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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423) showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-...

Pattar Jayashree; Shridhar, N. B.; Matham Vijaykumar; Suhasini, K.; Jayakumar; Satyanarayana, M. L.

2012-01-01

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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FICUS VIRENS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of oral administration of methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens in Wistar albino rats.The phytochemical analysis of the F.virens extract was carried out using high performance thin layer chromatography revealed for the presence of flavonoids, bitter principles, coumarins and absence of alkaloids, anthracene derivatives. Acute oral toxicity study (OECD 423 showed no clinical signs of toxicity and mortality even at dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg in 24 h and 14 day observation period. For repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407 extract was given at dose of 50, 200, and 800 mg/kg and limit dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days and compared with the control group given with the distilled water. The result showed no significant increase (P>0.05 in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine and haematological parameters. No significant decrease in feed consumption and body weight gain, also there were no treatment related gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, methanolic leaf extract of F. virens did not revealed any clinical signs of toxicity and mortality in both acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study at given dose and duration in Wistar albino rats. LD50 value may be more than 2000 mg/kg, can be classified as category 5 and indicating non-toxic nature of the methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens.

Pattar Jayashree

2012-12-01

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Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

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Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. ed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

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Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

Uduak Akpan Okon

2014-06-01

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Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats  

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Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that chronic use of atorvastatin 2 and 4 mg may lead to fasting hyperglycemia and it could be prevented by co-administration of 200 IU of vitamin D, in male Wistar albino rats. Randomized control studies in humans are further required to recommend routine use of vitamin D in patients receiving atorvastatin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 359-364

R. Arunkumar

2014-04-01

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Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute stud...

Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

2012-01-01

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Effect of Trans Fatty Acids Consumption on Some Haematological Indices in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of trans fatty acids on haematological indices. This was done by supplementing the diets fed to the albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of thermally oxidized palm oil and margarine as sources of trans fatty acids. Fifty albino Wistar rats were used for this study and were randomly selected into five groups of ten rats. Group 1 rats serving as the control received only the stock diet. Group 2 received 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% margarine. Group 3 was fed with 75% rat pellet and 25% margarine. The fourth group was fed with 85% rat pellet supplemented with 15% thermally oxidized palm oil. Group 4 was fed with 75% rat pellet supplemented with 25% thermally oxidized palm oil. The feeding experiment lasted for six weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed for determination of haematological indices. Results showed significant (p<0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count, White Blood Cell (WBC and platelet counts, Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and Packed Cell Volume (PCV in all test groups. This probably suggests that trans fatty acids may adversely affect the health of an individual and should be reduced in diet.

G.E. Egbung

2009-01-01

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HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p.) with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis...

Kanakasabapathi Devaki; Uthamaraj Beulah; Govindraj Akila; Martin Sunitha; Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan

2011-01-01

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Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available FC Onwuka1, KC Patrick-I wuanyanwu1, CK Nnodu1, O Erhabor21Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAbstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D of experimental male wistar albino rats (n = 8 for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8 served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01 > B (0.18 ± 0.01 > C (0.14 ± 0.01 > D (0.10 ± 0.01. The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.Keywords: calcium-channel blocker, amlodipine, antireproductive, antihypertensive drugs, gonadal steroid, and low libido

FC Onwuka

2010-03-01

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Extra-Bone Marrow Sites of Haemopoeisis: Dihydroartemisinin Effects in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Iron is present in ferritin, the storage form of iron in the tissues; in the respiratory cytochrome enzymes; in hemoglobin of the blood and in the myoglobin of muscle Dihydroartemisinin (DHA has been shown to interact with heme groups in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the effects of 5 day and 7day oral dihydroartemisinin treatments on the blood and tissues of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the intestines, the spleen and the kidney of Wistar albino rats. The dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin employed in the study were: A single dosage regimen of 1 mg kg-1; a repeated dosage regimen of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1. Approach: The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin interacted with the hemoglobin of the blood and the myoglobin of muscle to stimulate new haemopoesis in a concentration, repetition and time dependent manner in the tissues of the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine, heart and kidney of Wistar albino rats which was absent in the control rats. Results: Statistically significant increases were observed in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: These haemopoetic effects of DHA were greater and of longer duration in 5 day DHA-treatment rats than in those of the 7 day DHA-treatment rats.

Nedosa U. Anastasia

2012-01-01

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Toxicological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation of Tridham in Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available Tridham (TD, a polyherbal formulation is assessed for its acute (72 hr and subacute toxicity (28 days and also its significance on histological, hematological and biochemical variations in albino wistar rats. Body weight and general behavior of animal was observed throughout the experimental period and at the end of the study period organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as kidney and liver histology were evaluated. Results of the studies performed indicated no toxic clinical symptoms or histopathological lesions in both acute and subacute toxicity, which clearly shows that TD extract has high margin of safety.

Ravindran Jaganathan

2012-08-01

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2. Effect of ghrelin hormone on ovary histology in female wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the ovary of immature and mature wistar strain female albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin hormone. Methods: Eighteen immature female albino rats (65 - 70 g and eighteen mature female albino rats (130 to 140 g were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups (two doses as low dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of ghrelin.Treatment groups were injected with ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were fixed in10 % buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of ovary was studied. Results: Administration of ghrelin indicates well defined changes like reduced number of graffian follicles, some of which show mild degenerative changes like disorganized cells. Reduction in number of corpus luteal cells, prominent Stromal tissues, congestion of blood vessels were also seen in the ovaries of animals in mature female rats of optimum dose. There was no significant change in histoarchitecture of immature ovary of treated groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight but decreased ovarian weight in treated animals when compared with control. Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the ovaries of mature albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and affects fertility.

S. Antony Selvi

2012-08-01

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Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.  

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Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats. PMID:25204063

Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

2014-09-01

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Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.  

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The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

2013-09-01

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CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G.) on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18) rats per group. Rats in gro...

Arhoghro, E. M.; Ikeh, C.; Uwakwe, A. A.; Ekpo, K. E.; Anosike, E. O.

2012-01-01

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HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

Kanakasabapathi Devaki

2011-09-01

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Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

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Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

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Hepatoprotective Activity on Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae by using Wistar Albino Rats in Ibuprofen Induced Model  

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Full Text Available The present study was intended to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity on ethanolic extract of leaves of Vitex negundo was determined by using Wistar Albino rats in male sex. The V. negundo Linn. is a natural plant product, in it’s the leaves are used with the added advantage to revert Ibuprofen induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of ethanol extract of V. negundo (100 and 300 mg produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition to the acute hepatotoxic induced rats and various parameters were analyzed, when compared with negative control V. negundo showed that the significant activity in 300 mg/kg/b.wt. They exhibited a significant inhibition of hepatic toxicity by using various marker enzymes and the histopathological analysis. The inhibitory effect of the V. negundo on hepatotoxicity was compared to that of positive control group. The various parameters such glucose, protein, triglycerides, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, ALP, ACP, SGPT, SGOT and histopathological parameters was measured by dissection the rats. A significant index and values were observed in the acute assays; an effective significant alteration in all biochemical and histopathological sections was observed. From these results, concluded that the V. negundo having the potential effectiveness at the dose of 300 mg/kg/b.wt., (pV. negundo having the hepatoprotective activity, which support the hepatic cells protection.

V. Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

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ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

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Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

A.J. Joshua

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+ or Co (2+ alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II cation, LD50/2] or CoSO4 6H2O [Co (II cation, LD50/2]. For the combined treatment (Ni + Co, the rats received both Ni (II cation (LD 50/2 and CO (II cation (LD50/2. Nickel and cobalt treatment decreased body weight gain. The nickel sulphate increased also the glucose level. The two heavy elements produced hepatic and renal damage, characterized by increased activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases (GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase. However lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH was decreased. In addition, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum total protein and serum bilurebin concentrations were significantly elevated. In general the combined effect of Ni-Co was slightly less toxic than nickel or cobalt alone, suggesting antagonism between these toxicants.

Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

2006-01-01

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Twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of gemifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity of gemifloxacin by 28-day repeated oral dose in Wistar albino rats. The test article, was administered daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day. At the end of treatment period, 12 rats/sex/group was sacrificed, while six extra rats/sex in the vehicle control and highest dose groups sacrificed after 14 days recovery period. During the treatment and recovery periods, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, phototoxicity, hematology, serum biochemistry, synovial fluid biochemistry, electrocardiogram (ECG), gross findings, organ weights, microscopic examination of synovial fluid, and histopathology were examined. Hematological and serum biochemical investigations revealed a dose-dependent increase in the total white blood cell (WBC), total bilirubin (T-BIL), glucose (GLU), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and significant decreases in total protein (TP) were observed in both sexes at the same dose, at the end of treatment period, but the levels returned toward normal during the recovery period. Histopathology of talar joint showed that erosion of the articular surface of that joint in both sexes at the end of treatment period at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day. Degenerative changes in tendinocytes were observed in Achilles tendon of both sexes at the high dose level at the end of treatment period. In histopathological study shows partial effacement of liver architecture and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa at the high dose level at the end of treatment period. Based on these results, it was concluded that 28 days repeated oral dose of gemifloxacin caused increases in the liver weight, WBC count, T-BIL, glucose level, ALT, decreasing the TP, cause chronic hepatitis and acute gastritis, erosion of the articular surface of joint and histopathologic changes in Achilles tendon in rats at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day. PMID:20580917

Roy, Bikash; Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Sengupta, Pinaki; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan; Pal, Tapan Kumar

2010-11-01

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Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

A.H. Ahmad

2009-06-01

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Effect of Green and Black Teas on Immobilization Induced Stress in Male Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of green and black teas to modulate restraint stress-induced oxidative changes in male Wistar albino rats. Repeated immobilization for 4 h daily for five consecutive days per week (for 2 and 4 weeks was used as a test model. Repeated immobilization stress significantly decreased glutathione (GSH, RNA and total protein levels, while malondialdehyde (MDA levels were elevated in brain and liver tissues. Daily drinking of green or black tea only attenuated the RNA decrease and the MDA increase in stressed groups in liver tissues. Green tea group attenuated the decrease in GSH and RNA and the increase in MDA induced by immobilization stress in brain tissues. However, black tea only attenuated the increase in brain MDA in stressed animals. The effect of green tea on restraint stress was higher in brain than liver. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the antioxidative effect of green tea during immobilization stress was higher, possibly attributed to the presence of relatively higher concentrations of flavonoids than in black tea.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

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Aging-related changes of optic nerve of Wistar albino rats.  

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Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves an increase of oxidative stress associated with gradual degradation of the structure and function of the optic nerve. Gender differences and subsequent deterioration of optic nerve are an interesting topic, especially because there is little published work concerning it. One hundred male and female Wistar albino rats' with ages 1, 6, 18, 24, and 30 months (n?=?20 equal for male and female) were used. At the time interval, optic nerve was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), assessments of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase, and glutathione-S-transferase), caspase 3 and 7, malondialdhyde, flow cytometry of DNA, annexin v, and CD8, immunochemistry of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, and CD45, and single-strand DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the older specimens (24 and 30 months) revealed apparent deterioration of optic nerve axons, abundant oligodendrocytes with pyknotic nuclei, swollen astrocytes, angiogenesis, vacuolar degeneration, and mitochondrial damage. Females were highly susceptible to aging processes. Concomitantly, there was a marked reduction of antioxidant's enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation and apoptotic markers. Old age exhibited a marked increase of G1 apoptosis, UR and LR of annexin V and CD8 as well as increased immuno-positive reaction with VEGR, CD31 and CD45. We conclude that aging contributed to an increase of oxidative stress resulting from damage of mitochondria in axons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Age-related loss of optic nerve axons is associated with multifactorial agents including reduction in antioxidant enzymes, disruption of vasculature, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte, demyelination, and damage of mitochondria, which enhance the liberation of reactive oxygen species as assessed by an increase of apoptotic markers malondialdhyde and caspase 3 and 7. PMID:23996059

El-Sayyad, Hassan I H; Khalifa, Soad A; El-Sayyad, Fawkia I; Al-Gebaly, Asma S; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Mohammed, Ezaldin A M

2014-04-01

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Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats.  

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Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

Devaki, K; Beulah, U; Akila, G; Gopalakrishnan, V K

2012-01-01

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High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats  

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Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) ...

Mahboobeh Ashrafi; Seyedeh Zahra Bathaie; Saeid Abroun

2012-01-01

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Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lacta...

anil kashinath mali

2012-01-01

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The Effect of Nigerian Qua-iboe Brent Crude Oil on the Reproductive Performance of Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.

C.U. Nwaigwe

2012-01-01

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Effect of Ageratum Conyzoides Leaf Extract On Histological Structure of Mammary Gland of Wistar Albino Rat.  

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Full Text Available Abstract:             There are many causes of non-lactation after delivery in some dairy mammals and human female. In present investigation study was carried out to find out effect of Ageratum conyzoides leaf extract on histological structure of non lactating mammary gland of wistra white albino rat female. Ageratum conyzoides is supposed to induce lactation in non-lactating mammalian female including woman1. The effect of extract on non-lactating mammary gland after seven and fourteen days was observed on non – lactating mammary gland showed small size mammary gland with no secretion. After 7 days the epithelial lining showed growth and increasing size of secretary glands. Ducts were also seen increasing a proliferation. After 14 days secretory gland showed more tortures structure and secretion was accumulated in to lumen and gland. The 14 days treated female rat mammary gland showed more secretary activity indicating lactation was induced in lactating gland of mammary gland1. Key Words: albino rat, Phytochemical, Gangotry species, Ageratum conyzoides

anil kashinath mali

2012-07-01

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Hematological Effects Following Ingestion of Allium cepa (Onion, Allium sativum Garlic and Treatment with Iodine in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the extent to which ingestion of Allium cepa (onion Allium sativum (garlic and treatment with iodine affect haematological parameters of albino Wistar rats. The effect on total hemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV%, red blood cells (RBC and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were carried out. Oral administration of onion and garlic extract led to a dose dependent decrease in the total haemoglobin level of normal rats which was not statistically significant (pAlliums on the haematological parameters but to consider fortification with nutrients while embarking on the various forms of fortification with iodine. This is of particular importance mainly in areas where nutritional anemia is a concern.

Aletan, Uduak I.

2014-01-01

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Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc. treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7 est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg par voie sous-cutanée (sc ou en association (10 mg/kg avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg. Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05 du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-12-01

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HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K

2011-03-01

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Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant increase when compared with the control. The treated groups also produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum LDL, VLDL and TG when compared with the control. Also, in female albino rats, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total cholesterol when compared with the control. Though the group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum HDL, a significant increase (P<0.05 was observed in groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C. The group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum LDL while groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C produced a significant (P<0.05 increase when compared with the control .Likewise, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum VLDL when compared with the control. The serum triglyceride in fansidar treated group was significantly(P<0.05 decreased in fansidar+ Vit.C treated group when compared with the control. Conclusion:The biochemical alterations and responses above from this study are indications that fansidar and Vitamin C exhibits a synergistic reaction which might aid hypocholesterolaemic effect or cholesterol clearing or lowering ability which can reduce the risk of predisposition to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular related disorders.

Dasofunjo Kayode

2014-10-01

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Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

2011-01-01

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Influence of L-arginine on the Heart Histology and Function Markers of Metabolic Syndrome in Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available High blood pressure (a condition associated with vascular constriction is a major feature of metabolic syndrome (MES. MES, a constellation of metabolic disorders, is prevalently higher in females and was associated with a reduced concentration of a vasodilator molecule, Nitric Oxide (NO. L-arginine (ARG, a precursor of NO may improve MES, warranting this study. Two groups (n = 8 of female Wistar albino rats were (per orally for twenty eight days exposed to a single dose of 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, DW, respectively as treated and control groups. Significant differences in means were separated by student’s t-test (p+ concentration (136.42±1.66 mmol L-1; 6.54%, but a non-significant decrease (p>0.05 in potassium ion (K+ concentration (4.54±0.66 mmol L-1; 14.01% in the rats’ serum, suggesting improved/reduced blood pressure. ARG treatment in the rats had a significant increase (p-1; 196.43% in the rats’ serum, indicating adverse influence on high metabolic organs, including the brain. Sodium ion had a significant negative correlation (r = 0.01 with potassium ion, whereas the heart histomorphology revealed degenerations in the ARG-fed rats, apparently confirming the observations and suggestions thereto. Thus, ARG may improve blood pressure in the rats, perhaps at the expense of compromised heart function and histology of the rats. These may be pointing to a new arginine phenomenon, hence warrant follow up.

Lawrence U.S. Ezeanyika

2013-01-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

2012-04-01

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

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Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

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The Quantitative Phytochemistry and Hypoglycaemic Properties of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The quantitative Phytochemistry and hypoglycaemic properties of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on normoglycemic wistar albino rats were investigated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica was bought in September 2012 from Gamboru market, Borno State, North eastern, Nigeria. One hundred and 50 g of aqueous product were prepared by reflux method from three hundred and 50 g of initial powdered sample. Phytochemical screening for biochemical and elemental contents were conducted. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes and terpinoids. Elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration, manganese, zinc and silicon is low, whereas the amount of nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead are negligible. Administration of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica in normoglycemic rats at the dosage of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 for four weeks significantly (pHyphaene thebaica crude mesocarp extract in the management of Diabetes mellitus in Borno State, Nigeria.

Abdulhamid Baba Njobdi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

K. Konaté

2011-02-01

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KETAMINE AS A SINGLE GENERAL ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

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Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946.  Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.

Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan

2013-07-01

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CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam) in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of ...

Tamta, A.; Chaudhary, M.; Sehgal, R.

2010-01-01

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Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

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Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

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Modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte mobilization by melatonin in response to sterile tissue injury in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To test the hypothesis that the neurohormone, melatonin, differentially activates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines, such as, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, as well as inducing leukocyte mobilization into the peripheral blood in response to a sterile tissue injury. Methods: This study was conducted between November 2011 and September 2012 at the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sterile tissue injury of either skin injury or gastric ulceration was induced in equal numbers in Wistar albino rats aged 7-8 weeks  (150-200 g (20 each, with each group being equally divided into melatonin treated or vehicle-treated. Results: Melatonin treatment and sterile tissue injuries significantly (p? and TNF-? compared to baseline levels. However, higher levels of IL-1? compared with TNF-? were obtained only with melatonin treatment. Furthermore, melatonin treatment significantly increased (pp Conclusion: Melatonin differentially stimulated plasma IL-1? and TNF-?, and increased blood leukocyte counts before and after sterile tissue injuries. It is worth pursuing further investigation into the therapeutic effect of melatonin in inflammatory disease that involves leukocyte recruitment to sites of injury. 

Bahjat Al-Ani

2013-05-01

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Inhibition of Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage by Carvedilol in Male Wistar Albino Rats: Possible Biochemical Changes  

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Full Text Available The effect of acute carvedilol (a third-generation nonselective ?-blocker pretreatment on gastric mucosal injury induced by 80% ethanol was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. The effects caused by pylorous ligation, accumulated gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucus secretions, levels of proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH in the stomach wall were investigated. The gastric ulcers were induced by administration of 1 mL of 80% ethanol, as a necrotizing agent into the stomach. Carvedilol pretreatment at two oral doses of 30 and 60 mg kg-1 body weight were found to protect against the ulcerogenic effects of ethanol. Same dose regimen of carvedilol offered significant protection against ethanol-induced damage on the parameters evaluated for histopathology. Furthermore, the pretreatment afforded a significant inhibition of pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, nucleic acids, proteins and NP-SH contents. Only higher dose of carvedilol provided inhibition of ethanol-induced increase in MDA concentration. The protective effects of carvedilol against gastric secretion or damage to the gastric-wall mucosa may be mediated through its effects on mucus production and NP-SH concentrations, possible free-radical scavenging ability and/or cytoprotective properties.

