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Serrobiochemical Effects of Potassium Bromate on Wistar Albino Rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify the toxic effect of potassium bromate in Wistar albino rats. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group severed as control and the other four groups received potassium bromate orally at doses 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 3 days and those received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died on the 18th day post treatm...

Rehab Omer; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Elmahdi, B.

2008-01-01

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Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.

Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

2011-01-01

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Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

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Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. ed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

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Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats.  

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OBJECTIVES To investigate the effects of electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on serum testosterone levels in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This experimental interventional control study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period December 2006 to April 2008. A total of 34 male Albino rats [Wistar strain], 2 months of age, weighing 1...

Meo, Sultan A.; Al-drees, Abdul M.; Sufia Husain; Khan, Muhammad M.; Imran, Muhammad B.

2010-01-01

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Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill) on wistar albino rats.  

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Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill). Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different co...

Venkatesh R; Kalaivani K; Vidya R

2014-01-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

Anurag Payasi

2010-04-01

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Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

Uduak Akpan Okon

2014-06-01

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Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of leaves of Antidesma menasu on wistar albino rats  

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Background: Antidesma menasu is a folk plant of Euphorbiacae occurring in and around Udupi district in India. It is effectively used in folklore medicine for the management of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder and low backache. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the plant in Wistar albino rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of A. menasu were evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Wistar albino rats. Materials a...

Arun Prabhakar Sithara; Ravi M; Suma Mallya; Sudhakara; Sridhar Bairy; Srikanth P; Ravishankar

2013-01-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Tridham (TD), a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr) and subacute toxicity (28 days) and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies perfor...

Ravindran Jaganathan; Vijaya Ravinayagam; Sachdanandam Panchanadham; Shanthi Palanivelu

2012-01-01

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Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestock)in Wistar Albino Rat  

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An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India), was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were adm...

Ahmad, A. H.; Rekhe, D. S.; Ravikanth, K.; Maini, S.

2009-01-01

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Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Lens during Aging of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Aims: To correlate the age-related structural changes in lens with its contents of amino acids and minerals involved in its functional activity (sodium, calcium, magnesium and copper). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt, between June 2009 and July 2011. Methodology: One hundred male and female albino rats of the Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) aging 1, 6, 18, 30 & 42 months were used dur...

El-sayyad, H. I. H.; Khalifa, S. A.; El-sayyad, F. I.; Maylod, E. E.

2012-01-01

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Effect of Potassium Bromate on Liver and Blood Constituents of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Twenty four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups and treated orally with potassium bromate at doses of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 18 days. A significant reduction in Hb, PCV and MCHC values were observed in animals received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. in the second week while no changes occurred in the groups treated with 50 and 100 mg kg

Elmahdi, B.; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Rehab Omer

2008-01-01

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Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available FC Onwuka1, KC Patrick-I wuanyanwu1, CK Nnodu1, O Erhabor21Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAbstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D of experimental male wistar albino rats (n = 8 for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8 served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01 > B (0.18 ± 0.01 > C (0.14 ± 0.01 > D (0.10 ± 0.01. The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.Keywords: calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine, antireproductive, antihypertensive drugs, gonadal steroid, and low libido

FC Onwuka

2010-03-01

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Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30) Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6) study groups of five (5) rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated gr...

Dasofunjo Kayode; Ukpanukpong Richard Undigweundeye; Okwari Obem Obo; Okaba Emmanuel Ojim; Alagwu Emmanuel Ayoma

2014-01-01

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Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

Nedosa U. Anastasia

2012-01-01

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Hematobiochemical changes of lead Poisoning and amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263

Anjaneyulu Y.

2011-12-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD, a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr and subacute toxicity (28 days and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan

2012-08-01

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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

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Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

2010-01-01

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Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

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Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

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Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats  

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Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

Selvam, N. Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Dhamodharan, R.; Murugesan, S.; Kumar, S. Damodar

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn.) Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic...

Muthulingam, M.

2010-01-01

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Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

Venkatesh R

2014-07-01

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Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.  

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Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats. PMID:25204063

Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

2014-09-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

V. Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

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ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

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Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

A.J. Joshua

2008-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity of Turmeric and Garlic against 7-12, Dimethylbenzanthracene Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Aim: In present study the antioxidant activity of turmeric was studied in Wistar albino rats. Study design: The experimental animals were divided in to five groups each containing six animals. Group I served as normal control. All the other four groups, viz. II, III, IV and V were first challenged with7-12 Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Thereafter, group III, IV and V received Indole-3-Carbinol, turmeric and turmeric with garlic respect...

Singh Harmeet; Bedi P. S.; Singh B.

2011-01-01

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Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2013-11-01

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

Thamizh Selvam N

2011-11-01

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Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

A.H. Ahmad

2009-06-01

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GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

Khumanthem Deepak Singh

2011-02-01

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Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in Wistar albino rats.  

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Abstract Background: Acalypha wilkesiana (Euphorbiaceae) is highly accepted for traditional treatment of human plasmodiasis in Africa. Methods: The toxicological effects of the aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana were studied in 45 male and female Wistar albino rats. An acute toxicity testing was done using 21 rats divided into seven groups and LD50 determined. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the extract was administered orally over a period of 28 days to rats in three groups with doses of 400?mg?kg-1, 800?mg?kg-1 and 1,600?mg?kg-1, respectively, and the fourth group administered with water served as control. Blood samples were collected for hematological and serum biochemical analysis; organs of the animals were harvested for histopathological examination. Results: The acute toxicity testing showed that the extract was non-toxic at doses up to 3,000?mg?kg-1 and the LD50 was calculated to be 2,828.34?mg?kg-1. The study showed that at 1,600?mg?kg-1 dose, the extract caused a decrease in the level of neutrophils (NEUT) while lymphocytes (LYMP) were statistically significantly increased. The administration of the extract also resulted in varying significant dose dependent increase in the levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). There were also significant increases in the level of total protein (TP), urea (URN) and albumin (GLB) especially at 1,600?mg?kg-1 dosage. Histopathology showed that the extract caused mild to severe significant lesions that are dose dependent in the liver and kidney when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Prolonged administration of high dose of A. wilkesiana extract has tendency to cause organ toxicity. PMID:25390027

Olukunle, Johnny Olufemi; Jacobs, Eniope Bamidele; Ajayi, Olusola Lawrence; Biobaku, Khalid Talha; Abatan, Mathew Oluwole

2014-11-01

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Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5?mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60?mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

2013-01-01

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Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20?C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.

Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

2012-09-01

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Effect of Blood Leaf (Iresine herbstii Leaf Extract and Powder on the Biochemical Profile of Adult Male Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study assessed effect of Iresine herbstii leaf extract and powder on biochemical profile of adult male albino Wistar rats. Twenty adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups of five rats each were used for the study. All the animals received rat-chow and water ad-libitum. Group A was the control. Groups B, C and D received in addition, fresh leaf extract, shade-dried leaf extract and shade-dried leaf powder, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from the rats for lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 18. p<0.05 was accepted as level of significance. Serum AST was significantly (p<0.05 increased in rats fed fresh leaf extract. There was a significant (p<0.05 reduction in serum ALT of rats fed shade-dried leaf extract and powder. However, serum ALT of rats fed fresh leaf extract was significantly (p<0.05 increased. Serum ACP was significantly (p<0.05 increased in the three treatment groups. Serum creatinine was significantly (p<0.05 increased in rats fed fresh leaf extract. Rats fed shade-dried leaf powder showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in serum urea after treatment. Serum urea of rats fed fresh leaf extract was slightly reduced. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in total cholesterol of rats fed fresh leaf extract whereas rats fed shade-dried leaf powder showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in total cholesterol. Serum LDL-C of three treatment groups were increased. However, this was only significant (p<0.05 in rats fed shade-dried leaf extract.

E.U. Madukwe

2014-01-01

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ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Sudeep Kumar Patra

2012-08-01

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Aging-related changes of optic nerve of Wistar albino rats.  

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Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves an increase of oxidative stress associated with gradual degradation of the structure and function of the optic nerve. Gender differences and subsequent deterioration of optic nerve are an interesting topic, especially because there is little published work concerning it. One hundred male and female Wistar albino rats' with ages 1, 6, 18, 24, and 30 months (n?=?20 equal for male and female) were used. At the time interval, optic nerve was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), assessments of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase, and glutathione-S-transferase), caspase 3 and 7, malondialdhyde, flow cytometry of DNA, annexin v, and CD8, immunochemistry of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, and CD45, and single-strand DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the older specimens (24 and 30 months) revealed apparent deterioration of optic nerve axons, abundant oligodendrocytes with pyknotic nuclei, swollen astrocytes, angiogenesis, vacuolar degeneration, and mitochondrial damage. Females were highly susceptible to aging processes. Concomitantly, there was a marked reduction of antioxidant's enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation and apoptotic markers. Old age exhibited a marked increase of G1 apoptosis, UR and LR of annexin V and CD8 as well as increased immuno-positive reaction with VEGR, CD31 and CD45. We conclude that aging contributed to an increase of oxidative stress resulting from damage of mitochondria in axons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Age-related loss of optic nerve axons is associated with multifactorial agents including reduction in antioxidant enzymes, disruption of vasculature, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte, demyelination, and damage of mitochondria, which enhance the liberation of reactive oxygen species as assessed by an increase of apoptotic markers malondialdhyde and caspase 3 and 7. PMID:23996059

El-Sayyad, Hassan I H; Khalifa, Soad A; El-Sayyad, Fawkia I; Al-Gebaly, Asma S; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Mohammed, Ezaldin A M

2014-04-01

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Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orall...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

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Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lacta...

anil kashinath mali

2012-01-01

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Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.  

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The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Hematological Effects Following Ingestion of Allium cepa (Onion, Allium sativum Garlic and Treatment with Iodine in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the extent to which ingestion of Allium cepa (onion Allium sativum (garlic and treatment with iodine affect haematological parameters of albino Wistar rats. The effect on total hemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV%, red blood cells (RBC and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were carried out. Oral administration of onion and garlic extract led to a dose dependent decrease in the total haemoglobin level of normal rats which was not statistically significant (pAlliums on the haematological parameters but to consider fortification with nutrients while embarking on the various forms of fortification with iodine. This is of particular importance mainly in areas where nutritional anemia is a concern.

Aletan, Uduak I.

2014-01-01

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Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

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Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. PMID:22574295

Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Idowu, Thomas; Avwioro, Godwin; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Olatubosun, Luqman

2010-01-01

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Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Full Text Available Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non – lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides

anil kashinath mali

2012-07-01

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc. treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7 est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg par voie sous-cutanée (sc ou en association (10 mg/kg avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg. Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05 du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-12-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K

2011-03-01

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Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

Mirza Danish Baig

2014-04-01

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Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of leaves of Antidesma menasu on wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Antidesma menasu is a folk plant of Euphorbiacae occurring in and around Udupi district in India. It is effectively used in folklore medicine for the management of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder and low backache. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the plant in Wistar albino rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of A. menasu were evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods:Eddy’s hot plate test and radiant heat test were used for investigation of analgesic effect. Effect of extract on the acute inflammation was investigated on Carrageenan induced paw oedema, and chronic inflammation was investigated on cotton pellet induced granuloma tissue formation test. The test extract was subjected for preliminary phytochemical examination as per standard methodology. Results: The test drug found to inhibit the carrageenan induced paw oedema significantly (p ? 0.05 and there was moderate increase in the latency period in the analgesic test. The results suggest that the test group has high signifi-cant anti-inflammatory potential and there is moderate analgesic activity. The histopathological examination of adrenal cortex, spleen and thymus showed a normal cytoarchitecture comparable with that of normal control group. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of the plant A. menasu revealed the presence of flovanoids, saponins, steroids and phenols. Conclusion: The data obtained supports the traditional folklore therapeutic claim about its anti-inflammatory and anal-gesic activity. Further scientific investigation is required to establish its analgesic and anti-inflammatory property in other experimental models and clinical settings.

Arun Prabhakar Sithara

2013-12-01

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Antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of carvedilol and vitamin e protect against diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in diabetic wistar albino rats.  

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Carvedilol is a novel ?-adrenoreceptor blocker, with antioxidant properties inhibiting lipid peroxidation and preventing the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Moreover, carvedilol was reported to enhance the expression of Bcl-2 gene, which has antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. There are few researches testing the protective effect of carvedilol on the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, we induced diabetes mellitus in male Wistar albino rats. We investigated carvedilol, as well as vitamin E, administrated in healthy and diabetic rats for 6 weeks to compare their effects on biochemical parameters and the expression of Bcl-2 protein in both myocardial and renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The study showed that the diabetic rats not only had renal dysfunction and more myocardial damage, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2 protein. Carvedilol and vitamin E treatments were associated with better renal function and less myocardial damage, lower blood glucose, and lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant capacity, better serum lipids, and higher expression of Bcl-2 protein in diabetic rats. These results indicate that carvedilol and vitamin E treatments partly protect against myocardial and renal damage probably via their antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in diabetic rats. PMID:25105539

Abdel-Raheem, M H; Salim, S U; Mosad, E; Al-Rifaay, A; Salama, H S; Hasan-Ali, H

2015-02-01

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Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant increase when compared with the control. The treated groups also produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum LDL, VLDL and TG when compared with the control. Also, in female albino rats, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total cholesterol when compared with the control. Though the group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum HDL, a significant increase (P<0.05 was observed in groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C. The group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum LDL while groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C produced a significant (P<0.05 increase when compared with the control .Likewise, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum VLDL when compared with the control. The serum triglyceride in fansidar treated group was significantly(P<0.05 decreased in fansidar+ Vit.C treated group when compared with the control. Conclusion:The biochemical alterations and responses above from this study are indications that fansidar and Vitamin C exhibits a synergistic reaction which might aid hypocholesterolaemic effect or cholesterol clearing or lowering ability which can reduce the risk of predisposition to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular related disorders.

Dasofunjo Kayode

2014-10-01

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Glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. on alloxan induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in wistar albino rats  

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The study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. leaf on alloxan induced Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). Aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia tomentosa at the dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the diabetic animals. In this study, glycemic parameters, lipid parameters and serum enzymes were reduced whereas the level of high-density ...

Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Narmadha, R.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

2011-01-01

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Effect of Moringaoleifera leaf extract on cadmium induced renal toxicity in adult Wistar Albino rats  

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Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, a transitional metal, is an important industrial & environmental toxicant, adversely affecting various organs like liver, lungs, pancreas, testis, kidneys, etc., It has been found to cause a definitive oxidative stress on the kidneys of studied rats. Moringaoleifera, a perennial softwood herbal plant, having anti-oxidant, anti- inflammatory properties, etc., which has been advocated for centuries for its nutritional, medicinal & industrial uses, is most oftenlyused to combat toxicity of these materials.The present study was designed to find out the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Moringaoleiferaon kidney functions in cadmium exposed adult wistar rats. Four groups were allotted, with group I being the control. Pre-treatment with Moringaoleiferaleaf extract in cadmium exposed rats showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum urea&serum creatinine levels as compared to the cadmium alone treated rats. Therefore, the present study suggests that pre-treatment with Moringaoleiferaleaf extract improves the kidney functions which were affected by the toxic effect of cadmium. However, further investigations are needed to know the detailed mechanisms triggering these effects.

