could induce brain damage which may impair memory and learning as seen in Alzheimer disease.
Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.
Wilson O. Hamman
Full Text Available The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control were orally administered distilled water while groups II and III received 100 and 250 mg/kg/day of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds respectively for a period of 90 days. 5 males from each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to harvest the testes for histopathological analysis. The administration of the extract was discontinued for another 90 days period and the remaining 5 males in each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to obtain the testes for histopathological analysis. The results showed normal pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the control group, reduced and zero pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90-day administration of the extract. After 90 days of discontinued administration of extract, normal pregnancy outcome were recorded in both the control and treated groups. The result of the histopathological analysis showed a moderate and highly depleted germinal epithelium in the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90 day administration of the extract. The germinal epithelium seen in both the control and the experimental groups were normal after 90 days discontinued extract administration. The study concludes that ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds induces reversible male contraception in Wistar rats.
The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation
Teruel, M; García, V.; Catalano, R
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO), administered to Wistar rats during pregnancy on embryonic, foetal and placental parameters. A colpocytological control was performed daily and detection of spermatozoa in the vaginal smear was considered as day 0 of pregnancy. For the preimplantational study, ABZSO (10 mg/kg) was orally administered at day 2 of pregnancy; at day 4 the embryos were collected. For the postimplantational study, ABZSO (10 mg/kg) wa...
Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan
Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128
Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.
The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption
Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.
Dubey Subodh; Verma Vijendra K.; Sahu Amit K.; Jain Amit K; Tiwari Akash
The present study was carried with the rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is an erect perennial herb and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of diosgenin and commonly known as “Push Kara“, “Kashmeera”, “Keu” and Kust. In Pharmacological screening the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn was evaluated in Albino rats of either sex (150-200g) for diuretic activity at a dose of 250mg/kg. b.w. the effe...
Somaia Z.A. Rashed
The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet) was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period). Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC) well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cho...
C. A. M, de Carvalho; J. A, Thomazini.
Full Text Available El uso de animales en la investigación científica no es reciente. La rata se ha utilizado en experimentos desde antes de Cristo y, en el siglo XIX, con la intensificación de los trabajos de investigación, el uso de esta especie ha aumentado considerablemente. Aunque se produce lo anterior, literatur [...] a sobre el corazón de estos animales no es muy detallada y descriptiva. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la morfometría macroscópica de varios parámetros no descritos en relación con el corazón de ratas Wistar en diferentes etapas de la vida. Treinta y seis ratas adultas machos y hembras (Rattus norvegicus) con peso entre 150-770 g se dividieron al azar en 6 grupos experimentales: 6 animales del grupo I machos de ponderación 150-249g (IM), 6 animales del grupo I hembra de ponderación 150-249g (SI); 6 animales del grupo II macho de ponderación de 250-350g (II-M); 6 animales de la II-hembra-ponderación grupo (II-F); 6 animales de la ponderación III-grupo macho más de 35 g (III-M); 6 animales del grupo de ponderación III-hembra más de 351G (III-C). Posteriormente, el corazón se diseccionó cuidadosamente y se retiró del tórax. Después de este proceso, el corazón fue pesado en una balanza de precisión Helmac HM100. Para cada sección frontal del corazón se tomaron medidas relacionadas a través de un análisis de imágenes semi-automática de Kontron Build Analizar (Minimop). La relación porcentual entre el peso del corazón respecto al peso corporal fue entre 0,5 y 0,7% en los animales con peso corporal de hasta 650 g, por otra parte, el espesor de la pared del ventrículo izquierdo no fue siempre menor para las hembras de todos los grupos, mientras el tabique interatrial tienen acción similar en machos y hembras y el espesor del septo interventricular demostró ser similar a la del espesor de la pared del ventrículo izquierdo no septal. Abstract in english The use of animals in scientific research is not recent. The rat has been used in experiments since before Christ and, in the XIX century, with the intensification of the research reports, the use of this species increased considerably. Although this fact happens, the literature regarding the heart [...] of these animals is not very detailed and descriptive. The objective of this research is to study the macroscopic morphometric of several parameters that have not been described yet regarding the hearth of Wistar rats in different phases of their lives. Thirty-six adult male and female rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 150-770 g were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups: 6 animals of the group I male-weighting 150-249g (I-M); 6 animals of the group I female-weighting 150-249g (I-F); 6 animals of the group II male-weighting 250-350g (II-M); 6 animals of the group II-femaleweighting (II-F); 6 animals of the group III-male weighting more than 35 g (III-M); 6 animals of the group III-female weighting more than 351g (III-F). The heart was then carefully dissected and removed from the chest. After this process, the heart had their weight measured on a precision scale HELMAC HM100, and for each front section of the heart were taken related measures through a semi-automatic image analysis of Kontron Build Analyse (Minimop). The percentage ratio between the relative heart weight to body weight was between 0.5 and 0.7% in the animals with body weight up to 650g, moreover, the wall thickness of the non-septal left ventricle was always lower for the females in all groups, while the interatrial septum have similar action in males and females and the thickness of the interventricular septum demonstrated to be similar to the wall thickness of the non-septal left ventricle.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**
Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Gregersen, SØren; Bystrup, Sara
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of milk protein on glucose metabolism have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with specific milk protein fractions could prevent diabetes and differentially alter tissue gene expression. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six week old male ZDF (n = 60) and Wistar rats (n = 44) were used in a 13 week study. P-glucose, p-insulin, p-glucagon, HbA1c, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Liver, muscle, and adipose samples were used for RT-PCR. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were performed. RESULTS: HbA1c increased during intervention, and was significantly lower for all milk protein fractions compared to chow in the ZDF rats (p < 0.05). At week 18, iAUCs during OGTT in the ZDF rats were similar for all milk protein-treated groups and significantly lower than in the chow fed group (p < 0.01). In the chow-fed group of ZDF rats, p-glucagon increased significantly compared to all milk protein fed animals. Total and HDL cholesterol were increased in the milk protein-treated ZDF rats compared with the control group. Expression of liver GYS2 and SREBP-2 were downregulated in the milk protein-fed ZDF groups compared with chow. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that milk protein fractions improve glycemic indices in diabetic rats. No major differences were seen between the milk protein fractions. However, the fractions had a differential impact on tissue gene expression, most pronounced in ZDF rats.