Salim S. Al-Rejaie

2009-01-01

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The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

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Dose-Dependent Effects of Endosulfan and Malathion on Adult Wistar Albino Rat Ovaries  

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In this study, histological effects and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were investigated by endosulfan and malathion in adult female rat ovaries. An increase of MDA level in rat ovarium tissues due to endosulfan and malathion may be an indicator of the free radicals occurred during the metabolism and their lipid peroxidative inducing damage. In this study in accordance with the biochemical findings, the study demonstrated that there are pronounced structural defects in histological examinations...

Koc, N. D.; Kayhan, F. E.; Sesal, C.; Muslu, M. N.

2009-01-01

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Dose-Dependent Effects of Endosulfan and Malathion on Adult Wistar Albino Rat Ovaries  

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Full Text Available In this study, histological effects and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were investigated by endosulfan and malathion in adult female rat ovaries. An increase of MDA level in rat ovarium tissues due to endosulfan and malathion may be an indicator of the free radicals occurred during the metabolism and their lipid peroxidative inducing damage. In this study in accordance with the biochemical findings, the study demonstrated that there are pronounced structural defects in histological examinations of ovarian tissues in rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion. It has been observed that the size of ovarian tissues of rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion in different doses was decreased in various levels. There was a significant decrease healthy follicles and a significant increase atretic follicles in low dose of endosulfan and malathion (11 mg kg-1 treated rats. The histologic observations of the ovary revealed the presence of less number of healthy follicles and more number of atretic follicles and corpus luteums in high dose of endosulfan and malathion (33 mg kg-1 treated rats. Finally, a peroxidative damage occurs inavitably due to endosulfan and malathion for ovarium tissues. The biochemical results (MDA levels also showed such a damage, similar with the histological results.

N.D. Koc

2009-01-01

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EFFECT OF CEREBELLAR FASTIGIAL NUCLEUS LESION ON IMMUNITY IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cerebellum in immunomodulation as cerebellum was thought traditionally to play an important role in voluntary motor activities. Rats weighing about 200-220 gm were subjected to bilateral electrolytic lesion of fastigial nucleus and following immune parameters were assessed- leucocyte migration inhibition test, foot pad thickness, antibody titre and estimation of cytokines – IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-? respectively in immunized animals. Rats were divided in to three groups, namely control immunized, sham immunized and lesioned immunized groups. The sham group was strictly considered for evaluation of lesion effect as superficial structures during surgical procedure gets damaged and could also influence on immunomodulation. The significance was fixed at P<0.05. There was significant increase in migration index with concomitant decrease in foot pad thickness in bilateral lesion immunized groups. Significant alterations in cytokine levels were observed in lesion immunized groups when compared with its respective control groups.

Dr. G. Gajalakshmi et al

2012-10-01

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Sub-acute Toxicity of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extract of Hunteria umbellata in Albino Wistar Rats.  

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Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, peptic ulcers, piles, yaws, dysmenorrhea, fevers, infertility, and helminthic infections. The present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata (H. umbellata). Sub-acute toxicity was evaluated after administering daily oral doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of H. umbellata extract, for 28 days to the rats. Anthropometric, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were assessed using standard procedures. There were significant reductions (preticulo endothelial tissue of the spleen as evidenced by proliferation of the sinus histocytes and activation of the lymphoid aggregates in the lungs, indicating activation of the local immune system of the lungs. H. umbellata fruit pulp is relatively nontoxic in animals but there is increased tendency to cause thrombocytosis on prolonged use. PMID:23955412

Igbe, Ighodaro; Eze, Gerald Ikechi; Ojameruaye, Oghenekevwe

2013-01-01

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Effect of Carum carvi on Experimentally Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Carum carvi L. pretreatment on gastric mucosal injuries caused by NaCl, NaOH, ethanol and pylorous ligation accumulated gastric acid secretions was investigated in rats. Pretreatment at oral doses of 250 and 500 mg kg-1, body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the (i ulcerogenic effects of different necrotizing agents (ii ethanol-induced histopathological lesions, depletion of stomach wall mucus and Nonprotein Sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH and (iii pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions. The protective effect of Carum carvi against ethanol-induced damage of the gastric tissue appears to be related with the free-radical scavenging property of its constituents. The exact mechanism of action of the gastroprotective activity is not known. However, it might be due to flavonoid related suppression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 which are known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic metabolites.

A.A. Alhaider

2006-01-01

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High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI, latency period (LP, and tumor multiplicity (TM were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05 induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group.Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions.

Mahboobeh Ashrafi

2012-01-01

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Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

Shishira Bharadwaj

2013-06-01

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The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001 reduced in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg treated rats. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly (P< 0.001 increased by valproate in a time dependent manner. Conclusion: Valproate causes reversible change in intratesticular testosterone and LDH level.

Vijay P

2008-01-01

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Effect of Crude Mesocarp Extract of Hyphaene thebaica (doumpalm on White Blood Cells and Differential Leucocytic Count in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of crude mesocarp extract of Hyphaene thebaica on white blood cell and differential leucocytic counts in wistar albino rats was evaluated. Fresh mesocarp of Hyphaene thebaica collected were ground into fine powder, extracted by reflux method and subjected to phytochemical screening for biochemical principles. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of low level of tannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, Terpenes and Terpinoids. The elemental analysis of the extract revealed the presence of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and sodium in moderate concentration. The amount of zinc and silicon were low whereas, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, arsenic and lead were negligible. The crude mesocarp extract administered at the dosages of 400, 600 and 800 mg kg-1 significantly (pHyphaene thebaica in the management of parasitic and viral infections in North eastern region of Nigeria.

Amina Ibrahim

2012-01-01

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Phytochemical Properties and Hypoglycemic Activity of the Aqueous and Fractionated Portions of Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae Pod Extracts on Blood Glucose Level in Normoglycemic Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical properties and hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous and fractionated portions of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa pod extracts on blood glucose level in wistar albino rats was studied. The result of the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica pod revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate and glycosides are present, while anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were absent, the fractionated pod extracts showed moderate carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids in ethyl acetate fraction and low amounts in N-butanol fraction. The residue fraction has all the phytochemicals mentioned in the fractionated portions except flavonoids that are absent. There was significant (p-1 of aqueous extract and 800 mg kg-1 of Ethyl-acetate and N-butanol fractionated 12-18 h post extract administration, respectively.

Fatima Abba Lawan

2013-01-01

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Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

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Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.  

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This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200?mg/kg bw rats, 400?mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats  

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This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200?mg/kg bw rats, 400?mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

2014-01-01

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Hepatoprotective effect of Cocculus hirsutus on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in Albino Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.

Sagar P. Thakare, Hitesh N. Jain, Savita D. Patil and Umesh M. Upadhyay

2009-12-01

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The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.  

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Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in vaginal opening values according to positive control. PMID:24487097

Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

2014-04-01

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Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

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Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.  

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The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against ?-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, ?-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, ?-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation. PMID:20570120

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

2011-11-01

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Alterations in the Liver Histology and Markers of Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Inflammation and Liver Damage in L-arginine Exposed Female Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MES, a cluster of metabolic disorders, is pandemic and more prevalent in females. It was associated with inflammation, liver damage and reduced nitric oxide concentration. Since L-arginine (ARG may enhance nitric oxide synthesis, this study investigated the effect of ARG on the liver histology and selected serum markers of MES related to inflammation and liver damage. Two groups (n = 8 of female Wistar albino rats were exposed to 60 mg kg-1 b. wt. of ARG and 3 mL kg-1 b.wt. of distilled water, respectively as treated and control groups. Per oral exposure to ARG for twenty eight days caused a non-significant increase (p>0.05 in the neutrophils count (22.50±10.35%, representing 38.46% but a decrease (p>0.05 in the lymphocytes count (77.50±10.35%, representing 8.82% and in the total bilirubin concentration (0.40±0.19 mg/100 mL, representing 52.38% of the rats, suggesting non-treatment related influence on these parameters. However, the exposure elicited a significant decrease (p-1, representing 18.55% and in the total White Blood Cell (WBC count (2.73±0.75x109 L-1, representing 43.24%, suggesting absence of inflammation and liver damage. ALT had a significant positive correlation with WBC (r = 0.01, while the liver histology revealed possible benefit in the ARG-fed rats, seeminlgly confirming benefit on these markers of inflammation and liver damage that could improve related MES features in the rats. Further studies using ARG rich nuts are required to harness insight gained from this study.

L.U.S. Ezeanyika

2013-01-01

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Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

Chandrashekar R.

2013-06-01

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Evaluation of Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don Pulp Oil on Serum Lipid Parameters in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was compounded using the oil extract (10%, whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%. After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p>0.05 alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%. Insignificant (p>0.05 increases in the weights (g 100 g-1 BW of the liver (2.91±0.17 to 3.38±0.25, kidney (0.36±0.06 to 0.40±0.02 and heart (0.32±0.02 to 0.33±0.04 were observed in the test group. No significant change (p>0.05 in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%, linoleic acid (28.6%,oleic acid (12.9%, stearic acid (5.0%, lauric acid (2.2%, linolenic acid (1.7% and myristic acid (0.9%. The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered.

C.N. Ezekwesili

2014-01-01

69

Sub-acute Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius Root on Some Physiologically Important Electrolytes in Serum of Normal Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯ were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p>0.05, for A, D and E but significant (p2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p0.05. Decreases (p0.05 for A and B were observed for Cl¯. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C, with test group B showing a significant decrease (pSarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant.

V.H.A. Enemor

2013-01-01

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Sub-acute effects of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius root on some physiologically important electrolytes in serum of normal Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p 0.05). Decreases (p 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant. PMID:24506054

Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C

2013-12-01

71

ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 values (27.12, 13.13 and 7.32 µM, respectively were identified by plotting cumulative concentration response curve and pD2 values (4.48 ± 0.99, 6.06 ± 1.03 and 7.41 ± 0.97, respectively were calculated for individual alcoholic extract of plant. All extracts were able to relax carbachol pre-contracted tracheas significantly in a concentration dependent manner. Our results suggested potential role of Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa in asthma for further potential therapeutic and clinical uses.

Nagar Ashish

2013-07-01

72

A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats  

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The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

73

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

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The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of {sup 14}C elimination, mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of {sup 14}C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of {sup 14}C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of {sup 14}C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Toxicokinetics Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

1998-04-01

74

Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.

Al-Rejaie Salim

2012-03-01

75

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

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This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

76

Histopathological studies on the effect of bacteriocin producing Bacillus cereus isolate from ‘wara’ a local soft cheese on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs of Wistar albino rats  

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Full Text Available Aims: This study was done to generate a baseline data on the effect of Bacillus cereus and its bacteriocin on the liver, kidney and reproductive organs in both sexes at different concentration.Methodology and results: B. cereus and its bacteriocin were injected intramuscularly in male and female Wistar rats at doses equivalent to 102 CFU and 104 CFU dilutions. Body weights were also noted. The liver, kidney and reproductive organs of the animals were examined for histopathological changes. The liver of female rats administered B. cereus at 102 CFU showed portal and cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, diffuse hydropic degeneration and severe interstitial hemorrhages of the kidney was observed when 104 CFU of B. cereus was given. Male rats administered 102 CFU and 104 CFU of B. cereus showed diffuse hydropic degeneration and portal congestion of the liver while at 104 CFU the kidney showed diffuse, moderate interstitial cellular infiltration. This is more evident in the wistar rats administered with bacilli organism than the groups that received the bacteriocin. The reproductive organs of treated animals showed no pathological lesions. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups. There were no visible tissue pathological changes in the untreated groups.Conclusion, significance and impact study: The absence of observable toxic effects of the bacteriocin of B. cereus on the sex organs, is not sufficient to determine the safety of this bacteriocin since pathological lesions were observed in the liver and kidney. We hereby suggest a further study on characterization and purification of this bacteriocin as a biopreservative in items not meant for human use or consumption.

Anyanwu, C.

2013-01-01

77

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation  

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This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against ?-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in ?-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. ?-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

78

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation.  

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This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against gamma-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in gamma-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. gamma-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. PMID:20118550

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

2010-01-01

79

WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY ON THE LEAVES OF ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. BY EXCISION, INCISION, AND DEAD SPACE MODEL ON ADULT WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the wound healing activity of the Indian medicinal plant Achillea millefolium L. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L was studied for its effect on wound healing in Wistar rats, using incision, excision, and dead space model at dose levels of 200mg/kg. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L. showed a definite, positive effect on wound healing with a significant increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight and wet weight content, and breaking strength of granulation tissue. In histopathological studies showed increased collagen when compared to the control. The efficacy of Achillea millefolium L. in wound healing may be due to the presence of active principles, which accelerate the healing process and confers breaking strength to the healed wound. So it is possible to conclude that, this plant has wound healing activity and there by justifying traditional claim.

S. Nirmala

2011-03-01

80

Hepatoprotective Effects of African Locust Bean (Parkia clappertoniana and Negro Pepper (Xylopia aethiopica in CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana. Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in CCl4 -treated rats only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana when compared to those administered CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p?0.05 in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in rats administered CCl4 alone. Histopathological examinations of rats administered CCl4 alone revealed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. These findings suggest that X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana may be protective against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats.

M.O. Wegwu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

82

Disposition of (2,3-/sup 14/C)-methyl and (2,3-/sup 14/C)-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

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The disposition of methyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl (2,3-/sup 14/C)-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The /sup 14/C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of /sup 14/C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of /sup 14/C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested.

Sapota, A.

1988-09-01

83

The disposition of [2,3-14C]-methyl and [2,3-14C]-2-ethylhexyl acrylate in male wistar albino rats  

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The disposition of methyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (MA) and 2-ethylhexyl [2,3-14C]-acrylate (EHA) following intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats has been studied. The 14C found in the tissues was mainly associated with liver, kidneys and lungs. Loss of 14C from these tissues occurred fairly rapidly, excluding the rats given EHA intraperitoneally. Most of the administered acrylated underwent rapid metabolism and excretion with expired air (more than 50% of the dose and urine (10-50% of the dose). Significant differences in the rates of 14C loss from tissues and excretion occurred after intrapritoneal administration of MA and EHA. A possible cumulation of EHA in the organism was suggested. (orig.)

84

Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

2014-01-01

85

Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats  

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In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500?mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150?min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and 500?mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500?mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250?mg/kg body weight and 500?mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Wali, Adil F.; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A.

2014-01-01

86

Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA) induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60?mg/kg, body weight, per oral) for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10??g/2??L) into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA), DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2) receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry) were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22928089

Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Gullaiya, Sumeet; Dubey, Vishal; Singh, Varun; Kumar, Ashok; Nagar, Ashish; Tiwari, Poonam

2012-01-01

87

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

O.J. Olorunfemi

2012-04-01

88

Dose-dependent changes in some haematological parameters during short-term administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx aqueous extract (Zobo) in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (MALVACEAE) is popularly consumed and assumed to have haematological benefits, but no scientific investigations are known in the literature to have been conducted to corroborate this claim. The present study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Calyx extract on some haematological parameters (Haemoglobin, haematocrit, total white blood cells and differentials) in rats, with a view to determining its medicinal usefulness in the treatment of anaemia. Proximate analysis on dry matter basis, and mineral clement analysis were carried out on dried calyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Different doses of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L calyx extract (200 - 1000 mg/ kg body wt.) were administered orally by intra Ocsophageal cannulation to four groups of six animals (rats) per group for 14 days. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal in all the groups including the control group on days 0 and 14 of the experiment for haematological investigations. Paired stat analysis of day 0 and day 14 results was done for each group using student's T-test. Proximate and mineral analysis of dry calyx confirmed the presence of some nutrients, e.g. protein, mineral elements (potassium) and Vitamin C in the calyx. After 14 days of the extract administration, significant elevations were observed in haematocrit (P = 0.03) and haemoglobin (P = 0.004) in the groups of animals given doses of 200 mg and 400 mg per kg (P < 0.05) while the groups given high doses revealed significant reductions (P 0.031) in the haematocrit but not in haemoglobin. This study suggests that, aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. calyx used in this experiment had beneficial effects on the red cells at low doses (200 mg-400 mg/kg) which may not be sustained at higher doses. However, the long-term effects and the possible mechanism (s) of action of the extract should be studied before a recommendation could be made. PMID:17209331

Adigun, M O; Ogundipe, O D; Anetor, J I; Odetunde, A O

2006-03-01

89

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

90

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study / Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal. Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvas [...] tatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.

Ayfer, Aktas; M, Serhan Tasdemir; M, Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf, Nergiz; Murat, Akkus; Hüsnü Alper, Bagriyanik.

2011-03-01

91

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

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Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control. Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group, A2 (0.5-mg group and A3 (1-mg group group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control. Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg, A2 (0,5 mg y A3 (1 mg fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal.

Ayfer Aktas

2011-03-01

92

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study / Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal. Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvas [...] tatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.

Ayfer, Aktas; M, Serhan Tasdemir; M, Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf, Nergiz; Murat, Akkus; Hüsnü Alper, Bagriyanik.

93

Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n?=?10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n?=?10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n?=?10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20?mg/kg?b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2?mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50?mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100?mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200?mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p?potential genotoxicity in rats. PMID:24116684

Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

2014-04-01

94

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP) in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by admini...

Prathibhakumari P.V.; Prasad, G.

2013-01-01

95

Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

Ghezzi Ana

2012-04-01

96

Histological and biochemical markers of the liver of Wistar rats on subchronic oral administration of green tea  

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Background: Few articles have linked the consumption of green tea to certain liver diseases but several articles have disputed these assertions and the consumption of green tea has been on the increase. Aims: The effects of oral administration of green tea on the liver of Wistar rats were studied in order to compare biochemical findings with histological findings. Materials and Methods: 36 male and female Wistar albino rats were grouped into 6, consisting of 6 rats in each group. They were gi...

Godwin Avwioro; Sina Iyiola; Benjamin Aghoghovwia

2010-01-01

97

Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induce [...] d heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

T.G.G., Zotz; J.B. de, Paula; A.D.L., Moser.

2012-06-01

98

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

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Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

2006-01-01

99

Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.  

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Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric mucosa of albino rats. PMID:22314985

Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

2011-06-01

100

DIURESIS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF POLYHERBALS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.

Naikwade Nilofar S

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Hepatic acid hydrolases of albino rats, Mastomys natalensis and albino mice during Plasmodium berghei infection.  