Pratik Kumar Chatterjee

2013-07-01

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Influence of L-arginine on the Heart Histology and Function Markers of Metabolic Syndrome in Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available High blood pressure (a condition associated with vascular constriction is a major feature of metabolic syndrome (MES. MES, a constellation of metabolic disorders, is prevalently higher in females and was associated with a reduced concentration of a vasodilator molecule, Nitric Oxide (NO. L-arginine (ARG, a precursor of NO may improve MES, warranting this study. Two groups (n = 8 of female Wistar albino rats were (per orally for twenty eight days exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, DW, respectively as treated and control groups. Significant differences in means were separated by student’s t-test (p+ concentration (136.42±1.66 mmol L-1; 6.54%, but a non-significant decrease (p>0.05 in potassium ion (K+ concentration (4.54±0.66 mmol L-1; 14.01% in the rats’ serum, suggesting improved/reduced blood pressure. ARG treatment in the rats had a significant increase (p-1; 196.43% in the rats’ serum, indicating adverse influence on high metabolic organs, including the brain. Sodium ion had a significant negative correlation (r = 0.01 with potassium ion, whereas the heart histomorphology revealed degenerations in the ARG-fed rats, apparently confirming the observations and suggestions thereto. Thus, ARG may improve blood pressure in the rats, perhaps at the expense of compromised heart function and histology of the rats. These may be pointing to a new arginine phenomenon, hence warrant follow up.

Lawrence U.S. Ezeanyika

2013-01-01

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1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn. Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were observed. Histological observation of pancreas also studied. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to alloxan treated rats showed significantly decrease in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, where as plasma insulin, hemoglobin, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly increased. Histopathological observation of pancreas reverses the trends towards normalcy. Hence, it can be concluded that Asteracantha longifolia leaf extracts may be prove to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to increase insulin secretion and enhance the antioxidant activity.

M. Muthulingam

2010-04-01

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Wound healing activity of Origanum vulgare engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Wistar Albino rats.  

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The titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2·NPs) were synthesized utilizing Origanum vulgare under room temperature. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs excitation was confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 320 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed TiO2·NPs are spherical in shape and connected with one another. Dynamic light scattering analysis results specified high stability in nanoparticles, with an average particle size of 341 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks revealed the presence of bioactive functional groups in Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract much needed for the TiO2·NPs formation. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the TiO2·NPs are amorphous in nature. Furthermore, the green synthesized TiO2·NPs wound healing activity was examined in the excision wound model by measuring wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling, revealed significant wound healing activity in Albino rats. In conclusion, our results bared TiO2·NPs have delivered a novel therapeutic route for wound treatment in clinical practice. PMID:24682905

Sankar, Renu; Dhivya, Ravishankar; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-07-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

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KETAMINE AS A SINGLE GENERAL ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

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Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946.  Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.

Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan

2013-07-01

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Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

K. Konaté

2011-02-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of ...

Tamta, A.; Chaudhary, M.; Sehgal, R.

2010-01-01

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Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers...

Igile Godwin, O.; Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Mgbeje, B. I. A.

2013-01-01

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CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
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Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

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Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.  

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The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection. PMID:25420715

Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

2014-11-25

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Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats  

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Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

2012-01-01

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The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which abelongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

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Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats  

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Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

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Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat  

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Objective(s): Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract (SAE) on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated.

Bathaie, S. Zahra; Miri, Hamidreza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-ali; Mokhtari- Dizaji, Manijeh; Shahbazfar, Amir-ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi

2013-01-01

67

Aluminum chloride impacts dentate gyrus structure in male adult albino Wistar rats.  

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To get better insights into the aluminum neurotoxicity, rats were treated with AlCl3 for increasing doses and periods. Body and brain weights, plasma and brain AlCl3 levels were assayed. Light microscopy observation of brain was performed. AlCl3 exposure showed a significant decrease (p 0.05) while, significant correlation was observed during 12 (? = 0.836; p exposure. PMID:25438704

Hichem, Nadia; El May, Michèle; Ladhari, Nizar; Mrabet, Ali; Gharbi, Rafik

2014-12-01

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High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI, latency period (LP, and tumor multiplicity (TM were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05 induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group.Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions.

Mahboobeh Ashrafi

2012-01-01

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High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats  

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Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI), latency period (LP), and tumor multiplicity (TM) were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05) induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group. Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions. PMID:23508728

Ashrafi, Mahboobeh; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Abroun, Saeid

2012-01-01

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ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01 and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05 respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

Rao S.N

2013-04-01

71

Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Soldier Ant (Dorylus spp Meal in Partial Replacement for Fishmeal on Some Haematological, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Wistar Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and toxic effects of soldier ant meal as a supplement for fishmeal on some haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of wistar albino rats. Thirty rats aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments (T in a complete randomized design with six rats per treatment. The rats were fed with diets containing 0% (T1 (Control, 25 % (T2, 50 % (T3, 75 % (T4 and 100% (T5 soldier ant meal. The experimental diets and drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of three weeks. There were significant reduction (p<0.05 among T2, T3, T4 and T5 for red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb , mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC compared to the control treatment T1. Also, significant increase in the white blood cell count (WBC of the treated rats compared to the control treatment was observed. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the biochemical parameters among the treatments and enzymological study showed significant (p<0.05 increase in the activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in the liver and muscle of T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to the control treatment. It can be concluded that soldier ant meal has adverse effects on the haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of rats.

Odejayi A.O.

2013-10-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

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Effect of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on White Blood Cells and Differential Leucocytic Count in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica on white blood cell and differential leucocytic counts in wistar albino rats was evaluated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica collected were ground into fine powder, extracted by reflux method and subjected to phytochemical screening for biochemical principles. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, Terpenes and Terpinoids. The elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration. The amount of zinc and silicon were low whereas, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead were negligible. The crude mesocarp extract administered at the dosages of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (pHyphaene thebaica in the management of parasitic and viral infections in North eastern region of Nigeria.

Amina Ibrahim

2012-01-01

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Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.  

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Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230?±?0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819?±?1.539?µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

2013-06-01

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Biochemical and Histologic Effect of Dietary Substitution with Solvent Extracted Neem Seed Cake of Albino Rats (wistar strain)  

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The performance of 20 albio rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks was investigated by feeding neem seedcake (NSC) after treatment with solvents. Group 1 and those of group II and III were fed experimental dietscontaining water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol processed neem seed cake respectively as a replacement forsoya bean for a period of 28days. Replacement of soya bean by water processed neem seed depressed thegrowth at the end of 4th week while for the other solvent processing 4th week was a p...

James, D. B.

2009-01-01

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Hepatoprotective effect of Cocculus hirsutus on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in Albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.

Sagar P. Thakare, Hitesh N. Jain, Savita D. Patil and Umesh M. Upadhyay

2009-12-01

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Haematological and histopathological effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar female albino rats.  

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In this study, it is aimed to determine the histopathological and haematological effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin on Wistar immature female rats using Tier 2 of the uterotrophic assay. The female rats were divided into 17 groups with 6 rats in each group. There was a negative control group and positive control dose groups that contained 0.07 µg/kg/day, 0.7 µg/kg/day and 7 µg/kg/day of ethinyl estradiol (EE), 0.7 µg/kg/day 17?-ethinyl estradiol + 1 mg/kg/day tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups contain 1 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day of apigenin, myricetin and phloretin. All chemicals had been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for three consecutive days. At the end of the study, blood samples were analysed for haematological parameters. Tissue samples that were taken from the liver, kidney, spleen and thyroid were histopathologically and histomorphometrically examined. There were no significant differences between oil control and other dose groups for glomerular histomorphometry. However, there were siginificant differences for thyroid histomorphometry. Especially, 10 and 100 mg/kg/day of phloretin dose groups had a siginificant increase in colloid surface area in thyroid compared with the 1 mg/kg/day of phloretin and oil control groups. Significant histopathological changes (congestion, degeneration, fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration) were noted in the tissue specimens obtained from the treatment groups compared with the control group. According to the results of the haematological analysis of the groups, especially the values of erythrocytes and haematocrit were increased significantly in most of the dose groups according to the oil control group. PMID:25378093

Barlas, N; Karabulut, G

2014-11-01

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Adverse effects on cardiovascular status and lipid levels of albino Wistar rats treated with cisplatin and oxaliplatin in combination with 5 Fluorouracil.  

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The study was designed to comparatively assess direct damages on cardiac tissues and aorta associated with abnormalities in lipid profile and cardiac biomarkers induced by two platinum cytotoxic compounds with and without 5FU (5Fluorouracil) in rats. Albino Wistar rats were treated with 5FU (15mg/kg), cisplatin (0.8mg/kg) and oxaliplatin (0.8mg/kg) in different dosing schedules. The changes in the lipid levels, CPK and Tropinin I levels, following treatment with single and combination schedules of CDDP, 5FU and Oxaliplatin were compared with the control group maintained on normal saline. Changes in LDL and cholesterol levels were highly significant in cisplatin and oxaliplatin treated rats. Myofibrillar loss and vascular wall thickening was seen in cisplatin treatment groups in the acute model of toxicity. The damages were mild but progressive. Tropinin I levels were raised well above diagnostic risk levels in the delayed model of toxicity in the rats treated with oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU, indicative of definite cardiotoxic potential of oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU mimicking the FOLFOX regimen. PMID:25176229

Najam, Rahila; Bano, Nusrat; Mirza, Talat; Hassan, Saba

2014-09-01

79

Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.  

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Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 ?g (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature. PMID:23955305

Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

2013-11-01

80

Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (?0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory cells, congested vessel and interstitial hemorrhage in rats treated with Solignum®. Therefore, this present study is aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potentials associated with sub-chronic exposure to the commercial pesticide Solignum®.

Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
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JATROPHA MULTIFIDA LINN (EUPHORBIACEAE : EXPLORATION DES PROPRIETES ANTIBACTERIENNES ET DU POUVOIR CICATRISANT DE LA SEVE DE CETTE PLANTE CHEZ LE RAT ALBINOS DE SOUCHE WISTAR  

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Full Text Available Jatropha multifida Linn is a plant used in traditional medicine in the treatment of certain diseases or skin troubles in Republic of the Benin. In this study, the sap of the plant was used to evaluate its healing and antimicrobial activities.With this intention, the antimicrobic activity of the sap carried out starting from the method of dilution in solid medium was evaluated on two germs of references: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The results showed that J multifida has a very strong inhibiting activity on the growth of S. aureus (nearly 100% with one CMI equal to 20mg/ml and an average inhibition on the growth of E coli. The healing activity of the sap was required on the wounds (wound of excision of size 2,25cm2 carried out in the albino rat Wistar. The results indicated that at the end of 19 days of treatment (once every 48 hours, the wounds of the rats of the treated batch were healed to 99% compared to those of the batch untreated and being used as witness of which the percentage of retraction of the wounds is 43% at the same stage.

J.R. KLOTOE

2015-01-01

82

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

83

Uridine modulates neuronal activity and inhibits spike-wave discharges of absence epileptic Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk rats.  

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Pharmacological and functional data suggest the existence of uridine (Urd) receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, simultaneous extracellular single unit recording and microiontophoretic injection of the pyrimidine nucleoside Urd was used to provide evidence for the presence of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex of Long Evans rats. Twenty-two neurons in the thalamus (24% of recorded neurons) and 17 neurons in the cortex (55%) responded to the direct iontophoresis of Urd. The majority of Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and cortex (82% and 59%, respectively) increased their firing rate in response to Urd. In contrary, adenosine (Ado) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) decreased the firing rate of all responding neurons in the thalamus, and the majority of responding neurons in the cortex (83% and 87%, respectively). Functional relevance of Urd-sensitive neurons was investigated in spontaneously epileptic freely moving Long Evans and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 500mg/kg Urd decreased epileptic activity (210-270min after injection) in both rat strains. Intraperitoneal administration of 1000mg/kg Urd decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) between 150-270min and 90-270min in Long Evans and WAG/Rij rats, respectively. The effect of Urd was long-lasting in both rat strains as the higher dose significantly decreased the number of SWDs even 24h after Urd injection. The present results suggest that Urd-sensitive neurons in the thalamus and the cerebral cortex may play a role in the antiepileptic action of Urd possibly via modulation of thalamocortical neuronal circuits. PMID:23707857

Kovács, Zsolt; Slézia, Andrea; Bali, Zsolt Kristóf; Kovács, Péter; Dobolyi, Arpád; Szikra, Tamás; Hernádi, István; Juhász, Gábor

2013-08-01

84

Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica pod revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate and glycosides are present, while anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were absent, the fractionated pod extracts showed ...

Fatima Abba Lawan; Amina Ibrahim; Kyari Abba Sanda; Ismail Alhaji Mairiga; Abdullahi Shuaibu; Sanni Saka; Mohammed Shaibu Auwal; Ahmad Bello Thaluvwa; Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi

2013-01-01

85

Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

Chandrashekar R.

2013-06-01

86

ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM) had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 val...

Nagar Ashish; Kumar Ashok; Gullaiya Sumeet; Singh Varun; Dubey Vishal; Srinivasan B. P.

2013-01-01

87

Sub-acute Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius Root on Some Physiologically Important Electrolytes in Serum of Normal Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯ were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p>0.05, for A, D and E but significant (p2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p0.05. Decreases (p0.05 for A and B were observed for Cl¯. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C, with test group B showing a significant decrease (pSarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant.

V.H.A. Enemor

2013-01-01

88

Sub-acute effects of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius root on some physiologically important electrolytes in serum of normal Wistar albino rats.  

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Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p 0.05). Decreases (p 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p < 0.05). From the analysis, it could be concluded that Sarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant. PMID:24506054

Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C

2013-12-01

89

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count...

Shini Dominic; Padmaja V

2013-01-01

90

Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Indian Medicinal Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden Shower in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula Linn. (ELE in experimental rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma models, while the antipyretic effect was evaluated using against TAB vaccine induced pyrexia. Various doses of ELE (50, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg kg-1b.wt., were tested for its anti-inflammatory effect and the results were compared with standard drugs (diclofenac and indomethacin. Results indicate that the ELE significantly inhibited both the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and cotton-pellet granuloma in a dose dependant manner. ELE at 250 and 500 mg kg-1b.wt., reduced TAB vaccine induced pyrexia in rats after 60 min, whereas at 750 mg kg-1b.wt., it reduced the vaccine induced elevated body temperature post 30 min of its administration. The results suggest that there exists a potential benefit in utilizing Cassia fistula Linn. in treating conditions associated with inflammation and fever. These properties can be attributed to the presence of phyto constituents present in ELE and the exact mechanism needs to be elucidated.

C.V.R. Mohan

2010-01-01

91

ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 values (27.12, 13.13 and 7.32 µM, respectively were identified by plotting cumulative concentration response curve and pD2 values (4.48 ± 0.99, 6.06 ± 1.03 and 7.41 ± 0.97, respectively were calculated for individual alcoholic extract of plant. All extracts were able to relax carbachol pre-contracted tracheas significantly in a concentration dependent manner. Our results suggested potential role of Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa in asthma for further potential therapeutic and clinical uses.

Nagar Ashish

2013-07-01

92

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of a...

Ayfer Aktas; Serhan Tasdemir, M.; Cudi Tuncer, M.; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hüsnü Alper Bagriyanik

2011-01-01

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A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats  

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The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

94

Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.

Al-Rejaie Salim

2012-03-01

95

Effect of bilateral vasectomy on testicular metabolism in albino rats.  

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The adult Wistar strain albino rats were vasectomised by conventional method and maintained for six months. The vasectomized rat testis had elevated water content with depleted dry matter. Glycogen content was increased with indication of mobilization of hexoses into HMP pathway. The vasectomized rat testis showed preferential utilisation of triglycerides. In view of increased 3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activities, accelerated androgenesis was envisaged in vasectomized rat testis. PMID:6574106

Geethanjali, N; Reddy, K V; Reddy, G V; Govindappa, S

1983-01-01

96

Histopathological studies on the effect of bacteriocin producing Bacillus cereus isolate from ‘wara’ a local soft cheese on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs of Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aims: This study was done to generate a baseline data on the effect of Bacillus cereus and its bacteriocin on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs in both sexes at different concentration.Methodology and results: B. cereus and its bacteriocin were injected intramuscularly in male and female Wistar rats at doses equivalent to 102 CFU and 104 CFU dilutions. Body weights were also noted. The liver, kidney and reproductive organs of the animals were examined for histopathological changes. The liver of female rats administered B. cereus at 102 CFU showed portal and cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, diffuse hydropic degeneration and severe interstitial hemorrhages of the kidney was observed when 104 CFU of B. cereus was given. Male rats administered 102 CFU and 104 CFU of B. cereus showed diffuse hydropic degeneration and portal congestion of the liver while at 104 CFU the kidney showed diffuse, moderate interstitial cellular infiltration. This is more evident in the wistar rats administered with bacilli organism than the groups that received the bacteriocin. The reproductive organs of treated animals showed no pathological lesions. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups.Conclusion, significance and impact study: The absence of observable toxic effects of the bacteriocin of B. cereus on the sex organs, is not sufficient to determine the safety of this bacteriocin since pathological lesions were observed in the liver and kidney. We hereby suggest a further study on characterization and purification of this bacteriocin as a biopreservative in items not meant for human use or consumption.