Background. Many investigators have observed differences in the susceptibility to induce intestinal tumors by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) between various strains of rodents. The results are difficult to compare because of the different regimes used for induction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the influence of strain on DMH-induced intestinal tumors between Wistar and Fischer rats. Materials and methods. We used 29 Fischer and 30 Wistar male rats that were injected subcutaneously DMH, weekly, at a dosage of 25 mg/kg-body weight for 20 weeks. After 25 weeks from the beginning of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and autopsied. The complete length of colorectum and all macroscopic changes were examined histologically. Results. The induction of intestinal tumors was 97% in Fischer rats and 100% in Wistar rats. In Wistar rats 184 tumors were found: 133 adenomas, 50 tubular adenocarcinomas and 1 signet-cell carcinoma. 77% of carcinomas were found in colorectum and 23% in the small intestine. In Fischer rats, 126 tumors were found: 94 adenomas, 26 tubular adenocarcinomas, 5 signet-cell carcinomas and 1 mucinous carcinoma; 42% of carcinomas were found in the colorectum and 58% in the small intestine. The strain difference in the incidence of all induced tumors was statistically significant (P=0.001). The differences in the occurrence of the malignant and benign tumors was also significant (P<0.001; P=0.011). Extra intestinal tumors were not found. Conclusions. Wistar rats showed greater percentage of colorectal tumors, and also the distribution of tumors in colorectum resembled more the distribution found in human pathology. That is why we recommend Wistar rat rather than Fischer rat for the research work on the colorectal tumors. (author)
Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)
Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S
Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms. PMID:26080489
Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi
Full Text Available Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joint’s range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats’ knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 ± 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P
Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology
Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)
al-hassan m. izunya
Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects on the body and testicular weights of adult wistar rats that recieved an oral administration of normal and double normal doses of artesunate. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the control group. Group A rats were given 4mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8mg.kg-1 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4mg.kg-1 b.w daily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given w ater ad libitum. On day eight of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed. The testes w ere carefully dissected out, freed from adherent tissues and weighed to the nearest 0.001 g. The results showed no changes in body weight of rats in groups A, B and C. There was also no significant change in testicular weight of rats in group A. However a significant increase in testicular weight was observed in group C. Our results suggest that artesunate at normal and double normal doses, has no effect on body weight of rats but may be toxic to the testes at higher doses. It is uncertain however if these changes are reversible. It is recommended therefore, that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.
Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight was given orally at a single doses (short-term after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05 inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.
Rachael Ununuma Akpiri
Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty Â five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,Â reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera Â was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract.Â
Can Wistar rats be used as the normotensive controls for nerve morphometry investigations in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)? Ratos Wistar podem ser utilizados como os controles normotensos dos ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) em investigações morfométricas de nervos periféricos?
Luciana Sayuri Sanada; Marcelo Rodrigo Tavares; Milena Cardoso Maia Neubern; Helio Cesar Salgado; Valéria de Paula Sassoli Fazan
PURPOSE: We compared the sural nerve morphology among Wistar (WR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, including the nerve fascicles and myelinated fibers morphometry. METHODS: Age matched (20 weeks) female WR (N=6), WKY (N=6) and SHR (N=7) had their right and left sural nerves removed, embedded in epoxy resin, and observed by light microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed with the aid of computer software. RESULTS: Despite presenting the same age, WR were hea...
A better understanding of biological interactions that occur after exposure to photon radiation is needed in order to optimize therapeutic regimens and facilitate development and strategies that decrease radiation-induced side effects in humans. In this work, ribs of Wistar rat submitted to radiotherapy simulation were imaged using synchrotron radiation computed microtomography at Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated directly from the 3D microtomographic images and showed significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated groups. - Highlights: ? In this work we used SR-?CT to evaluate ribs of Wistar rats. ? Rats were submitted to radiation therapy for breast cancer. ? Results showed alterations in histomorphometric indices.
Stephen Maduka; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Ukoha Ukoha
Objective: We investigated the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of orogastrically-administered tobacco on some hematological and hemostatic parameters of Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty young male Wistar rats with weights between 170-220 g were used for the study. The oral LD50 for the tobacco snuff concentration was determined as 10 mg per 200 g rat body weight. The control group A was given 1 ml of distilled water, while the experimental groups (B, C, D) were administered with tobacco snuff...
Y. Damodar Singh
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.
Azza M. Gawish
Aluminium (Al) is one of the most abundant and important elements in the environment. In recent years, the production of this metal and its toxicity increased with its discharge into the environment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Al intake toxicity in liver and kidney tissues of albino rats and the role of zinc as a protective agent against Al toxicity. Fourty five male albino rats were divided into equal three groups. The first group of animals was considered as control. ...
Gamma-irradiation of the whole body of male albino rats at single dose levels (100, 300 and 600 rad) significantly decreased blood reduced, glutathione (GSH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D H). activity, glutathione stability, red blood cell (R B C s) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and packed cell volume % (P C V %). The reduction in the above cited criteria was dose and time dependent. Intravenous injection of l methionine at a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to irradiation of male albino rats significantly bypassed the radiation affect
P. S. Jamadagni
Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.
Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra
Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and ?-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017
Full Text Available Background and Objective: In recent years there are growing concerns about the decrease of male reproductive health by different factors. So, present study was aimed to determine the effects of caffeine consumption during gestation on development of histomorphometric structure of testis in Wistar rats offspring. Subjects and Methods: Pregnant female Wistar rats in treatment groups received low and high doses (26 and 45 mg/kg of caffeine during gestation via drinking water. At 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after birth, body weight of male offsprings were measured, serum testosterone levels analyzed and the testis were removed, their weights recorded and were fixed in Bouinâ€™s solution. Following tissue processing, 5-6Âµm sections were prepared, then, at different stages of postnatal development the volumes of testis were estimated by Cavellieri method and structure of seminiferous tubules analyzed quantitatively. Results: The results showed significant (p<0.05 decreases in mean weight of pups, weight and absolute volume of testis in high dose treatment group in comparison with control group. Also, loss of spermatogenesis as increase of spermatogenic cells distribution, decreases of spermatgenic cell layers and germinal epithelium height and vacuolated germinal epithelium were seen in treatment groups. Mean diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased significantly (p<0.05 at 30 and 90 days of age in high dose treatment group. Moreover, serum testosterone levels at 60 and 90 days of age decreased significantly (p<0.05 in high dose treatment group.Conclusion: Present study indicates that caffeine consumption during gestation can reduce testicular parameters during postnatal development in male offspring Wistar rats.Sci Med J 2011; 10(1:69-79
Hilton Justino da Silva
Full Text Available Evaluations of weight and cephalic perimeter are very used to study the growth and development in human beings. Similar measures, called murinometrics, have been an efficient resource to study the effects of nutritional and pharmacologic manipulations on the somatic development in rat. The aim of this study is to describe a method of evaluation which offers a higher accuracy in the collect of data in the study of somatic development in Wistar rat. Measurements were realized in latero-lateral axis of skull; Antero-posterior axis of skull; Longitudinal axis; Length of tail in 60 wistar rat during breastfeeding period. The most suitable method of measurement respects predetermined anatomic points, the use of the suitable scapus of pachymeter as well as its accuracyEvaluaciones de peso y perímetro cefálico son muy utilizadas para el estudio del crecimiento y desarrollo en humanos. Medidas semejantes, denominadas murinométricas, han sido un recurso eficiente para el estudio de los efectos de manipulaciones nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo somático en ratas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un método de evaluación que ofrece mayor exactitud en la recolección de los datos, en el estudio del desarrollo somático en ratas Wistar. Fueron realizadas medidas en el eje látero-lateral del cráneo (ELLC; eje ántero-posterior del cráneo (EAPC; eje longitudinal (EL y largo de la cola (LC, en 60 ratas Wistar, durante el periodo de amamantación. Se observó, como método más adecuado de medición, el que se relaciona con puntos anatómicos predefinidos, uso del asta adecuada del instrumento de medida (paquímetro, así como la precisión de su exactitud
Hilton Justino da, Silva; Sônia Maria Oliveira Cavalcanti, Marinho; Ana Elisa Toscano Meneses da, Silva; Claudio Gonçalves de, Albuquerque; Silvia Regina Arruda de, Moraes; Raul, Manhães de Castro.
Full Text Available Evaluaciones de peso y perímetro cefálico son muy utilizadas para el estudio del crecimiento y desarrollo en humanos. Medidas semejantes, denominadas murinométricas, han sido un recurso eficiente para el estudio de los efectos de manipulaciones nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo somá [...] tico en ratas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un método de evaluación que ofrece mayor exactitud en la recolección de los datos, en el estudio del desarrollo somático en ratas Wistar. Fueron realizadas medidas en el eje látero-lateral del cráneo (ELLC); eje ántero-posterior del cráneo (EAPC); eje longitudinal (EL) y largo de la cola (LC), en 60 ratas Wistar, durante el periodo de amamantación. Se observó, como método más adecuado de medición, el que se relaciona con puntos anatómicos predefinidos, uso del asta adecuada del instrumento de medida (paquímetro), así como la precisión de su exactitud Abstract in english Evaluations of weight and cephalic perimeter are very used to study the growth and development in human beings. Similar measures, called murinometrics, have been an efficient resource to study the effects of nutritional and pharmacologic manipulations on the somatic development in rat. The aim of th [...] is study is to describe a method of evaluation which offers a higher accuracy in the collect of data in the study of somatic development in Wistar rat. Measurements were realized in latero-lateral axis of skull; Antero-posterior axis of skull; Longitudinal axis; Length of tail in 60 wistar rat during breastfeeding period. The most suitable method of measurement respects predetermined anatomic points, the use of the suitable scapus of pachymeter as well as its accuracy
Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Pal Ghosh, Sampa; Ghosh, Debidas; Debnath, Jogen
The subchronic treatment of mature female Wistar-strain albino rats in diestrous phase with sodium arsenite at a dose of 0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/rat/day via drinking water for period of 28 days (seven estrous cycles) caused a significant reduction in the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol along with a significant decrease in ovarian activities of delta five, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta5,3beta-HSD), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) followed by a reduction in ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities. A significant weight loss of the ovary and uterus was also observed after this treatment, along with a prolonged diestrous phase and a high accumulation of arsenic in the plasma and these organs. Moreover, sodium arsenite was also responsible for ovarian follicular and uterine cell degeneration characterized by a high number of regressing follicles and a reduction in the uterine luminal diameter, respectively, in comparison with the controls. A dietary supplementation of sodium selenite at the dose of 0.6 mg/100 g body weight/rat/day for a period of 28 days along with arsenic treatment minimized the gonadal weight loss significantly and increased the activities of the ovarian steroidogenic enzymes as well as the ovarian and uterine peroxidase at the control level. Selenium was also able to increase the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol toward the control level. Vaginal smears showed normal estrous cyclicity in sodium selenite-supplemented arsenic-treated rats along with lower arsenic levels in the plasma and gonadal tissue in comparison with arsenic-only-treated rats. Histological sections of ovary and uterine tissues in the control and experimental groups confirmed that sodium selenite supplementation was able to prevent arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the midbrain and diencephalon decreased significantly, whereas the serotonin level was increased significantly after 28 days of sodium arsenite treatment. All of these parameters were, in most cases, unchanged from the control level when sodium selenite was co-administered with sodium arsenite. Arsenic intoxication was also associated with increased liver weight and elevation in the activities of hepatic and renal acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases, but selenium co-administration was not able to change these toxic effects of arsenic. The results of our experiments indicate the significant protective action of sodium selenite on arsenic-induced toxicity in the female reproductive system, while there was no significant protective effect of selenium on arsenic-induced toxicity in other organs. PMID:12883085
Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, Î±2- and Î²1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, Î±1 and Î±2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and Î²1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs
Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan
Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...