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Changes in liver acid hydrolase activities during the infection of albino rats, Mastomys or mice with Plasmodium berghei are described. B-Glucosidase, B-galactosidase and N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase exhibited widely different responses with acid phosphatase and cathepsin-B the least responsive and are likely to be causally related to immunity of animals. PMID:3921400

Saxena, J K; Khare, S; Srivastava, A K; Sen, A B; Ghatak, S

1985-04-15

102

Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

Bahrami?, S.,

2014-05-01

103

Brain cholesterol and phospholipid levels in cyproheptadine treated albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of different doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg/kg), s.c., for 2 weeks, of cyproheptadine (CYP) on brain cholesterol and phospholipid of albino rats was investigated. Cyp. 2.5 mg/kg, showed increase in brain cholesterol and phospholipid contents whereas other doses caused a decrease in phospholipid level. PMID:8225552

Kabi, B C; Rao, Y N; Parsi, B; Chakrabarty, A S

1993-04-01

104

Ameloblastoma in a female Wistar rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

A spontaneous ameloblastoma of the right mandible is described in a 120-week-old female Wistar rat (strain Chbb: THOM). The tumour had a locally aggressive growth pattern and was histologically characterized by sheets and islands of odontogenic epithelium bounded by a palisaded layer of ameloblast-like cells. Because of multifocal keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the stellate reticulum tissue, the tumour was classified as an acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Cyst formation, areas of stromal hyalinization and enamel matrix-like inclusions were further characteristics of the neoplasm. The epithelial elements stained strongly positive for broad spectrum cytokeratins. PMID:8871064

Ernst, H; Mirea, D

1995-11-01

105

Establishment of an albino sand rat (Psammomys obesus colony and comparison with the natural coloured animal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lifespan and fertility of albino sand rats were found to be severely reduced in comparison with a laboratory colony of brown sand rats. The albinos were also much more susceptible to diabetes, as judged by their glucose tolerance. In fact, untreated albinos had a higher incidence of diabetic response than coloured sand rats fed a diabetogenic diet. The albino sand rats reproduced poorly because of a reduction in male fertility. Circulating testosterone levels and seminal vesicle weights were reduced in the albinos. It is speculated that the reduction in reproductive capacity is related to diabetes. PMID:564421

Shaham, Y; Lelyveld, J; Marder, U; Mendelssohn, H; Paz, G; Kraicer, P F

1978-01-01

106

4. Effect of intraperitoneal administration of Ghrelin hormone in testis of immature and mature male albino rats to study histoarchitecture  

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Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the histophysiological changes in the testis of immature and mature wistar strain male albino rats in response to the intraperitoneal injection of Ghrelin hormone. Eighteen immature male albino rats (45-55 days old and eighteen mature male albino rats (3-4 months old were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (two doses as lower dose - 10µg/kg and optimum dose - 20µg/kg of body weight of Ghrelin. The experimental animals were injected with Ghrelin for 15 days .On 16th day the animals were sacrificed. The body weight and weight of testes were measured .The testes were fixed in10% buffered formalin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The histo-architecture of testis was studied. Results: Administration of Ghrelin significantly affected the terminal stages of spermatogenesis in a dose dependent manner. Well defined changes like interstitial edema, reduction in number of Sertoli cells were seen in the testis of animals of optimum dose when compared with other two groups. In immature and mature group there was significant increase in body weight of treated animals. In mature group significant increase in testis weight of optimum dose was seen when compared with other two groups Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that Ghrelin produced degenerative changes in the testis of albino rats and thus it may have a negative influence on reproductive function and fertility.

P. Anand

2012-06-01

107

Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

Ashok, B K; Bhat, Savitha D; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B

2011-07-01

108

Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

109

Effect of methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem on reproductive function of male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the considerable development in contraceptive technology, search for male antifertility agents in plants continues to be a potential area of investigation. Many plants have been known to possess antifertility activity, but limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hence the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifertility and reproductive toxicity potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) in male Wistar rats. An oral 70% methanolic extract of stem of D. falcata at a dose level of 100 mg/kg wt/day fed to male albino rats for 60 days did not decrease body weight, while the testes and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate also showed a significant reduction (P falcata brought about the inhibition of spermatogenesis. PMID:18285304

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Sharma, A

2007-01-01

110

Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210 g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group containing 10 rats. The control was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1 ml of honey to every initial 10 ml of water) for 22 weeks. After 22 weeks the animals were starved for 12 hrs before the experiment, weighed and anaesthetized with sodium thiopentone (6 mg/100 mg body weight) intraperitoneally. The common bile duct was cannulated and bile collected for 3 hrs. The rate of bile flow was noted, the concentrations of bile electrolytes and bilirubin, bile and plasma cholesterol levels were determined in the control and test groups. The results obtained showed a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the rate of bile flow in the test (0.30+/-0.03 ml/hr) compared with the control groups (0.45+/-0.04 ml/hr). There were no significant differences in the concentration of bile electrolytes and bilirubin in the two groups. However, there was a significant [P<0.05] increase in the bile cholesterol and decrease in plasma cholesterol levels in the test rats compared with the control. It is therefore concluded that chronic consumption of unprocessed Nigerian honey resulted in decrease bile flow, increase bile cholesterol and decrease plasma cholesterol in albino rats. PMID:20234764

Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Okwari, O O; Osim, E E

2009-12-01

111

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1 BW of chlorpromazine. Rats in group III, were treated with 1.7 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group IV received 2.3 mg kg-1 BW of thioridazine. Control rats received vehicle of the drugs (i.e. distilled water. Drugs and vehicle were administered orally on a daily basis. Five rats, in each of the four drug-treated groups served as the recovery rats. Sperm characteristics evaluation, serum levels of testosterone and histopathological alterations in the testis were assessed both after four weeks of continuous drug administrations and four weeks of drug withdrawal. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine significantly caused a reduction in the absolute weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (p<0.01 at high and low doses. Weight of the prostate gland was also reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the high dose. The epididymal sperm motility, viability (life/death ratio and counts were significantly reduced (p<0.01 at high dose of chlorpromazine and thioridazine. Moreover, sperm morphological abnormalities were significantly increased (p<0.01 at both doses of the drugs. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for both drugs was statistically significant (p<0.01. The histopathological alterations observed in the testis includes moderate to severe degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Fertility and other associated changes were restored within four weeks of cessation of treatment. Chlorpromazine and thioridazine appear to have reversible antifertility actions in male albino rats. These actions were probably mediated within the testis and epididymis.

Y. Raji

2005-01-01

112

Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24 albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8 weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4 experimental groups (n = 6. Group I (Control rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group II ( diabetic rats received 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group III (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola and 1mL of 5% ethanol and Group IV, (Diabetic rats received 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola, 1 mL of 5% ethanol and 1 mL of honey.The extracts were administered twice daily for four (4 weeks. The blood glucose level and Lipid profile was analysed. The results shows that Garcinia kola has a significant (p<0.05 hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 decreased the level of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Triglyceride (TG and significantly (p<0.05 increase in the level of High density lipoprotein compared with the diabetic non-treated group. These findings if applied can be of help in the management of diabetic patients.

E.K. Nwangwa

2012-04-01

113

Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

C. N. Santhosh Kumar

2013-10-01

114

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly when compared to control. Sperm motility and sperm count were reduced significantly abnormalities of sperm were observed and resulted in reduction of male fertility. Germ cells populations were noticed. ie, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatid and spermatid, Surface areas of sertoli cells nuclear area were decreased. There were various degrees of damage of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion C.angustifolia leaves extract administration arrests the spermatogenesis in male rats.

Dhanapal. R

2013-01-01

115

Anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats  

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The study investigated the anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. In this work, thirty six adult strain of albino wistar rats were used, which included six normal, diabetic untreated and twenty four diabetic treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneally injection of 60 mg/kg body weight dose of streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 ml fresh cold citrate buffer pH 4.5 in...

Mohammed, R. K.; Ibrahim, S.; Atawodi, S. E.; Eze, E. D.; Suleiman, J. B.; Ugwu, M. N.; Malgwi, I. S.

2013-01-01

116

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

117

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

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We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 ?m and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 ?m, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an ontogenic mistake. PMID:25339868

Nadal-Nicolas, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jimenez-Lopez, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Perez, Maria P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

2014-01-01

118

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw) of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatmen...

Fouad A F Ali, Ali A. Abdel Rahman And Ashraf M. Moustafa

2001-01-01

119

Metabolism of myosmine in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alkaloid myosmine is present not only in tobacco products but also in various foods. Myosmine is easily nitrosated, yielding 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and the esophageal tobacco carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine. Due to its widespread occurrence, investigations on the metabolism and activation of myosmine are needed for risk assessment. Therefore, the metabolism of myosmine has been studied in Wistar rats treated with single oral doses of [pyridine-5-3H]myosmine at 0.001, 0.005, 0.5, and 50 micromol/kg body weight. Oral administration was achieved by feeding a labeled apple bite. Radioactivity was completely recovered in urine and feces within 48 h. At the two lower doses, 0.001 and 0.005 micromol/kg, a higher percentage of the radioactivity was excreted in urine (86.2 +/- 4.9% and 88.9 +/- 1.7%) as compared with the higher doses, 0.5 and 50 micromol/kg, where only 77.8 +/- 7.3% and 75.4 +/- 6.6% of the dose was found in urine. Within 24 h, urinary excretion of radioactivity was nearly complete with less than 4% of the total urinary output appearing between 24 and 48 h. The two major metabolites accounting for >70% of total radioactivity in urine were identified as 3-pyridylacetic acid (20-26%) and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid (keto acid, 50-63%) using UV-diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements. 3-Pyridylmethanol (3-5%), 3'-hydroxymyosmine (2%) and HPB (1-3%) were detected as minor metabolites. 3'-Hydroxymyosmine is exclusively formed from myosmine and therefore might be used as a urinary biomarker for myosmine exposure in the future. PMID:16079272

Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Tyroller, Stefan; Richter, Elmar

2005-11-01

120

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

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Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E. A (control received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05 in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.

Kolawole Victor Olorunshola

2011-11-01

122

Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 d [...] ays), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

L.E., Drumond; C., Kushmerick; P.A.M., Guidine; M.C., Doretto; M.F.D., Moraes; A.R., Massensini.

1054-10-01

123

Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats  

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Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2? (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher levels of serum and tissue Isoprostane observed in both groups II and III compared with control group. Histopathological, oxidative stress induced macroscopically degenerative with microscopical appearance of vasculitis and hemorrhage within decidua. Data of the present study demonstrated that imbalance oxidative stress status in pregnant rats occurred due to exposure to oxidant, which played an important role in the pathogenesis of abnormal pregnancy outcome. In addition antioxidants supplementation (vitamins E and C were valuable in reducing this stress.

R.S. Al-Naemi

2012-01-01

124

Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat  

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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sectionhological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

125

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

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Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (p<0.05) in epididymal ductular diameter (EDD), and epididymal epi...

Awobajo, F. O.; Raji, Y.; Akinloye, A. K.

2010-01-01

126

The Acute Hepatotoxic Effect of Halofantrine on Healthy and Uninfected Adult Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the likely effects of Halofantrine on liver enzymes in healthy and uninfected Wistar rats of both sexes. Thirty albino rats (randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 rats each with body weight of 150 - 230 g were used for the 2-phase study. In phase 1, the drug was administered orally at Therapeutic (T dose of 2.15 mg per 100 g body weight to 10 rats (5 males and 5 females daily at 6 h interval for 18 h. Phase II was a recovery study involving 10 rats (5 males and 5 females exposed to dose regimen as in phase 1 and sacrificed after 18 h withdrawal of treatment. The control-group made of 10 rats was given sterile water and rat feed ad-libitum. Halofantrine caused significant increase (p< 0.05 in the liver enzymes (ALK, ALT and AST of the animals. Discontinuation of the drug use caused significant decrease in the liver enzymes values in the recovery group. The results suggested that halofantrine could induce hepatotoxicity in the treated animals.

A.A. Osonuga

2012-01-01

127

Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

2001-11-01

128

Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) and water while the test group was fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. Laparatomy was immediately performed, proximal and distal portions of the intestine identified, cut and put in aerated tyrode solution. Cut sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol. Contractions were recorded as well as the intestinal transit in each group and lengths of intestine with total mean values calculated. Results obtained showed that honey significantly decreased (p<0.01 ) intestinal transit in the test group (21.15±0.75 ) compared with the control group ( 35.96±1.15); decreased intestinal motility in the test group compared with the control and caused significant percentage reduction of intestinal motility with varied concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol in the test group ( Ach-75.00±0.75%; Carbachol-79.00±0.28%) compared with the control group (Ach-62.00±0.39%; Carbachol-51.00±0.39%). In conclusion, unprocessed Nigerian honey decreased intestinal transit, caused intestinal smooth muscle inhibition and motility and reduced sensitivity of gastrointestinal tract to cholinergic agents. PMID:24937393

Alagwu, E A; Egwurugwu, J N; Nneli, R O; Oguike, F; Osim, E E

2013-01-01

129

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics / Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día), ampicilina (4mg/100/día) y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día) por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídim [...] ario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p Abstract in english Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of [...] these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (p

F. O, Awobajo; Y, Raji; A. K, Akinloye.

1281-12-01

130

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics / Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día), ampicilina (4mg/100/día) y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día) por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídim [...] ario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p Abstract in english Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of [...] these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (p

F. O, Awobajo; Y, Raji; A. K, Akinloye.

131

DIMETHOATE INDUCED HAEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND ITS AMELIORATION WITH VITAMIN E IN WISTAR RATS (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available In the present study 40 albino wistar rats were divided uniformly into four equal groups viz. I, II, III & IV. Group I served ascontrol and received groundnut oil. Group II and group III rats were orally administered with vitamin E @ 100 mg/kg b.wt. and dimethoate @ 40 mg/kg b.wt, respectively suspended in groundnut oil. Group IV rats were orally administered with both dimethoate & vitamin E @ 40 & 100 mg/kg b.wt, respectively for 28 days. The clinical signs observed were decreased physical activity, dullness, depression, diarrhea,piloerection, excessive sweating, salivation,mild tremor and conjunctivitis in group III rats. Similar signs with reduced severity and absence of conjunctivitis were seen in group IV rats. There was no mortality observed throughout study in any group. Body weight of rats was significantly (P < 0.05 decrease in group III and IV rats from 21st day onwards till the end of experiment. At theend of the experiment (28th day there was significant (p < 0.05 improvement in body weight of group IV rats as compared to group III rats. Hematology reveled significant (P <0.05 decrease in Hb, PCV,total erythrocyte count & MCV and significant (P <0.05 increase in total leukocyte count in male and female rats of group III & IV as compared to group I. Significant improvement in hematologicalparameters were reported in group IV rats treated with dimethoate and vitamin E as compared to group III rats treated with dimethoate alone.

Mohammad Noor

2012-08-01

132

Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.

Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian

2010-01-01

133

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

Jain, Pankaj G.; Patil, Savita D.; Haswani, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

2010-01-01

134

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

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Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day, ampicillin (4mg/100/day and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día, ampicilina (4mg/100/día y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídimario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p<0,05 de los conductos del epidídimo (EDD, y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registró un aumento significativo (p <0,05 en el diámetro luminal del epidídimo (ELD en todos los animales después de dos y tres semanas del período de recuperación. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relación a la toxicidad de estos antibióticos en los órganos reproductivos masculinos, además de la reducción de la concentración sérica de testosterona, disminución de la motilidad del esperma, disminución del recuento de espermatozoides y disminución en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las células de espermatogénesis como se reportó anteriormente.

F. O Awobajo

2010-12-01

135

PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

136

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama

2010-01-01

137

A preliminary study on serum liver function indices of Diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis and chemoprotective potential of Eclipta alba in male Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of E. alba on liver function in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to identify the protective effect of Eclipta alba in experimental diethylnitrosamine (DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Sixty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to four groups of 16 rats each. DEN (0.01%, v/v was given in drinking water ad libitum and E. alba (50 mg/kg BW/day was administered per os either alone or in combination for 120 days. Serum protein, albumin and liver functional status enzyme profiles were studied. Results: Administration of DEN resulted in reduction in the body weights and DEN in combination with E. alba caused poor weight gain in male Wistar albino rats. Concurrent administration of E. alba with DEN significantly alleviated the effects of DEN on serum protein and albumin, while a partial protective effect was observed for other biochemical values and body weight. Conclusion: The designed study could establish the partial protective effect of E. alba in experimentally induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

R. Anoopraj

2014-06-01

138

Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.  

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Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein. PMID:17898518

Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

2007-01-01

139

Histological and biochemical markers of the liver of Wistar rats on subchronic oral administration of green tea  

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Full Text Available Background: Few articles have linked the consumption of green tea to certain liver diseases but several articles have disputed these assertions and the consumption of green tea has been on the increase. Aims: The effects of oral administration of green tea on the liver of Wistar rats were studied in order to compare biochemical findings with histological findings. Materials and Methods: 36 male and female Wistar albino rats were grouped into 6, consisting of 6 rats in each group. They were given 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentration of green tea in tap water for 42 days. The 6th group was on normal diet and received 0% of the tea. Their blood samples were analyzed for total and conjugated bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The liver tissues were also processed for histological examination. Results: The liver tissues were essentially normal and similar to the control tissues. The biochemical parameters studied were also normal and similar to the results obtained from the control animals. Conclusion: Sub chronic consumption of green tea has no injurious effects on the liver of Wistar rats.

Godwin Avwioro

2010-08-01

140

[The effect of parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats].  

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Starch is an important energy source and can represent more than 60% of the calories of the human diet. The starch fraction resistant to enzymatic digestion is called resistant starch. When rice is parboiled, the starch retrogrades with the formation of type 3-resistant starch (retrograded), which presents beneficial effects on the health, since it acts as a prebiotic. In the present study three types of rice were selected, with high, medium and low amylose contents, with the objective of evaluating the effects of conventional and parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats. The samples with high and medium amylose contents were soaked for 6 h at 65 degrees C, and the low amylose sample for 7 h at 70 degrees C. The samples were subsequently autoclaved for 10 minutes at 0.7kgf x cm(-2). Six male Wistar rats were used for each treatment. Seven experimental diets were elaborated, formulated according to AIN-93M, the control diet and diets substituting the carbohydrate source with conventional or parboiled rice. Resistant starch was determined in the diets and glycemia monitored using glucose paper strips, the sample being blood obtained from the distal part of the rat's tail. For the glycemic curve, glycemia was measured in the fasting state and during 90 minutes post-prandial. The results indicated there were no significant differences between the diets formulated with high, medium and low amylose, parboiled or conventionally prepared, with respect to fasting or post-prandial glycemia in Wistar rats. PMID:18833992

Helbig, Elizabete; Días, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Tavares, Rafael Aldrighi; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity in reproductive organs of female Wistar rats.  

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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide extensively used in agricultural and domestic settings. Healthy adult female albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats in each. Two groups were dosed orally with CPF in vegetable oil (0.1 and 2.5 mg/kg/day) and third group was given vegetable oil for 8 weeks. Non-significant changes were observed for body weight and feed intake. A disruption in estrous cyclicity was observed with a prolonged metestrous. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly. Mammary gland whole mounts revealed a significant (PCPF causes oxidative stress and negative effects on the reproductive organs of female rats, which may be a pointer towards beginning of cancer incidence. PMID:24140463

Nishi, Kumari; Hundal, Swarndeep Singh

2013-12-01

142

Fear conditioning fragments REM sleep in stress-sensitive Wistar-Kyoto, but not Wistar, rats.  

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Pavlovian conditioning is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of fear learning. Because the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is particularly stress-sensitive, we investigated the effects of a psychological stressor on sleep in WKY compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Male WKY and WIS rats were either fear-conditioned to tone cues or received electric foot shocks alone. In the fear-conditioning procedure, animals were exposed to 10 tones (800 Hz, 90 dB, 5s), each co-terminating with a foot shock (1.0 mA, 0.5s), at 30-s intervals. In the shock stress procedure, animals received 10 foot shocks at 30-s intervals, without tones. All subjects underwent a tone-only test both 24h (Day 1) and again two weeks (Day 14) later. Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) continuity was investigated by partitioning REMS episodes into single (inter-REMS episode interval >3 min) and sequential (interval ? 3 min) episodes. In the fear-conditioned group, freezing increased from baseline in both strains, but the increase was maintained on Day 14 in WKY rats only. In fear-conditioned WKY rats, total REMS amount increased on Day 1, sequential REMS amount increased on Day 1 and Day 14, and single REMS amount decreased on Day 14. Alterations were due to changes in the number of sequential and single REMS episodes. Shock stress had no significant effect on REMS microarchitecture in either strain. The shift toward sequential REMS in fear-conditioned WKY rats may represent REMS fragmentation, and may provide a model for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of sleep disturbances reported in posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:20832443

DaSilva, Jamie K; Lei, Yanlin; Madan, Vibha; Mann, Graziella L; Ross, Richard J; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R

2011-01-15

143

STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

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Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

144

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC g [...] roup, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de, Freitas; Kyvia Lugate, Costa; Pamela Kelly Araújo, Campos; Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de, Melo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego de, Paula; Sérgio Luis Pinto da, Matta.

145

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de Freitas

2011-10-01

146

DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

2014-01-01

147

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC g [...] roup, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

Karine Moura de, Freitas; Kyvia Lugate, Costa; Pamela Kelly Araújo, Campos; Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de, Melo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego de, Paula; Sérgio Luis Pinto da, Matta.

2011-10-01

148

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was meas...

Brki? Zlata

2004-01-01

149

In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat  

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Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after ad...

Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; Mcbride, W. J.; O Connor, S.

2009-01-01

150

Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space...

Karine Moura de Freitas; Kyvia Lugate Costa; Pamela Kelly Araújo Campos; Fabiana Cristina Silveira Alves de Melo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego de Paula; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta

2011-01-01

151

Retinal projections to the subcortical visual system in congenic albino and pigmented rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In contrast to the primary visual pathway, little is known about the organization of retinal input to most nuclei of the subcortical visual system in albino mammals. The subcortical visual system is a large group of retinorecipient nuclei in the diencephalon and mesencephalon. These areas mediate a range of behaviors that include both circadian and acute responses to light. We used a congenic strain of albino and pigmented rats with a mutation at the c locus for albinism (Fischer 344-c/+; LaVail MM, Lawson NR (1986) Development of a congenic strain of pigmented and albino rats for light damage studies. Exp Eye Res 43:867-869) to quantitatively assess the effects of albinism on retinal projections to a number of subcortical visual nuclei including the ventral lateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventral lateral preoptic area (VLPO), olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), posterior limitans (PLi), commissural pretectal area (CPA), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Following eye injections of the neuroanatomical tracer cholera toxin-beta, the distribution of anterogradely transported label was measured. The retinal projection to the contralateral VLH, PLi, CPA and IGL was enhanced in albino rats. No significant differences were found between albino and pigmented rats in retinal input to the VLPO, OPN and vLGN. These findings raise the possibility that enhanced retinofugal projections to subcortical visual nuclei in albinos may underlie some light-mediated behaviors that differ between albino and pigmented mammals. PMID:16996223

Fleming, M D; Benca, R M; Behan, M

2006-12-01

152

Hepatoprotective effect of Curcuma longa against lead induced toxicity in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Curcuma longa against lead induced toxicity.Materials and Methods: For this study, 24 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group (n=8, group – I rats (n=8 were given lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg bodyweight (BW and group – II rats (n=8 were treated with Curcuma longa @ 500 mg/kg BW along with lead acetate @ 1000 mg/kg BW (daily orally for 28 days. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters and lead concentration in liver were estimated.Results: Oral administration of lead acetate for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant increase of Lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Reduced glutathione (GSH and increase in lead accumulation in liver. Treatment with Curcuma longa@ 500 mg/kg BWsignificantly (P< 0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, (p< 0.05 AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in GSH levels and as compared to lead acetate treated group. But there was no significant difference in SOD level and lead concentration in liver when compared with lead acetate treated group.Conclusions: The study concludes that supplementation of Curcuma longa @ 500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against lead inducedhepatotoxicity

S. L. Baxla

2013-07-01

153

Ameliorative potential of Tephrosia purpurea extract against arsenic induced toxicity in wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the protective activity of Tephrosia purpurea extract (TPE against arsenic induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: For this study, twenty four wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, group – I rats were given sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg and group – II rats were treated with TPE @ 500 mg/kg along with sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, haematological parameter analysis and histomorphological examination are carried out with estimation of arsenic concentration in tissues. Results: Oral administration of sodium arsenite @ 10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant decrease in Hb%, TEC and TLC, significant increase of serum glucose, cholesterol, calcium and significant increase in arsenic accumulation in tissues. Histopathological results of intestine revealed haemorrhagic enteritis along with loss of villi. Treatment with Tephrosia purpurea @ 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the elevated glucose, LDH levels, along with significant increase haematological levels towards normal. There was reduced haemorrhagic enteritis and presence of intact villi, as compared to arsenic treated group. But there was no significant difference in serum calcium, serum cholesterol and arsenic concentration in tissues, when compared with arsenic treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of TPE (500 mg/kg daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against arsenic induced toxicity by its protective effect. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 493-496

Birendra kumar Roy

2013-05-01

154

Petroleum Refining Chemicals Enhance Aflatoxin B1-induced Toxicities in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular cancer is one of the highest among the population in the tropics. This has been associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 a potent liver carcinogen elaborated as metabolite of Aspergillus fungi and some other fungi. Petrochemical refineries workers are in addition exposed to chemicals used in the refining of crude petroleum oil. Four petroleum-refining chemicals: N-methylpyrrolidone, Phenylenediamine, methylethylketone and Dialkylketonoxine, all obtained from a refinery situated in Nigeria were investigated in this study. Male Wistar albino rats, exposed subcutaneously to different amount of these chemicals and also orally given different concentrations of AFB1 in corn oil for 12 weeks, were observed to have higher levels of ?-glutamyl transferase enzyme activity in their livers and sera than the rats treated with either the chemicals or AFB1 only. They also have higher alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in their sera. The activities of these enzymes were also higher than those observed in control rats treated with the carrier vehicle of corn oil only. Micronuclei and histopathology analysis results correlate with the results obtained in the enzyme assays. We therefore concluded that the petrochemicals are significant factor in hepatocellular cancer development in the refinery workers.

Oyeronke A. Odunola

2007-01-01

155

Training alters cardiac neuron sizes in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available The action of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart is made through a group of neurons located on the surface of the atria. This study evaluated the effect of a chronic training protocol on the number and sizes of the cardiac neurons of Wistar rats. Whole mount preparations of the atria of 12-month old male sedentary and trained rats (40 weeks of running on a treadmill 3 times a week, 16 m/min were assessed for number and size (maximal cellular profile area of the cardiac neurons. The cardiac neurons were ascertained by using the NADH-diaphorase technique that stains the cell bodies of the neurons in dark blue. The number of cardiac neurons in the trained rats (P>0.05 did not change significantly. In the sedentary group there were small, medium sized and large neurons. However there was a notable increase in the percentage of small neurons in the rats submitted to the training compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05. Previous studies have shown that electrophysiologically, the small neurons are more easily excitable than the large neurons. It is possible that the results of the present work reflect an adaptation mechanism of the cardiac neurons presumably with the objective of increasing the excitability of the neurons for the vagal action and resulting facilitation of the sinusal bradycardia observed at rest and in the exercise. We concluded that the training affects significantly the size of the cardiac neurons in Wistar rats.

RR de Souza

2009-09-01

156

Alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas Wistar con infección chagásica aguda, durante la gestación / Hematological and blood glucose alterations in Wistar rats with acute chagasic infection during gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio se investigaron las alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus) cepa Wistar, con infección chagásica aguda, antes y durante la gestación. Muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas de los grupos A, B, C y D de ratas a los 0, 6, 12 y 20 días de la p [...] reñez para la realización de pruebas de diagnóstico hematológico y de glicemia. El análisis estadístico de los resultados conseguidos reveló cambios significativos (p Abstract in english The present study examined hematological alterations and blood glucose levels variations in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with acute chagasic infection during gestation. Blood samples were taken from A, B, C and D groups of rats at 0, 6, 12 and 20 days after impregnation for hematological d [...] iagnosis and glycemia tests. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant changes (p

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Marítza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo-Y; Stelliana C, Moreno; Rafael, Borges.

2007-06-01

157

Alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas Wistar con infección chagásica aguda, durante la gestación / Hematological and blood glucose alterations in Wistar rats with acute chagasic infection during gestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este estudio se investigaron las alteraciones hematológicas y de glucosa sanguínea en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus) cepa Wistar, con infección chagásica aguda, antes y durante la gestación. Muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas de los grupos A, B, C y D de ratas a los 0, 6, 12 y 20 días de la p [...] reñez para la realización de pruebas de diagnóstico hematológico y de glicemia. El análisis estadístico de los resultados conseguidos reveló cambios significativos (p Abstract in english The present study examined hematological alterations and blood glucose levels variations in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with acute chagasic infection during gestation. Blood samples were taken from A, B, C and D groups of rats at 0, 6, 12 and 20 days after impregnation for hematological d [...] iagnosis and glycemia tests. Statistical analysis of the results showed significant changes (p

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Marítza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo-Y; Stelliana C, Moreno; Rafael, Borges.

158

Effect of Soaked Moringa oleifera Seeds on Growth Rates and the Levels of Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.

E. Obi

2013-01-01

159

Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities. PMID:24199486

Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

2013-01-01

160

Antihyperglycaemic effect of tetracarpidium conophorum nuts in alloxan induced diabetic female albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A-E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ?17.00?mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2?g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3?g, 42.6?g, and 85.2?g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P rats. PMID:24944826

Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

Johanna W. M. Arts

2014-10-01

162

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Kalanchoe Pinnata On Serum Creatine Kinase In Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata on the level of cretatine kinase was investigated using albino rats. The extract with ethanol yielded 7.80%. The albino rats were treated with doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight of the extract for seven days. Results showed that there was a slight decrease in physical activities and body weight of all the animals treated with the ethanolic extract compared to the control. There was a significant (P > 0.05 increase in serum creatine kinase activity in albino rats treated with the ethanolic extract than the control. Within the groups treated with the ethanolic extract, Group A (400mg/kg body weight was significantly (P > 0.05 higher than Group B (200mg/kg body weight. This increase value of creatine kinase activity could encourage the supply of energy needed for muscular contraction.

Chibueze Nwose

2013-01-01

163

Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus  

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Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

Bruno Ikenna Aguh

2013-03-01

164

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

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Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-10-01

165

Effects Of Orally Fed Diazinon On Some Biochemical Parameters Of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Background:The current investigation was carried out to study the effect of orally administration of diazinon insecticide on some biochemical blood indices on male albino rats. Material and methods: The organophosphorus insecticide , diazinon was orally administrated at a dose (100mg/kg body weight=1/3LD50 , daily for 10 days (short ­term and 20 days (long ­term to adult male albino rats . Results: The results revealed the following: 1- Diazinon led to an increase in rat blood serum glucose& T3 (short and long ­term; AST,ALT, and T4 (long-term. 2- Diazinon reduced the serum content of total cholesterol and protein in short­term treated rats. 3- Treatment of rats with diazinon did not alter activity of AST, ALT and T4 level at short ­term period .In addition ; ALP serum levels were not altered in both short and long ­term treated rats

Mohammed Salah Ab.Ab.AL-Shinnawy

2008-12-01

166

Intralobar nephroblastematosis in a nine-week-old Wistar rat.  

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Intralobar nephroblastematosis (ILNB) is a precursor lesion to the development of nephroblastoma (NB) in rats. Unilateral ILNB was observed in the kidney of a nine-week-old female Wistar rat (Crl:WI) from a short-term toxicity study. Clinical pathology and urinalysis did not reveal altered renal function. This microscopic, unencapsulated lesion consisted of basophilic sheets of blastemal cells that did not include a prominent mesenchymal component. These cells expanded in the interstitium, which trapped and compressed few normal renal tubules. The blastemal cells moderately differentiated to form rosettes, primitive tubules, and a glomeruloid body. Multifocally, the lumen of primitive tubules contained eosinophilic secretions with basophilic material in the center. The diagnostic criteria used were compared and differentiated with renal dysplasia, nephrogenic rest, NB in rats, and with that of the identical lesion in children. PMID:19773594

Kalaiselvan, P; Mathur, K Y; Pande, V V; Madheswaran, R; Bhelonde, J J; Shelar, P D; Udupa, V; Shingatgeri, V M

2009-10-01

167

Effect of Vitamin A on Weight-Loss and Haematotoxicity Associated with Gasoline Vapours Exposure in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of vitamin A on weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity associated with gasoline vapours exposure was assessed in male and female Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to ungraded concentrations of gasoline vapours (6 h daily for 20 weeks. Vitamin A (retinol at prophylactic dosage (400 IU kg-1 day-1 was orally administered to the rats in the last two weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Red Blood Cells (RBC, weight gain and growth rate in the male and female rats exposed to the vapours were significantly lower (p<0.05 compared respectively to the levels obtained for male and female control rats. On the other hand, the levels of White Blood Cells (WBC in the male and female test rats were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared respectively with the level obtained for male and female control rats. These observations indicated that exposure to gasoline vapours produced haematotoxicity, weight loss and growth depression in rats. However, administration of vitamin A was observed to produce a significant regain (p<0.05 in weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity observed to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, although the females were noted to respond more favourably than the males. This suggests that vitamin A may be used to reverse or prevent weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity in subjects exposed to gasoline vapours.

F.E. Uboh

2008-01-01

168

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.icantly these values.

169

Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

K.A. Sadariya

170

Spatial Memory Perfomance of Wistar Rats Exposed to Mobile Phone  

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INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory ...

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan; Raju Suresh Kumar; Bhagath Kumar Potu; Satheesha Nayak; Maneesh Mailankot

2009-01-01

171

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

172

QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

2009-09-01

173

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

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Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino

2003-01-01

174

Hepatoprotective Effect of Enicostemma littorale blume and Eclipta alba During Ethanol Induced Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Enicostemma littorale blume (Ens and Eclipta alba (Ecl have been used for skin infection, antiviral and antibacterial activity in traditional medicine. The present study is aimed at to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of the above two plants during ethanol induced oxidative stress in albino rats. The aqueous leaf extracts of Enicostemma littorale and Eclipta alba combine (1:1 at dose level of 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested for hepato-protective and antioxidant effects during ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver tissue of wistar male albino rats. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Free radicals generated lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD. The ethanol supplemented rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP revealing ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The increased levels of TBARS in liver and decreased activity levels of SOD and CAT in ethanol fed animal’s revealed oxidative stress. The aqueous leaf extracts supplementation of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 produced significant hepatoprotection and antioxidative effect during ethanol induced hepatotoxicity. The study can be concluded that the therapeutic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Ens+Ecl in 1:1 is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.

P. Baranisrinivasan

2009-01-01

175

The potential effect of berberine in mercury-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury (Hg) is the third most dangerous heavy metal after arsenic and lead. Mercury's toxicity brings serious risks to health through negative pathological and biochemical effects. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of berberine (BN) in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. Adult male albino Wistar rats were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 0.4 mg/kg bwt) for 7 days. Treatment with HgCl2 induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production along with a concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. HgCl2 intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of urea and creatinine in serum. BN (100mg/kg bwt) treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production, whereas it increased glutathione content. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were also restored concomitantly when compared to control after BN administration. BN also inhibited the apoptotic effect of HgCl2 by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney tissues proved the protective effect of BN against HgCl2 toxicity. These results demonstrated that BN augments antioxidant defense against HgCl2-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepato- and reno-protective agent. PMID:24751971

Othman, Mohamed S; Safwat, Gehan; Aboulkhair, Menna; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

2014-07-01

176

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

De Souza R.R.

2000-01-01

177

Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.  

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Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250?gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2?cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

2014-05-01

178

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks ol [...] d) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil, Narayanan; Raju Suresh, Kumar; Bhagath Kumar, Potu; Satheesha, Nayak; Maneesh, Mailankot.

2009-03-01

179

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone. After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan

2009-03-01

180

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

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The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

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Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

2002-01-01

182

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats  

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Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration ...

Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

183

Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da carência nutricional de zinco na gestação e prole de ratas Wistar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Submetemos ratas Wistar adultas (90 dias) com peso entre 180 e 220 gramas a diferentes tipos de carência nutricional de zinco (Zn; grave: 2,6 ppm; moderada: 9,0 ppm e sem carência 8 [...] 1,6 ppm) durante 6 semanas. Após esse período foram acasaladas com machos normais e não observamos diferenças quanto fertilidade e esterilidade entre os animais carentes. Durante a gestação, parte dos animais continuaram recebendo o mesmo tipo de ração e parte recebeu ração sem carência. Com relação ao grupo sem carência três outros grupos foram formados: um que passou a receber dieta com carência grave, outro moderada e o terceiro continuou sem carência. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observamos entre os animais submetidos à carência aguda ou crônica tendência a menor ganho ponderal durante a gestação, menor peso da ninhada, níveis séricos de Zn materno e de "pool" de RN mais baixos. Observamos de modo significante, menor número de RN vivos entre os animais submetidos à carência grave reforçando o papel do Zn durante a gestação. Abstract in english Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and s [...] terility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic) had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool) blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

Dirceu, Solé; Brigitte, Rieckmann; Raquel Mattos Costa, Lippelt; Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci, Lippelt; Olga Maria Silverio, Amâncio; Suzana de Souza, Queiroz; Charles Kirov, Naspitz.

1995-02-01

184

EFFECTS OF OFLOXACIN ON EXPERIMENTAL FRACTURE HEALING IN WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Background: The process of bone healing is highly influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Ofloxacin is one of the extensively used broad spectrum antibiotic in current clinical practice, belongs to fluoroquinolones, which are known to have adverse effects on chondrocytes. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the bone healing process in untreated femoral fractures in rats under the influence of Ofloxacin. The effects were evaluated by means of radiology, histology and mechanical strength of callus by clinical examination. Methodology: Study was conducted in four phases comprising of forty Wistar rats. Each phase had ten rats, which were divided into two group of 5 rats each, one study group and another control group. Unilateral displaced femoral fractures are produced in both groups and in study group, Ofloxacin administered for four weeks. After 4 weeks animals are killed and fractures examined clinically, radiographed and histological study of fracture callus was done. Results: Radiography and clinical examination showed signs of healing in all fractures. Histologically healing process showed progressive formation of callus but histological abnormalities were detected in study group compared to control group. Conclusions: There was no clinically significant difference on bone callus strength and radiologicaly no signs of difference in union of femoral fractures with the use of ofloxacin when compared to control group. However histologically there were significant differences particularly around endochondral ossification front. This study differs from previous studies which reports that ofloxacin may have some adverse effects on chondrocytes.

Balakrishna Shetty

2014-01-01

185

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

186

EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANTS (VITAMIN C ON TISSUE CERULOPLASMIN FOLLOWING RENAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION IN WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of vitamin C on tissue ceruloplasmin level following renal reperfusion Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into Group I, II & III The Gr. II the experimental groups were subjected to ischemia for 60 minutes followed by 24 hrs of reperfusion. The Gr.III were pre- treated with vitamin C ( 20mg/kg.bw for 30 days followed by 60 minute ischemia & 24hrs of reperfusion. After the experimental procedure was over; the kidneys were removed and homogenized. The homogenized tissue was used for biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation & ceruloplasmin Result: A significant in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (MDA and increase in tissue ceruloplasmin level was observed in Group II compared to those in Group I (normal control. However, the pre- treated group (GroupIII showed an increase in the levels of ceruloplasmin and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in comparison to group II.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that administration of vitamin C prior to renal ischemia reperfusion protect the renal tissue from the free radical induced reperfusion injury.

Sheila Pai

2012-01-01

187

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g was divided randomly into four groups (n=6 and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C– aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05 to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg, while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns, antiulcer.

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

188

Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats  

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Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days). Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects. PMID:23351957

2012-01-01

189

Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at higher dose against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxic models and were comparable to that of Liv-52.The resultant hepatoprotective activity of Livactine could be due to its free radical scavenging property of the ingredients.

Candasamy Mayuren

2010-10-01

190

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

Vitor E. Valenti

2010-01-01

191

Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.

Brki? Zlata

2004-01-01

192

In vivo wireless ethanol vapor detection in the Wistar rat  

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Traditional alcohol studies measure blood alcohol concentration to elucidate the biomedical factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These measurements require large and expensive equipment, are labor intensive, and are disruptive to the subject. To alleviate these problems, we have developed an implantable, wireless biosensor that is capable of measuring alcohol levels for up to six weeks. Ethanol levels were measured in vivo in the interstitial fluid of a Wistar rat after administering 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg ethanol by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The data were transmitted wirelessly using a biosensor selective for alcohol detection. A low-power piezoresistive microcantilever sensor array was used with a polymer coating suitable for measuring ethanol concentrations at 100% humidity over several hours. A hydrophobic, vapor permeable nanopore membrane was used to screen liquid and ions while allowing vapor to pass to the sensor from the subcutaneous interstitial fluid. PMID:20161283

Cheney, C. Parks; Srijanto, B.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Ferrell, T. L.; Schultz, J.; Engleman, E. A.; McBride, W. J.; O'Connor, S.

2009-01-01

193

Effects of microwave radiation on wistar rats with walker tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finding non-conventional methods to cure malignant tumors using microwave fields at athermic power levels was the aim of this work. A number of 22 WISTAR rats were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinogenic cells. When the induced tumors were about 85-1000 mm3, 10 from these animals were kept as controls and 12 were irradiated with microwave electromagnetic field in 7.5 GH -10.5 GHz frequency range. Microwave power was at athermic levels (under 10 mW/cm2). For each irradiating session (different for each animal and also different from a treatment session to another one for the same animal), the microwave frequency was chosen to have a resonance in power absorption. The irradiation session was interrupted when the power absorption in the animal body became constant (about 10 min). There were about 30-40 irradiation sessions for each experience animal, depending on tumoral remission. All the control animals died after 3 weeks from carcinogenic cells inoculation. For 10 irradiated rats a total and definitive tumoral remission was established; 8 animals are still alive (Dec. 1999), healthy and capable of reproduction. For 2 experience animals there was a tumoral recurrence after 50 days and they died; another 2 rats died in two months after experience but from different causes. It is possible to consider the hypothesis that animals and tumors are a compact resonance assembly which changes in time. By microwave irradiation the entropy was adjusted to normal level allowing animal healing. (authors)

194

The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

2008-07-01

195

Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

196

Efectos de la infección chagásica aguda en ratas wistar gestantes / Effects of acute chagasic infection on gestating wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investiga en ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar, inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal con 5x10(4) tripomastigotes sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi, y preñadas 10 días después de la inoculación, los efectos de la infección aguda sobre la gestación, utilizando diferentes pruebas de diagnó [...] stico. Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english White Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were intraperitoneally inoculated with 5x10(4) blood form trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and impregnated 10 days after inoculation. The effects of acute infection on gestation were examined using different diagnostic tests. Results showed significant diffe [...] rences (P

Elio A, Moreno; María A, Araujo; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Sonia, Araujo; Rafael, Borges.

2006-10-01

197

Acute Oral Administration of Cytosine Arabinoside Triacetate to Male Albino Rats and Male and Female Rhesus Monkeys.  

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The acute toxicity of cytosine arabinoside triacetate was evaluated following single oral administration in male albino rats and in male and female rhesus monkeys. Methyl cellulose suspensions of the compound were prepared at concentrations ranging from 4...

H. Feinman, T. W. Tusing, E. R. Homan, D. P. Rall

1966-01-01

198

Wistar rats from different suppliers have a different response in an acute myocardial infarction model.  

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The Wistar rat is a commonly used strain for experimental animal models. Recently it was shown that results vary between studies using Wistar rats of different suppliers. Therefore we studied whether Wistar rats obtained from Harlan Laboratories (Ha, n=24) and Charles River (CR, n=22) had a different outcome in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. AMI was induced in both Ha and CR Wistar rats by one operator. This resulted in a significantly higher survival rate for Ha (79.2±10.2%) compared with CR rats (54.2±10.2%, p<0.05). Furthermore, CR rats had lost significantly more weight after 7 days (-5.9±3.1%) compared with Ha rats (-0.8±1.7%; p<0.001), indicating a worse health status of the CR rats. Paradoxically, the induced infarct was smaller in CR rats (7.3±3.6% of the heart) compared with Ha rats (12.1±4.7%, p<0.05). This indicates that CR rats were less sensitive for the cardiomyocyte damage subsequent to AMI induction, but remarkably showed more clinical side effects indicating that Wistar rats from two suppliers had a different response within the same AMI model. PMID:24445251

Naaijkens, B A; van Dijk, A; Meinster, E; Kramer, K; Kamp, O; Krijnen, P A J; Niessen, H W M; Juffermans, L J M

2014-04-01

199

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do Carmo

2000-03-01

200

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%)followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW) induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and...

SHAMSHUN NEHAR; RAJ KUMAR; CHANDAN KUMAR

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT  

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The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) (Alliaceae) extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 or 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The res...

Pathak, Sashank Srivastava And P. H.

2012-01-01

202

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

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Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

Fatemeh Hassani

2012-01-01

203

Antifertility Potentials of Metronidazole in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the decline in the quality of human sperm in recent years. Following reports by previous studies on the toxic effects of metronidazole on testicular functions, this study is designed to investigate further its direct effects on fertility potentials and that of the introduction of vitamin E and testosterone to metronidazole treated rats. A total of 105 adult male and 50 female Wistar rats weighing 170±10 g (70-90 day old were used for the experiment. The rats were randomly divided into a control and experimental groups. There were four major groups with 5 subgroups consisting of 5 rats each. Varying doses of metronidazole were used depending on the experiment. Experiment 1; animals were fed with 15 mg kg-1 of metronidazole, experiment 2, fed with 30 mg kg-1 of metronidazole, experiment 3, administered with 200 mg kg-1 of metronidazole and experiment 4, fed with 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole. Each experimental group has 5 sub-groups. A: control, B: group fed with the experimental dose, C: experimental dose with vitamin E, D: experimental dose with testosterone, E: fed with experimental dose, vitamin E and testosterone and sub-group F, a reversal group which was left for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Parameters assessed were sperm count/motility, hormonal assay, Fertility test for control and treated rats were also carried out. Results showed that metronidazole at the therapeutic dose of 15 mg kg-1 did not have significant negative effect on the parameters assessed. At the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, there was reduction in testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone while on the other hand, luteinizing hormone was increased mostly with 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole treatment. Body weight was also found to be significantly reduced in rats treated with 200 and 400 mg kg-1 of metronidazole. The results of this study indicate that metronidazole administration (200 or 400 mg kg-1, for 8 weeks, caused a harmful effect on fertility potentials in male rats.

B.C. Didia

2012-01-01

204

Histopathological evolution of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty Wistar rats were inoculated, by the intracardiac route, with 0.5 ml each of a yeast phase suspension of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Utero strain. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals post-infection, at which time their lungs, heart, liver, spleen and kidneys were removed, fixed and stained for study. The parameters of interest for the lung specimens were: (a) extent of the lesions; (b) number of fungi; (c) presence of a lymphomononuclear halo. Extrapulmonary lesions were also sought. Until the fourth month post-infection, the lesions were progressive in nature, contained great numbers of viable fungi, and were surrounded by an important lymphomononuclear halo which tended to be confluent. At four and a half months p.i., the extent of the pulmonary lesions was reduced, the granulomas were less compact with fewer viable fungi, macrophages showed microvacuolation, and the lymphomononuclear halo was less pronounced. Extrapulmonary lesions, which were frequently identified in the first months post-infection, diminished from the seventh month onwards. The histological characteristics of extrapulmonary lesions were always the same as those found in the lungs. Infection tended to be controlled by the animals from the fourth month, but without complete resolution of the lesions. PMID:10360321

Iovannitti, C A; Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Elías Costa, M R

1999-04-01

205

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS / EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de p [...] yrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of al [...] bino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Marisa, Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Mary, Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo, Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia, Espiridião; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

206

Ultrastructural Identification of the Basal-Granulated Cells in the Duodenum of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available The fine structure of the crypt epithelium of the duodenal mucosa in albino rats was studied to represent the types and distribution of the basal-granulated or endocrine cells. Twenty male animals were used. Perfusion-fixation was made and samples of duodenal mucosa were taken and processed to prepare epon-embedded specimens for examination by a transmission electron microscope. Cells containing membrane-bound granules were seen in the crypt epithelium. They were identified to be basal-granulated cells. Six different types of such cells were demonstrated. All of the cells were of the closed type. The possible functional significance of these closed cell types was discussed. Correlation among the distributions of such cells in the intestine of albino rat might enable the physiologists, internists and other research workers to study several biologically active peptides with well-established functions other than those which have long been investigated.

Ali Hassan A. Ali

2014-07-01

207

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

208

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

Thoudam Bhaigyabati

2012-03-01

209

Triazophos induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney of female albino rats.  

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Organophosphate (OP) pesticides toxic manifestations have been associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which culminates into oxidative stress (OS). Triazophos (TZ), a broad spectrum OP, was used in the present study to investigate toxic effects on liver and kidney of female albino rats at three sub-chronic dose levels of 1/10th, 1/20th and 1/40th of LD50 for 30 days. Activity levels of different OS parameters viz: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were differentially altered in liver and kidney of TZ treated rats as compared to control rats. Histomorphological studies further revealed number of abnormalities as infiltration, vacuolization, enlarged sinusoids and necrosis in liver of TZ treated rats, while renal histoarchitecture of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ treated rats showed high degeneration of glomeruli. Enhanced apoptosis was also observed in hepatocytes at dose levels of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ treated female rats. The results infer that exposure of female albino rats to TZ leads to number of pathophysiological conditions in the liver and kidney at dose dependent manner. PMID:24759054

Sharma, Dharmender; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

210

Pattern of neurobehaviour in albino rats in the open field following oral artesunate administration.  

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The neurobehavioural patterns in the open field following oral artesunate administration was studied using 40 albino rats randomly assigned to three Groups, namely A, B and C. Prior to the test, all the animals were acclimatized for 5 minutes in the open field maze. Group A (8 males and 8 females) received therapeutic doses of artesunate (1.42 mg/kg per oral (p.o.)--using oro-gastric tubes while Group B (8 males and 8 females) received pharmacological doses of 4.26 mg/kg (p.o.). Group C served as the control and were administered only distilled water (p.o.). Gross behavioural changes were noted following the therapeutic and pharmacological administration of artesunate for five days. Rats in Groups A and B showed marked decrease in loco motor activity (line crossing) and exploratory (rearing and walling) activities in comparison with the control (P0.05). However, the frequency of grooming was significantly lower in Groups A and B rats than in the control (P<0.01). The frequency and duration of freezing were significantly higher in Groups A and B rats than in the control rats (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the values for the male and female rats. There was also no dose dependent effect of artesunate on the activities studied. Oral administration of artesunate significantly decreases loco motor and exploratory behaviours in the albino rat. PMID:19205573

Odo, M O; Bisong, S A; Akpa, O A; Udokang, A; Obidua, C I; Ekanem, T B; Osim, E E

2007-06-01

211

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

212

Effect of spironolactone on acid and alkaline phosphatase in the testes of albino rat  

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The biological activity of the mineralocorticoid antagonist, spironolactone depend upon its metabolism. In this study the effect of diuretic drug compound spironolactone on the acid and alkaline phosphatase in the testes of albino rat. The drug spironolactone was administered orally daily for 7th, 14th and 21st days at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Among them, the side effects of drug are that the degradation of alkaline phosphatase in the testes; while acid phosphatase increased signifi...

Singh, P. K.; Singh, D. P.

2005-01-01

213

Effect of synthetic dermorphin analogues on tissue homeostasis in the myocardium of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA synthesis and state of the nucleolar apparatus in myocardial cells of newborn albino rats receiving intraperitoneal injection of sedatin, a synthetic dermorphin analogue, were studied by means of autoradiography and silver impregnation. Labeling intensity significantly increased, while the number of nucleoli in nuclei decreased. Chemiluminescence study showed that the concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites significantly decreased in the myocardium of treated animals after sedatin administration. Non-arginine analogue of sedatin had little effect on tissue homeostasis in the myocardium. PMID:18642706

Kriganovskaya, S Yu; Lebed'ko, O A; Sazonova, E N; Timoshin, S S; Molokanova, L E

2007-10-01

214

[Effect of an anticoagulant rodenticide on the female albino rat with offspring].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactating female albino rats have been treated with coumatetralyl rodenticide, having anticoagulant activity. The letal effect on mothers was of 40% (using a maximum concentration of toxic substance) while it was of 54% in offsprings. Among the probable causes of death in offsprings, the authors suggest the hypothesis that an interference in the relationship mother-offsprings is due to the influence of coumatetralyl on parental behavior. PMID:553281

Marchini, S; Turillazzi, P G

1978-12-01

215

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats  

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In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the b...

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

2011-01-01

216

Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

217

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

Pankaj G. Jain

2010-12-01

218

Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.

Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.

2010-12-01

219

Teratogenic vulnerability of Wistar rats to diphenyl ditelluride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of single maternal subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.12 mg/kg diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2, diluted in canola oil at days 6, 10 or 17 of gestation were evaluated in Wistar rats. The reduction of body weight gain was statistically significant at GD9, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD6; at GD13, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD10, and at GD20, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD17, when compared to respective control groups. External and internal fetal soft tissues examination was performed on day 20 of gestation. Single maternal injection at day 10 of gestation resulted in appearance of malformation in fore- and hind-limbs, absent or short tail, subcutaneous blood clots, exophthalmia, hydrocephalus and absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue in fetuses on day 20 of gestation. Besides (PhTe)2 reduced fetal body and cerebral weight, kidney length, measurements of body dimension and provoked 73% of fetal mortality. Subcutaneous administration of (PhTe)2 on day 17 of gestation was associated with 94% mortality, hydrocephalus and edema. Histological evaluations of fetal brain demonstrated displaced brain tissue with absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue when diphenyl ditelluride was administered in GD10. Histological evaluation of fetal head exposed at GD17 revealed a decrease of the brain volume with consequent dilation of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent tissues were thinner than that of control group tissues. No fetal changes were observed after administration of (PhTe)2 at day 6 of gestation. Thus (PhTe)2 can be teratogenic to rat fetuses and toxic for dams. The late fetal stages of rat prenatal development appeared uniquely sensitive to organic tellurium exposure

220

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

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Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (PIndustrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity

S A Braid

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar / Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), e [...] xposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The a [...] nimals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos, Valença; Milena Leonarde, Kloss; Frank Silva, Bezerra; Manuella, Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring, Silva; Luís Cristóvão, Porto.

222

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divid [...] idos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed wi [...] th supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.

Sandra Maria, Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado, Spada; Erick Prado de, Oliveira; Márcio Emilio, Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida, Martuchi; Náyra Coelho, Leite; Renata Maeda, Deus; Vivianne, Sasaki; Lucas Silva, Braganti; Marie, Oshiiwa.

223

Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver of adult wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of alcoholic diseases in the liver is well documented. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant. Our aim was to investigate in vivo whether KV may attenuate oxidative stress in liver of Wistar albino rats following chronic ethanol administration. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 7.5% or 45% ethanol at 3 g/kg of body weight daily for 8 weeks. Rats were treated with KV at 200 mg/kg of body weight for the same duration. Treatment was by oral gavage. Integrity of liver was assessed by determining the levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The antioxidant status was monitored by determining the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Experimentally, chronic ethanol administration led to hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the increase in levels of serum ALT, AST, and ALP. Ethanol also enhanced the formation of MDA in the liver. Specifically, MDA was elevated by 70% and 98% in animals treated with 7.5% and 45% ethanol, respectively. Levels of hepatic SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH were significantly (P < .05) reduced by ethanol treatment. Co-administration of KV during ethanol treatment inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities. These findings demonstrated that KV could have a beneficial effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage in liver of Wistar rats caused by chronic ethanol administration. PMID:19627207

Adaramoye, O A; Awogbindin, I; Okusaga, J O

2009-06-01

224

Incorporation of 3H-thymidine in embryos of Wistar rats treated by AY 9944  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intake of tritiated thymidine by the embryos of Wistar pregnant rats treated by AY 9944 is significantly lowered. This decrease is parallel with the embryonic hypotrophy. Is there a causal relationship between the two phenomena

225

Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

226

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

O.S. Amaechina

2013-01-01

227

Nephrogenesis and albuminuria of the spontaneously hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat  

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The Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat strain represents a valuable genetic model for the investigation of nephrogenesis and kidney disease. Male MWF rats exhibit an inherited nephron deficit of about 27% compared to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with low grade albuminuria. Furthermore, male MWF rats develop mild spontaneous arterial hypertension, progressive albuminuria, and glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that the development of albuminuria in MWF rats is influenced ...

Schulte, Leonard A.

2013-01-01

228

Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats  

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Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver ...

Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

2012-01-01

229

Preventive activity of ascorbic acid on lead acetate induced cerebellar damaged in adult Wistar rats  

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Among the environmental contaminants, lead is one of the most hazardous to living matter. In mammals, the main target is the central nervous system, particularly in the young. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant which is a substance that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. This study investigated Experiment the protective effect of ascorbic acid on the cerebellum of adult Wistar rats following oral administration of different doses of Lead acetate. Thirty adult Wistar rat...

Sunday Abraham Musa; Iliyasu Musa Omoniye; Wilson Oliver Hamman; Augustine Oseloka Ibegbu; Uduak Emmanuel Umana

2012-01-01

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Effects of Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy on Postnatal Development of Testis in Wistar Rats Offspring  

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Background and Objective: In recent years there are growing concerns about the decrease of male reproductive health by different factors. So, present study was aimed to determine the effects of caffeine consumption during gestation on development of histomorphometric structure of testis in Wistar rats offspring. Subjects and Methods: Pregnant female Wistar rats in treatment groups received low and high doses (26 and 45 mg/kg) of caffeine during gestation via drinking water. At 1, 30, 60 and 9...

Noraei P; Dorostghol M; Aa, Moazedi

2011-01-01

231

Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

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EFFECT OF STRESS - INDUCED MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVEL IN DIFFERENT BRAIN TISSUES IN SELECTIVE SUBCORTICAL LESIONED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Brain is the target for different stressors because of its high sensitivity to stress induced degenerative conditions. A number of pathological conditions of the brain have been implicated due to free radical formation. Subcortcial structures are known to influence stress responses. Among them, the amygdala nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus has been linked in the regulation of stress responses. The present study was aimed to elucidate the comparative analysis of amygdala and paraventricular nucleus in regulating the acute and chronic stress-induced malondialdehyde level in different brain tissues. Wistar albino rats were divided into amygdala lesioned and PVN lesioned groups. Each group was further subdivided into lesioned control group and lesioned stress group. The lesioned stress group animals were subjected to acute and chronic types of swimming and immobilization stress with bilateral lesions of nucleus of amygdala and PVN. Each subgroup contained ten animals. MDA levels of cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and cerebellum were estimated. Exposure to acute and chronic swimming stress in amygdala lesioned groups showed a significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 increase in the hypothalamus lipid peroxidation level when compared to the PVN lesioned swimming stress groups. Exposure to acute stressors significantly increased (p < 0.001 the cerebellar lipid peroxidation level in the amygdala lesioned groups when compared to the PVN lesioned groups. Based on the present study, it appears that the amygdala nucleus has a prominent role in decreasing the stress induced free radical formation in brain tissues. It is our attempt to put forth the evidence for greater involvement of the amygdala in the prevention of stress- induced free radicals formation

Sheila R Pai

2013-06-01

233

Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.

Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja

2013-12-01

234

Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study  

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Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

Nahed Ahmed Omar

2012-07-01

235

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

236

In vivo hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes following Crataegus aronia syn. Azarolus (L administration to normotensive Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effects of the whole plant aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L on the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic intervals in albino rats. Methods: This study was carried out in 2 stages at the Research Laboratory, Physiology Department, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. First, the effects of C. aronia syn. Azarolus (L on the hemodynamics and electrocardiograph in 54 Wistar male rats were assessed, then the mechanisms underlying the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes observed in the first stage were evaluated in 48 rats of the same species. Results: The C. aronia administered at escalating doses (0.05-20 µg/kg produced a dose-time-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Higher doses (15 and 20 µg/kg produced the most significant reduction in both HR and MAP, and induced sinus node suppression and progressive atrio-ventricular blockade. The underlying mechanism of the induced bradyarrhythmia appeared to be due to the direct stimulation of the muscarinic receptor M2 and possible blockade of beta-receptors, while the hypotension was caused by enhanced nitric oxide release. No significant alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG components were observed. Conclusions: The administration of the C. aronia syn. Azarolus extract induced bradyarrhythmia and hypotension, without alteration in the ECG components. 

Abdullah S. Shatoor

2013-02-01

237

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy

2010-08-01

238

Evaluation of contraceptive activity of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata stem in male albino rats.  

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of methanol extract of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh (family-Loranthaceae), stem in male albino rats as reported in folk remedies. Adult proven fertile male rats were gavaged methanol extract of D. falcata stem at 50, 100 and 200mg/rat/day for 60 days. The activity was compared with standard drug, i.e. Lonidamine. On day 61 the animals were autopsied and the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were dissected out and weighed. Sperm motility and density and serum testosterone level were assessed. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. The histoarchitecture of testes revealed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis at the stage of round spermatid. Serum testosterone levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups. It is concluded that D. falcata methanol stem extract showed a significant effect on fertility in male rats as reported in folk remedies. PMID:17446020

Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S

2007-05-30

239

Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

240

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5 serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol level of rats fed on yogurt with or without XO enrichment but a fair reduction in serum glucose content was noted. XO as a functional ingredient can be incorporated in formulating dairy products with improved health benefits like lowering glucose levels.

Semee Mumtaz

2009-01-01

242

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

Flamarion dos Santos Batista

2004-12-01

243

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats / Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar. [...] Abstract in english An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred. [...

Flamarion dos Santos, Batista; Osvaldo, Malafaia; Jurandir Marcondes, Ribas Filho; Nicolau Gregory, Czeczko; João Carlos Domingues, Repka.

244

Model of septic arthritis by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus in Wistar rats Modelo de artrite séptica por inoculação de Staphylococcus aureus em ratos Wistar  

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An experimental model of septic arthritis by monobacterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus 10.9 in Wistar rats dorsal penis vein is describred.Descrição de um modelo experimental de artrite séptica por inoculação monobacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus na veia dorsal do pênis de ratos Wistar.

Flamarion dos Santos Batista; Osvaldo Malafaia; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho; Nicolau Gregory Czeczko; João Carlos Domingues Repka

2004-01-01

245

Evalution of Antiurolithic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats  

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Background: In ayurvedic system of medicine a vast number of medicinal plants are reported to possess with antiurolithic activity. Aim: To study the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AERCP) in chemicals induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Nine Groups of albino rats (n=6) were used to evaluate the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of C.Pareira. Group I received with rat chow diet, Group II with 2% Ammonium chloride (AC) and 0.75% Ethylene glycol (EG) Group III with EG plus AC and cystone (5 ml/kg), Groups IV, V, VI with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract, Groups VII, VIII, IX with EG plus AC and low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract respectively for 10 days. Urolithiasis was induced by supplying drinking water mixed with 2% Ammonium chloride and 0.75% Ethylene glycol for 10 days. On 11th day three rats from each Group were kept in one metabolic cage and urine (pooled) collected for 24h was subjected for estimation of biochemical parameters like urinary calcium, uric acid and magnesium. Blood was collected on the same day and analysed for various parameters. Kidneys were observed for the histopathological changes. Results: The rats treated with alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira at 03 different doses significantly (p? 0.05) reduced urinary calcium, uric acid and increased urinary magnesium levels, reduced serum calcium, creatinine and increased serum magnesium. Rats treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses revealed less tissue damage and the cytology of the nephrotic tissue was almost similar to normal control Group I rats. Conclusion: Results showed that alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira has exhibited a significant antiurolithic effect against urolithiasis in experimental rats.

Khanwelkar, Chitra C; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Chavan, Vasant R; BH, Ramesh; S, Naveen Kumar

2014-01-01

246

Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat  

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Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

2007-10-01

247

Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.  

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Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (Prats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. PMID:24759051

Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

2014-03-01

248

Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days. After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg produced significant reduction (P < 0.05 in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days. However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Maruthappan V

2010-01-01

249

Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.  

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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246

Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

2012-01-01

250

Modulation Of Acrylamide-Induced Biochemical Alterations In Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.

251

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

252

Weight and vaginal opening in the albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The body weight of rats at spontaneous vaginal opening (Wvo) was related to the weight at weaning (Ww) and the time elapsed between the two events (tvo) by the following equation: Wvo = aj + bWw + ctvo + residual where aj is the litter effect present when both the male and female young are reared together. When only female young are raised, aj may be replaced by a, so that in this instance there is no litter effect. Further model differences were noted for young raised under different conditions. PMID:3968647

Edwards, D F; Kay, R

1985-01-01

253

Effect of continuous irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves of the NO frequency range on behavioral reactions of male albino rats under stress conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of terahertz waves (NO frequency range, 150.176-150.664 GHz) on stress-induced variations in behavioral reactions of male albino rats during hypokinetic stress. THz irradiation was followed by partial or complete normalization of behavioral reactions of male albino rats after hypokinetic stress. The most significant effect was observed after continuous irradiation for 30 min. PMID:24952484

Kirichuk, V F; Antipova, O N; Krylova, Ya A

2014-06-01

254

Efeitos da semicarbazida no esqueleto de ratos Wistar em crescimento / Effects of semicarbazide on skeleton of growing Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The effects of semicarbazide hydrochloride on skeletal tissues were evaluated using Wistar rats. In the animals submitted to the administration of semicarbazide, radiological examination showed bone and articular alterations with growth plates enlargement. Histological exams showed irregular pattern [...] s and proliferation of chondrocytes and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical exams showed PCNA positive reaction in pre- and hypertrofic chondrocytes. These results confirm that semicarbazide induces important changes in skeletal tissues and that has potential utility in experimental osteolathryrism

A., Ramos; A., Pereira; A.S., Cabrita; F., Capela e Silva.

2012-04-01

255

Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

256

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

Sabiha Khan

2014-05-01

257

Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

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The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control w...

Hamman, Wilson O.; Musa, Sunday A.; Ikyembe, Daniel T.; Umana, Uduak E.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Nok, Andrew J.; Ojo, Samuel A.

2011-01-01

258

Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

2007-01-01

259

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

260

Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

 
 
 
 
261

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

262

Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT ias the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

263

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal, A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal, A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil. Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh

2009-03-01

264

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cinnamon Zeylanicum Leaves against Alcohol Induced Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Plants play an important role in the life of human, as the major source of food, as well as for the maintenance and improvement of health and for the elimination of the enemies since ages. Plants are the basic source of knowledge of modern medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum are evaluated in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg was given as reference standard. The aqueos extract of aerial parts of Cinnamon zeylanicum have shown very significant hepatoprotection against alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats in reducing SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and GGT and levels of total bilirubin and total protein were investigated and showed an increase in alcohol induced rats when compared to control. The extracts of the test plant exhibited significant (p < 0.05 hepatoprotective activity against the alcohol induced liver models by improving liver function which was indicated by reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin and total protein.

K.Arun

2014-08-01

265

Antioxidative Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Globimetula braunii in Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (p<0.05 in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malonyldialdehyde (MDA levels, while the level of triacylglycerol decreased (p<0.05 compared to control. HPLC analysis showed that the crude and ethyl acetate fractions showed phenolic compounds, apigenin and naringin but only naringin was present in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that endogenous Naringin may be acting in vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.

J. Okpuzor

2009-01-01

266

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

267

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex nigundo in Swiss Albino Rats  

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Vitex-negundo Linn (Verbenaceae), a large aromatic shrub with typical five foliolate leaves pattern has been claimed to possess anticonsulvant activity apart from many medicinal properties. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in albino rats were used to study anticonvulsant activity of Vitex-negundo leaf extract. The ethanol leaf extract of Vitex-negundo was administered orally in graded doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg and 2000mg/kg p.o ) in the experimental model and the effects were compared with...

Pv, Dr Kishan; Dr, Kavitha R.; Miss Arpitha.T; Dr.Jayasree.T

2012-01-01

268

Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats  

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The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. ) and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. ). After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days withou...

Mustafa, Eman G. E. Helal Mohamad H. A. Hasan Ashraf M.

2003-01-01

269

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

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Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal), A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal), A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil) and A4 = con...

Masood Ahmed Shaikh; Syed Naeemulhassan Naqvi; Zahid Ali Kaim Khani

2009-01-01

270

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

271

THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

272

Fundamental interstrain differences in cortical activity between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats during global ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute effects of 4VO-induced global ischemia on the spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. The ECoG was isoelectric during the 10 min of global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats and the first burst (FB) was seen 10-13 min after the start of reperfusion. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the FB was detected immediately after the start of 4VO or a few seconds later. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) in Wistar rats decreased to 45% in 5 min after FB, and after 25 min it was approximately 40%. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the BSR was 55% immediately after the FB and it decreased steeply to reach 0% by 10 min. There was also a significant difference between the two strains in the frequency composition of the ECoG pattern. The power spectral densities of the two strains differed virtually throughout the post-ischemic state. The histological results (Evans Blue, Cresyl Violet and Fluoro Jade C stainings) supplemented the electrophysiological data: the neuronal damage in the CA1 pyramids in Wistar rats was severe, whereas in the Sprague-Dawley animals it was only partial. These observations clearly demonstrate that the use of different rat strains (e.g. Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley) can be a source of considerable variability in the results of acute experiments on global ischemia and it is important that the laboratory rats used in such experiments should be carefully chosen. PMID:23103797

Fuzik, J; Gellért, L; Oláh, G; Herédi, J; Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Nagy, D; Kincses, Z T; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Toldi, J

2013-01-01

273

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar / Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade varian [...] do entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 a [...] nd 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei, Rodrigues; Olavo Biraghi, Letaif; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante; Raphael Martus, Marcon; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros Filho.

274

ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L) BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS  

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Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxida...

Thanga Krishna Kumari S; Sakthidevi G; Muthukumaraswamy S; Vr, Mohan

2012-01-01

275

Brief light as a practical aversive stimulus for the albino rat  

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Bright light was an effective aversive stimulus for Wistar rats in punishment, escape, and avoidance paradigms. Contingent punishment of lever-pressing maintained by concurrent schedules of food delivery shifted presses to an alternate lever, and depressed overall response rates. Periodic non-contingent presentation of the light prompted escape responding (head entry into a hole). Unsignaled avoidance contingencies were not effective, but pre-pulse signaling of light supported avoidance behav...

Barker, David J.; Sanabria, Federico; Lasswell, Anne; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Pawlak, Anthony P.; Killeen, Peter R.

2010-01-01

276

EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the food’s taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult  male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight,(5mg/kg body weight of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters  in serum of adult male albino rats associated with liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes and  the effect of these additives on the biomarkers of the oxidative stress  and antioxidant enzyme activities in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. In comparison with the normal rats we found that body weight increased in rats treated with MSG while decreased in rats consumed NaNO2; In the liver functions parameters there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP, total protein, Albumin, Globulin and billirubin of MSG while, in NaNO2 there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP and billirubin activity while, there is a decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin. In our view of lipid profile there is an increased level in total cholesterol and TG concentration in MSG and decreased level of total cholesterol and TG in NaNO2 while, there is a decrease in HDL concentration in both MSG and NaNO2. In cardiac enzymes there is an increase in LDH enzyme in both additives and there is a decrease in CK enzyme activity in MSG while, increased in serum of NaNO2. Our investigations showed an increase in kidney functions in both types of additives. In the oxidative stress observation there is an increase in LPO while, there is a decrease in CAT, GSH, and SOD activity in MSG and NaNO2.

Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim*, Hanan Abdel-Hameid Abdel-Hafeez, Basant Mohamed Mahmoud and Eman Nazeem Abd-Allah

2014-07-01

277

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF ORIGIN (MOOLASTHANA OF RAKTAVAHA STROTAS IN ALBINO RAT  

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Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, believes in the existence of the things, which are beyond the perception of most intellectual human approach. Strotas [fine network/meshwork of large or small channels (excluding blood vessels and nerves with micro or macroscopic spaces meant for various types of secretion and excretion of useful and waste product] and its origin is such part of sharir (i.e. body which is beyond the capacity of human being to prove it practically. They are found in cell-tissue-organ-system and thus occupy the whole body. Origin of Strotas is difficult to show in human being hence, Albino Rat, is selected to prove its existence. Out of 14 strotas (as described by carak, an attempt is made to verify and determine the Origin of Raktavaha Strotas only in Albino Rat. Raktavaha strotas are those micro-macro hollow channels where Rakta Dhatu i.e. blood and its content, are formed, conducted, metabolized and are transformed in to newer substances to meet the need of life.

Vaikos Chandrashekhar Dattatraya

2011-04-01

278

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

279

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

280

Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

 
 
 
 
281

A novel immunohistochemical marker of normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In albino rats, spontaneous occurrence of melanocytic tumors is rare, with diagnosis difficult. This study evaluated immunoreactivity for PNL2 in normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats. The samples consisted of 11 (1.57%) amelanotic melanomas in 700 rats (2 studies), 23 non-melanocytic tumors, and a wide variety of normal tissues. In normal albino rats, PNL2 stained the melanocytes in the iris and choroid of the eyeball and the hair bulb and basal cell layers of the epidermis of the whole body. In amelanotic melanoma, the tumor cells consisted of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm without melanin granules. PNL2 consistently stained cytoplasm in all amelanotic melanoma cells. In contrast, the nonmelanocytic tumor cells were not labeled. Electron microscopically, neoplastic, and normal melanocytes showed numerous cytoplasmic premelanosomes (stage II melanosome). In conclusion, PNL2 is direct against a fixative- and decalcific-resistant melanocyte-associated antigen, and has high specificity against normal and neoplastic melanocytes of albino rats. PMID:18487499

Kurotaki, T; Tomonari, Y; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Tsuchitani, M

2008-05-01

282

Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

Pandya, Preeti N; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-10-01

283

Exploring Hepatotoxicity of Benomyl: Histological and Histochemical Study on Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Benomyl, a fungicide of the benzimidazole group applied against a wide range of fungal diseases of crops and vegetables. The effects of benomyl on the hepatic tissue of albino rats were investigated. Treating rats with benomyl at a dose level of 1/10 LD50 three times/week for three weeks induced various histopathological changes in the liver, such as hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and fatty degeneration. Histochemical investigations revealed reduction in total carbohydrates, total proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA in the hepatic cells. These alterations were time-dependent and were obvious in animals treated with benomyl for 3 weeks. It is speculated that one or more metabolites of benomyl may be responsible for the hepatotoxicity recorded in the present work.

Saber A. Sakr

2004-01-01

284

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Plant Cannabis sativa (L Petrolium Ether Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In this study the plant Cannabis sativa seeds petroleum oil extract was investigatedfor anti- inflammatory activity on albino rats. The inflammation was firstly obtained byusing carrageenan suspension 0.1 ml of 10% saline injected at the sub – plantar region ofthe left limb for inducing a local acute oedema. A decreased in oedema size was reportedafter 24 hours for the rats pretreated with carrageenan30 minutes before injection withsuspension( 4.56, 0.59 and 0.93 for control, 1ml/kg per day and 0.5ml/kg per day groupsgiven C. sativa seed extracts respectively., compared to Indomethacin standard antiinflammatorydrug which reported a decrease in oedema size diameter to 0.55mm, which

Musa E.M

2011-10-01

285

Protective role of desferrioxamine against gamma-irradiation induced histopathological damage in albino rats' liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.

286

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-09-01

287

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats have been studied to find out the possible mechanism of hepatoprotection. It was observed that extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb has reversal effects on the levels of above-mentioned parameters in paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb functions as a hepatoprotective agent and this hepatoprotective activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb may be due normalization of impaired membrane function activity.

Jha Urmilesh

2011-04-01

288

Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento / Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada ga [...] iola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes) foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in [...] each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.

Vania Gomes de Moura, Mattaraia; Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares, Moura.

1490-14-01

289

Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento / Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada ga [...] iola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes) foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in [...] each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.

Vania Gomes de Moura, Mattaraia; Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares, Moura.

290

Produtividade de ratos Wistar em diferentes sistemas de acasalamento Productivity of Wistar rats in different mating systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e uniformidade da produção de ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus em três sistemas de acasalamento: monogâmico permanente, com um casal mantido permanentemente em cada gaiola; poligâmico permanente, com duas matrizes e um macho, mantidos permanentemente em cada gaiola; e poligâmico temporário, em que o macho foi mantido na gaiola com duas matrizes até a certificação de cada cópula e, em seguida, foi retirado, retornando após o desmame das ninhadas. Para isso, 69 fêmeas de 90 dias de idade (matrizes foram aleatoriamente distribuídas nos três grupos. As avaliações compreenderam cinco ciclos reprodutivos por matriz. Foram obtidas ninhadas mais pesadas a desmama no sistema poligâmico temporário. Além disso, não houve mortalidade de matrizes neste sistema, o que é um indicador importante de bem estar animal. No sistema monogâmico permanente, o intervalo de tempo necessário para produzir um filhote desmamado por matriz foi menor que nos sistemas poligâmicos. Deve-se considerar, no entanto, que este sistema requer o dobro do número de gaiolas e de machos reprodutores que os poligâmicos. Portanto, o sistema poligâmico temporário pode ser recomendado nas colônias de expansão e produção de ratos Wistar, com a ressalva de que necessita de mão de obra qualificada para identificação de cópula nas matrizes e manejo de rotação dos machos.The objective was to evaluate the productivity and production uniformity of Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus submitted to three mating systems: permanent monogamous, with a couple permanently maintained in each cage, permanent polygamous, with two females and one male permanently maintained in each cage, and temporary polygamous in which a male was maintained in a cage with two females until each mating was verified and was removed afterwards, returning after both litters were weaned. For that, 69 90-days-old females were randomly assigned to three groups. The evaluations comprised five reproduction cycles per dam. Litters that were heavier at weaning were obtained in the temporary polygamous systems. In addition, dam mortality was null in this system, which is an important animal welfare indicator. In the permanent monogamous system, the interval of time required to produce one weaned pup per dam was shorter than in the polygamous systems. One should consider, however that this system requires twice as many cages and sires than the polygamous systems. Therefore, the temporary polygamous mating system may be recommended for the expansion and production Wistar rats colonies, provided that qualified personnel is available to identify copulation in breeding females and to perform male rotation.

Vania Gomes de Moura Mattaraia

2012-08-01

291

Effect of Tecoma stans Leaves on the Reproductive System of Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.

Nidhi Mathur

2010-01-01

292

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Leaf on Pregnancy Outcome of Wistar Rats  

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Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaf extract is used medicinally to treat various kinds of diseases such as diabetes, fever, bronchitis etc, in different parts of the world including Nigeria. This study investigates the effect of A. occidentale leaf extract on reproductive outcome of Wistar rats. Twenty female wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (I, II, III, and IV), n = 5 in each group. Group I is the control while groups II, III and IV are experimental groups. 300 mg/kg of aqueous leaf e...

Dare, S. S.; W O Hamman, S. Musa

2011-01-01

293

Improved model for the establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voi [...] ding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P

Nian-zhao, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian-bo, Zhang; Jun, Chen.

294

Improved model for the establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voi [...] ding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P

Nian-zhao, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian-bo, Zhang; Jun, Chen.

2014-06-01

295

The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats  

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This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twent...

1 Ezejindu D.N; Chinweife K. C.

2013-01-01

296

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

297

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review / Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda [...] fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and in [...] flammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.

Thiago de Oliveira, Assis; José Candido de, Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa, Maia.

1289-12-01

298

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review / Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda [...] fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and in [...] flammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.

Thiago de Oliveira, Assis; José Candido de, Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa, Maia.

299

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

2005-09-01

300

Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V Derivative in Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Triphenylantimony(V derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri[SC6H4N:C(CH3CH2C(OCH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC︹(CH3CH2C(OCH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P<.01 alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a.

Y. P. Singh

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antiovulatory Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Chromatographic Fractions of Citrus medica Seeds in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In India the control of fertility is based on the folk use of numerous traditional antifertility plants that has been practiced for many years. The petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica seeds which showed promising antiovulatory activity in female albino rats was examined for the isolation of its active fractions. Two fractions were obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC of the extract. Both fractions were subjected for testing their anti-ovulatory activity and estrous cycle in rats. After preliminary trials, the fraction II showed maximum antiovulatory activity when administered orally to the rats for 30 days. At autopsy on day 31st, chromatographic fractions treated rats showed increased ovarian weight and histological changes of the ovary indicate increases in the number of atretic follicles but decreases in the number of healthy developing follicles, Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. The total cholesterol, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase content of the ovary were increased, whereas, protein, glycogen and alkaline protease content were decreased. The estrous cycle of these rats was irregular with prolonged proestrus and estrous, reduced metestrus and diestrus phase during the experimental period. These results suggest that a chromatographic fraction II of petroleum ether extract of Citrus medica might be used as a contraceptive in the females.

Saraswati B. Patil

2013-01-01

302

Acute Oral and Parenteral Toxicity of 1,3-Bis(2-Chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea (Bcnu), Administered to Male Albino Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute toxicity of 1-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, mol. wt. 214.07) was evaluated following single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration to male albino rats. The compound was prepared in sterile saline, at a concentration of...

H. Feinman, T. W. Tusing

1966-01-01

303

Voluntary Alcohol Consumption Alters Stress-induced Changes in Dopamine-2 Receptor Binding in Wistar-Kyoto Rat Brain  

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The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depressive behavior and exhibits hyper-responsiveness to stressful stimulation when compared to other rat strains. We have demonstrated that WKY rats consume 200% more alcohol under naïve conditions as compared to their outbred counterparts, Wistar (WIS) rats. The present study was designed to understand the influence of stress and alcohol consumption on central dopamine type-2 (D2) receptor sites in these two behaviorally di...

Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-butt, Shanaz M.

2010-01-01

304

Effect of samh seeds supplementation (Mesembryanthemum forsskalei Hochst) on liver enzymes and lipid profiles of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic of Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. The rat groups received different food (natural diet or high fat content diet) supplemented with 10% or 15% of samh seeds for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes have been measured in diabetic rats liver. In addition, liver lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), lipid peroxide production malondialdehyde (MDA)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in have been measured in diabetic rats liver, and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were also determined. The samh seeds diet supplemented with cholesterol significantly increase (P < 0.05) the levels of liver peroxide production MDA, TC and TG in diabetic rats comparing to the samh diet not supplemented with the cholesterol. However, the samh seeds significantly decrease (P < 0.05) the level of GSH. These data suggest that the samh seeds diet not supplemented with the cholesterol regulated C and TG metabolism and decrease the lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats. PMID:23961054

Al-Faris, Nora A.; Al-sawadi, Ali D.; Alokail, Majed S.

2009-01-01

305

Pre- and postnatal oral toxicity of vinclozolin in Wistar and Long-Evans rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vinclozolin administered to pregnant Wistar and Long-Evans rats from day 14 postcoitum to day 3 postpartum at 200 mg/kg body wt/day was maternally toxic (reduced food consumption and body weight gain) and increased perinatal mortality; major adverse effects on sex-specific organs in male offspring were seen (reduced anogenital distance and index; persistence of nipples/areolas into adulthood; hypospadic penis; penile hypoplasia or development of a vaginal pouch; transient paraphimosis; hypoplasia and chronic inflammation of epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicles, and coagulating glands; and also testicular tubular atrophy and chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder in some Long-Evans) with isolated inflammation-related deaths due to pyelonephritis. At 12 mg/kg, prevalence of female areola/nipple anlagen in immature (preweaning) male offspring was increased in both strains; these persisted to adulthood in a few treated Long-Evans but not Wistar offspring. Adult Long-Evans but not Wistar at this dose also had hypoplasia of prostate, seminal vesicles, and coagulating glands, and a minority had testicular tubular atrophy. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) were 12 and 6 mg/kg body wt in Wistar and Long-Evans rats, respectively, in these studies. The data suggest that both the Long-Evans and the Wistar rats are comparably sensitive to the antiandrogenic effects of vinclozolin. At dose levels below the NOAEL (1 and 3 mg/kg, respectively), there were no indications of any test-substance-related effects. PMID:11029267

Hellwig, J; van Ravenzwaay, B; Mayer, M; Gembardt, C

2000-08-01

306

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects of crude aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (Mango stem bark on body weight and haematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated. Albino rats of both sexes weighing between 75 g and 125 g were used. At least 14 mL of the test aqueous extract of the plant was administered to each rat in the group for a period of 14 days. Observations showed that the extract of the medicinal plant have some effects on the haematopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of PCV (haematocrit, erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet counts and lymphocytes, while the haemoglobin (Hb and neutrophil levels were decreased. The test plant also caused an increase in the weights of the rats. Therefore, it is not possible that its use can advance any adverse effects on haematological parameters.

Nwinuka, Nwibani M.

2008-01-01

307

Effect of Soybean Oil Supplemented Diet on Fatty Acid Level and Lipid Profile of Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available This aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soybean oil supplemented diet on the fatty acid level and lipid profile of male albino rats. Forty healthy male albino rats weighing between 96-110 g and aged 6 weeks were used. The rats were placed randomly into four groups of ten animals each. Group 1 served as control and had no soybean oil in their feed. Group 2-4 was placed on soybean oil supplemented diet 10, 20 and 30% respectively. The experiment lasted for 14 days. The results showed that the animals had significant (p&ang 0.05 increase in body weight compared with the control. Triacylglycerol, phospholipid and total cholesterol level were also significantly (p<&ang 0.05 decreased, 80.46±3.76 to 78.46±3.22; 15.36±0.34 to 10.12±0.75; and 116.65±6.38 to 110.95±6.36 mg/dL respectively. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL were also significantly decreased, 15.56±2.56 to 13.45±2.76; 68.88±2.54 to 56.59±2.14 mg/dL respectively. However High Density Lipoprotein (HDL showed significant (p&ang 0.05 increase 60.37±1.36 to 65.75±1.89 mg/dL. Cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids are significant and independent risk factors of adverse cardiovascular events. The clinical and nutritional implication of these results is discussed.

Friday O. Uhegbu

2013-08-01

308

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

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Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

H. Saikia

2011-04-01

309

A Comparative Study Of Nicotine Effect On The Liver Of Albino Rat  

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Full Text Available We have studied the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation versus subcutanous nicotine injction on the liver of 40 adult male albino rats . Animals were divided into; cigarrete inhalation group and subcutaneous nicotine injection group. Inhalation group was subdivided into 5 subgroups ;three groups inhaled the smoke of two cigarettes three times a day in a closed chamber for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after inhalation and a control group.The nicotine injection group was also subdivided into 5 subgroups;three groups were injected subcutaneously with 0.1ml of 1% nicotine every two days for 1,2&3 weeks respectively; a group of recovery after injection and a control group.Rats were sacrificed at the determined durations and the liver was subjected for preparation of 6 microns paraffin sections. Microscopic examination of paraffin sections stained with H&E; Masson trichrome and PASwas done and interpreted with the image analyzer. Several histological findings such as degenerative changes in hepatocytes, cellular infiltration, periportal fibrosis, and congestion of both central and portal veins have been noticed. Also, histochemical P.A.S. reaction has showed marked decrease in both groups. The mean optical density (O D of P A S in hepatocytes of cigarette group was (0.31±0.02, and that of nicotine group was (0.26±0.03, which were significantly lower than that in the control group with mean O.D. (0.54±0.5 and (0.51±0.03 respectively. In conclusion; the inhalation of nicotine in the form of cigarette smoke resulted in deteriorative changes in the liver of the male adult albino rat more than nicotine injected subcutaneously, and these changes was partialy reversed shortly after withdrawal.

Mamdouh A. Ghaly; El Sayed G. Khedr And Ahmed Abdel Aleem

2003-03-01

310

TO INVESTIGATE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM. SEED EXTRACT ON PARACETAMOL AND D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.  

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Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of 95% methanolic extract was investigated against D-Galactosamine  and paracetamol  induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Silymarin was used as the reference standard at 50mg/kg orally and it showed effect in both the hepatotoxicity models. Rats were divided in 5 groups each group contains 6 animals. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total. In histopathological study was also carried out.The 95% methanolic extract of fruit of Macrotyloma uniflorum (MEMUS at the dose of (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg produced a dose dependant  reduction in biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total as well as in morphological parameters in D-Galctosamine and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The histopathological study further supported the hepatoprotective activity of the test extract. Maximum protection was seen at 400mg/kg Macrotyloma uniflorum seed extract. The results of the present investigation indicated that Macrotyloma uniflorum seed has significant hepatoprotactive properties.

HITESHKUMAR BHOGILAL PARMAR

2012-08-01

311

Observations on Chromosomal Aberrations Following the Administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction of Carica papaya Seeds for Contraception in Albino Rats and Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The seed products of Carica papaya have been proven as potential male contraceptives in laboratory animals. In this study, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in spermatogonia of albino rats and rabbits, following oral administration of Methanol Sub-Fraction (MSF of Carica papaya seeds. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, each group had 5 male Wistar rats and rabbits. In the first group, double distilled water served as negative control. The second group received monomeric acrylamide at 72.5 mg kg-1 body weight; two doses with a gap of 3 h served as positive control and in the third group, the MSF was orally administered at 500 mg kg-1 body weight (10 x contraceptive dose; CD; two doses with a gap of 3 h. The chromosomal fragments, dicentrics, rings, exchanges, damaged chromosomes and total chromosomal aberrations in MSF treated rats and rabbits were not significantly different when compared with negative control animals, however, were found to be reduced significantly (p<0.001 when compared with positive control group. The results suggested that the MSF did not induce chromosomal aberrations.

S. Goyal

2011-01-01

312

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE SMALL INTESTINE OF ADULT WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available The effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG used as food additive on the small intestine of adult wistar rat was investigated. Both adult male and female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with grower's mash daily for fourteen days. The control rats received equal amounts of grower's mash without MSG added daily. The grower's mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water ad libitum. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The small intestine was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological procedures.The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of increased basophilia and cellular hypertrophy in animals given 3g of MSG, while degenerative and atrophic changes in the group with 6g of MSG was more pronounced. These findings indicate that Monosodium glutamate may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the small intestine of adult Wistar rats at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out

A.O.Eweka

2007-01-01

313

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

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Full Text Available Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day, Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day, Group III: rats were fed with combined mixture of 70% of high-fat diet with 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day, Group IV: rats were fed a high fat diet was administered with pioglitazone (25mg/kg of body weight via intravenous in each day, Group V: rats were fed combined mixture of 70% standard laboratory pellet and 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (thirteen week period. High fat fed rat registered significantly increase in body weight and liver weight at the end of experimental period. The high fat fed rat substantially elevated its serum and liver tissue AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin with decreased in total protein levels. Whereas the levels of all parameterssignificantly restored towards normalization by the sesame meal treatment. The results obtained suggest that the sesame meal have potent hepatoprotective action on high fat fed rats. A comparison of the performance in both sesame meal and pioglitazone treatment on high fat fed rat in respect of hepato-protective role is clearly indicate that the sesame meal treatment was more or less very equal to the result of pioglitazone as well as to the normal level.

Anitha Uthandi

2011-12-01

314

Hepatic effects of aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata in male Wistar albino rats.  

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Full Text Available ThehepaticeffectsofaqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodorata,aplantcommonlyusedfortraditionalmedications,wasevaluatedusingmaleWistaralbinorats.Acuteandsubchronictoxicitywasevaluatedafter90daysofexposure.TheLD50was2154mg/kg.Serumlevelsofglucose,lactatedehydrogenase,aspartateaminotransferasetransaminase,andtotalbilirubinincreasedsignificantlyinthe538.5and1077mg/kgdosegroups.Thesetwogroupsalsohadsignificantlyreducedserumlevelsalbuminandtotalserumproteinwhencomparedwiththecontrolgroup.Histopathologicalassessmentshoweddegenerativechangesintheliver.AqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodoratausedintraditionalmedicalpracticemaybesafewhereashighdosesmayhavedeleterioushepaticeffects

Asomugha R. N.

2014-04-01

315

Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats.  

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Long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation leads to reduction in serum testosterone levels. Testosterone is a primary male gender hormone and any change in the normal levels may be devastating for reproductive and general health.

Sultan A. Meo

2010-08-01

316

EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA) IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS  

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Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water), th...

Shah, K. R. Tandel And B. K.

2012-01-01

317

Effect of Diet Contains Sesame Seed on Adult Wistar Rat Testis Efecto de la Dieta con Semillas de Sésamo sobre el Testículo de la Rata Wistar Adulta  

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Studies show that some antioxidants are effective in improving male infertility. According to several antioxidant compounds that exist in sesame seed, this study was designed and carried out to the effects of sesame seed diet consumption on adult male rats testis structure and sex hormones. This experimental study was carried out on 30 adults Wistar rat, 200 g that obtained from laboratory animal center at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Rats were divided into experimental and control ...

Amini Mahabadi, J.; Hassani Bafrani, H.; Nikzad, H.; Taherian, A.; Salehi, M.

2013-01-01

318

Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince) in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500?mg/kg and 800?mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly (P < 0.01). The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats. PMID:24648836

Aslam, Muhammad; Sial, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

319

Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

Mathew Joe

2003-01-01

320

Hypoglycemic And Hyperinsulinemic Effects Of Ferula Assafoetida On Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available In the current study, thirty adult male albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Ferula assafoetida on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic Ferula assafoetida treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen content levels were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that Ferula assafoetida treatment led to a significant improve in hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen and increased percentage of body weight change caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. Ferula assafoetida treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Some Biochemical Parameters Of Young Male Albino Rats Treated With Ponceau 4 R And Vitamin E  

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Full Text Available The current study aimed to clarify hazardous effect of ponceau 4R as food colour on rats and the effect of vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent its toxic effect. Fourty premature growing male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first served as control group, the second supplemented with vitamin E (150 mg/kg,the third treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg and fourth treated with ponceau 4R(0.19 mg/kg and vitamin E (150 mg/kg. Half of each group was treated for 3 m, the other half was treated for 6 months. Rats treated with ponceau 4R showed highly significant decrease (P<0.01 in serum total lipids, proteins, albumin levels and cholinesterase activity throughout the experimental period, while recorded a significant decrease (P<0.05 in glucose level till the end of the experiment and in globulin level and A/G ratio after 3 months of treatment only. On the other hand, significant increase was detected in total cholesterol level (P < .01 and AST activity (P < .05 after both periods of treatment, while ALT activity showed insignificant change. It seams from the presents study that vitamin E has protective effect against the side effect of ponceau 4R on rats.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Mahmoud A. El-Kassas*,Samer A. M. Zaahkouk*, Amany

2006-03-01

322

Toxicological Evaluation of Thermoascus aurantiacus Sl16W in Albino Rats: Subchronic Toxicity Study  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicology of crude xylanase enzymes prepared from T. aurantiacus SL16W in male Albino rats. Sixty rats aged 6 weeks old were randomly distributed into 4 groups of 15 rats. The 1st group was the untreated control while the 2nd (400 U, 3rd (2000 U and 4th (4000 U groups received the crude xylanase enzyme at dose levels of 400, 2000 and 4000 unit/kg body weight/day, respectively. After treatmemt body weight, organ weight, hematology and plasma chemistry were examined. The results indicated that oral force-feeding of the crude xylanase enzyme did not affect the body and organ weight of the rats. Hemoglobin values in the 2000 U group and hematocrit values in the 2000 U group were slightly decreased compared to the control group. The levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alanine Aminotransferase (ALP were not significantly different between the groups except that the ALT of the 200 U was significantly lower than the control group.

Saisamorn Lumyong

2012-01-01

323

Phytochemical evaluation and antispermatogenic activity of Thevetia peruviana methanol extract in male albino rats.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the antifertility potential of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) in male albino rats with their phytochemical evaluations. Phytochemical examination showed that plant is rich in active constituents, i.e. ?-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol and thevetigenin. T. peruviana stem bark methanol extract (TPMtE) administered orally to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant reduction in body weight, while the weight of reproductive organs reduced significantly. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed; however, cholesterol was increased significantly. TPMtE also caused a decline in spermatogenic elements, i.e. preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatids and mature Leydig cells. At this dose level Leydig cell nuclear diameter, seminiferous tubular diameter and Sertoli area were significantly reduced (p?rats, indicating the possibility of developing a herbal male contraceptive. PMID:21466267

Gupta, Rajnish; Kachhawa, Jai B S; Gupta, R S; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Sharma, M C; Dobhal, M P

2011-03-01

324

Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

325

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

326

Histological Observations of the Testis of Wistar Rats Following the Oral Administration of Cotecxin (dihyroartemisinin  

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Full Text Available Cotecxin has been reportedly used in the treatment of malaria with high clinical effect and low toxicity. This study therefore, tried to examine the effects of cotecxin on the histology of the testis of wistar rats. A total of twenty four (24 male wistar rats were the subjects used in this experiment. The wistar rats were divided into three groups with each group containing eight (8 rats. Different concentrations of cotecxin were administered orally to the wistar rats which had an average weight of 150 g. Group I is the control group, Group II received 3.42 mg/kg and Group III were given 17.10 mg/Kg. The duration of administration was seven days. After which four (4 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day. The remaining twelve rats were equally sacrificed on the 15th day and immediately fixed in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed and stained in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The changes observed on the eighth day in the testis were disarray of the spermatogenic cells and disorientation of the testis. These changes were observed to have been disappearing and normal histological features being restored in those rats sacrificed at the 15th day. It was therefore concluded that cotecxin has negative effect on the histology of the testis during administrations and these effects were reversible some days after stoppage of the administration. This suggests that cotexcin could be safe but It’s prolong usage may be discouraged.

T. Murdakai

2011-10-01

327

The Gamma-Butyrolactone Model of Absence Epilepsy: Acute and Chronic Effects in Wistar Rats  

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Objectives: We studied the electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral changes of the chemical model of generalized absence epilepsy induced by acute and chronic administration of gamma-butrolactone (GBL), a prodrug of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.Methods: Adult male Wistar rats under anesthesia were implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes. The rats were administered 30 intraperitoneal injections of GBL twice daily from Monday to Friday and EEG was recorded 20 min before and 40 m...

Eryi?g?i?t Karamahmutog?lu, Tug?ba; C?arc?ak, Nihan; S?ahi?ner, Melike; Akman, O?zlem; Carter Snead, O.; Es?kazan, Esat; Onat, Filiz

2013-01-01

328

Transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en ratas Wistar de segunda generación / Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en crías de ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar de segunda generación. El curso de la infección chagásica fue evaluado en las ratas infectadas inicialmente (RII) inyectadas con las f [...] ormas metacíclicas del parásito, en las crías de la primera (C1ªG) y segunda generación (C2ªG), mediante pruebas de diagnóstico seroparasitológicas y molecular (PCR). En las RII se demostró infección aguda caracterizada por parasitemias patentes entre los 12 y 45 días post-inoculación (pi), e incremento en la respuesta inmune humoral con títulos desde 1:64 y 1:2048; en la fase crónica se evidencio ausencia de parasitemias y mantenimiento de una moderada respuesta humoral en el 100% de las madres. Las C1ªG no presentaron tripomastigotes en la sangre circulante, la prueba de IFI, reveló seropositividad apreciable en el 75% de los sueros. En las C2ªG, los exámenes directos de sangre y el hemocultivo, resultaron negativos; los xenodiagnósticos mostraron un 18,2% de positividad. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas (IFI y ELISA) detectaron un 31,8% y 34,1% anticuerpos circulantes anti-T. cruzi. La PCR aplicada a los sueros, presentó un bajo porcentaje de muestras positivas (6,8%) y en los tejidos (corazón y músculo esquelético) se observó una alta positividad de 54,5% y 45,4%, respectivamente. La presencia de formas flageladas en la sangre, la persistencia de la serología positiva por anticuerpos humorales transferidos vía materna y la permanencia de restos de ADN de T. cruzi en sueros y tejidos en un número importante de crías, confirma la infección congénita a su progenie, en segunda generación. Estos resultados son de gran importancia para una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita. Abstract in english The results of the experimental study concerning the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation strain Wistar albino rats are presented. The course of the Chagas infection was evaluated in rats initially infected with the metacyclic forms of the parasite (RII) in first (C1stG) [...] and second (C2ndG) generation offspring using parasitological, serological and molecular (PCR) diagnostic tests. In the RII, an acute infection characterized by patent parasitemias between 12 and 45 days post-inoculation and an increase in the humoral immune response with titers of 1:64 and 1:2048 in the chronic phase demonstrated the absence of parasitemia and maintenance of a moderate humoral response in 100% of the mothers. The C1stG did not show tripomastigotes in the blood circulation and the IIF test showed considerable seropositive in 75% of the sera. In C2ndG, direct blood and hemoculture exams performed were negative, while 18.2% of the xenodiagnosis were positive. The serological tests used (IIF and ELISA) detected 31.8% and 34.1% anti-T. cruzi circulating antibodies. The PCR applied to the serum presented a low percentage of positive (6.8%) samples and in tissues (heart and skeletal muscle) high positives of 54.5% and 45.4% respectively were observed. The presence of flagellated forms in the blood, the persistence of serological positive for humoral antibodies transferred by the mother and the permanence of remaining DNA of the T. cruzi in serum and tissues in a significant number of offspring confirm the congenital infection to their offspring in the second generation. These results are of great importance for the better understanding of the epidemiology of Chagas disease.

Elio A, Moreno; Martha, Ramírez A; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Juana, Villarreal; Sonia, Araujo; Nora, Mogollón; Anajulia, González; Gloria, Premoli.

329

Transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en ratas Wistar de segunda generación / Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en crías de ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar de segunda generación. El curso de la infección chagásica fue evaluado en las ratas infectadas inicialmente (RII) inyectadas con las f [...] ormas metacíclicas del parásito, en las crías de la primera (C1ªG) y segunda generación (C2ªG), mediante pruebas de diagnóstico seroparasitológicas y molecular (PCR). En las RII se demostró infección aguda caracterizada por parasitemias patentes entre los 12 y 45 días post-inoculación (pi), e incremento en la respuesta inmune humoral con títulos desde 1:64 y 1:2048; en la fase crónica se evidencio ausencia de parasitemias y mantenimiento de una moderada respuesta humoral en el 100% de las madres. Las C1ªG no presentaron tripomastigotes en la sangre circulante, la prueba de IFI, reveló seropositividad apreciable en el 75% de los sueros. En las C2ªG, los exámenes directos de sangre y el hemocultivo, resultaron negativos; los xenodiagnósticos mostraron un 18,2% de positividad. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas (IFI y ELISA) detectaron un 31,8% y 34,1% anticuerpos circulantes anti-T. cruzi. La PCR aplicada a los sueros, presentó un bajo porcentaje de muestras positivas (6,8%) y en los tejidos (corazón y músculo esquelético) se observó una alta positividad de 54,5% y 45,4%, respectivamente. La presencia de formas flageladas en la sangre, la persistencia de la serología positiva por anticuerpos humorales transferidos vía materna y la permanencia de restos de ADN de T. cruzi en sueros y tejidos en un número importante de crías, confirma la infección congénita a su progenie, en segunda generación. Estos resultados son de gran importancia para una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita. Abstract in english The results of the experimental study concerning the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation strain Wistar albino rats are presented. The course of the Chagas infection was evaluated in rats initially infected with the metacyclic forms of the parasite (RII) in first (C1stG) [...] and second (C2ndG) generation offspring using parasitological, serological and molecular (PCR) diagnostic tests. In the RII, an acute infection characterized by patent parasitemias between 12 and 45 days post-inoculation and an increase in the humoral immune response with titers of 1:64 and 1:2048 in the chronic phase demonstrated the absence of parasitemia and maintenance of a moderate humoral response in 100% of the mothers. The C1stG did not show tripomastigotes in the blood circulation and the IIF test showed considerable seropositive in 75% of the sera. In C2ndG, direct blood and hemoculture exams performed were negative, while 18.2% of the xenodiagnosis were positive. The serological tests used (IIF and ELISA) detected 31.8% and 34.1% anti-T. cruzi circulating antibodies. The PCR applied to the serum presented a low percentage of positive (6.8%) samples and in tissues (heart and skeletal muscle) high positives of 54.5% and 45.4% respectively were observed. The presence of flagellated forms in the blood, the persistence of serological positive for humoral antibodies transferred by the mother and the permanence of remaining DNA of the T. cruzi in serum and tissues in a significant number of offspring confirm the congenital infection to their offspring in the second generation. These results are of great importance for the better understanding of the epidemiology of Chagas disease.

Elio A, Moreno; Martha, Ramírez A; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Juana, Villarreal; Sonia, Araujo; Nora, Mogollón; Anajulia, González; Gloria, Premoli.

2010-07-01

330

Effect of Chronic Oral Administration of Chloroquine on the Histology of the Liver in Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The effect of chronic oral administration of chloroquine, an antimalarial and antirheumatic drug on the histology of the liver in wistar rats was investigated. Ten wistar rats were randomly grouped into two, control and treated. The treated group rats were administered 20 mg/kg body wt, weekly of chloroquine for 4 weeks while the control group rats were given distilled water for 4 weeks. On day 29th of the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The livers were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H and E methods indicated that the treated sections of the liver showed cytoplasmic vacuolation; nuclear enlargement and vesiculation of the hepatocytes when compared with the control. Thus, our result suggests that though chloroquine may be a widely used antimalarial and antirheumatic drug, its chronic administration may have a deleterious effect on the liver of wistar rats and by extension may affect its function. It is therefore recommended that the drug be prescribed with caution in patients with history of liver disease.

A.M. Izunya

2011-08-01

331

Chemoprevention by Butea monosperma of hepatic carcinogenesis and oxidative damage in male wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this communication, we document chemopreventive effects of Butea monosperma extract on hepatic carcinogenesis and on tumor promoter induced markers and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Treatment of male Wistar rats for five consecutive days with 2-AAF i.p. induced significant hepatic toxicity, oxidative stress and hyperproliferation. Pretreatment of B.monosperma extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also prevented toxicity at both doses. The promotion parameters induced (ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis) by 2-AAF administration in diet with partial hepatectomy (PH) were also significantly suppressed dose dependently by B. monosperma. Thereafter, we proceeded with studies on rat liver carcinogenesis. After fourteen days of DEN treatment, dietary administration of 2-AAF with PH resulted in a 100% incidence of tumors in the animals. However, B.monosperma caused reduction in the number of tumors/ rat and percentage of tumor bearing rats at the end of the study, as confirmed histologically. Thus, our data suggest that B.monosperma extract is a potent chemopreventive agent which suppresses 2-AAF-induced hepatic carcinogenesis and oxidative damage in Wistar rats. The protective activity of the plant might be due to the two major constituents (butrin and isobutrin). PMID:16629533

Sehrawat, Anuradha; Sultana, Sarwat

2006-01-01

332

Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.  

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The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

2004-01-01

333

Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.  

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To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

2012-10-01

334

Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

335

Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B K; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

336

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

337

Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats  

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Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

Nasseer Ahmad Shah

2014-02-01

338

Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB. Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Histochemical results showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins in hepatic tissues. Moreover, liver function enzymes (ALT, AST were elevated in sera of carbendazim-treated animals. Coadministration of EGB with Carbendazim improved the hisological and histochemical changes observed in animals treated with carbendazim. In addition, EGB treatment leads to a significant decrease in ALT and AST. According to the present results, it is concluded that EGB can improve the hepatotoxicity of carbendazim and this effect may be attributed to antioxidant properties of Ginko biloba extract.

Hawazen A. Lamfon

2013-07-01

339

Brief light as a practical aversive stimulus for the albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bright light was an effective aversive stimulus for Wistar rats in punishment, escape, and avoidance paradigms. Contingent punishment of lever pressing maintained by concurrent schedules of food delivery shifted presses to an alternate lever, and depressed overall response rates. Periodic non-contingent presentation of the light prompted escape responding (head entry into a hole). Unsignaled avoidance contingencies were not effective, but pre-pulse signaling of light supported avoidance behavior. These results demonstrate a possible alternative to foot-shock, one with greater ecological validity, and one that might avoid some of the physiological effects that accompany electric shock. PMID:20600344

Barker, David J; Sanabria, Federico; Lasswell, Anne; Thrailkill, Eric A; Pawlak, Anthony P; Killeen, Peter R

2010-12-25

340

Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.  

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This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with zinc sulphate and/or vitamin E alleviated these toxic effects. In some cases, vitamin E exerted a more potent effect, while in other cases, the more potent effect is related to zinc sulphate and the combination of both at most of the recorded data. PMID:23282999

Rawy, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Antidiabetic Activity of Some Herbal Plants in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Aqueous extract of leaves of 3 herbs (Murraya koenigii, MK; Psidium guajava, PG and Catharanthus roseus, CR were used to test their antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic albino rats. MK, PG and CR are given to the STZ induced diabetic rats at the concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight in different groups of 6 diabetic rats each orally once a day for 15 days. Glibenclamide (GBC is also given to another group to support the results at the concentration of 3 mg/kg body weight orally once a day for 15 days. Diabetic control received vehicle. Body weight showed significant increase (MK and PG: p<0.05, CR and GBC: p<0.001 after 15 days of treatment with herbal extract when compared with the control. Blood glucose level on 15th day of treatment become significantly low (p<0.001. At the termination of the experiment (on 15th day the urine glucose and ketone were absent in herbal treated group which was present in the diabetic control. Histological study of the pancreas also assesses the results of body weight and blood glucose level. Islets of diabetic control group were damaged, shrunken in size and infiltration of lymphocytes was observed. While islets of herbal extracts treated rats were comparable to normal rats. Many rounds and elongated islets were evenly distributed through out the cytoplasm. No significant histological alteration was found in glomeruli or any other segment of kidney tubule in STZ induced diabetic rats. In herbal extract treated group no difference was found in kidney tubules when compare with their respective diabetic control. Findings of the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of leaves of MK, PG and CR at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight brings about significant beneficial effects in various physiological/ histological parameters altered during diabetic manifestations and these effects are quite comparable with glibenclamide (a standard drug used to treat diabetes mellitus.

S.K. Prasad

2009-01-01

342

Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy

343

Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 ?g/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre?pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall density. The sensitive endpoints in male rats were TEB numbers, both in the whole gland and in the zone C, the overall? and the highest density. The overall density was sensitive in both male and female rats and was considered a good representative of both branching and budding of the gland. The number of TEBs in zone C was representative of the number of TEBs in the whole gland. Further studies in older Wistar rats and with weak oestrogenic compounds could be performed to validate mammary gland examination as an endpoint in reproductive toxicity studies and to examine how early life environmental exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer.

Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla

2012-01-01

344

Digestive Peritoneum in Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus Peritoneo del Aparato Digestivo de la Rata Wistar (Rattus norvegicus  

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Full Text Available The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus has been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research, for a long time. It is an interesting fact that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and its ways of fixation. The aim of this study is to define clearly and according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria principles, the liver and its way of fixation in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were used, with a weight between 250 and 450 g. They were dissected in fresh, after been euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium intraperitoneal. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward dorsal.La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, no existen descripciones detalladas del peritoneo digestivo de la rata wistar. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma clara y acorde a los principios de la Nómina Anatómica Veterinaria el peritoneo en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron ochenta y ocho ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus de entre 250 y 450 g. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal.

Richard Möller

2013-03-01

345

Trace elements in lenses of normal Wistar Kyoto rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical analysis of the element and organic substance at the site of pathological changes due to aging is one of the approaches of cataract research. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) microscopy is expected to analyze elements and organic substances in the lens. The purpose of the present study is to compare elements and organic substances in the lenses of normal 4-month-old rats with those of normal 15-month-old rats by means of a TOF-SIMS microscope. The present study showed that the concentration of Ca and Fe was significantly higher, and that of Na and Mg was significantly lower in 15-month-old rats than that in 4-month-old rats. No changes were found in the concentration of K. The present study also showed that the equator contained more Ca, Na and Mg than the nucleus; in contrast, the Cu concentration was higher in the nucleus than in the equator. In 15-month-old rats, Mg and Vit. A in the equator and Zn in the nucleus were significantly lower than those in 4-month-old rats. TOF-SIMS microscopy could detect elemental changes in the rat lens with age, and is expected to be useful approach of cataract studies.

Kinoshita, Akio; Gong, Huaqing; Amemiya, Tsugio; Takaya, Kenichi; Tozu, Miyako; Ohashi, Yoshiharu

2003-01-01

346

Affective Responses of Early Life Photoperiod in Male Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Behavior changes season dependant are probably linked to change in day length or photoperiod. Although much research on seasonality in small mammals has focused on photoperiod manipulations in adults, early life photoperiod is also an important source of seasonal information and can establish individual’s developmental trajectory by regulating somatic and reproductive development and affective responses to day lengths later in life. The experiments developed in this work are based on the hypothesis that early life photoperiod affect emotionality in adult rats. To cheek this hypothesis, male rats were exposed at birth to different photoperiods (LP: 16L/8D; SP: 8L/16D. 8, 16 or 24 weeks later, rats were subjected to different behavioral tests to quantify anxiety-like behavior. Independently of duration, rats exposed to SP exhibited higher levels of anxious-like behavior than rats raised in LP, in an open field test (OFT and in elevated plus maze (EPM. Repeated comparisons showed that photoperiod effect was accentuated after 16 weeks of treatment. 24 weeks of treatment failed to induce any effect on emotionality in male rats. Our results indicate that changes in day length are associated with different levels of anxious-like behaviors; consistent with the conjecture that early life photoperiod may influence affective behavior in adult male rats.

Nassira Benabid

2011-09-01

347

CHANGES IN WBC DIFFERENTIAL COUNT PATTERN IN MALE ALBINO RATS TREATED WITH GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT  

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Full Text Available The prophylactic efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae extract was studied on changes in WBC differential count pattern in male albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 or 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The results clearly indicate that a significant increase (P<0.01 in lymphocyte and eosinophil percent and a significant decrease (P<0.01 in neutrophil and monocyte percent at low and medium dose but at higher dose their percentage increases within the normal values. This investigation indicates not only the benefits and drawback of raw garlic but also its uses in regulation of certain parameters for well-being of individuals.

Sashank Srivastava and P. H. Pathak*

2012-06-01

348

Effect of the Overcrowding Stress on Fundus of Stomach in Adult Male Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.

Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah

2012-07-01

349

A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

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The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

350

Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats  

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Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

351

Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats  

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The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

352

Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

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Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

353

WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS  

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Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5% less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01, but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10% had most wound shrinkage and organization.

Ch. Sampath kumar

2012-12-01

354

Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats  

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Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

Sheeja E

2009-01-01

355

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

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Full Text Available

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.

Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel

2011-04-01

356

Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats  

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Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

Chambô-Filho A.

2005-01-01

357

Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats  

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Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

358

Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p?Wistar rats. PMID:24996946

da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Flavia Andressa Pidone; Cesar, Augusto; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Silva, Marcelo Jose Dias; Vilegas, Wagner; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-11-01

359

Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Psidium guajava Leaves Water Extract on Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.

E.U. Etuk

2003-01-01

360

Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive  

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Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non significant changes were noticed in the activity of acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes. It was concluded that there are reversible structural and histochemical changes in the rat kidney under the effect of MPA. So, the use of MPA could be considered as a safe contraceptive method.

Mamdouh A. Ghali

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats  

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Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exps (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery

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