Anyanwu, C.

2013-01-01

97

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.  

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Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

98

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

99

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

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The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built en...

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modlin?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

100

Hepatoprotective Effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia clappertoniana and Negro Pepper (Xylopia aethiopica in CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana. Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in CCl4 -treated rats only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana when compared to those administered CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in rats administered CCl4 alone. Histopathological examinations of rats administered CCl4 alone revealed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. These findings suggest that X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana may be protective against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats.

M.O. Wegwu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

102

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

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The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested. (orig.)

103

Nigerian bonny-light crude oil induces alteration in testicular stress response proteins and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in albino wistar rats.  

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In the past few decades, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and Crude Oil in particular around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where all the crude Oil exploration is taking place. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by BLCO is not well known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to BLCO. Experimental rats were divided into five groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL, NF-kB and TNF-? were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptotis- related proteins as early as 6 h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of the proteins were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of BLCO. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 242-252, 2015. PMID:24106129

Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; D'Cruz, Cynthia S; Jubendradass, R; Amala Rani, Judith S; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2015-02-01

104

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

O.J. Olorunfemi

2012-04-01

105

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA.LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS.  

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Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hapatoprotective activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn (SHE against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 inducd hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the determination of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin. Histopathological studies were carried out.The serum biochemical analysis results suggest that the use of Ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model. Histopathological studies revealed that concurrent administration of the extract with CCl4 exhibited protective effect on the liver, which further evidenced its hepatoprotective activity.

M.Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

106

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control. Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group, A2 (0.5-mg group and A3 (1-mg group group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control. Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg, A2 (0,5 mg y A3 (1 mg fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal.

Ayfer Aktas

2011-03-01

107

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study / Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal. Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvas [...] tatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.

Ayfer, Aktas; M, Serhan Tasdemir; M, Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf, Nergiz; Murat, Akkus; Hüsnü Alper, Bagriyanik.

2011-03-01

108

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

109

Tissue lipid profiles in orchiectomized albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral orchiectomy has been performed in adult albino rats and tissue lipid profiles were compared with the controls. Both the reproductive and non-reproductive tissues and serum accumulated lipid with suppressed lipolysis on orchiectomy. The levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were elevated in all the tissues of orchiectomized rats. The phospholipid content of epididymis was significantly depleted, while the same was elevated in non-reproductive tissues. PMID:7106959

Reddy, G V; Reddanna, P; Govindappa, S

1982-01-01

110

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS ...

Sengupta Parama; Bagchi Chiranjib; Sharma Abhishek; Majumdar G; Dutta C; Tripathi Santanu

2010-01-01

111

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP) in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by admini...

Prathibhakumari P.V.; Prasad, G.

2013-01-01

112

Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

Ghezzi Ana

2012-04-01

113

Regulation of estrous cycle in hysterectomized albino rats by activation of follicular development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wistar strain albino rats were hysterectomized and the estrous cycle was compared with sham operated controls. Duration of estrous cycle in hysterectomized rats increased markedly with significant delay in the luteal phase and this was correlated to the inhibited follicular development of ovary. When these rats were treated with PGF2 alpha and PMSG and subjected to physical exercises, the estrous cycle was synchronised and the ovaries of such animals had active follicular development. Thus the deranged operation of sexual cycle in hysterectomized rats was regulated through physical exercises. PMID:1478712

Devi, G U; Changamma, C; Govindappa, S

1992-09-01

114

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters w...

Moustafa, Wagieh K. Baiomy Abdel-mawgood Anas Mamdooh Ghaly Ashraf M.

2009-01-01

115

Toxicological evaluation of Panchakola Avaleha, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, in albino rats  

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The present study was carried out to assess the safety of standardized Panchakola Avaleha on albino rats (Wistar strain). Animals were administered three doses of Panchakola Avaleha by oral routes, viz. higher (500 mg/kg/day), middle (250 mg/kg/day), and therapeutic dose (50 mg/ kg/ day) for 28 consecutive days. Effects of the test drug on hematological, biochemical, and histopathologic parameters were evaluated. This study revealed normal behavior, no mortality, and no significant changes in...

Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Banerjee, Rita; Upadhyay, Sachhidananda; Mitra, Achintya; Hazra, Jayram

2012-01-01

116

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

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Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in ...

Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

2010-01-01

117

DIURESIS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF POLYHERBALS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.

Naikwade Nilofar S

2011-06-01

118

Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes  

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Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

2014-09-01

119

Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.  

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Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between a...

Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

1982-01-01

120

Origins of Albino and Hooded Rats: Implications from Molecular Genetic Analysis across Modern Laboratory Rat Strains  

Science.gov (United States)

Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (hi) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats. PMID:22916206

Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Hematological and blood glucose alterations in Wistar rats with acute chagasic infection during gestation].  

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Abstract. The present study examined hematological alterations and blood glucose levels variations in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with acute chagasic infection during gestation. Blood samples were taken from A, B, C and D groups of rats at 0, 6, 12 and 20 days after impregnation for hematological diagnosis and glycemia tests. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant changes (p blood glucose levels. A differential count of monocytes (M) and eosinophils (E) showed no significant variations from normal levels. These changes represent important hematological and glycemia alterations, such as mild and moderate anemia, pronounced leukocytosis, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia and hypoglycemia. Finally, there is a discussion of some factors in acute chagasic infection in Wistar rats that might be augmented by parallel physiological effects produced by pregnancy. PMID:17598642

Moreno, Elio A; Araujo, María A; Alarcón, Marítza E; Lugo, Ana; Moreno, Stelliana C; Borges, Rafael

2007-06-01

122

Regulation of hysterectomy induced derangements in ovarian carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats. II. Role of prostaglandin F2 alpha.  

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Wistar strain albino rats were subjected to bilateral hysterectomy surgically and the ovarian carbohydrate metabolism of these animals was compared with sham operated controls. The ovarian glycogen content of hysterectomized animals was elevated with inhibition of glycogenolysis, hexose mono and diphosphate pathways and oxidative metabolism. Administration of PGF2 alpha to hysterectomized animals led to activation of ovarian glycogenolysis and other pathways of carbohydrate metabolism of hysterectomized animals was restored towards normal level after PGF2 alpha substitution. PMID:1816086

Umadevi, G; Changamma, C; Govindappa, S

1991-11-01

123

Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

Bahrami?, S.,

2014-05-01

124

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

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The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were rela...

Thiago de Oliveira Assis; José Candido de Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia

2010-01-01

125

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

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The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of sper...

Sakr S.A.; Azab A.E.

2001-01-01

126

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly whe...

Dhanapal. R; Babitha. J; Kandeepan. S; Murugaian. P

2013-01-01

127

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar)  

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The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain) was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c) injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg) was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001) weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (...

SAGAR DAWADA; VARSHA ZADE; DINESH DABHADKAR; SHITAL PARE

2012-01-01

128

4. Effect of intraperitoneal administration of Ghrelin hormone in testis of immature and mature male albino rats to study histoarchitecture  

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Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the testis of immature and mature wistar strain male albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of Ghrelin hormone. Eighteen immature male albino rats (45-55 days old and eighteen mature male albino rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (two doses as lower dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of Ghrelin. The experimental animals were injected with Ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of testes were measured .The testes were fixed in10% buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of testis was studied. Results: Administration of Ghrelin significantly affected the terminal stages of spermatogenesis in a dose dependent manner. Well defined changes like interstitial edema, reduction in number of Sertoli cells were seen in the testis of animals of optimum dose when compared with other two groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight of treated animals. In mature group significant increase in testis weight of optimum dose was seen when compared with other two groups Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that Ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the testis of albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and fertility.

P. Anand

2012-06-01

129

Clastogenic effects of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi mixed infection in bone marrow of Wistar rats.  

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The clastogenic effect of mixed infection of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the bone marrow (BM) cells of Wistar albino rats was investigated. Clastogenic effects were observed in the BM cells using the micronucleus assay. The findings indicate that T. evansi, T. b. brucei and mixed infection with both parasites induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCEs) in the BM cells significantly (P?trypanosomiasis. PMID:25458504

Habila, Nathan; Muhammad, Aliyu; Ndidi, Uche S; Chechet, Gloria D; Aimola, Idowu A; Olalekan, Bello A

2014-10-16

130

Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24 albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8 weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4 experimental groups (n = 6. Group I (Control rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group II ( diabetic rats received 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group III (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola and 1mL of 5% ethanol and Group IV, (Diabetic rats received 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola, 1 mL of 5% ethanol and 1 mL of honey.The extracts were administered twice daily for four (4 weeks. The blood glucose level and Lipid profile was analysed. The results shows that Garcinia kola has a significant (p<0.05 hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 decreased the level of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Triglyceride (TG and significantly (p<0.05 increase in the level of High density lipoprotein compared with the diabetic non-treated group. These findings if applied can be of help in the management of diabetic patients.

E.K. Nwangwa

2012-04-01

131

Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.  

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Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats. PMID:17889041

Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

2008-01-28

132

Stimulus Processing and Associative Learning in Wistar and WKHA Rats  

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This study assessed basic learning and attention abilities in WKHA (Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive) rats using appetitive conditioning preparations. Two measures of conditioned responding to a visual stimulus, orienting behavior (rearing on the hindlegs) and food cup behavior (placing the head inside the recessed food cup) were measured. In Experiment 1, simple conditioning but not extinction was impaired in WKHA rats compared to Wistar rats. In Experiment 2, non-reinforced presentations of the vis...

Chess, Amy C.; Keene, Christopher S.; Wyzik, Elizabeth C.; Bucci, David J.

2005-01-01

133

Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

C. N. Santhosh Kumar

2013-10-01

134

TO INVESTIGATE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM. SEED EXTRACT ON PARACETAMOL AND D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.  

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Hepatoprotective activity of 95% methanolic extract was investigated against D-Galactosamine  and paracetamol  induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Silymarin was used as the reference standard at 50mg/kg orally and it showed effect in both the hepatotoxicity models. Rats were divided in 5 groups each group contains 6 animals. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total). In histopathol...

HITESHKUMAR BHOGILAL PARMAR

2012-01-01

135

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of spermatogenesis in the rats through suppression of testicular androgenic activity.

Sakr S.A.

2001-01-01

136

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water. Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01 at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01 at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01 at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01. The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji

2005-01-01

137

Origins of Albino and Hooded Rats: Implications from Molecular Genetic Analysis across Modern Laboratory Rat Strains  

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Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ?460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for t...

Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

2012-01-01

138

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats  

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The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this...

Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

2010-01-01

139

Renal Lesions Induced by Pyrethroid Inhalation in Albino Rats  

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The effect of pyrethroid inhalation was studied on the kidney of Albino rats. The results revealed that animals inhaled tetramethrin for 15 days showed a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histological examination of the kidney of treated animals indicated marked symptoms of renal tissues impairment. The renal tubules lost their characteristic appearance and their linning epithelial cells appeared with cytoplasmic vacuolation. The glomeruli were degenerated and ...

Sakr, S. A.; Mahran, H. A.; Okdah, Y. A.

2001-01-01

140

Normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage in wistar rat  

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The biochemical indicators of wistar rat under low oxygen concentration, such as brain water content, necrosis, lactic acid and Na+-K+-ATPase, was detected to evaluate normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage and to investigate the mechanism of wistar rat brain injury. Histopathological changes in brain tissue induced by hypoxia were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1?) expression in brain was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The results ...

Ding-Yu Hu; Qin Li; Bo Li; Rong-Ji Dai; Li-Na Geng; Yu-Lin Deng

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R

2013-01-01

142

Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day...

Anastasia, Utoh-nedosa U.; Stanislaus, Nedosa K.; Kenneth, Onyedibe I.

2011-01-01

143

ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.

Lokesh K. Verma

2012-07-01

144

Megakaryocyte and platelet ultrastructure in the Wistar Furth rat.  

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Wistar Furth (WF) rats were studied and compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to determine if ultrastructural abnormalities in platelets or megakaryocytes could explain their macrothrombocytopenia. WF rats had one third of the platelet count of healthy rats and two times the platelet volume. Megakaryocyte number was decreased and the size of mature stage three megakaryocytes also was decreased. WF platelets had large membranous inclusions, and otherwise showed normal ultrastructural morpholo...

Leven, R. M.; Tablin, F.

1988-01-01

145

The effects of cyfluthrin on some biomarkers in the liver and kidney of Wistar rats.  

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Pesticides can cause oxidative stress resulting to deleterious effects in animal metabolisms. Cyfluthrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide to protect crops and to eliminate pests. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cyfluthrin on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the liver and kidney of Wistar Albino Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) following intraperitoneal treatment of cyfluthrin (1.2, 12, and 120 mg/kg b.w./day) for 21 days. Comparisons were made with two control solutions named as serum physiologic and solvent in which cyfluthrin was dissolved. CAT activity in the liver and kidney of rats did not change after the lowest cyfluthrin treatment, while its activity significantly decreased at the higher doses. In general, cyfluthrin significantly decreased the activity of GPx in the liver and kidney at all doses, while MDA levels in the liver increased at all doses. Cyfluthrin significantly decreased AChE activity in the liver of rats at all doses, while this was true at the highest dose for the kidney. This study showed that the studied biomarkers were effective in determining the toxic effects of cyfluthrin. Thus, they should be used to monitor pesticide-affected areas before untargeted animals, including humans who suffer from the use of pesticides. PMID:25339534

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Canli, Mustafa

2014-10-24

146

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

147

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw) of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatmen...

Fouad A F Ali, Ali A. Abdel Rahman And Ashraf M. Moustafa

2001-01-01

148

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE) in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the...

Singh, Aruna K.; Verma, Lokesh K.; Pachade, Vaibhav R.; Koley, K. M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.

2014-01-01

149

Renal Lesions Induced by Pyrethroid Inhalation in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of pyrethroid inhalation was studied on the kidney of Albino rats. The results revealed that animals inhaled tetramethrin for 15 days showed a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histological examination of the kidney of treated animals indicated marked symptoms of renal tissues impairment. The renal tubules lost their characteristic appearance and their linning epithelial cells appeared with cytoplasmic vacuolation. The glomeruli were degenerated and the renal blood vessels were congested. The intertubular spaces were infiltrated by inflammatory leucocytic cells. The magnitude of these changes was time-dependent, being more prominent after 15 days of treatment.

S. A. Sakr

2001-01-01

150

Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.

K. Zaman

2012-01-01

151

Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 d [...] ays), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

L.E., Drumond; C., Kushmerick; P.A.M., Guidine; M.C., Doretto; M.F.D., Moraes; A.R., Massensini.

1054-10-01

152

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

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Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum hepatic markers namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and increased plasma and hepatic lipid peroxidation indices (TBARS and hydroperoxide). The present finding shows that the levels of enzymatic antioxidants namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in OXT intoxicated rats. Upon oral administration of caffeic acid (40 mg/kg body weight/day) there were decreased hepatic marker activities, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation and increased enzymatic antioxidants in OXT + Caffeic acid group compared to Normal + OXT group(P < 0.05). Our study suggests that caffeic acid has antioxidant property and hepatoprotective ability against OXT induced toxicity. PMID:21966107

Jayanthi, R.

2010-01-01

153

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult wistar kyoto rats  

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OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ...

Valenti, Vitor E.; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Caio Imaizumi; Márcio Petenusso; Celso Ferreira

2010-01-01

154

Behavioural Enpoints of Adult Wistar Rats, Following Aluminium Chloride Exposure  

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Full Text Available Aluminium is a ubiquitous element and the third most abundant element in the earth's crust, comprising approximately 8% of the earth’s crust, exceeded only by oxygen (47% and silicon (28%.The elemental aluminium does not occur in its pure state but is always combined with other elements such as chloride, hydroxide, silicate, sulphate and phosphate. Patients on dialysis or on long-term treatment with total parenteral nutrition have been shown to accumulate this metal in different organs. The Morris Water Maze (MWM was described as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory as well as tools in behavioural neuroscience. The objective of this study was to determine the behavioural endpoints of wistar rats, following the aluminium chloride exposure. Total of thirty wistar rats were used in this study. The wistar rats were divided into five groups; group I was the control, group II received 475 mg/kg, group III received 950 mg/kg, group IV received 1,425 mg/kg and group V received 1,900 mg/kg via oral intubation for a duration of Eight weeks.MWM was used to test for the behaviour of the wistar rats. We observed that at the first run, the wistar rats were trying to learn task; the second and third runs rather showed that wistar rats in the control group get to the platform faster (performed the task better than the treated groups and the difference observed was significant at p<0.05.We therefore conclude that Aluminium chloride exposure has negative effects on behavioural endpoints and can impair learning and memory.

A.A. Buraimoh

2011-11-01

155

Toxicity of Sumithion in Albino Rats: Hematological and Biochemical Studies  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that the haemotocrite value, number of leucocytes (WBCs as well as the lymphocytes percentage were significantly increased in treated animals The platelets were significantly decreased. The results also showed that serum total protein was decreased while triglycerides showed insignificant increase in comparison with control. Cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased after 12 days of treatment. Histological examination of kidney of treated rats revealed impairment of the renal tissues.

Zuhair Y. Al. Sahhaf

2006-01-01

156

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

157

The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

Hasan Kýlýçgün

2013-03-01

158

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

Anbalagan, T.

2009-01-01

159

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi

2012-01-01

160

Effect of Splenectomy on PTZ Induced Epilepsy in Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Introduction:. With regard to the interactions between brain and spleen, in this research, the effect of splenectomy on PTZ-induced epilepsy in Wistar rats was studied Methods:. In this study, 48 male and female wistar rats were used in 3 groups. Experimental groups for each of the two sexes included the negative control, positive control and splenectomy. Negative controls did not undergo surgery. The incision was created in the positive control group, but the spleen was not removed. The spleen was removed in splenectomy group. After seven days, PTZ was injected and the ?initiation time of different convulsive stages in terms of seconds and score of seizures in the three groups with the same gender were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results:. Second stage of convulsive seizures in the splenectomy group of male rats in comparison with control groups decreased significantly. Fourth stage of seizure in female splenectomized rats in comparison with negative control group decreased significantly. Also score terms of seizures in both male and female rats were not significantly different in the three groups.. Conclusion: Splenectomy intensifies PTZ-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

Keivan Keramati

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Gallic Acid Protects Against Immobilization Stress-Induced Changes In Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Stress triggers a wide range of body changes. Herbal medicines are rich in non specific antistress agents.Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antistress effect of gallic acid (GA, a naturally occurring plant phenol, on immobilization induced-stress in male albino Wistar rats.Methods: The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting the rats in 20 cm ? 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were post orally treated with GA at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations.Results:Treatment with GA significantly increased the food intake, body weight, organ weight (spleen, testis and brain and the significant reduction was found in weight of liver, kidney, heart and adrenal glands, which was altered in stressed rats. GA also significantly reduced the elevated levels of plasma glucose, plasma and tissue cholesterol (CHL, triglycerides (TG, Low Density Lipid (LDL, Very Low Density Lipid (VLDL and also significantly increased the level of High Density Lipid (HDL. A significant decrease in hematological parameters like RBC count, total and differential WBC count was also found which were increased in immobilization stress.Conclusion: GA prevented the stress-induced physiological, biochemical and hematological changes, indicating the preventive effect against stress.

Shabir, Ahmad Rather

2013-02-01

162

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

Jain, Pankaj G.; Patil, Savita D.; Haswani, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

2010-01-01

163

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.  

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The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

2010-07-01

164

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

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Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day, ampicillin (4mg/100/day and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día, ampicilina (4mg/100/día y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p<0,05 de los conductos del epidídimo (EDD, y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registró un aumento significativo (p <0,05 en el diámetro luminal del epidídimo (ELD en todos los animales después de dos y tres semanas del período de recuperación. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relación a la toxicidad de estos antibióticos en los órganos reproductivos masculinos, además de la reducción de la concentración sérica de testosterona, disminución de la motilidad del esperma, disminución del recuento de espermatozoides y disminución en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las células de espermatogénesis como se reportó anteriormente.

F. O Awobajo

2010-12-01

165

Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.  

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The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5?-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, ?-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3?mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated ?-sitosterol for a period of 28?days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1?mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:21503998

Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

2011-12-01

166

A preliminary study on serum liver function indices of Diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis and chemoprotective potential of Eclipta alba in male Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of E. alba on liver function in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to identify the protective effect of Eclipta alba in experimental diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Sixty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to four groups of 16 rats each. DEN (0.01%, v/v was given in drinking water ad libitum and E. alba (50 mg/kg BW/day was administered per os either alone or in combination for 120 days. Serum protein, albumin and liver functional status enzyme profiles were studied. Results: Administration of DEN resulted in reduction in the body weights and DEN in combination with E. alba caused poor weight gain in male Wistar albino rats. Concurrent administration of E. alba with DEN significantly alleviated the effects of DEN on serum protein and albumin, while a partial protective effect was observed for other biochemical values and body weight. Conclusion: The designed study could establish the partial protective effect of E. alba in experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

R. Anoopraj

2014-06-01

167

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

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Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to ...

Purushottam Pramanik, Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

168

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

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PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group). Two rat...

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz Almeida; Cesar Augusto Raposo-Amaral; Luiz Carlos Vulcano; Maria Rita Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo Alonso

2010-01-01

169

Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats  

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Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the anima...

Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja

2013-01-01

170

PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

171

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama

2010-01-01

172

Anticholinesterasic activity of endosulfan in Wistar rats.  

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The in vivo and in vitro effects of the pesticide endosulfan on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity were investigated in rats. ChE activity decreased in dams and in male pups within 65 days corresponding to 35% and 32% of inhibition respectively in the higher endosulfan dose (1.5 mg/kg). In vitro, the enzyme activity was found to be inhibited in a concentration dependent manner. The results suggest that endosulfan is able to inhibit the ChE activity and to cross the placental barrier and/or to be eliminated through milk affecting the enzyme activity in male rat pups. PMID:21340455

Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Nicaretta, Lilian; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Crestani, Sandra; Soares, Kelly Cristina; Olmedo, Delia; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto

2011-04-01

173

DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

2014-01-01

174

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

SAGAR DAWADA

2012-04-01

175

Petroleum Refining Chemicals Enhance Aflatoxin B1-induced Toxicities in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular cancer is one of the highest among the population in the tropics. This has been associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 a potent liver carcinogen elaborated as metabolite of Aspergillus fungi and some other fungi. Petrochemical refineries workers are in addition exposed to chemicals used in the refining of crude petroleum oil. Four petroleum-refining chemicals: N-methylpyrrolidone, Phenylenediamine, methylethylketone and Dialkylketonoxine, all obtained from a refinery situated in Nigeria were investigated in this study. Male Wistar albino rats, exposed subcutaneously to different amount of these chemicals and also orally given different concentrations of AFB1 in corn oil for 12 weeks, were observed to have higher levels of ?-glutamyl transferase enzyme activity in their livers and sera than the rats treated with either the chemicals or AFB1 only. They also have higher alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in their sera. The activities of these enzymes were also higher than those observed in control rats treated with the carrier vehicle of corn oil only. Micronuclei and histopathology analysis results correlate with the results obtained in the enzyme assays. We therefore concluded that the petrochemicals are significant factor in hepatocellular cancer development in the refinery workers.

Oyeronke A. Odunola

2007-01-01

176

Alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas Wistar con infección chagásica aguda, durante la gestación / Hematological and blood glucose alterations in Wistar rats with acute chagasic infection during gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio se investigaron las alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus) cepa Wistar, con infección chagásica aguda, antes y durante la gestación. Muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas de los grupos A, B, C y D de ratas a los 0, 6, 12 y 20 días de la p [...] reñez para la realización de pruebas de diagnóstico hematológico y de glicemia. El análisis estadístico de los resultados conseguidos reveló cambios significativos (p Abstract in english The present study examined hematological alterations and blood glucose levels variations in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with acute chagasic infection during gestation. Blood samples were taken from A, B, C and D groups of rats at 0, 6, 12 and 20 days after impregnation for hematological d [...] iagnosis and glycemia tests. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant changes (p

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Marítza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo-Y; Stelliana C, Moreno; Rafael, Borges.

2007-06-01

177

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

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The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day fo...

Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa

2009-01-01

178

STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band wiGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

179

Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50) , daily for 10 days (short ­term) and 20 days (long ­term) to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum gluc...

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-01-01

180

Effect of Soaked Moringa oleifera Seeds on Growth Rates and the Levels of Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.

E. Obi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT, e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão.

Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

2007-01-01

182

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats / Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por [...] seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%); Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT), e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas) notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by [...] its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%); B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia), and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks), it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.

Baldomero Antonio Kato da, Silva; Iandara Schettert, Silva; Daniel Martins, Pereira; Ricardo Dutra, Aydos; Paulo de Tarso Camillo de, Carvalho; Gilberto Gonçalves, Facco.

183

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L.) as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

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The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP) on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided ...

Elbahnasawy, Amir S. M.; Osfor, Mahmoud M. H.; Afify, Abd El-moneim M. R.; Romeilah, Ramy R. M.

2013-01-01

184

Toxicopathological changes on Wistar rat after multiple exposures to acetamiprid  

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Full Text Available Aim: To see the toxicopathological changes after multiple exposure to acetamiprid (ACP and also to obtain more information regarding the manner in which ACP acts at cellular level. Materials and Methods: A subacute toxicity study of ACP was undertaken in 72 female Wistar rats in four groups (18 each. Three different concentrations of ACP (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight were administered orally to rats. Untreated rats served as control. Different plasma enzyme and analytes were measured. Gross and histopathological observations were noted in this experiment. Result: There was a significant increase in the plasma enzymes tested in this experiment. There was a significant decrease in plasma glucose, cholesterol and low-density lipid. Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed in vital organs. Conclusion: It is observed that ACP has the toxic potential (on liver, kidney, heart, ovary and brain at sub lethal doses.

S. Mondal

2014-12-01

185

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

Prathibhakumari P.V.

2013-06-01

186

Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

K.A. Sadariya

187

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.icantly these values.

188

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

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The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

2013-06-15

189

Normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage in wistar rat  

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Full Text Available The biochemical indicators of wistar rat under low oxygen concentration, such as brain water content, necrosis, lactic acid and Na+-K+-ATPase, was detected to evaluate normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage and to investigate the mechanism of wistar rat brain injury. Histopathological changes in brain tissue induced by hypoxia were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE. Hypoxia induced factor-1? (HIF-1? expression in brain was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the level of lactic acid was positively correlated with the degree of hypoxia, while concentration-dependent decrease in total Na+-K+-ATPase activity was observed. Compared with the control group, hypoxia group had a significant difference on brain water content under severe hypoxic conditions, the rate of brain necrosis increased obviously, followed by the increase of lactic acid level and the decrease of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Histopathological analysis of brain confirmed that there was neuronal cell death in hippocampal gyrus. HIF-1? expression enhanced the hypoxia adaptation capability of the rat model through regulating the expressions of multiple genes. Lactic acid, Na+-K+-ATPase and HIF- 1? played an important role in brain injury as a possible mechanism.

Ding-Yu Hu

2009-12-01

190

Spatial Memory Perfomance of Wistar Rats Exposed to Mobile Phone  

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INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory ...

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan; Raju Suresh Kumar; Bhagath Kumar Potu; Satheesha Nayak; Maneesh Mailankot

2009-01-01

191

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals) or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals) for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes [...] of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P

R.R., De Souza; E.F., Gama; R.D.A., Silva; J.C., Heimann; L.B.M., Maifrino; E.A., Liberti.

2000-07-01

192

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh

2013-03-01

193

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

194

Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50 , daily for 10 days (short ­term and 20 days (long ­term to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucose& T3 (short and long ­term; AST,ALT, and T4 (long-term. 2- Diazinon reduced the serum content of total cholesterol and protein in short­term treated rats. 3- Treatment of rats with diazinon did not alter activity of AST, ALT and T4 level at short ­term period .In addition ; ALP serum levels were not altered in both short and long ­term treated rats

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-12-01

195

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05) increase i...

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

196

Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats  

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Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g) were random...

Eman G E Helal And Shadia, A. Radwan

2007-01-01

197

Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250?gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2?cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

2014-05-01

198

Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat  

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Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone) was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml). The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated g...

Ola A El Sayed, Safaa E. Gawish

2007-01-01

199

Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida On Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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In the current study, thirty adult male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Ferula assafoetida on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic Ferula assafoetida treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. Body weight, blood gl...

Eman G E Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa

2005-01-01

200

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

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The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. ...

Amaechina, O. S.; Ibiang, Y. B.; Ikpeme, E. V.; Ekaluo, U. B.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

Eman G E Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa

2005-01-01

202

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR) were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC) is also given to another group to support the results at the concentr...

Prasad, S. K.; Alka Kulshreshtha; Qureshi, Taj N.

2009-01-01

203

Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

Lopes Luiza da Silva

2003-01-01

204

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone. After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan

2009-03-01

205

Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry  

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The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments

206

Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry  

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The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

1983-01-01

207

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

208

Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 ? 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B ? No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C ? the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with Chlorpyrifos. These changes were markedly different from the control rats. Hence this study brought into light the renal toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos which was found to be significant at high dose level. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 465-475

Rekha

2013-08-01

209

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino

2003-01-01

210

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

2009-09-01

211

Histological findings in the Wistar rat cornea following UVB irradiation.  