Khatib N. A.; Medi Swathi; Patel Jignesh
The present study was aimed to evaluate the combined effects of simvastatin (SIM) and ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (ZO) in doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. DOX 10 mg/kg i.p single dose to causes cardiac damage and increases the levels of cardiac biomarker enzymes viz. ALT, AST, LDH and CKMB. In addition, a significant rise in HR, ST- segment and alterations in ECG patterns were observed in DOX treated group. SIM (1.8 mg/kg & 3.6 mg/kg) and ZO (200 mg/kg & 400...
Raj, Jaya; Chandra, Mohineesh; Dogra, Tirath D.; Pahuja, Monika; Raina, Anupuma
The present study was designed to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of combination of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid, and endosulfan, an organochlorine compound in Wistar rats. LD50 is the amount (dose) of a chemical, calculated as per the concentration of chemicals that produces death in 50% of a population of test animals to which it is administered by any of a variety of methods. A single oral dose of combination of cypermethrin and endosulfan were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in a...
Soghra Mehri; Mehran Shahi; Bibi Marjan Razavi; Faezeh Vahdati Hassani; Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Objective(s):Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or wi...
Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P
In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests. PMID:26841660
Oluwole B. Akinola
Full Text Available
We studied the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE on hepatic microscopic anatomy and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Seventy-five Wistar rats (8 weeks old were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control; diabetic; diabetic+AIE; AIE only; and diabetic+glibenclamide. Hyperglycemia was induced in fasted rats with streptozotocin. AIE was administered orally at 500 mg/kg bw/d and glibenclamide at 600 ?g/kg bw/d for 50 days (50 d. Animals were sacrificed on treatment days 7, 21 and 50. The liver was stained with PAS. Hepatic markers of oxidative stress were also estimated. At 50 d, histological study of the liver of diabetic rats showed swollen PAS+ hepatocytes, whose content was confirmed to be glycogen. On the contrary, hepatocytes of AIE-treated diabetic rats lacked glycogen. The major finding in these rats was exacerbated oxidative stress. Our findings in this model showed the beneficial effect of AIE in the amelioration of diabetic hepatic glycogenosis.
Keywords: Diabetes, Azadirachta indica, hepatic glycogenosis, oxidative stress, liver
Full Text Available The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs’ behavior to that of Sprague-Dawley (SD, Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST. WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness. WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs’ behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e. neonatal handling that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression.
Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Root resorption (RR after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method: Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China. Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results: The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001 and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001. Conclusion: It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR.
Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of ?-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of ?-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after ?-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with ?-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that ?-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that ?-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats
The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered
Estudo do efeito da amiodarona sobre o peso corpóreo e sobre determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em ratos machos e fêmeas das linhagens Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto e SHR / Study on the effect of amiodarone on the body weight and on lung morphologic and cytopathologic parameters of male and female Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto, and SHR rats
THAIS THOMAZ, QUELUZ; MARIA HELENA DE CASTRO E, SILVA; SILMÉIA GARCIA, ZANATTI; FREDERICO SOBRAL DE, OLIVEIRA; RODRIGO, BAZAN; JÚLIO, DEFAVERI.
Full Text Available Introdução: A maioria dos estudos experimentais sobre a toxicidade pulmonar induzida por amiodarona tem sido realizada em ratos machos da linhagem Fischer-344. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito da amiodarona sobre o peso corpóreo e sobre determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em outras [...] linhagens de ratos de ambos os sexos. Métodos: Grupos de ratos machos e de fêmeas das linhagens Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) e espontaneamente hipertenso (SHR) receberam, por gavagem, durante quatro semanas, 175mg/kg/dia de amiodarona em suspensão salina. Os grupos controles receberam apenas salina. Foram estudados ganho de peso corpóreo, celularidade total e diferencial do lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) e histopatologia dos pulmões. Resultados: Mortalidade pela amiodarona foi observada nos ratos WKY tratados, sendo maior em machos. Animais SHR tratados de ambos os sexos apresentaram o menor ganho de peso entre as linhagens estudadas. Ratos machos Wistar e SHR tratados apresentaram maior ganho de peso do que as fêmeas das suas respectivas linhagens. O LBA de ratos SHR tratados de ambos os sexos era hemorrágico. A celularidade do LBA foi maior em machos tratados (WKY > Wistar > SHR). Entretanto, nos machos e fêmeas WKY a contagem diferencial mostrou o menor percentual de macrófagos e o maior de neutrófilos entre as três linhagens. Macrófagos do LBA de ratos Wistar tratados apresentavam fosfolipidose, enquanto a maioria dos macrófagos de ratos SHR tratados eram normais. No exame anatomopatológico dos pulmões, não houve diferenças entre os sexos e não foi observada pneumonite. Em ratos Wistar o exame foi caracterizado pela acentuada quantidade de macrófagos "espumosos" intra-alveolares, em ratos WKY, por inúmeros abscessos intraparenquimatosos e em ratos SHR, pela hemorragia alveolar. Conclusões: 1) a amiodarona induz em ratos Wistar maior quantidade de macrófagos espumosos do que nas linhagens WKY e SHR, embora no modelo utilizado eles não desenvolvam pneumonite; 2) a amiodarona tem maior efeito sobre os determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em animais do sexo masculino. Abstract in english Introduction: Most of the experimental studies on amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity have been performed in male Fischer-344 rats. Objective: To investigate the effect of amiodarone on body weight and on lung morphological and cytopathologic parameters in both genders of other rat strains. Method [...] s: Groups of male and female Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats received, 175 mg/kg/day of amiodarone suspended in saline by gavage for four weeks. Controls received saline alone. Body weight gain, total cellularity, and differential of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung histopathology were studied. Results: Mortality due to amiodarone was observed in treated WKY rats, mostly in males. Treated male and female SHR animals had less body weight gain among all strains studied. Male Wistar and SHR treated rats presented more body weight gain than females of the respective strains. BAL of treated SHR rats were hemorrhagic. BAL cellularity was higher in treated males (WKY > Wistar > SHR). In WKY males and females, however, the differential count showed a lesser percent of macrophages and higher of neutrophils than in the other strains. BAL macrophages of treated Wistar rats presented phospholipidosis, whereas most macrophages of treated SHR rats were normal. In lung anatomicopathologic examination, no difference was found related to gender and no pneumonitis was observed. In Wistar rats, the examination was characterized by a marked quantity of intra-alveolar "foamy" macrophages, numerous intraparenchymal abscesses were found in WKY rats, and alveolar hemorrhage was present in SHR rats. Conclusions: 1) amiodarone induces more foamy macrophages in Wistar rats than in the WKY and SHR strains, although they do not develop pneumonitis in the model used; 2) amiodarone has greater effect on lung morphological and cytopathologic parameters of mal
Sherif E.A. Badr
Full Text Available In this study, the rheological properties of composite flour and their guar meal blends were studied by farinography. The water absorption percent, arrival time, development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance, ash, protein, falling number, baking strength, index of swelling and extensibility were estimated. The effect of feeding guar seeds powder on liver enzymes (GOT and GPT and kidney functions (urea and creatinine of rats were investigated. The results showed that diets with 5% guar seeds powder had the best effect on GOT (17.7 U L-1, GPT (22.2 U L-1, urea (26.0 mg dL-1 and creatinine (0.83 mg dL-1. Histopathological studies were also carried out in the kidney and liver of the albino rats.
Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3’s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3’s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.
Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie
Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indi...
Gilpin, N W; Stewart, R. B.; Badia-Elder, N. E.
In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...
Maria Cecilia Santos Cavalcanti, Melo; Diego Nery Benevides, Gadelha; Tharcia Kiara Beserra, Oliveira; Carlos Teixeira, Brandt.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcome of severe peritonitis in rats submitted to permanent bilateral carotid occlusion (PBCO). METHODS: Sixteen Wistar rats (mean age of 8.5 months) with PBCO underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis, and were treated with moxifloxacin combined with dexamet [...] hasone, and followed-up for 45 days. Ten rats (mean age five months) without PBCO were used as a control group. The variables were expressed by their mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). p
Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen; Julie Boberg; Camilla Taxvig; Rossana Bossi; Anne Marie Vinggaard
Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid i...
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 46 species of mammals can be naturally infected with Schistosoma japonicum in the mainland of China. Mice are permissive and may act as the definitive host of the life cycle. In contrast, rats are less susceptible to S. japonicum infection, and are considered to provide an unsuitable micro-environment for parasite growth and development. Since little is known of what effects this micro-environment has on the parasite itself, we have in the present study utilised a S. japonicum oligonucleotide microarray to compare the gene expression differences of 10-day-old schistosomula maintained in Wistar rats with those maintained in BALB/c mice. Results In total 3,468 schistosome genes were found to be differentially expressed, of which the majority (3,335 were down-regulated (? 2 fold and 133 were up-regulated (? 2 fold in schistosomula from Wistar rats compared with those from BALB/c mice. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that of the differentially expressed genes with already established functions or close homology to well characterized genes in another organisms, many are related to important biological functions or molecular processes. Among the genes that were down-regulated in schistosomula from Wistar rats, some were associated with metabolism, signal transduction and development. Of these genes related to metabolic processes, areas including translation, protein and amino acid phosphorylation, proteolysis, oxidoreductase activities, catalytic activities and hydrolase activities, were represented. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of differential expressed genes indicated that of the 328 genes that had a specific KEGG pathway annotation, 324 were down-regulated and were mainly associated with metabolism, growth, redox pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, the cell cycle, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, protein export and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Conclusions This work presents the first large scale gene expression study identifying the differences between schistosomula maintained in mice and those maintained in rats, and specifically highlights differential expression that may impact on the survival and development of the parasite within the definitive host. The research presented here provides valuable information for the better understanding of schistosome development and host-parasite interactions.
Telma, Bazzano; Tamy Ingrid, Restel; Lenir Cardoso, Porfirio; Albert Schiaveto de, Souza; Iandara Schettert, Silva.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate biomarkers of acute renal injury in Wistar rats, subjected to left renal ischemia for 10 minutes, and then compare reperfusion at 24 hours, and at 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after the procedure. METHODS: Eight female and male rats between 60 and 81 days old were used in the Centra [...] l Animal Facility of the UFMS. Assessed biomarkers included urine protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, urine alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities, and protein-to-creatinine ratio; and in serum: urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, urine flow and creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Greater variance was observed in the parameters at 24 hours and at five days (p
The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation
The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.
Victor Agati, Cavargere; Camille Feitoza, França; Ricardo, Cardoso; Lucia Marques, Vianna.
Full Text Available Several studies characterize the connection of overweight and obesity with chronic diseases. Therefore, new alternatives are being studied for controlling hypertension, such as chitin and chitosan fibers, commonly found on crustacean's carapace like Emerita brasiliensis. Rats from two different stra [...] ins were divided into control and supplemented groups (n=6). The Wistar strain experiment started with a 14-days baseline period, followed by supplementation of E.brasiliensis flour added to the diet in the doses of 5, 10 and 20%, for a 14-days period each. With the optimal dose of 20%, the study was undertaken with SHR rats, starting with a 7-days baseline period, followed by three weeks of supplementation. Data were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and p
Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.
Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.
Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.
Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.
Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21
Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh
Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by pylorus ligation. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of TT showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and proteins. The methanolic extract at the doses of 300 & 600 mg/kg produced more significant inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by pylorus ligation respectively. The methanol extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. possess gastroprotective i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory effect.
Full Text Available such as craniorachisis and exencephaly. One of the processes is changing in lamina neuralis cells shape, which iscaused by actin microfilament rearrangement within lamina neuralis cells. To examine the distribution of actinmicrofilament during cranial neurulation Wistar rats embryo were used. Embryos were obtain at following days ofdevelopment; 8 days 18 hours, 9 days, 9 days 6 hours, 9 days 12 hours, 9 days 18 hours, and 9 days 20 hoursrespectively. Immunohistochemistry Avidin Biotin-peroxidase Complex (ABC method was used to examine andidentify the distribution of actin in lamina neuralis cells. Light microscopic observation shows positive reaction foractin immunoreactivity in the apical surface of bending lamina neuralis cells. In contrast, actin is not observed in nonbendinglamina neuralis. Actin is not detected at 8 days 18 hours embryos. At 9 days embryos, positive reaction isobserved over the entire apical surface of lamina neuralis.Key words: Cranial neurulation, Actin, lamina neuralis, Rats embryo.
S. G. Suradkar
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431
de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Rita; de Oliveira Guerra, Martha
Lapachol is a therapeutic naphthoquinone, but little is known about its general and reproductive toxicity. In female rats, a high incidence of resorptions and fetal mortality has been reported. This work analyses the effect of the short-term administration of lapachol on vital and reproductive organs, and sperm production in Wistar rats. Adult animals were treated with 1 mL of lapachol hydroalcohol solution (100 mg/kg of body weight) for 5 days and killed 3 (T1) and 14 days (T2) after the end of treatment. Body and organ weights and sperm production were evaluated. The administration of lapachol significantly reduced the weight of the seminal vesicle (T1 animals). No significant alteration of gamete production, body weight and the weight of the other organs analysed were detected. The results suggest a reproductive toxicity effect of lapachol, indicating the seminal vesicle as a possible target organ. PMID:17421057
Fabiana C. S. A Melo
Full Text Available Traditional medicine provides strong guidance for scientific experiments involving plant products used by the Brazilian people. The species "cipó-cravo" (Tynnanthus fasciculatus is a plant commonly used either to combat indigestion and stomachaches, or as a general stimulant and aphrodisiac. In this study, the effects of "cipó-cravo" infusion were investigated within the testicular parenchyma of adult Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups: a control (distilled water and two treated groups, which received the plant infusion (100 and 200mg/animal/day. The 200mg dose promoted a significant increase of the testicular parenchyma weight and of the volume and total length of the seminiferous tubules, as well as in total daily sperm production and sperm production per gram of testis.
Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase (P
Abdulazeez Adelaja, Akinlolu; Olaide Kamal, Ghazali; Oloduowo Mubarak, Ameen; Seunayo Comfort, Oyebanji; Gabriel Olaiya, Omotoso; Bernard Ufuoma, Enaibe.
Full Text Available Se puso a prueba la hipótesis que Moringa oleifera altera la morfología y función del riñón en ratas. Fueron utilizadas 24 ratas Wistar macho adultas. El grupo control recibió suero fisiológico mientras que los Grupos II a IV recibieron 250, 500 y 750 mg/kg peso corporal del extracto metanólico de M [...] oringa oleifera respectivamente, durante 21 días. No se observaron anomalías en el comportamiento en ratas de los Grupos I - IV. En las ratas del grupo de control se registró un aumento de peso corporal estadísticamente significativo, mientras que las ratas de los grupos II - IV experimentaron una disminución no significativa de peso corporal durante el procedimiento experimental (P0,05). No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P0,05) en el análisis de los pesos relativos en riñones de las ratas de los grupos I - IV. Los exámenes histológicos mostraron citoarquitectura normal de los riñones de las ratas del grupo I, mientras que en ratas de los grupos II IV los espacios capsulares de los riñones aparecían más amplios que los del Grupo I. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron niveles superiores significativos ( P 0,05 ) de la alanina y aspartato aminotransferasa, y de urea en suero en ratas de los Grupos II - IV no dependiente de la dosis, en comparación con las ratas del Grupo I. Estos resultados coinciden con la hipótesis planteada. Abstract in english We tested the hypothesis that Moringa oleifera impairs the morphology and functions of the kidney in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were employed in the study. Rats of Control Group I received physiological saline while rats of Groups II IV received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bodyweight of m [...] ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera respectively for twenty one days. No behavioral anomalies were observed in rats of Groups I IV. Rats of Control Group I gained statistically significant increased bodyweight while rats of Groups II IV experienced non-significant decreased bodyweight during experimental procedure. (P0.05). No statistical significant differences (P0.05) were observed in the analyses of the relative weights of kidneys of rats of Groups I IV. Histological examinations showed normal cyto-architecture of the kidneys of rats of Group I while the Capsular spaces of the kidneys of rats of Groups II IV appeared wider than those of Group I. Statistical analyses showed significant higher levels (P0.05) of Alanine and Aspartate Transaminases, and serum urea in rats of Groups II IV in a non- dose-dependent manner when compared to rats of Group I. Our findings are consistent with the stated hypothesis.
Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats / Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar
L., Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo; L., Leal Soares; L.H., Cardozo Brant; M., Alves Chagas; V., Alves Pereira; L. G., Coca Velarde; G., Teles Boaventura.