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The acute clinical effect of UVR on the eye is photokeratitis, which is an inflammatory state that might be regarded as the sunburn of the eye. In this study, we used a rat model to assess the histological injuries induced in the intact rat cornea following its exposure to UVB radiation. A total of 15 two-months-old female Wistar rats were purchased from the Animal Facility of "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The rats were fed ad libitum and kept under standard conditions with a 12 hours light/dark cycle. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control group (no UVB exposure), group II (a single exposure to a dose of 45 mJ UVB/cm(2) for 47 seconds), group III (a single exposure to 90 mJ UVB/cm(2) for one minute and 57 seconds), group IV (a single exposure to 180 mJ UVB/cm(2) for three minutes and 57 seconds), and group V (a single exposure to 360 mJ UVB/cm(2)² for five minutes and 26 seconds). After 24 hours of recovery, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The rat eyes were extracted, harvested and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. The eye samples were then processed through paraffin technique for further histological examination. We found that, following the UVB exposure, the cornea showed significant inflammatory responses (infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes), hemorrhage and gross damages such as superficial and deep ulcerous keratitis and epithelial exfoliation. The severity of these findings was associated with the increase of UVB radiation intensity and exposure period. PMID:23771066

Mure?an, Simina; Filip, Adriana; Mure?an, Adriana; ?imon, Viorica; Moldovan, R; Gal, A F; Micl?u?, V

2013-01-01

212

Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da carência nutricional de zinco na gestação e prole de ratas Wistar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Submetemos ratas Wistar adultas (90 dias) com peso entre 180 e 220 gramas a diferentes tipos de carência nutricional de zinco (Zn; grave: 2,6 ppm; moderada: 9,0 ppm e sem carência 8 [...] 1,6 ppm) durante 6 semanas. Após esse período foram acasaladas com machos normais e não observamos diferenças quanto fertilidade e esterilidade entre os animais carentes. Durante a gestação, parte dos animais continuaram recebendo o mesmo tipo de ração e parte recebeu ração sem carência. Com relação ao grupo sem carência três outros grupos foram formados: um que passou a receber dieta com carência grave, outro moderada e o terceiro continuou sem carência. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observamos entre os animais submetidos à carência aguda ou crônica tendência a menor ganho ponderal durante a gestação, menor peso da ninhada, níveis séricos de Zn materno e de "pool" de RN mais baixos. Observamos de modo significante, menor número de RN vivos entre os animais submetidos à carência grave reforçando o papel do Zn durante a gestação. Abstract in english Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and s [...] terility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic) had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool) blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

Dirceu, Solé; Brigitte, Rieckmann; Raquel Mattos Costa, Lippelt; Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci, Lippelt; Olga Maria Silverio, Amâncio; Suzana de Souza, Queiroz; Charles Kirov, Naspitz.

1995-02-01

213

The potential effect of berberine in mercury-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats.  

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Mercury (Hg) is the third most dangerous heavy metal after arsenic and lead. Mercury's toxicity brings serious risks to health through negative pathological and biochemical effects. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of berberine (BN) in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 0.4 mg/kg bwt) for 7 days. Treatment with HgCl2 induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production along with a concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. HgCl2 intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of urea and creatinine in serum. BN (100mg/kg bwt) treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production, whereas it increased glutathione content. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were also restored concomitantly when compared to control after BN administration. BN also inhibited the apoptotic effect of HgCl2 by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney tissues proved the protective effect of BN against HgCl2 toxicity. These results demonstrated that BN augments antioxidant defense against HgCl2-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepato- and reno-protective agent. PMID:24751971

Othman, Mohamed S; Safwat, Gehan; Aboulkhair, Menna; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2014-07-01

214

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

215

Toxicity Assessment of Nanosilver Wound Dressing in Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT at the endpoint (21 days of the study (P=0.027. Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications.

Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

2013-04-01

216

Toxicity assessment of nanosilver wound dressing in Wistar rat.  

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Antibiotic resistance to microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care in burns patients. Silver nanoparticles have come up as potent antimicrobial agent and are being evaluated in diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. We aimed in present study to test the release of nanosilver from nanosilver wound dressing and compare the dermal and systemic toxicity of nanosilver dressings in a repeated dose (21 days) model. Under general anesthesia, a limited standard 2nd degree burns were provided on the back of each rat in all treatment, negative control (simple dressing) and 5% silver nitrate groups, each contained 5 male wistar rats. According to the analysis made by atomic absorption spectrometry, the wound dressings released 0.599 ± 0.083 ppm of nanosilver during first 24 hrs of study. Daily observations were recoded and wounds were covered with new dressings each 24 hrs. Burn healing was observed in nanosilver wound dressing group in shorter time periods than the control groups. In toxicity assessment, this dressing didn't cause any hematological and histopathological abnormalities in treatment group but biochemical studies showed significant rise of plasma transaminase (ALT) at the endpoint (21 days) of the study (P=0.027). Portal mononuclear lymphoid and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrations in three to four adjacent foci were recognized around the central hepatic vein in treatment group. Mild hepatotoxic effects of nanosilver wound dressing in wistar rat emphasize the necessity of more studies on toxicity potentials of low dose nanosilver by dermal applications. PMID:23690097

Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Mahdavi, Moujan; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Korani, Mitra; Amani, Amir; Ziarati, Parisa

2013-01-01

217

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Agrawal Shyam S

2012-12-01

218

Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

Shyam S Agrawal

2012-12-01

219

Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.  

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The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

2012-01-01

220

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

Vitor E. Valenti

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

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Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole

Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H

2013-04-01

222

Phytochemical Screening and Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous Blighia sapida Root Bark Extract on Normoglycemic Albino Rats  

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Aims: To carry out phytochemical screening and investigate hypoglycemic effect of aqueous Blighia sapida root bark extract (ABRE) on normoglycemic Albino rats. Study Design: Extraction and administration of bioactive extract. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, between June, 2010 and September, 2010. Methodology: Extraction of the air-dried ground root of Blighia...

Saidu A. N.; Mann A.; Onuegbu C. D.

2012-01-01

223

Effect of prolactin and bromocriptine administration on testicular metabolism in albino rats.  

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Prolactin (PRL) and bromocriptine were administered subcutaneously to adult male albino rats and their effects on testicular metabolism have been analysed. PRL enhanced the activities of testicular androgen-dependent enzymes. In contrast, bromocriptine inhibited these enzyme activities, which was correlated to the blocking of PRL release by this agent. Hence, direct participation of PRL on the testicular function was evident. PMID:2409940

Dhananjaya Reddy, Y; Govindappa, S

1985-05-01

224

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

225

Pharmacokinetics of Photogem using fluorescence monitoring in Wistar rats.  

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In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetics of a hematoporphyrin derivative (Photogem) in Wistar rats using the fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the drug distribution in liver, kidney and skin tissues. The detection system is composed of a 532 nm exciting laser, a Y-type catheter for light delivery and collection, a monochromator and a computer for data acquisition. The analysis of the fluorescence spectra was based on the intensity of porphyrin emission bands from specific tissues of the investigated organ. A simple transport model is proposed to determine the accumulation and elimination times for each type of investigated tissue. The obtained results show the viability of the fluorescence spectroscopic technique for the drug concentration monitoring in different target tissues and related pharmacokinetics. These effects should be considered before any in vivo study of Photodynamic Therapy using Photogem. PMID:14975407

Melo, C A S; Kurachi, C; Grecco, C; Sibata, C H; Castro-e-Silva, O; Bagnato, V S

2004-02-20

226

Infestation of Wistar rats with Tunga penetrans in different microenvironments.  

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Tungiasis is a zoonotic ectoparasitosis that causes considerable morbidity in affected populations. The type of microenvironment that facilitates infestation of hosts by Tunga penetrans has not been investigated. In this study, we exposed 30 laboratory-raised Wistar rats, a suitable model for the infestation, at six different places characterized by different microenvironments in a hyperendemic fishing village in northeastern Brazil. During a period of two weeks, the animals were monitored and the number of embedded fleas was documented. The number of lesions varied considerably according to the microenvironment and was highest in a cage placed at the far end of a compound of a household affected by tungiasis. No penetration was observed inside houses. Results indicate that in this endemic area transmission of T. penetrans seems to occur mainly outdoors. PMID:17426167

Witt, Lars; Heukelbach, Jörg; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Harms, Gundel; Feldmeier, Hermann

2007-04-01

227

Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a [...] standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control) or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v) for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P

D.T., Furuya; R., Binsack; U.F., Machado.

2003-01-01

228

The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

2008-07-01

229

Radiation-induced damage of the Wistar Rat heart  

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A time sequence study was performed on Wistar rats to investigate the early effects of radiation on the mechanical function and energy metabolism of the heart. Two series of rats were exposed to 20 Gy electron irradiation to a field including the heart and approximately a third of the lungs. The hearts were excised at varying time intervals (8-180 days) post irradiation. In one series of hearts the mechanical function was measured using the isolated perfused working rat heart model. At the end of the perfusion the hearts were freeze-clamped for analysis of the high energy phosphate contents (ATP, ADP, AMP and creatine phosphate). In the second series, mitochondria were isolated and the oxidative phosphorylation function measured polarographically (substrate: glutamate). Maximal depression of mechanical function was observed at 60 days post irradiation. Thereafter the work performance of these hearts improved significantly, almost reaching control levels after 180 days. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function (as measured on the total mitochondrial population) was significantly depressed 30-120 days post irradiation. As in the case of the mechanical changes, the depression was transient and after 180 days post irradiation, values similar to those of controls were obtained. Myocardial high energy phosphates remained unaltered throughout the experiment. (author)

230

Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

Furuya D.T.

2003-01-01

231

Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera) in albino rats  

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laborat...

Vikrama Chakravarthi, P.; Gopakumar, N.

2010-01-01

232

Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

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Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

2002-01-01

233

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

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Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of varianc...

Amit Kumar Jha; Rafat Ali Shakur; Asish Kumar Ram

2012-01-01

234

Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.  

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Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three ...

Eman G E Helal, Samia M. Abd El-wahab And Ghada A. Zedan

2011-01-01

235

Efectos de la infección chagásica aguda en ratas wistar gestantes / Effects of acute chagasic infection on gestating wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investiga en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar, inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal con 5x10(4) tripomastigotes sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi, y preñadas 10 días después de la inoculación, los efectos de la infección aguda sobre la gestación, utilizando diferentes pruebas de diagnó [...] stico. Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english White Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were intraperitoneally inoculated with 5x10(4) blood form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and impregnated 10 days after inoculation. The effects of acute infection on gestation were examined using different diagnostic tests. Results showed significant diffe [...] rences (P

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Sonia, Araujo; Rafael, Borges.

2006-10-01

236

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g was divided randomly into four groups (n=6 and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C– aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05 to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg, while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns, antiulcer.

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

237

Dihydroartemisinin-Stimulated Hyperplasia of Rat Lung Smooth Muscles  

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Problem statement: Dihydroartemisinin was shown to produce two types of inhibitory effects on the cardiac muscles of rats. It was also shown to stimulate haemopoiesis in the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine and kidney of rats. This study attempted to find out the nature of the effect of oral dihydroartemisinin on the lungs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The effects of dihydroartemisinin on the tissues of the lungs of wistar albino rats were investigated with five doses of Dihyd...

Anastasia, Utoh-nedosa U.

2012-01-01

238

Efeitos de doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol em ratos Wistar Effects of high doses of terbinafine and itraconazole in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Levando em consideração a importância do itraconazol e da terbinafina na terapia antifúngica, o estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de altas doses de itraconazol (100 mg/kg e terbinafina (250 mg/kg em ratos albinos wistar através das análises das enzimas hepáticas (ALT e ALP, hemograma completo e estudo histopatológico de diferentes órgãos. Os fármacos foram administrados pela via oral, uma vez ao dia, por um período de 30 dias, quando foi coletado sangue e realizado a necrópsia dos animais experimentais. Os valores detectados das enzimas hepáticas e do hemograma foram compatíveis aos índices fisiológicos para a espécie estudada não sendo observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos experimentais. A histopatologia não revelou nenhuma anormalidade, porém 25% dos animas tratados com terbinafina morreram imediatamente após a administração do fármaco. Com esses resultados concluiu-se que as doses administradas dos fármacos não alteraram as enzimas hepáticas avaliadas, assim como o hemograma, sendo, no entanto, necessários mais estudos que possibilitem considerar doses elevadas da terbinafina e itraconazol como alternativa terapêutica viável para o tratamento de micoses sistêmicas.Taking into account the importance of the itraconazole and terbinafine in the antifungal therapy, the study has as objective evaluate the effects of high itraconazole doses (100 mg/kg and terbinafine (250 mg/kg in rats albino Wistar through the analyses of the hepatic enzymes (ALT and ALP, complete blood count and histopathologic study of different organs. The drugs were administered orally once a day, for a period of 30 days, when blood was collected and accomplished the necropsy of the experimental animals. The detected values of the hepatic enzymes and of the blood count were compatible to the physiologic indexes for the studied species with no statistical differences among the experimental groups. The histopathologic exam did not reveal any abnormality, however 25% of the treated with terbinafine died immediately after the administration of the drug. With those results we concluded that the administered doses of the drugs did not alter the appraised hepatic enzymes, as well as the blood count. However, more studies are needed to consider high doses of the terbinafine and itraconazole as viable treatment alternative for systemic mycosis.

Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz

2007-03-01

239

Cardiovascular and electrocardiographic parameters after tonin administration in Wistar rats.  

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In order to understand the mechanisms of interaction between tonin-angiotensin and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) we evaluated, "in vivo" and "in vitro", in Wistar rats, cardiovascular and electrocardiographic parameters after tonin administration. Arterial pressure (AP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded in awake animals before and after tonin administration. Langendorff technique was used to analyze cardiac function in isolated heart in the presence of tonin and video motion edge detection system was used to evaluate the effect of tonin upon contractile function of isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. After tonin infusion rats presented significantly higher diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) as compared with control. The ECG analysis revealed shorter RR interval, increase in the low-frequency (LF) range of the heart rate variability (HRV) power (%) and decrease in the high-frequency (HF) of HRV power (%). Isolated hearts perfused with tonin presented an increase in the arterial coronary pressure (ACP) and decline in the ventricular systolic tension (ST), maximal (dT/dt+) and minimal (dT/dt) contractility. The rates of contraction and relaxation of isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes were significantly increased due to the presence of tonin. The angiotensin II (Ang II) levels in the coronary sinus effluent increased in the presence of tonin in a dose-dependent manner and the effect of tonin upon ACP was completely blocked by candesartan. Tonin is able to generate the vasoconstrictor peptide Ang II in the isolated heart of the rat and the cardiovascular response induced by tonin was completely blocked by candesartan, an indication that the action of Ang II on Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors is the major mechanism of the heart effects. Tonin affects cardiomyocyte contractile function which may be due to interference with Ca(2+) handling. PMID:23318501

Damasceno, Denis D; Lima, Mercia P; Motta, Daisy F; Ferreira, Anderson J; Quintão-Junior, Judson F; Drummond, Lucas R; Natali, Antônio J; Almeida, Alvair P; Pesquero, Jorge L

2013-02-10

240

Antifertility Potentials of Metronidazole in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the decline in the quality of human sperm in recent years. Following reports by previous studies on the toxic effects of metronidazole on testicular functions, this study is designed to investigate further its direct effects on fertility potentials and that of the introduction of vitamin E and testosterone to metronidazole treated rats. A total of 105 adult male and 50 female Wistar rats weighing 170±10 g (70-90 day old were used for the experiment. The rats were randomly divided into a control and experimental groups. There were four major groups with 5 subgroups consisting of 5 rats each. Varying doses of metronidazole were used depending on the experiment. Experiment 1; animals were fed with 15 mg kg-1 of metronidazole, experiment 2, fed with 30 mg kg-1 of metronidazole, experiment 3, administered with 200 mg kg-1 of metronidazole and experiment 4, fed with 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole. Each experimental group has 5 sub-groups. A: control, B: group fed with the experimental dose, C: experimental dose with vitamin E, D: experimental dose with testosterone, E: fed with experimental dose, vitamin E and testosterone and sub-group F, a reversal group which was left for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Parameters assessed were sperm count/motility, hormonal assay, Fertility test for control and treated rats were also carried out. Results showed that metronidazole at the therapeutic dose of 15 mg kg-1 did not have significant negative effect on the parameters assessed. At the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, there was reduction in testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone while on the other hand, luteinizing hormone was increased mostly with 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole treatment. Body weight was also found to be significantly reduced in rats treated with 200 and 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole. The results of this study indicate that metronidazole administration (200 or 400 mg kg-1, for 8 weeks, caused a harmful effect on fertility potentials in male rats.

B.C. Didia

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Investigation of immunotoxicity of supercypermethrin forte in the Wistar rat.  

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The study was done to find out whether subacute exposure to supercypermethrin forte (SCM) affected cellular and humoral immunity. Groups of 10 male Wistar rats were given SCM by gavage for 28 days at 12.5 mg kg-1 day-1 (1/14 LD50), 8.75 mg kg-1 day-1 (1/20 LD50) and 4.38 mg kg-1 day-1 (1/40 LD50) and the response of splenocytes to mitogens, natural killer cell activity, plaque forming cell assay and phagocytosis were examined. The response of splenocytes to the mitogens phytohaemagglutin and concanavalin A, and to a T-dependent antigen (sheep red blood cells), was enhanced at 1/40 LD50 SCM, and at 1/20 and 1/14 LD50 these variables were suppressed. In the group exposed to 1/14 LD40 SCM the suppression was statistically significant. A non significant but dose-related increase in NK-cell activity was observed. The phagocytic activity of polymorphes was not significantly affected. Thus, SCM at 1/14 LD50 had significant adverse effects on a number of immunological functions in rats, but lower doses had no effect on these activities. PMID:7612300

Tulinská, J; Kubová, J; Janota, S; Nyulassy, S

1995-05-01

242

Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

243

Diuretic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira in albino rats  

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Background: Diuretic compounds that stimulate the excretion of water with small traceable ions are potentially useful in most of disorders including those exhibiting edema such as congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension, and hypertension. The aim was to evaluate the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AQERCP) by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diur...

Suresh Babu Sayana; Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Venkat Rao Nimmagadda; Chavan, Vasant R.; Naveen Kumar Sambu

2014-01-01

244

Teratogenic vulnerability of Wistar rats to diphenyl ditelluride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of single maternal subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.12 mg/kg diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2, diluted in canola oil at days 6, 10 or 17 of gestation were evaluated in Wistar rats. The reduction of body weight gain was statistically significant at GD9, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD6; at GD13, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD10, and at GD20, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD17, when compared to respective control groups. External and internal fetal soft tissues examination was performed on day 20 of gestation. Single maternal injection at day 10 of gestation resulted in appearance of malformation in fore- and hind-limbs, absent or short tail, subcutaneous blood clots, exophthalmia, hydrocephalus and absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue in fetuses on day 20 of gestation. Besides (PhTe)2 reduced fetal body and cerebral weight, kidney length, measurements of body dimension and provoked 73% of fetal mortality. Subcutaneous administration of (PhTe)2 on day 17 of gestation was associated with 94% mortality, hydrocephalus and edema. Histological evaluations of fetal brain demonstrated displaced brain tissue with absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue when diphenyl ditelluride was administered in GD10. Histological evaluation of fetal head exposed at GD17 revealed a decrease of the brain volume with consequent dilation of the lateral ventricles and the ilation of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent tissues were thinner than that of control group tissues. No fetal changes were observed after administration of (PhTe)2 at day 6 of gestation. Thus (PhTe)2 can be teratogenic to rat fetuses and toxic for dams. The late fetal stages of rat prenatal development appeared uniquely sensitive to organic tellurium exposure

245

Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus) On Diabetic Albino Rat  

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Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus) on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, contro...

Eman G E Helal, Samia M. Abd-elwahab

2012-01-01

246

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%)followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW) induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and...

SHAMSHUN NEHAR; RAJ KUMAR; CHANDAN KUMAR

2013-01-01

247

WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The ...

Ch. Sampath kumar; Rajender.Arutla; Swaroopa, D.; Sridhar Rao, K.

2012-01-01

248

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC, exposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0 e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7, concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7% nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%. Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%, no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70% e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%. Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%, com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively, together with a control group (exposed to room air. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3 and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2, concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%. The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%, in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%, and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%. However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%, with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%. CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos Valença

2007-12-01

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Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar / Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), e [...] xposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The a [...] nimals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos, Valença; Milena Leonarde, Kloss; Frank Silva, Bezerra; Manuella, Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring, Silva; Luís Cristóvão, Porto.

2007-12-01

250

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divid [...] idos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed wi [...] th supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.

Sandra Maria, Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado, Spada; Erick Prado de, Oliveira; Márcio Emilio, Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida, Martuchi; Náyra Coelho, Leite; Renata Maeda, Deus; Vivianne, Sasaki; Lucas Silva, Braganti; Marie, Oshiiwa.

1137-11-01

251

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.

Sandra Maria Barbalho

2009-10-01

252

Khaya senegalensis inhibits piroxicam mediated gastro-toxicity in wistar rats  

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam co-administration with ethanolic stem-bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on biomarkers of oxidative stress and gastro-toxicity in Wistar rats.

Ishaq, Fatima Nnawodu; Zezi, Abdulkadir Umar; Olurishe, Temidayo Olutoyin

2014-01-01

253

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS / EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de p [...] yrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of al [...] bino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Marisa, Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Mary, Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo, Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia, Espiridião; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

254

Cardioprotective effect of gallic acid on cardiac troponin-T, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.  

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Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of gallic acid on cardiac marker enzymes, troponin-T, LDH-isoenzyme pattern, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant status in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with gallic acid (15 mg/kg) daily for a period of 10 days. After the treatment period, ISO (100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum and the levels of troponin-T in the serum. Increased LDH-isoenzyme bands (LDH-1 and LDH-2) were also observed in serum of ISO-induced rats. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma and the heart were significantly (PISO-induced rats. The level of uric acid in plasma was significantly (PISO-treated rats. Gallic acid pretreatment showed significant protective effect on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological findings of gallic acid pretreated myocardial infarcted heart confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. Thus, gallic acid protects the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19146839

Priscilla, D Hansi; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

2009-05-15

255

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.

Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.

2010-12-01

256

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

Pankaj G. Jain

2010-12-01

257

Preventive activity of ascorbic acid on lead acetate induced cerebellar damaged in adult Wistar rats  

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Among the environmental contaminants, lead is one of the most hazardous to living matter. In mammals, the main target is the central nervous system, particularly in the young. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant which is a substance that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. This study investigated Experiment the protective effect of ascorbic acid on the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats following oral administration of different doses of Lead acetate. Thirty adult Wistar rat...

Sunday Abraham Musa; Iliyasu Musa Omoniye; Wilson Oliver Hamman; Augustine Oseloka Ibegbu; Uduak Emmanuel Umana

2012-01-01

258

Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR), the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group). The control group A received phosp...

Okesina, A. A.; Mesole, S. B.; Olusakin, J.; Mohammed, Y. G.; Mohammed, A. A.; Buhari, M. O.; Ashaolu, J. O.; Ezekiel, I.; Goji, A. D. T.; Caxton-martins, E. A.

2012-01-01

259

Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats  

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Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver ...

Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

2012-01-01

260

Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx Diet and Histopathological Changes in Liver of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx was fermented with and without wood ash. The proximate composition revealed that the sample fermented without wood ash had the highest protein content of 14.7 ? 2.5%. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.05 in the antinutrient content (phytate and tannin with a reduction of between 1.21-1.32% in tannin and 488.8?3.7-827.3?3.7mg/100g in phytate. The unfermented sample had phytate and tannin of 2143.6 ? 0.8mg/100g and 5.30 ? 1.1% respectively. The effect of calyx diet on the morphology of the liver was investigated in albino rats. The results suggest that in high doses, roselle calyx may have some toxic effects on the liver. There was decrease in growth in albino rats on all the treatments except for the control diet where there was no increase in growth.

A.O. Ojokoh

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Ultrastructural Identification of the Basal-Granulated Cells in the Duodenum of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the crypt epithelium of the duodenal mucosa in albino rats was studied to represent the types and distribution of the basal-granulated or endocrine cells. Twenty male animals were used. Perfusion-fixation was made and samples of duodenal mucosa were taken and processed to prepare epon-embedded specimens for examination by a transmission electron microscope. Cells containing membrane-bound granules were seen in the crypt epithelium. They were identified to be basal-granulated cells. Six different types of such cells were demonstrated. All of the cells were of the closed type. The possible functional significance of these closed cell types was discussed. Correlation among the distributions of such cells in the intestine of albino rat might enable the physiologists, internists and other research workers to study several biologically active peptides with well-established functions other than those which have long been investigated.

Ali Hassan A. Ali

2014-07-01

262

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

263

Effects of Alkaline mineral waters on experimental Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Studies on a natural therapeutic mineral water aim to obtain scientific data with which to substantiate its medical use in prevention and improving the health status of patients with various disorders. The natural mineral water used in our experiments has been recommended by physicians to treat various pathologies such as digestive disorders (chronic gastritis with hyperacidity, gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic colitis, chronic constipation, hepatobiliary problems (biliary dyskinesia, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, associated diseases: neurasthenia, migraine disorder. These recommendations are based on the general chemical content and physical properties of the water, studied few decades ago. Natural water quality is determined generally by all mineral or organic substances, dissolved gases, particulate matter and living organisms present in it. The chemical content of the water reveals the presence of some trace minerals, such as Li or B. In the light of the new knowledge about the role of these trace elements in organism, we designed an controlled experiment to obtain data about the changes that are produced by the ingestion of the alkaline mineral water in the biological status of Wistar rats and to extrapolate our findings at the human organism.

Munteanu Constantin

2013-05-01

264

Ultrastructural Identification of the Basal-Granulated Cells in the Duodenum of Albino Rat  

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The fine structure of the crypt epithelium of the duodenal mucosa in albino rats was studied to represent the types and distribution of the basal-granulated or endocrine cells. Twenty male animals were used. Perfusion-fixation was made and samples of duodenal mucosa were taken and processed to prepare epon-embedded specimens for examination by a transmission electron microscope. Cells containing membrane-bound granules were seen in the crypt epithelium. They were identified to be basal-granul...

Ali, Ali Hassan A.

2014-01-01

265

Effects of Origanum majorana L. on cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  

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OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of Origanum majorana L. (OM) against cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. METHODS This study was performed at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2010. Thirty-six male albino rats were divided into 6 groups: control, Cd, OM, OM+Cd, OM pre-treated (received OM extract for 14 days followed by Cd for 14 days), OM post-treated (received Cd for ...

Shati, Ali A.

2011-01-01

266

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also ...

Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem, Mamdouh A. Ghaly El Sayed G.

2003-01-01

267

Histopathological Changes In White Matter Of Cerebellum ?In Pyrethroid Exposed Albino Rats  

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Introduction: The liquid vaporizers are very commonly used as residential insecticides in ?developing countries. Neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids have been reported earlier but studies ?regarding their effects on white matter of cerebellum are scanty in spite of its direct exposure. So ?the present study was planned to assess and compare the effects of long term prallethrin (a ?pyrethroid) exposure on white matter of cerebellum. ?Method: Twenty albino rats were divided into t...

aim Hasan; Mohd.Shahid; Pawan Kumar

2012-01-01

268

6. Reproductive toxicity of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) in male albino rats  

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The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth.) on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was ...

Revathi, P.; Vani, B.; Sarathchandiran, I.; Kadalmani, B.; Prakash Shyam, K.; Palnivel, K.

2010-01-01

269

Antiulcerogenic Activity of Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia and Staudtia stipitata on Induce Ulcer in Albino Rats  

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Aim: Ethanolic extracts of Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia and Staudtia stipitata were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antiulcerogenic potential on aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats at 150mg/kg, 300mg/kg, and 450mg/kg body weights. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, between June 2009 and August 2010.

Orole R. T.; Orole O. O.; Adejumo T. O.

2013-01-01

270

Effect of induced bilateral cryptorchidism on the carbohydrate metabolism of reproductive tissues in albino rats.  

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Bilateral cryptorchidism was induced surgically and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism of the reproductive tissue in albino rats analysed. In the reproductive tissues glycogenolysis was inhibited and lactic acid accumulated. The energy metabolism of the tissues was inhibited following the suppression of androgen-dependent enzymes activities. The importance of these modulations in the reproductive tissue carbohydrate metabolism on the male fertility was discussed. PMID:6204609

Venkatarami Reddy, K; Geethanjali, N; Dhananjaya Reddy, Y; Reddanna, P; Govindappa, S

1983-12-01

271

Pattern of protein profiles of reproductive organs after induced bilateral cryptorchidism in albino rats.  

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Bilateral cryptorchidism was induced surgically in albino rats and pattern of protein profiles was studied in reproductive organs. Cryptorchidism activated tissue proteolysis leading to overall degradation in soluble and structural protein fractions and in amino acids leading to prevalence of negative nitrogen balance in the reproductive organs. The testicular hypoalbuminic and hypoglobulinic conditions seem to be responsible for oligo-astheno-spermia associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:2409941

Venkatarami Reddy, K; Govindappa, S

1985-05-01

272

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

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The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection) of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days), using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrea...

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-01-01

273

Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats  

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Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

274

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (PIndustrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity

S A Braid

2012-04-01

275

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.  

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This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ±  SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

2014-10-28

276

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

Flamarion dos Santos Batista

2004-12-01

277

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

Flamarion dos Santos Batista; Osvaldo Malafaia; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho; Nicolau Gregory Czeczko; João Carlos Domingues Repka

2004-01-01

278

Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

279

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

O.S. Amaechina

2013-01-01

280

A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Electromagnetic Field Effect on Skeletal Muscles and Skin of Albino Rat Embryos Histological and Histochemical Studies  

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Aim of the work :The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) on the skeletal muscles and skin of fetuses maternally exposed to EMF. Material and Methods: Pregnant Swiss albino rats were exposed to EMF(50Hz&2mT) 8hours day after day 10 days before pregnancy and 20 days, day after day through pregnancy. Results: Exposure of pregnant rats to the electromagnetic field (EMF)of 50 Hz and 2millitesla(2mT), showed many dystrophic changes in the skelet...

Nora Ahmed Obaid Alkaabi

2008-01-01

282

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L) Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day...

Musa E.M; El, Badwi S. M.; Jah Elnabi M.A; Osman E. A; Dahab M. M

2011-01-01

283

SEQUESTRATION PROPERTY OF SPIRULINA AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE ALBINO WISTER RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS  

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Full Text Available Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and spirulina alone groups. Lead acetate treated group shows sevier histological changes were noticed and lead acetate along spirulina treated group cell recover was observed.

K.Hemalatha

2013-03-01

284

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

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Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50) of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection ...

Sabiha Khan

2014-01-01

285

Antihepatotoxic effect of Nymphaea stellata willd., against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats.  

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Nymphaea stellata willd., a medicinal plant mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of liver disorders, has not been subjected to systematic scientific investigations to asses its hepatoprotective effects. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extract of Nymphaea stellata willd., flower against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in albino rats. The oral administration of varying dosage of extract of Nymphaea stellata willd., flower to rats for 10 days afforded the good hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride-induced elevation in serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, liver lipid peroxidation and reduction in liver glutathione, liver glutathione peroxidase, glycogen, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. PMID:15036469

Bhandarkar, Manoj R; Khan, Aqueel

2004-03-01

286

Some Biochemical Parameters Of Young Male Albino Rats Treated With Ponceau 4 R And Vitamin E  

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The current study aimed to clarify hazardous effect of ponceau 4R as food colour on rats and the effect of vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent its toxic effect. Fourty premature growing male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first served as control group, the second supplemented with vitamin E (150 mg/kg),the third treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg) and fourth treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg) and vitamin E (150 mg/kg). Half of each group was treated for 3 m, the other half...

Eman G E Helal, Mahmoud A. El-kassas

2006-01-01

287

Pulmonary carcinogenesis in the F344 and Wistar rat after inhalation of plutonium dioxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary carcinogenesis was compared in female F344 and Wistar rats after inhalation of high-fired 239PuO2. Plutonium particle aggregation, as determined by quantitative light and scanning electron microscopic autoradiography, was greater for the F344 strain than for the Wistar strain. The median survival times were similar in control and low-dose (0.8-1.0 Gy) groups of both strains, but were significantly decreased in the high-dose (34-37 Gy) groups of both strains. Squamous metaplasia was not found in control or low-dose groups of either strain, but was found in 62-65% of high-dose groups of both strains. Adenomatous metaplasia was considerably higher in control and low-dose groups of F344 rats than in Wistar rats. A total of 87 lung tumors were found in 140 exposed F344 rats and 46 lung tumors in 176 exposed Wistar rats. The incidence of lung tumors in F344 rats was 1.7% in controls, 20% in the low-dose group and 82% in the high-dose group. The incidence of lung tumors in Wistar rats was 0.1% in controls, nil in the low-dose group and 68% in the high-dose group. About half of all lung tumors in both strains were considered to be the primary cause of death. The median survival times of rats of both strains in the high-dose groups that died with lung tumors were greater compared with rats in these groups that died without lung tumors. In contrast, these differences did not occur among rats in the low-dose groups. The absolute risk was 1900 lung tumors per 10(4) Rat-Gy for F344 rats receiving low doses and nil for Wistar rats receiving low doses, but about 210 lung tumors per 10(4) Rat-Gy for high-dose groups of both strains. The adenomatous tumor phenotype predominated in the F344 strain, while the squamous tumor phenotype predominated in the Wistar strain. Risk of squamous tumors was similar for both strains. Overall, the F344 strain appears to be more "sensitive" than the Wistar strain to formation of lung tumors at low to moderate doses from inhaled 239PuO2 due mostly to an increased incidence of adenomatous phenotype tumors. PMID:7480647

Sanders, C L; Lundgren, D L

1995-11-01

288

Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic profile of the aqueous root extracts of Leptadenia hastata in albino rats.  

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This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg(-1) body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin) group (B) and normal saline group (G) serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 hpost extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) b.wt have significantly (p hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days. PMID:24171268

Sanda, K A; Sandabe, U K; Auwal, M S; Bulama, I; Bashir, T M; Sanda, F A; Mairiga, A

2013-02-15

289

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

290

Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with ry to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

291

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy

2010-08-01

292

Haematological effects of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina in wistar rats  

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The present study assessed the haematological effects of aqueous extract of (Vernonia amygdalina) in wistar rats. Fifteen (15) adult Wistar rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups of five rats each. Group 1: were given 1ml of distilled water and served as the control, Group 2: received 250mg/kg b w of V. amygdalina and Group 3: received 500mg/kg b w of V. amygdalina orally once daily for a period of twenty one days. A day after the l...

Tende, J. A.; Eze, E. D.; Tende, Y. A.

2013-01-01

293

Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control w...

Hamman, Wilson O.; Musa, Sunday A.; Ikyembe, Daniel T.; Umana, Uduak E.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Nok, Andrew J.; Ojo, Samuel A.

2011-01-01

294

Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

Almoeiz Y. Hammad

2013-08-01

295

Establishment of SHG-44 human glioma model in brain of wistar rat with stereotactic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To establish solid intracerebral human glioma model in Wistar rat with xenograft methods. Methods: The SHG-44 cells were injected into brain right caudate nucleus of previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rats with stereotactic technique. The MRI scans were performed at 1 week and 2 weeks later after implantation. After 2 weeks the rats were killed and pathological examination and immunohistologic stain for human GFAP were used. Results: The MRI scan after 1 week of implantation showed the glioma was growing, pathological histochemical examination demonstrated the tumor was glioma. Human GFAP stain was positive. The growth rate of glioma model was about 60%. Conclusion: Solid intracerebral human glioma model in previous immuno-inhibitory Wistar rat is successfully established

296

Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

297

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

298

Effect of Diclofenac on Plasma Glucose level, Insulin Resistance, Inflammatory Markers and Hepatocytes in Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Background and aim of the study: diabetes was proposed to be an inflam¬matory disease. Growing evidence has pointed to a correlation between various proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on one hundred Albino rats, distributed into four groups. Group I: control group, Group II: diabetic rats with no treatment, Group III: diabetic rats treated with Glipenclamid and Group IV: diabetic rats treated ...

Ashraf M Mostafa, Waleed S. Mohamed

2014-01-01

299

Effects of radiation and maze performance on brain contents of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in male albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the present study are dealing with the normal patterns of the occurrence of norepinephrine (N E) and 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5-H T) in different brain regions of albino rat and to determine the changes in brain levels of both substances when the rat was subjected to various effects

300

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

 
 
 
 
301

Therapeutic Effect of Bacopa monniera Against Aluminum Induced toxicity in Medulla Oblongata of Albino rat  

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Full Text Available In the present study the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum (Al and the protective role of Bacopa monniera extract (BME were determined in the medulla oblongata of albino rats. Albino rats were divided into four groups. First group of rats was used as control, second group of rats received oral dose of Aluminum maltolate only, third group of animals received Bacopa monniera extract (BME and fourth group of animals received concurrently Aluminum maltolate (Al-M plus Bacopa monniera (BME extract respectively, for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the medulla oblongata was removed and processed to examine the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS and antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Oxidative stress was promoted in medulla oblongata following Aluminum administration. In contrast, BME extract exerted an antioxidant action which was related with an increase in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, evidences from light microscopic images clearly demonstrating that Al-M-induced neuronal changes, which were minimized by BME treatment, architecture of medulla oblongata in Al-M+BME treated group was almost similar to the control.

K. Mallikarjuna

2013-01-01

302

The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

303

Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days. After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P < 0.05 in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days. However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Maruthappan V

2010-01-01

304

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar / Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade varian [...] do entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 a [...] nd 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei, Rodrigues; Olavo Biraghi, Letaif; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante; Raphael Martus, Marcon; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros Filho.

305

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

2010-01-01

306

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

307

[Diuretic effect of Cecropia obtusifolia (Moraceae) on albino rats].  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible diuretic effect of the leaf extract of Cecropia obtusifolia, Bertol; used in Costa Rican traditional medicine, was tested on five Sprague Dawley rats in individual metabolic cages. During the control week, distilled water was administered with an intragastric cannula. During the C.obtusifolia week, the rats were given the aqueous leaf extract in a daily dosage of 500 mg/kg, intragastricly. Although, the urinary flow was increased (p < 0.05) by a 20%, there was no statistically significant difference between the following parameters: excretion in urine of osmoles, sodium and potassium; daily ingestion of food and water. The animal weights decreased when C. obtusifolia was used, but only on the fourth day the decrease was significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the aqueous leaf extract of C. obtusifolia has a slight diuretic effect. PMID:8731614

Vargas Howell, R; Ulate Montero, G

1996-04-01

308

Gravimetric and morphometric assessments in Wistar rats with experimental diabetes mellitus type 1 and cardiac failure  

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Diabetes mellitus type 1 and cardiac failure were experimentally induced in 55 Wistar adult rats. The animals were divided in four groups and treated as follows: group 1 (streptozotocin and adriamycin), group 2 (streptozotocin), group 3 (adriamycin), group 4 (healthy control rats). 70 days after administration, the rats were euthanized. Body weight, cardiac weight and liver weight were assessed. Cardiac gravimetric values were completed with the assessment of longitudinal diameter and transve...

Ciobotaru E.; Militaru M.; Braslasu C.M.; Braslasu E.D.; Soare T.; Joita S.; Dinescu G.

2008-01-01

309

Histological effects of chronic administration of efavirenz on lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats  

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Background: The effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 on the weight of the brain and inferior colliculus of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Methods and Materials: The rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B) (n=16) and Control (c) (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment group rec...

Patrick Sunday Igbigbi; Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene; Ezekiel Uba Nwose

2010-01-01

310

Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

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Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20?mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for ...

Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

2014-01-01

311

Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test  

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Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.

Suresha RN

2013-03-01

312

Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

313

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

Sabiha Khan

2014-05-01

314

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

315

Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

316

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase

2014-01-01

317

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cinnamon Zeylanicum Leaves against Alcohol Induced Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Plants play an important role in the life of human, as the major source of food, as well as for the maintenance and improvement of health and for the elimination of the enemies since ages. Plants are the basic source of knowledge of modern medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum are evaluated in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg was given as reference standard. The aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum have shown very significant hepatoprotection against alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducing SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and GGT and levels of total bilirubin and total protein were investigated and showed an increase in alcohol induced rats when compared to control. The extracts of the test plant exhibited significant (p < 0.05 hepatoprotective activity against the alcohol induced liver models by improving liver function which was indicated by reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin and total protein.

K.Arun

2014-08-01

318

Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT ias the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

319

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

320

Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test  

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Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)Materials and Methods: Fl...

Rn, Suresha; Ashwini V; Pragathi B; Hl, Kalabharathi; Am, Satish; Vh, Pushpa

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of tiron and its combination with nutritional supplements against vanadium intoxication in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of Tiron along with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin E against vanadium intoxication in female albino rats. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases, serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Significant decrease was observed in blood sugar, serum albumin and triglyceride levels whereas serum proteins, cholesterol and urea levels increased significantly during toxicity (p Tiron was effective but significant recovery in all the parameters was found with Tiron + Se followed by Tiron+ VitE and Tiron +Zn. PMID:17538242

Shrivastava, Sadhana; Jadon, Anjana; Shukla, Sangeeta

2007-05-01

322

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duratio...

Muthuviveganandavel, V.; Muthuraman, P.; Muthu, S.; Srikumar, K.

2011-01-01

323

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

324

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

325

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o ) in the experimental model and the effects were compared with...

Pv, Dr Kishan; Dr, Kavitha R.; Miss Arpitha.T; Dr.Jayasree.T

2012-01-01

326

Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar  

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Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.). Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour befo...

Asuntha, G.; Prasannaraju, Y.; Sujatha, D.; Kvsrg, Prasad

2010-01-01

327

Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento / Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada ga [...] iola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes) foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in [...] each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.

Vania Gomes de Moura, Mattaraia; Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares, Moura.

1490-14-01

328

RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant propert because of its potent antioxidant property

329

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição. Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05 obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose.

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

2010-12-01

330

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats / Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto n [...] ormal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição). Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle) durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05) obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on [...] the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group). Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls) were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05) obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.

Cassio Eduardo, Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz, Almeida; Cesar Augusto, Raposo-Amaral; Luiz Carlos, Vulcano; Maria Rita, Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo, Alonso.

2010-12-01

331

EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF KIGELIA PINNATA LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR RATS  

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The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats. Analgesic activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata at a dose of 200 mg/kg & 400 mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug pentazocine at a dose of 10mg/kg. Wistar rats of either sex of five numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated by hot plate and tail flick method. The both doses of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata was found to produce signi...

Parmar Namita; Rawat Mukesh; Kumar Tirath

2011-01-01

332

The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats  

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This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twent...

Ezejindu D. N; Chinweife K. C.

2013-01-01

333

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Leaf on Pregnancy Outcome of Wistar Rats  

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Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaf extract is used medicinally to treat various kinds of diseases such as diabetes, fever, bronchitis etc, in different parts of the world including Nigeria. This study investigates the effect of A. occidentale leaf extract on reproductive outcome of Wistar rats. Twenty female wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (I, II, III, and IV), n = 5 in each group. Group I is the control while groups II, III and IV are experimental groups. 300 mg/kg of aqueous leaf e...

Dare, S. S.; W O Hamman, S. Musa

2011-01-01

334

Improved model for the establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voi [...] ding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P

Nian-zhao, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian-bo, Zhang; Jun, Chen.

2014-06-01

335

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos.

Thiago de Oliveira Assis

2010-12-01

336

Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats  

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The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological ch...

Sakr, Saber A.; Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

2014-01-01

337

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

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The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight) and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH con...

Sivasankaran, T. G.; Udayakumar, R.; Panjamurthy, K.; Albert Singh, V.

2007-01-01

338

Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L.) in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver  

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Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L.) in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats) were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w) for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemi...

Al-rawi, Maisaa M.

2007-01-01

339

EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CROSSANDRA INFUNDIBULIFORMIS FLOWER EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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Crossandra infundibuliformis belonging to family Acanthaceae is well known medicinal plant in various region of India. This plant is one of the most chosen variety for folk medicine. Flower extract used in various conditions like fever, headache, aperitif, pain etc. Present study is concern mainly with evaluation of wound healing activity of flower ethanolic extract in Wistar rats using excision wound model in the form of ointment using two concentrations (2 and 4%w/w ointment) of flower extr...

Mohan Verma, Rohit Gundamaraju And T.

2012-01-01

340

Genotoxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in female Wistar rats after acute oral exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs; nanoceria) have demonstrated excellent potential for commercial use in various arenas, such as in biomedical industry in cosmetics and as a fuel additive. However, limited knowledge exists regarding their potential toxicity. In this study, acute oral toxicity of CeO2 NPs and their microparticles (MPs; bulk) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats. The CeO2 NPs and CeO2 MPs were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for the size, distribution and surface charge respectively. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus test (MNT), comet and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. Results revealed that at high dose (1000mg/kg bw) CeO2 NPs induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and blood cells and total cytogenetic changes in bone marrow. However, significant genotoxicity was not observed at 500 and 100mg/kg bw of CeO2 NPs. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in ALP and LDH activity in serum and GSH content in liver, kidneys and brain only at the high dose of CeO2 NPs. Tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Bioaccumulation of nanoceria in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, CeO2 NPs exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance in large fractions through urine and feces than CeO2 bulk, whereas, maximum amount of micro-sized CeO2 got excreted in feces. The histopathological examination documented alterations in the liver due to exposure with CeO2 NPs only. Hence, the results suggest that bioaccumulation of CeO2 NPs may induce genotoxic effects. However, further research on long term fate and adverse effects of CeO2 NPs is warranted. PMID:25435351

Kumari, Monika; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Grover, Paramjit

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparison of the alcohol-preferring P rat to the Wistar rat in behavioral tests of impulsivity and anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the selectively bred alcohol preferring P rat displays impulsive and anxiety-related behaviors, as have been noted in Type 2 human alcoholics, P rats were compared with outbred Wistar rats, the strain from which P rats were derived, on a series of behaviors reflecting impulsivity and anxiety. The two groups were also compared on their volitional consumption of ethanol. When compared with the Wistar rats, the P rats preferred a higher concentration of ethanol and imbibed a much greater amount of ethanol when they were offered their preferred concentration. However, the behavioral tasks produced inconsistent results. The P rats completed 100 bar presses for food in less time when tested on a constant reinforcement schedule, which suggests that they are hyperactive compared to Wistar rats. However, the P rats also emitted a higher percentage of reinforced responses on differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL)-10s and gnawed less from a cork stopper, which suggests that they are less impulsive and possibly neophobic. The two groups did not differ on emergence into or activity in an open field, their activity in or open-arm duration in the elevated plus maze, or performance on DRL-5s and DRL-15s. Collectively, the behavioral data suggest that P rat does not serve as a model for the anxiety and impulsiveness associated with the Type 2 alcoholic individual. PMID:9469729

McMillen, B A; Means, L W; Matthews, J N

1998-02-01

342

Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (P<0.01) at 20mg/kg/day. Relative weight of heart and spleen decreased significantly (P<0.05) at higher dose level. Non significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was observed in both the imidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (P<0.01, P<0.05) in acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity in plasma and brain of both the imidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. PMID:24759051

Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

343

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina / Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

2000-03-01

344

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

345

Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

346

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day, Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day, Group III: rats were fed with combined mixture of 70% of high-fat diet with 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day, Group IV: rats were fed a high fat diet was administered with pioglitazone (25mg/kg of body weight via intravenous in each day, Group V: rats were fed combined mixture of 70% standard laboratory pellet and 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (thirteen week period. High fat fed rat registered significantly increase in body weight and liver weight at the end of experimental period. The high fat fed rat substantially elevated its serum and liver tissue AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin with decreased in total protein levels. Whereas the levels of all parameterssignificantly restored towards normalization by the sesame meal treatment. The results obtained suggest that the sesame meal have potent hepatoprotective action on high fat fed rats. A comparison of the performance in both sesame meal and pioglitazone treatment on high fat fed rat in respect of hepato-protective role is clearly indicate that the sesame meal treatment was more or less very equal to the result of pioglitazone as well as to the normal level.

Anitha Uthandi

2011-12-01

347

Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

O. O. Udemezue

2004-09-01

348

Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats  

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Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

V.O. Ogugbuaja

2004-12-01

349

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.. The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.

Bahar Ahmed

2010-06-01

350

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of variance and Student’s t-tests were applied to compare the results. Results: It was found that the mean ulcer index varied significantly across the three groups (p = .000. Compared to the control group, the ulcer index was significantly less in both lansoprazole and rabeprazole groups (p = .000. But the ulcer index with rabeprazole was significantly less than that with lansoprazole (p = .001. Conclusion: Rabeprazole is more efficacious than lansoprazole as far as ulcer healing effect is concerned.

Amit Kumar Jha

2012-11-01

351

Some Neuro hormonal Effects of ruta chalepensis in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oral sub-chronic administrations of Ruta chalepensis extract equivalent to 3.0 g/kg body weight were given to male albino rats daily for four weeks (0.5 ml solution/100 g/ rat). The data revealed significant increases in tyrosine, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in all tested brain areas throughout most of the experimental intervals. Significant increases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were also observed while serum prolactin was decreased significantly. It could be also concluded from the present results that treatment with Ruta chalepensis extract significantly increased catecholamine content. This observation may be in part due to an increase in its synthesis through an increase of the peripheral availability of tyrosine for brain synthesis of catecholamine and/or a decrease in its release

352

6. Reproductive toxicity of Capparis aphylla (Roth. in male albino rats  

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Full Text Available The present study reflects the effect of ethanolic extract of Capparis aphylla (Roth. on male reproduction and fertility in adult albino rat. The result revealed that the administration of whole plant ethanolic extract of C. aphylla manifested an antifertility effect on male reproductive system. The complete loss of fertility is attributed to decline in epididymal sperm counts and motility as well as origin of bi- and multinucleate giant cells in the ad luminal compartment of the testis was observed. The administration of ethanolic extract at varied doses led to alteration in both the histoarchitecture of testis, mainly caput epididymis and erratic spermatogenesis have been documented. The data revealed that functional sterility could be induced in male rats by whole plant ethanolic extract treatment, which promises to be a potential male contraceptive.

P. Revathi

2010-08-01

353

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which

Musa E.M

2011-10-01

354

Effects of Celastrus paniculatus on passive avoidance performance and biogenic amine turnover in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of an indigenous drug, Celastrus oil, extracted from the seeds of Celastrus paniculatus on learning and memory in a two compartment passive avoidance task was studied in albino rats. The effects on the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and on the levels of their metabolites both in the brain and urine were also assessed. Significant improvement was observed in the retention ability of the drug treated rats compared with the saline administered controls. The contents of NE, DA and 5-HT and their metabolites in the brain were significantly decreased in the drug treated group. The urinary metabolite levels were also significantly decreased except for total 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol. These data indicate that Celastrus oil causes an overall decrease in the turnover of all the three central monoamines and implicate the involvement of these aminergic systems in the learning and memory process. PMID:7500635

Nalini, K; Karanth, K S; Rao, A; Aroor, A R

1995-07-01

355

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-09-01

356

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

O. A Komolafe

2012-06-01

357

Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals ...

José Carlos Gomes; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi; Amp Borah Mara Costa Oliveira, D.; Cláudia Helena Pellizzon; Ana Carolina Luchini

2009-01-01

358

THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Effects of Atrazine Metabolites on Puberty in the Male Wistar Rat. D L Guidici, R L Cooper and T E Stoker. Endocrinology Branch, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC. Sponsor: R J Kavlock. Atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, alters pubertal pr...

359

Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

360

Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats  

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Objective(s): This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) aqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

Mehdizadeh, Roya; Parizadeh, Mohammad–reza; Khooei, Ali-reza; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The effects of leucotrofina or timolimfotropina on some parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in the Wistar rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10 days Leucotrofina or Timolimfotropina administration induced in Wistar rats a rise of glycemia and liver glycogen content, and a decrease of glycogen-phosphorylase a activity. These modifications lasted in time and may be due to an activation of the hepatic gluconcogenetic pathway, via a stimulated glucocorticoid production. PMID:7982023

Coprean, D; Giurgea, R; Ro?ioru, C; Uray, Z

1993-01-01

362

ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

363

Effect of hypo and hyperprolactinemia on the testicular maturation of Wistar rats during puberal transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Wistar rats, the structural and metabolic organization of the testis was influenced by the blood concentration of prolactin. The androgen dependent enzyme activities in plasma as well as in testis were higher under hyperprolactinemia and lower under hypoprolactinemia, as induced by bromocriptine. While prolactin had direct effect on the testicular functions, bromocriptine seemed to exert its influence through blocking hypophysial prolactin. PMID:2480089

Prasad, M; Uma Devi, G; Govindappa, S

1989-10-01

364

Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification  

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We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21) and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal) of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters) of untreated rats. Relationships betw...

Chahoud I.; Paumgartten F.J.R.

2005-01-01

365

The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat  

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The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract...

Rachael Ununuma Akpiri; Roseline, Konya S.; Jack Abigail

2013-01-01

366

Effect of Sodium Metabisulphite on Blood Metabolic Status of Wistar Rats  

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The objective of this work was to determine the sodium metabisulphite (NaMBS) subchronic toxicity used as a food additive in Algeria. Three groups of female Wistar rats were treated with 0.25%, 1% and 4% of NaMBS in their drinking water for 90 days. An immunization protocol was conducted during the experiment. Mortality, comportmental and weight modifications, and food and water consumption were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the control and experiment rats ...

Fatima Zohra El Kadi; Amina Imène Bénali; Mohammed Bénali; Slimane Belbraouet

2014-01-01

367

Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats  

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Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxi...

Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

2011-01-01

368

Endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats  

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Abstract Background Endurance exercise is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance in rats and humans. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms for the appetite-suppressive effects of endurance exercise. We hypothesized that endurance training might activate signaling cascades in the hypothalamus known to be involved in leptin signaling. Methods 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (n = 8) and exercise...

Zhao Jiexiu; Tian Ye; Xu Jincheng; Liu Dongsen; Wang Xiaofang; Zhao Binxiu

2011-01-01

369

Efficacy of Trans-2-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Against Trichlorfon-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats  

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Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, crickets, silverfish, bedbugs, fleas, cattle grubs, flies, ticks, leaf miners, and leaf-hoppers. It is also used to treat domestic animals for control of internal parasites. Trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid (T2HCA) is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. The present study highlights trichlorofon-induced toxicity and the protective role of T2HCA in the liver, kidney, and brain of female Wistar rats. The rats were given a...

Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

2012-01-01

370

Anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The study investigated the anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. In this work, thirty six adult strain of albino wistar rats were used, which included six normal, diabetic untreated and twenty four diabetic treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneally injection of 60 mg/kg body weight dose of streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 ml fresh cold citrate buffer pH 4.5 into 16 h-fasted rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided as follows: Group I served as normal control, Group II served as diabetic untreated rats, while Group III to Group VI received 200, 400 and 800mg/kg b w of the extract and glibenclamide 10mg/kg b w respectively by orally by gavages for a period of 28 days. The animals were weighed weekly to determine the change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was measured after every seven days. After the last day of treatment, blood samples were collected from the animals from each group on the 29th day by cardiac puncture in 16 hours fasted animals for the determination of haematological parameters. The results obtained in this present study showed that the blood glucose level was significantly (pth, 21st and 28th day when compared to diabetic control group. There was a statistically significant increase (pth days. In conclusion, the plant extract showed a significant hypoglycemic as well as erythropoetic effects in the diabetic animals, justifying its use traditionally in the management of diabetes mellitus.

R.K. Mohammed

2013-03-01

371

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

372

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

2005-09-01

373

Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V Derivative in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Triphenylantimony(V derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri[SC6H4N:C(CH3CH2C(OCH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC︹(CH3CH2C(OCH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P<.01 alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a.

Y. P. Singh

2006-04-01

374

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects of crude aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (Mango stem bark on body weight and haematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats of both sexes weighing between 75 g and 125 g were used. At least 14 mL of the test aqueous extract of the plant was administered to each rat in the group for a period of 14 days. Observations showed that the extract of the medicinal plant have some effects on the haematopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of PCV (haematocrit, erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet counts and lymphocytes, while the haemoglobin (Hb and neutrophil levels were decreased. The test plant also caused an increase in the weights of the rats. Therefore, it is not possible that its use can advance any adverse effects on haematological parameters.

Nwinuka, Nwibani M.

2008-01-01

375

Susceptibility of two colonies of Wistar rats to inflammation, with particular reference to delayed hypersensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two colonies of Wistar rats were tested for their abilities to produce delayed hypersensitivity reactions and other forms of inflammation. Tuck rats, which respond to dextran with an anaphylactoid reaction, produced delayed reactions to tuberculin protein and to ovalbumin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. On the other hand, NELP rats which do not respond to dextran also produced delayed reactions to tuberculin protein, but only to ovalbumin when this was contained in Freund's complete adjuvant. Rats of both colonies responded to cotton pellet-induced inflammation, but the adult NELP rats showed resistance both to adjuvant-induced and to collagen-induced arthritis, as well as to the production of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. NELP rats also showed a much greater reticulo-endothelial system phagocytic activity although antibody titres to sheep red blood cells and the mitogenic activity of concanavalin A and of lipopolysaccharide on spleen cells were similar in the two colonies of rats. PMID:6223888

de Brito, F B; Hanahoe, T H

1983-01-01

376

Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 ?g/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre?pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall density. The sensitive endpoints in male rats were TEB numbers, both in the whole gland and in the zone C, the overall? and the highest density. The overall density was sensitive in both male and female rats and was considered a good representative of both branching and budding of the gland. The number of TEBs in zone C was representative of the number of TEBs in the whole gland. Further studies in older Wistar rats and with weak oestrogenic compounds could be performed to validate mammary gland examination as an endpoint in reproductive toxicity studies and to examine how early life environmental exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer.

Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla

2012-01-01

377

ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolyt...

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-01-01

378

GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold ...

Khumanthem Deepak Singh; Haja Sherief, S.; Sengottuvelu, S.; Lalitha, V.; Sivakumar, T.

2011-01-01

379

The innervation pattern of the hard palate of the wistar albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified Sihler technique was used to investigate the innervation of the hard palate. Nervi palatinin majores and minores showed slight individual variations. The antemolar area was innervated by a very fine diffuse network. In the intermolar region most of the terminal branches ended within the papillae which are on top of the rugae. The lateral intermolar region had a more dense innervation than the medial region. A diagram of the areas innervated by the different palatal nerves is presented. PMID:7405632

van der Werf, A A; Liem, R S; Jansen, H W

1980-06-01

380

The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

Zeinab E. Hanafy

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

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The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus...

Farag Allah, Amina M.

2001-01-01

382

ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY  

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Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt) were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney fu...

Teli Parashuram; Chougule Priti; Jadhav Jaywant; Kanase Aruna

2013-01-01

383

Abhraka Bhasma treatment ameliorates proliferation of germinal epithelium after heat exposure in rats  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the tes...

Bhatia, Babita S.; Kale, Purushottam G.; Daoo, Jayashree V.; Panchal, Pranali P.

2012-01-01

384

Amikacin Induces Renal Morphohistological Alterations in Wistar Rats / Alterações Morfohistológicas Renais Induzidas pela Amicacina em Ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi investigar as alterações morfohistológicas da amicacina em ratos. Ratos Wistar machos com idade de 8-12 meses e peso 200-250 g foram mantidos em temperatura (23±2°C) ambiente controlada com ciclos claro/escuro 12/12h. 25 ratos foram distribuídos em 5 grupos e [...] xperimentais, cada grupo com 5 animais. 4 grupos receberam uma dose diária de amicacina de 15 mg/Kg pela via intraperitoneal. O grupo-controle foi tratado com 0,9% solução salina por 28 dias. Aos grupos I, II, III e IV foram administrados pela via intraperitoneal amicacina por 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, respectivamente. Lâminas de tecido renal foram coradas com o reagente PAS e examinadas pela microscopia de luz. A morfologia das estruturas coradas pelo PAS do glomérulo renal foi avaliada nos diferentes grupos experimentais através de scores aplicando-se análise estatística de Kruskal-Wallis e Teste de comparação múltipla de Dunn’s com nível de signi?cância de 5%. Os resultados da microscopia mostraram que os rins dos grupos tratados com amicacina por 3 a 4 semanas apresentaram necrose celular (p Abstract in english The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the morphohistological effects of amikacin in rats. Male Wistar rats aged 8-12 weeks and weighing 200-250g were placed in a temperature (23±2°C) controlled room in which a 12/12h light: dark cycle was maintained. Twenty-?ve rats were randomly ass [...] igned to ?ve experimental groups of ?ve animals each that received daily treatment with 15 mg/kg of amikacin intraperitoneally. The control group was treated with 0.9% saline for 28 days. Groups I, II, III and IV were injected intaperitoneally with amikacin for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. Renal tissues slides were stained with PAS reagent and examined light microscopy. The morphology of the PAS stained structures of the renal glomeruli was evaluated in the different experimental groups using scores. The renal morphohistology and the morphologic analysis of PAS staining were analysed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons Test (5% statistical signi?cance). The results show microscopically that kidneys in the groups treated with amikacin for 3 and 4 weeks showed marked cellular necrosis (p

Vanessa Barboza de, Sousa; Ilana Jozi Pereira, Dutra; Hévio Freitas de, Lucena; Hilkéia Carla de Souza, Medeiros; Gerlane Coelho Bernardo, Guerra; Raimundo F. de, Araújo Júnior; Aurigena A., Araújo; Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa, Alves.

2009-11-01

385

Digestive Peritoneum in Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus Peritoneo del Aparato Digestivo de la Rata Wistar (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus has been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research, for a long time. It is an interesting fact that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and its ways of fixation. The aim of this study is to define clearly and according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria principles, the liver and its way of fixation in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were used, with a weight between 250 and 450 g. They were dissected in fresh, after been euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium intraperitoneal. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward dorsal.La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, no existen descripciones detalladas del peritoneo digestivo de la rata wistar. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma clara y acorde a los principios de la Nómina Anatómica Veterinaria el peritoneo en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron ochenta y ocho ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus de entre 250 y 450 g. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal.

Richard Möller

2013-03-01

386

Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

387

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae on in Vivo Leukocyte Mobilization in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Immune system (the body’s defense system which protects the body from diseases, is subject to modification by substances to either enhance or suppress its ability to resist invasion by pathogen. Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae, a wild fig tree, is believed by the Igala people of Kogi State in Nigeria to possess an immune boosting property, hence, forming part of most of their traditional remedies for several ailments. This study was aimed at investigating, so as to ascertain this claim. Twenty wistar strain albino rats divided into four groups of five animals each were used. One hour prior to introduction of an inflammatory stimulus, each rat in groups (Group 2-4 received oral administration of 100, 150 and 250 mg/kg, respectively of aqueous extract of leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae. The control group (Group 1 received distilled water. After four hours, the animals were sacrificed and both Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts were performed on the peritoneal fluid obtained from these animals. Evaluation of the data obtained from this study indicated a significant (p<0.05 dose-dependent increase in leukocyte mobilization, with doses 150 and 250 mg/kg giving total leukocyte count of 4.44±0.39×109 and 6.10±0.86×109/L, respectively, the most mobilized being Neutrophils. The results obtained from this study suggest that the extract might have a pharmacologically active substance which may be responsible for the above effect and its applications in traditional medicines as an immune boosting agent.

O.A. Daikwo

2012-06-01

388

Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p<0.05) for micronucleated cells from liver were noticed at 50 % concentration of effluent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that municipal effluent is able to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of Wistar rats. PMID:24996946

da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Flavia Andressa Pidone; Cesar, Augusto; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-11-01

389