Full Text Available Este trabajo pretendía evaluar el efecto de la ingestión crónica de linaza sobre parámetros hematológicos y hallazgos inmunológicos del desarrollo corporal de ratas Wistar. Se emplearon ratas hembra Wistar tras la gestación. Se las distribuyó al azar en dos grupos durante el período de lactancia: gr [...] upo control (GC), alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína, con un 17% de proteína y el grupo linaza (GF), alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína con la adición de un 25% de linaza. En el destete, 12 ratas macho continuaron recibiendo las dietas experimentales consumidas por sus madres (con sólo el 10% de proteína) hasta la edad adulta, en que fueron sacrificados a los 250 días de vida para la recogida de las muestras. A los 250 días de edad, el GF presentaba una reducción significativa de la masa corporal (p Abstract in english This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG), fed [...] with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG), fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein) until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p
Kumar, Peeyush T; George, Naijil; Antony, Sherin; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria
Diabetes mellitus, when poorly controlled, leads to debilitating central nervous system (CNS) complications including cognitive deficits, somatosensory and motor dysfunction. The present study investigated curcumin's potential in modulating diabetes induced neurochemical changes in brainstem. Expression analysis of cholinergic, insulin receptor and GLUT-3 in the brainstem of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were studied. Radioreceptor binding assays, gene expression studies and immunohistochemical analysis were done in the brainstem of male Wistar rats. Our result showed that Bmax of total muscarinic and muscarinic M3 receptors were increased and muscarinic M1 receptor was decreased in diabetic rats compared to control. mRNA level of muscarinic M3, ?7-nicotinic acetylcholine, insulin receptors, acetylcholine esterase, choline acetyltransferase and GLUT-3 significantly increased and M1 receptor decreased in the brainstem of diabetic rats. Curcumin and insulin treatment restored the alterations and maintained all parameters to near control. The results show that diabetes is associated with significant reduction in brainstem function coupled with altered cholinergic, insulin receptor and GLUT-3 gene expression. The present study indicates beneficial effect of curcumin in diabetic rats by regulating the cholinergic, insulin receptor and GLUT-3 in the brainstem similar to the responses obtained with insulin therapy. PMID:23380686
Hamza, A A; Elwy, H M; Badawi, A M
Cisplatin (CIS) provides oxidative stress and inflammations in testicular tissues. Fenugreek seed extract (FSE) is a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of FSE against CIS-induced testicular damage in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given vehicle, single dose of CIS alone (10 mg kg(-1) ), single dose of FSE alone or single dose of CIS followed by FSE (50, 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) ) every day for 5 days. On day 6, oxidative stress and apoptotic testicular toxicity were evaluated. FSE attenuated both germ cell degenerations and apoptosis in seminiferous tubules in CIS-treated rats. Furthermore, FSE counteracted CIS-induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by the restoration of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduction in the myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels in testes. CIS increased expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-kappa B in testicular tissues. Importantly, treatment with FSE at all doses effectively alleviated all of these inflammatory parameters in testes. Based on these results, we concluded that FSE reduces CIS-induced reproductive toxicity in rats by the suppression of testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammations. PMID:25996647
Fabrícia Souza, Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da, Matta; Juliana Castro, Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available A bardana (Arctium lappa L) é uma planta trazida do Japão e aclimatada no Brasil, e é extensamente utilizada na medicina popular em todo mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os possíveis efeitos da A. lappa no fígado e nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos em ratos Wistar adultos. Estes re [...] ceberam a infusão de bardana nas doses de 10 ou 20 g de folhas secas /L de água, por 40 dias. Não houve alteração significativa nos níveis plasmáticos de albumina, aspartato transaminase (AST), alanina transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamil transferase (GGT), proteínas totais, colesterol total, uréia, ácido úrico, triglicérides, cálcio, fósforo, bilirrubina direta e cloro. A análise morfológica não revelou alterações histopatológicas no fígado. Os dados bioquímicos e morfológicos não indicaram a toxicidade da bardana. Abstract in english This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant cha [...] nges in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine and direct bilirubin. The morphological analysis did not reveal histopathological alterations in liver tissue. Both biochemical and morphological data did not indicate A. lappa toxicity.
Full Text Available Dietary exposures to food contaminants such as mycotoxin (s or pesticide (s are most significant due to their adverse effect on the production and reproduction in animals and human population. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the adverse effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA and endosulfan on the male hormonal status. OTA (4 mg kg-1 feed and endosulfan (5 mg kg-1 body weight were administered orally alone and in combination for 30 days caused significant alterations on the serum levels of various body hormones such as thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxin, testosterone, prolactin, insulin and cortisol of adult male Wistar rats. Radioimmuno assay revealed significantly higher serum levels of Thyroxin (T4 and prolactin and the significantly lower serum levels of Triiodothyronine (T3, testosterone, insulin and cortisol in all the treated groups in comparison to control. Moreover, the hormonal changes were maximum in the combination group. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of OTA and endosulfan caused more pronounced hormonal alterations possibly may due to their additive interaction in adult male Wistar rats.
Abbas Ali Keshtkar
Full Text Available This study was done to determine the effects of subacute exposure of Peracetic acid on Hematological indices in Wistar rats. In this study 18 male Wistar rats divided to two experimental and one control groups. PAA with 99% purity purchased. Then 0.2 and 2 mL of PAA dissolved in 100 mL drinking water. Animals in Treatment Group 1 and 2 received 0.2% PAA daily for 4 weeks and 2% PAA daily for 4 weeks, respectively. After the animals had been sacrificed hematological parameters examined. Experimental results concerning this study were evaluated using SPSS v.11.5 and expressed as Mean SD p<0.05 was considered significant. Mean SD of WBC of groups 1 (2.45 0.77 and 2 (3.63 0.23 decreased significantly as compared with control group (5.3 0.57. RBC in control and 1, 2 groups were 8.34 0.39, 7.48 0.11 and 7.61 0.46, respectively. Also HCT and PLT decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2 as compared with control group. This study showed that oral consumption of Peracetic acid with concentration 0.2, 2% for 4 weeks can cause decrease hematological parameter in animal model.
Eduardo S., Gonçalves; Juliano R., Silva; Camila L., Gomes; Melissa B.L., Nery; Daniela M.A.F., Navarro; Geanne K.N., Santos; Jacinto C., Silva-Neto; João H., Costa-Silva; Alice V., Araújo; Almir G., Wanderley.
Full Text Available Copaiba oil, extracted from Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Fabaceae, is widely used for medicinal purposes, especially to treat inflammatory processes. However, there is no report regarding its effect on reproductive performance after used in repeated doses orally. The present study evaluated the effect [...] s of the oral administration of Copaiba oil (at doses of 200, 500 or 2500 mg/kg) or water (control) for eight weeks in male Wistar rats. Treated males mated untreated females, and parameters as fertility rates, absolute and relative mass of accessory sexual organs and histology and development of the offspring were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of 22 components accounting for 99.11% of the Copaiba oil. The main compounds identified were sesquisterpenes. The reproductive toxicology results indicate that there was no difference between the treated groups compared with the control group in any of the parameters, suggesting that the oral treatment with C. multijuga oil for eight weeks does not affect reproductive performance of male Wistar rats.
Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization defines diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.Objective: The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycaemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.Methodology: A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg IP and fructose (10% w/v ad libitum for 20 days. LD50 and phytochemical screening were conducted using Lorke’s method 1983 and Trease and Evans 1989 respectively.Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be 3,800 mg/kg. The fractions of the extract lowered the elevated blood glucose significantly with the 1000 mg/kg dose at the 8th, 16th, and 24th hours. The 500 mg/kg dose also lowered the glucose level throughout the study but only significantly at the 1st, 16th, and 24th hours. The ethyl acetate fraction also lowered the elevated blood glucose with all the doses used. The 250 mg/kg dose did not show significant decrease in the blood sugar concentration.Conclusion: The fractions of the stem-bark extract of T. indica L. significantly lowered elevated blood glucose concentration (BGL in alloxan and fructose-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.
Bethânia A., Costa; Jamylla M.G. de, Oliveira; Paulo A.B., Sales; Silvéria R. de S., Lira; Silvana M.M. de S., Silva; Luciana M., Costa; Maria C.S., Muratori; Amilton P.R., Costa.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Parkia platycephala Benth., Fabaceae, on systemic and reproductive parameters. In toxicity on the estrous cycle, four groups of not-pregnant Wistar rats received distilled water and the doses 250, 500 and [...] 1000 mg.kg-1 of plant extract for thirty days, at the end of which they were examined as to the frequency of their phases. The systemic toxicity was assessed through the consumption of water and food and by measuring body mass. After the extract was administered, serum AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin (total, direct and indirect), urea and creatinine were dosed. The evaluation of the organs (brain, heart, hypophysis, adrenal glands, liver, spleen, uterus and ovaries) in their macroscopic aspects, relative and absolute masses and histological structure showed that the plant extract induced a decrease of water and food consumption and of body mass. It caused an increase in the luteal phase and a decrease in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and rose serum alkaline phosphatase levels.The data exhibit systemic and reproductive toxicity induced by plant extract in female Wistar rats.
Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo
It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275
This study was designed to evaluate the Hepatoprotective effect of Ethanolic leave Extract of Moringo Oleifera on the Histology of the liver of wistar rats. Fifteen (15) female adult wistar rats were divided into three (3) groups. Group I was the Control group that received distilled water only, group II was the negative control that received 1 g/kg of paracetamol on the 10th day, and group III received 500 mg/kg of the extract for duration of ten (10) days. Group III was pre-treated with 500...
Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS: The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups, namely ethanol, ethanol-curcumin, and control groups. The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ...
B.I. Onyeanusi; A. A. Adeniyi; C.G. Onyeanusi; Ayo, J. O.; C.S. Ibe
A morphometric study was carried out on the kidney of the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean live weight of the Wistar rat was found to be 140.625±3.078 g. The average kidney weight was 0.605±0.012 g. The right kidney, with a mean weight of 0.632±0.012 g, was significantly (p<0.05) heavier than the left (0.596±0.022 g). The male kidneys were larger than those of the female and the values obtained were 0.633±0.091 g and 0.572±0.132 g, respectively. The relative t...
Andrew Osayame Eweka; Abieyuwa Eweka; Om’Iniabohs, Ferdinard A.E.
Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24) of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8). The treatment groups (A & B) were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers’ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C) received equal amount of feeds (...
The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation
Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.
Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats / Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar
G, Asuntha; Y, Prasannaraju; D, Sujatha; KVSRG, Prasad.
Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, é conhecida pelo seu uso no controle e tratamento de uma variedade de distúrbios epilépticos no sistema indiano de medicina. O presente estudo pretende avaliar de forma sistemática T. purpurea e verificar essa alegação. Status epilepticus foi induzido em rato [...] s albinos machos da linhagem Wistar pela administração de pilocarpina (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h após o cloreto de lítio (3 mEq/kg, i.p.). Diferentes doses do extrato de T. purpurea foram administrados por via oral uma hora antes da injeção de pilocarpina. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi observada e registrada a cada 15 min até 90 min e, posteriormente, a cada 30 min até 180 min, utilizando um sistema de pontuação. A peroxidação lipídica in vivo do tecido cerebral de ratos foi avaliada. A atividade captadora de radicais livres do extrato da planta foi avaliada in vitro. A interação entre o extrato da planta e 2-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH) também foi observada in vitro para atividade sequestradora de radicais livres. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi reduzida com a administração do extrato etanólico da T. purpurea. Extrato etanólico da planta apresentou, tanto in vivo quanto in vitro atividade antioxidante. O extrato etanólico da T. purpurea parece ser útil no controle de lítio de status epilepticus induzido pela pilocarpina em ratos albinos da linhagem Wistar. Abstract in english Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats [...] of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.). Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min till 90 min and thereafter every 30 min till 180 min, using the scoring system. The in vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured. The in vitro NO free radical scavenging activity of plant extract was assessed. The interaction between plant extract and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was also observed for in vitro free radical scavenging activity. The severity of status epilepticus was reduced with the administration of ethanolic extract of T. purpurea. Ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea was found to be useful to control lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in albino rats of Wistar strain.
Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia
Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50Î¼g/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult