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Sample records for albino wistar rats

  1. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.

  2. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  3. Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats

    Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

  4. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill) on wistar albino rats.

    Venkatesh R; Kalaivani K; Vidya R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill). Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different co...

  5. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  6. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  7. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats

    Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Kartik J Salwe

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantl...

  8. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats

    A.J. Joshua; K.S. Goudar; A. Damodaran; N. Sameera; Amit, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were obs...

  10. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...

  11. COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS

    Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...

  12. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  13. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  14. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further. PMID:21308699

  15. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark. PMID:23284212

  16. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Manish J Barvaliya; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; C B Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 gr...

  17. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  18. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  19. The protective role of ferulic acid on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats.

    Bacanl?, Merve; Ayd?n, Sevtap; Taner, Gke; Gkta?, Hatice Gl; ?ahin, Tolga; Ba?aran, A Ahmet; Ba?aran, Nur?en

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure. Ferulic acid (FA), a well-established natural antioxidant, has several pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of FA on sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar albino rats. Sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes, liver and kidney cells of rats were evaluated by comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured. It is found that DNA damage in sepsis+FA-treated group was significantly lower than the sepsis group. FA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the sepsis-induced rats. It seems that FA might have ameliorative effects against sepsis-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25305738

  20. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  1. Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats

    A.J. Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

  2. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD 50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    Konat, K.; Souza, A.; R.R.R. Aworet Samseny; B. Batchelili; B. Marlaine; Lamidi, M.; Barro, N.; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J.; O. G. NACOULMA

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae) an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an ac...

  4. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats

    Anusha Bhaskar; V Nithya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wo...

  5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA) SEED EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Anand M. Ingale; Vijaya Rajendran; Venkata BharatKumar Pinnelli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease is a common condition of present day life, and its incidence is markedly increasing. The available drugs for the treatment are associated with adverse effects. Hence, there is a need for newer and better treatment for the same. Objectives: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Vitis Vinifera (seed) by Water Immersion stress induced gastric ulcer model in Wistar albino rats using two doses (100, 200mg/kg body weight.) Methods: The antiu...

  6. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  7. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  8. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  9. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Khumanthem Deepak Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

  10. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.

  11. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  12. The Effect of Nigerian Qua-iboe Brent Crude Oil on the Reproductive Performance of Female Wistar Albino Rats

    C.U. Nwaigwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.

  13. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  14. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  15. Memory-enhancing effects of the leptin hormone in Wistar albino rats: sex and generation differences

    KARAKAŞ, Alper; COŞKUN, Hamit; KIZILKAYA, Fevziye Umut

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that informs the brain about the fat stores of the body. In this study, we examined the effects of timed leptin injections on spatial memory performances of adult and juvenile male and female Wistar rats with the Morris water maze test. We applied the injections and conducted the training trials for 4 days. On the fifth day after leptin injections, the experiments were performed. The activities were recorded and analyzed with the Noldus Ethovisio...

  16. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Moideen K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

  17. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats

    Mirza Danish Baig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

  18. Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of leaves of Antidesma menasu on wistar albino rats

    Arun Prabhakar Sithara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antidesma menasu is a folk plant of Euphorbiacae occurring in and around Udupi district in India. It is effectively used in folklore medicine for the management of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorder and low backache. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the plant in Wistar albino rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of A. menasu were evaluated for possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods:Eddys hot plate test and radiant heat test were used for investigation of analgesic effect. Effect of extract on the acute inflammation was investigated on Carrageenan induced paw oedema, and chronic inflammation was investigated on cotton pellet induced granuloma tissue formation test. The test extract was subjected for preliminary phytochemical examination as per standard methodology. Results: The test drug found to inhibit the carrageenan induced paw oedema significantly (p ? 0.05 and there was moderate increase in the latency period in the analgesic test. The results suggest that the test group has high signifi-cant anti-inflammatory potential and there is moderate analgesic activity. The histopathological examination of adrenal cortex, spleen and thymus showed a normal cytoarchitecture comparable with that of normal control group. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of the plant A. menasu revealed the presence of flovanoids, saponins, steroids and phenols. Conclusion: The data obtained supports the traditional folklore therapeutic claim about its anti-inflammatory and anal-gesic activity. Further scientific investigation is required to establish its analgesic and anti-inflammatory property in other experimental models and clinical settings.

  19. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26952426

  20. 1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn. Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats

    M. Muthulingam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were observed. Histological observation of pancreas also studied. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. to alloxan treated rats showed significantly decrease in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, where as plasma insulin, hemoglobin, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly increased. Histopathological observation of pancreas reverses the trends towards normalcy. Hence, it can be concluded that Asteracantha longifolia leaf extracts may be prove to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to increase insulin secretion and enhance the antioxidant activity.

  1. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    K. Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

  2. KETAMINE AS A SINGLE GENERAL ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946.  Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.

  3. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    O. Igile Godwin; C.A. Emmanuel-Ikpeme; B.I.A. Mgbeje

    2013-01-01

    The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers wer...

  4. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    Nedim Durmus; Sefa Gültürk; Tijen Kaya; Tuncer Demir; Mesut Parlak; Ahmet Altun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12-16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-C...

  5. CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    E. M. Arhoghro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P≤ 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P≤ 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P≤ 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P≤ 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ≤ 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

  6. Inhibition of Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage by Carvedilol in Male Wistar Albino Rats: Possible Biochemical Changes

    Salim S. Al-Rejaie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acute carvedilol (a third-generation nonselective ?-blocker pretreatment on gastric mucosal injury induced by 80% ethanol was investigated in male Wistar albino rats. The effects caused by pylorous ligation, accumulated gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucus secretions, levels of proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH in the stomach wall were investigated. The gastric ulcers were induced by administration of 1 mL of 80% ethanol, as a necrotizing agent into the stomach. Carvedilol pretreatment at two oral doses of 30 and 60 mg kg-1 body weight were found to protect against the ulcerogenic effects of ethanol. Same dose regimen of carvedilol offered significant protection against ethanol-induced damage on the parameters evaluated for histopathology. Furthermore, the pretreatment afforded a significant inhibition of pylorous ligated accumulation of gastric acid secretions and ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, nucleic acids, proteins and NP-SH contents. Only higher dose of carvedilol provided inhibition of ethanol-induced increase in MDA concentration. The protective effects of carvedilol against gastric secretion or damage to the gastric-wall mucosa may be mediated through its effects on mucus production and NP-SH concentrations, possible free-radical scavenging ability and/or cytoprotective properties.

  7. Protective effects of rosmarinic acid on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the liver of Wistar albino rats

    Hatice Gul Goktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p<0.05. RA treatment in the sepsis-induced group was found to decrease the DNA damage significantly (p<0.05. In conclusion, RA might have a role in the prevention of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing DNA repair capacity of the animals.

  8. Absence epileptic activity changing effects of non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G

    2015-08-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802

  9. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  10. Effect of Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam on Excision Wound Healing in Albino wistar rats

    Vishal Bhat; Arul Amuthan; Barizah Binti Mohamed Rosli; Nur Amirah Binti Khairuddin; Fatin Shahira Binti Md. Isa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV) and kalchunna thailam (KT) on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was crea...

  11. Effect of Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam on Excision Wound Healing in Albino wistar rats

    Vishal Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kungiliya vennai and Kalchunna thailam are the two indigenous herbal formulation being used for healing of wounds in siddha medicine. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the wound healing property of topical application of kungiliya vennai (KV and kalchunna thailam (KT on excision wound in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Four groups of eight Sprague dawley female rats in each group were used for the study. Under anesthesia, excision wound of 300mm2 size was created using scissors. Group 1 served as control with no drugs applied. Group 2, 3 and 4 were applied with mupirocin, KV and KT respectively daily until wound was completely healed. Parameters observed were % wound contraction rate and epithelialization period. Biopsy of wound for histology was taken on day 12 as well as the healed wound was taken after the wound was healed. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test by keeping p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Kalchunna thailam has increased wound contraction rate only during initial days, but not statistically significant. Kungiliya vennai treatment has increased vascularity with presence of tissue eosinophils when compared to control rats. There was a regeneration of adnexal skin structures in the Kungiliya vennai treated rats, which is not seen in other groups. The epithelialization period was significantly (p<0.001 hastened in Group 3 (15.83 days and 4 (15.17 days compared to control group (21.33 days. Conclusion: The topical application of kungiliya vennai and kalchunna thailam promoted wound healing in rats. Kungiliya vennai has the additional property of regenerating adnexal structures such as hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.

  12. ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Rao S.N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01 and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05 respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  14. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (Pindica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  15. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    A N Ezejiofor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; triglyceride (TG; total bilirubin (TB; conjugated bilirubin (CB; albumin (ALB and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05 when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB showed significant differences (P 0.05. The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate showed no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.

  16. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  17. Nutritional Quality of 1st Generation Quality Protein Maize Diet and its Effect on Some Biological Indices of Albino Wistar Rats

    I.J. Atangwho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty male albino rats of the Wistar strain were placed in four experimental groups of five rats each. Group A (Reference group received a standard protein diet, Group B received a basal or protein-free diet, Group C received the F1-QPM diet, while Group D received common maize (CM diet. Water and feed were allowed ad libitum. Rats were fed for 21 days at the expiration of which indices of protein nutritional quality viz PER, NPU, NPR, TD and BV, were evaluated. The results showed that Group C rats had a higher (p0.05. Additionally, the protein contents of the F1-QPM and CM diets compared showed that though F1-QPM had a higher level of protein (11.80 2.84% than CM (10.67 0.31%, the difference was not significant (p>0.05. Quality protein maize (QPM maintained its high nutritional quality in spite of change in environment. Increased cultivation and utilization of QPM is recommended as this could help to alleviate hunger and protein malnutrition in developing countries.

  18. Efficacy of a traditional unani formulation Jawarish-e-Amla Sada against CCl 4 induced liver toxicity in Albino Wistar rats: Comparison with silymarin treatment

    Sunita Shailajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jawarish-e-Amla Sada (JAS; a polyherbal Unani formulation, is claimed as a potential hepatoprotective agent in traditional Unani medicine treatise. Aims and Objectives: Though, JAS has its composition recorded in ancient Unani texts, there have been minimal attempts to scientifically validate its hepatoprotective potential. The present work is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS in vivo. Materials and Methods: CCl 4 intoxicated Albino Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of JAS (0.7 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with, silymarin. The efficacy was established on the basis of altered levels of biochemical markers and histopathological analysis of the liver tissue. Results and Discussion: Treatment with the aqueous slurry of JAS significantly reduced the level of biochemical markers in CCl 4 intoxicated rats. These findings were well-supported by the histopathological analysis of liver tissue. The effect shown by JAS was found to be at par with silymarin treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that CCl 4 induced liver damage can be ameliorated by traditional Unani formulation JAS. This justifies the traditional claim of JAS being a hepatoprotective agent.

  19. Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats

    O. Igile Godwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 μmol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a persons quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain ( R eaction time. In the Tail immersion test the test drug significantly (P <0.001 reduced pain at 30 min when compared to the standard drug Aspirin at 60 min of oral administration. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : We can conclude that, Curcuma Amada possess analgesic activity which can be explained by animal models of pain. Probably, it acts by peripheral and central mechanisms. The combination of Curcuma Amada and Aspirin is synergistic

  1. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977

  2. Effect of Methanol Extract of Abrus precatorius Leaves on Male Wistar Albino Rats Induced Liver Damage using Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4

    Uroko Robert Ikechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties of Abrus precatorius leaves. The vitamins and therapeutic effect of methanol extract against tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in male Wistar albino rats. The results of phytochemical and vitamins indicates richness in saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids with value 30.050.22%, while vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, antioxidant and vitamins A, C and E was quantified. The liver damage was observed in the animals with significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP following the in traperitoneal administration of CCl4. The methanol extract caused significant decrease (p4 but were not treated. The extract showed potentials to mopping-up of free radicals generated by CCl4. The extract reduced lipid peroxidation in concentration dependent manner. The findings suggests that the extract have the capacity to improving liver functions and liver regeneration at high concentration. The extracts are safe for consumption, abundant phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins could offer reasonable protections against oxidative stress.

  3. Radiolabeling of new generation magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanoparticles with (131) I and preliminary investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential using albino Wistar rats.

    Avc?ba??, U?ur; Demiro?lu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akal?n, Hilmi Arkut; zal??kan, Emir; ?enay, Hilal; Trkcan, Ceren; zcan, Ye?im; Akgl, Sinan; Avc?ba??, Nesibe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12??0.01 and 1.79??0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440?min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60?min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results. PMID:24339009

  4. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  5. Sub-acute effects of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius root on some physiologically important electrolytes in serum of normal Wistar albino rats.

    Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C

    2013-12-01

    Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p 0.05). Decreases (p 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant. PMID:24506054

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Nagar Ashish

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 values (27.12, 13.13 and 7.32 µM, respectively were identified by plotting cumulative concentration response curve and pD2 values (4.48 ± 0.99, 6.06 ± 1.03 and 7.41 ± 0.97, respectively were calculated for individual alcoholic extract of plant. All extracts were able to relax carbachol pre-contracted tracheas significantly in a concentration dependent manner. Our results suggested potential role of Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa in asthma for further potential therapeutic and clinical uses.

  7. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the HP loaded gold nanoparticels (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) treated animals shows the better treatment than the pure HP due to the solubility of drug, bioavailability and the target drug delivery of the biodegradable polymer. Histological observations were also carried out, which added supports to the chemopreventive action of the pure HP and HP loaded gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) against DEN induction during liver cancer progression. These findings suggest that HP loaded gold nanoparticels (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) shows better efficacy than the pure HP against lipid peroxidation, hepatic cell damage and protects the antioxidant system in DEN induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:27069325

  8. A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats

    The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

  9. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male vitamins combination group. Conclusions HCD-induced renal injury in female was higher than in male animals, suggesting a better anti-oxidative stress defense response in male's kidney. Moreover, the antioxidant and reno-protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid were augmented following their combination.

  10. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are bes...

  11. Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against γ-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in γ-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. γ-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

  12. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  13. Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built en...

  14. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  15. Identification of Differential Protein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced Wistar Albino Rats by 2D Electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis.

    Vedarethinam, Vadanasundari; Dhanaraj, Karthik; Soundherrajan, Ilavenil; Sivanesan, Ravikumar

    2016-04-01

    Hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of malignant tumor. To investigate the proteins in cancer molecular mechanism and its role in HCC, we have used proteomic tools such as 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Our investigation ravels that, plasma α-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were elevated in DEN induced rats and gradually decreased after the treatment with 1,3BPMU. 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS tool offers to identify the up and down regulation of proteins in HCC. Proteomic study reveals that, five differentially expressed proteins were identified in DEN induced rats and 1,3BPMU treated rats i.e. three up regulated protein such as T kininogen, NDPKB, PRMT1 (DEN induced rats), RGS19 and PAF (1,3BPMU treated rats) in 3BPMU treated rats, activation of transcription of a single gene from multiple promoters provides flexibility in the controlled gene expression. The regulations of hepatocyte stimulating factor were slow down the proliferation of hepatic cell and uncontrolled hepatic cell growth and also molecular signals strongly argue for a patho-physiological role in liver metastasis to control the cell aggression. This indicates that, anti cancer property of 1,3BPMU can be used as potent anti cancer agent. The present study also shows the proteomic approach helps to elucidate the tumor maker as well as regulatory marker proteins in HCC. PMID:27069327

  16. Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages

    Ghezzi Ana; Cambri Lucieli; Botezelli Jos; Ribeiro Carla; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) ...

  17. Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Whole Plant of Clitoria ternatea in Albino Wistar Rats

    Shiva Shanker Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate antiulcer potential of aqueous and ethanolic extract Clitoria ternatea in different experimental induced ulcer models in rats. In the present study different extracts [ethanolic (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg and aqueous (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg extract of whole plant were examined in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Various parameters like volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, total acidity, ulcer index and antioxidant parameters were determined and compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control group animals following ulcer induction. Among different dose of alcoholic extract, high dose showed significant antiulcer activity in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced ulceration. The result of present study concluded that the alcoholic extract of whole plant of Clitoria ternatea has antiulcer activity in Pylorus ligation and Indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The extract containing flavonoids show antiulcer activity, indicating the flavonoids component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  18. ACF loaded ethyl Cellulose Microspheres: Formulatio n Designing, Characterization and In-Vivo anti-Inflammatory and A nalgesic activities in Albino Wistar Rats

    Gupta Jitendra*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available From the past few decades, scientist interest focused in the area of improvement of therapy and development of microspheres by oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique. Aceclofenac (ACF is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory and diarrhoea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nausea, indigestion, pancreatitis, constipation the most common side effects. So the aim of the presentresearch work was to formulation designing, characterization and in-vivoanti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in rats. ACF loaded EC microspheres were developed by oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique with different ratio of drug and ethyl cellulose as a polymer in order to achieve high entrapment efficiency and prolongedrelease characteristics. The prepared microspheres were subjected for characterization byscanning electron microscopy (SEM, percent yield, Fourier transformer infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, percententrapment efficiency and percentdrug release. The size of microspheres formulations (F1 to F6 were in range of 10±2.1 to 51±2.7 μm, percent yield 75.32±2.21 to 95.43± 1.13%, percent drug entrapment efficiency 55.87±2.03 to 87.53±2.12% and percent drug release 58.36 ± 0.32 to 94.68 ± 0.54 % up to 12 hrs. IR and XRD studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer; no degradation during microspheres preparation and stable at storage conditions. Then compare in-vivo activity of optimized microspheres formulations to standard drug in 120-200g of Albinowistar rats of either sex. The results of present study reflect that successfully prepared free flowing ACF loaded EC microspheres by o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique and significantly reduction in an inflammation observed when it compared to standard ACF and also showed significant analgesic activity in rats.

  19. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Ahlam Mushtaq; Seema Akbar; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Adil F. Wali; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Rabia Hamid; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose ...

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, ...

  1. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L) ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.

    Mohua Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally ...

  4. Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages

    Ghezzi Ana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

  5. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  7. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68%) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15%) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52%). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons. PMID:26064027

  8. DIURESIS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF POLYHERBALS IN ALBINO RATS

    Naikwade Nilofar S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for various disorders in ethno medical practices as well in the traditional system of medicine in India. The Vrukkadoshantake vati (VV and Nephrovin (NEP are ayurvedic polyherbal formulations and are used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of urinary disorder. No data is available for its efficacious use in urinary disorders. The Lipschits method was used for collection of supportive data for diuretic action of the Vrukkadoshantake vati and Nephrovin. Wistar albino rats were fasted for 18 h prior to experiment and aqueous suspensions of the formulations were administered at the graded doses of 200, & 400mg/kg body weight. After the treatment, urine was collected for 24h and diuretic activity was assessed by evaluation of the total volume of urine, Na+, K+, Cl- concentration and also the Diuretic index, Nariuretic effect, & saluretic effect were calculated. The total urine volume of the rats treated with the aqueous suspensions of the formulations (400 mg/kg were found to be nearly two fold (p<0.05 when compared with the control (saline treated group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions and anions (chloride ions was also found to be increased significantly (p<0.01 with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide.

  9. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor. PMID:15311399

  10. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  11. Retinogeniculate projections in albino and ocularly hypopigmented rats.

    Creel, D; Giolli, R A

    1976-04-15

    The retinogeniculate fiber projections were studied by degeneration methods in several strains of rats with pigmentation in their eyes and pelts ranging from the intensely pigmented self phenotype to the albino. The ipsilateral retinogeniculate input in the self, Irish, and hooded rats, and rats with "bicolor fundus" is located medially within the dorsal alteral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and is seen as a single lamina of moderately dense degeneration. PMID:1270616

  12. HEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALBINO RATS FED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus CULTIVATED ON TWO TROPICAL TREES’ SAWDUST (Pycnanthus angolensis AND Spondias mombin)

    Soji Fakoya

    2013-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae) and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae)) . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats) while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There wa...

  13. Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats

    Bahrami, S.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

  14. Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática

    Thiago de Oliveira Assis; José Candido de Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and inflammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were rela...

  15. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  16. Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol

    Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi; Deborah Adejoke Adeniji

    2009-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain) aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body...

  17. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

    Lokesh K. Verma; Aruna K. Singh; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE) on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50), 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the antipyretic activity o...

  18. Trypanosoma evansi causes thyroxin imbalance with biochemical alterations in wistar rats

    Sirigireddy Sivajothi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals affected with Trypanosoma evansi show rare serum hormonal disturbances. One of the important hormones for livestock is thyroxin, and the level of thyroxin may be reduced during the T. evansi infection. The objective of the study was to investigate thyroxin level during experimentally induced T. evansi infection in Wister albino rats. Wistar albino white rats (n=12 were challenged with the local strain of T. evansi (at 5x105 trypanosomes/animal subcutaneously. At the high parasitemia, blood was collected from the rats, and serum was separated, which was subjected for biochemical evaluation. Decreased total serum thyroxin (2.91 0.04 g/dL and free thyroxin (1.30 0.05 ng/dL levels (p<0.01 were recorded in T. evansi infected rats as compared to the control group of rats. Along with lowered thyroxin levels, decreased levels of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, total leucocyte count, total serum proteins, albumin and glucose levels were recorded. On the other hand, significant increase (p<0.01 in cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were observed. Thus, it is concluded that trypanosomiasis induces stress on rat, which have direct effect on thyroid hormone.

  19. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS

    Lokesh K. Verma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.

  20. Fear conditioning fragments REM sleep in stress-sensitive Wistar-Kyoto, but not Wistar, rats

    DaSilva, Jamie K.; Lei, Yanlin; Madan, Vibha; Mann, Graziella L.; Ross, Richard J; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2010-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning is commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of fear learning. Because the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is particularly stress-sensitive, we investigated the effects of a psychological stressor on sleep in WKY compared to Wistar (WIS) rats. Male WKY and WIS rats were either fear-conditioned to tone cues or received electric foot shocks alone. In the fear-conditioning procedure, animals were exposed to 10 tones (800 Hz, 90 dB, 5 sec), each co-terminating with a foot s...

  1. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    Marta Agudo-Barriuso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs is 84,706±1,249 in albino and 90,440±2,236 in pigmented, out of which 2,383 and 2,428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs, respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively, ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented than oRGCs (2.6% express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 µm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 µm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an ontogenic mistake.

  2. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Aruna K. Singh; Lokesh K. Verma; Vaibhav R. Pachade; Koley, K.M.; Vadlamudi, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE) in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50) and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50) were selected for studying the...

  3. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

  4. Acute Toxicity of Cashew Nut Shell Extract (Anacardium occidentale L.) In Albino Rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout 1769)

    Harlita; N.H. Niken Satuti; Mammed Sagi; Pudji Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a crop producing cashew nut shell that contain phenolic compounds such as lacquer oil (cashew nut shell liquid) which can be used for many studies. This study was conducted to determine the potency of acute toxicity (LD50) of cashew nut shell extract on female albino Wistar rats using Weil method. Twenty rats used in this study. The rats was divided into five groups, each consist of four rats after acclimatization. Each group was given the extract o...

  5. Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats

    Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

  6. Protective Effect of Zanthoxylum nitidum Bark in Chemical and Stress Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Male Albino Rats

    K. Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. DC (Rutaceae, called Tez-mui or Tejamool in Assamese, is a large prickly shrub occurring in North-Eastern India and its roots are used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum nitidum (ZNA was evaluated for its protective effects on gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar albino rats against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, ethanol and water immersion restraint stress induced gastric mucosal damage. In each model, ZNA was administered orally to rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, prior to chemical or stress challenge, followed by determination of ulcer index. Ranitidine hydrochloride at the dose of 35 mg kg-1, p.o. served as the reference drug. The test extract exhibited dose dependent and significant amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in chemical (ASA and ethanol as well as in stress-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats, thus confirming its antiulcer potential.

  7. Comparison of phencyclidine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and reversal by sertindole and risperidone between Lister Hooded and Wistar rats.

    Ihalainen, Jouni; Savolainen, Katja; Tanila, Heikki; Forsberg, Markus M

    2016-05-15

    Visual learning and memory are one of the key cognitive domains disturbed in schizophrenia. Glutamate NMDA receptors play a crucial role in spatial learning and memory and NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP), impair spatial learning and memory. Pigmented rat strains have superior vision than albino rat strains and are therefore commonly used in visually-demanding cognitive tests. However, all previous water maze experiments using acutely administered PCP to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits have been conducted with albino Wistar rats. This study was designed to assess whether pigmented Lister Hooded (LH) rats would be more suitable in modeling acute PCP-induced deficits in Morris water maze (MWM) task than Wistar rats. We also evaluated whether the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in reversing PCP-induced spatial navigation deficits was dependent on the rat strain. First, we compared the PCP dose-response in the range of 1.3-2.0mg/kg (s.c.) at causing deficits in MWM performance. Then, the efficacies of sertindole 1.6mg/kg (s.c.) and risperidone 0.04mg/kg (s.c.) in reversing PCP-induced spatial navigation deficits were investigated. Drug-naïve LH rats showed a better spatial memory than Wistar rats. Furthermore, PCP induced deficits in spatial navigation at lower doses in LH than in Wistar rats. In addition, PCP-induced deficits were partly reversed by sertindole in LH but not in Wistar rats. Our results suggest that the deficits in spatial learning and memory that resemble memory deficits found in schizophrenia patients are better modeled by PCP in LH rats than Wistar rats. PMID:26940605

  8. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  9. Toxicity of Sumithion in Albino Rats: Hematological and Biochemical Studies

    Zuhair Y. Al. Sahhaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that the haemotocrite value, number of leucocytes (WBCs as well as the lymphocytes percentage were significantly increased in treated animals The platelets were significantly decreased. The results also showed that serum total protein was decreased while triglycerides showed insignificant increase in comparison with control. Cholesterol and creatinine significantly increased after 12 days of treatment. Histological examination of kidney of treated rats revealed impairment of the renal tissues.

  10. Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Toxic Effects of Chlopyrifos on Testicular Functions of Albino Rats

    Kolawole Victor Olorunshola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpirifos (CPF is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for both agricultural and domestic purposes with attendant human exposures. Many authors have documented the toxic effects of CPF on the central nervous system. This study was designed to study the effect of CPF and the influence of coadministration of ascorbic acid (AA on the testicular functions of albino rats. Twenty five 2 months old male albino wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Group A-E. A (control received vegetable oil, B received 16.3 mg/kg CPF, C received 32.6 mg/kg CPF, D received 16.3 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg and E received 32.6 mg/kg CPF + AA 100 mg/kg. Treatment was orally for a duration of 21 days. Thereafter, body weight, serum testosterone, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicle weight, epididymal sperm concentration, sperm motility and histopathology of the testis, epidydimis and seminal vesicles were determined using standard methods. CPF caused a statistically significant change (p<0.05 in body weight, testicular weight, epididymal weight, sperm concentration, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration. Seminal vesicle weight was not affected. Histopathological studies revealed reduced sperm reserve, fibrosis and fatty infiltration in the epididymis, seminiferous tubules and seminal vesicles respectively. Co-administration of AA significantly caused improvement in all the parameters measured. It is concluded that CPF caused testicular toxicity by possible oxidative stress which was reversed with co-administration of AA.

  11. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats

    Galvão Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.

  12. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  13. Toxicopathological changes on Wistar rat after multiple exposures to acetamiprid

    Mondal, S.; R. C. Ghosh; S.S. Karnam; Kamal Purohit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To see the toxicopathological changes after multiple exposure to acetamiprid (ACP) and also to obtain more information regarding the manner in which ACP acts at cellular level. Materials and Methods: A subacute toxicity study of ACP was undertaken in 72 female Wistar rats in four groups (18 each). Three different concentrations of ACP (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight) were administered orally to rats. Untreated rats served as control. Different plasma enzyme and analytes were mea...

  14. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  15. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Aruna K. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

  16. Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics Cambios Histomorfomtricos en los Testculos y el Epiddimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Despus de Catorce Das de Administracin Oral de Dosis Teraputicas de Algunos Antiobiticos

    F. O Awobajo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day, ampicillin (4mg/100/day and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (pEstudios referentes a testculos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por va oral durante catorce das, con dosis teraputicas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/da, ampicilina (4mg/100/da y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/da por separado muestran una reduccin significativa en el peso testicular y epiddimario. Los estudios microscpicos de los rganos reproductores masculinos revelan adems una alteracin significativa en el epiddimo como se observa en la reduccin del dimetro (p<0,05 de los conductos del epiddimo (EDD, y la altura del epitelio epididimal (EEH en el grupo de los animales tratados. Sin embargo, se registr un aumento significativo (p <0,05 en el dimetro luminal del epiddimo (ELD en todos los animales despus de dos y tres semanas del perodo de recuperacin. Esto genera otro punto de vista en relacin a la toxicidad de estos antibiticos en los rganos reproductivos masculinos, adems de la reduccin de la concentracin srica de testosterona, disminucin de la motilidad del esperma, disminucin del recuento de espermatozoides y disminucin en el contenido de ARN y ADN en las clulas de espermatognesis como se report anteriormente.

  17. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Pankaj G. Jain; Patil, Savita D.; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  18. The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats

    Hasan Klgn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the worlds nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTACT OF GLYCOSMIS PENTAPHYLLA IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC WISTAR RATS

    Syed Safiullah Ghori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to perform preliminary phytochemical screening, acute oral toxicity and to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of whole plant of Glycosmis pentaphylla ethanolic extract. .Glycosmis pentaphylla,whole plant was extracted using ethanol as solvent by soxhlet apparatus. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine test dose . The evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity was done using Triton X 100 and High Fat Diet induced hyperlipidemia models in Wistar albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Doses up to 2000mg/kg were found to be safe after acute toxicity tests. Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, SGPT, Total protein and glucose were measured. The results suggested that EGP (ethanolic extract.Glycosmis pentaphylla possess antihyperlipidemic activity against hyperlipidemia induced by Triton X 100 and also High Fat Diet induced experimental models.

  20. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion ...

  1. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to ...

  2. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and M...

  3. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh-1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h-1'). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  4. Acoustically elicited behaviours in Lister hooded and Wistar rats.

    Commissaris, R L; Palmer, A; Neophytou, S; Graham, M; Beckett, S; Marsden, C A

    2000-02-01

    It has been reported previously that experimenter-presented 20-kHz tones at low intensities produce bursts of locomotor running in Lister hooded rats, but reduced locomotion (freezing) in Wistar rats. Because rats emit 20-kHz tones when stressed, it was proposed that this ultrasound-elicited running and freezing behaviour in Lister hooded and Wistar rats, respectively, represents a model for qualitative strain differences in fear behaviour. The present studies examined the acoustic specificity of acoustically elicited locomotor behaviours in Lister hooded and Wistar rats. In Experiment 1, it was found that brief exposure (i.e., 15 s) of Lister hooded rats to tones at frequencies of 7, 12, or 20 kHz and intensities of 85-95 dB SPL, elicited running behaviour characterised by brief bursts of locomotion followed by periods of quiescence. Somewhat surprisingly, the 7- and 12-kHz tones elicited running behaviour at lower intensities than did the 20-kHz tones. In Experiment 2, it was found that exposure of Lister hooded rats to the 20-kHz acoustic stimulus (91-101 dB, SPL) for a much longer duration, up to 9 min, resulted in episodic bursts of locomotion and convulsions in a significant proportion of subjects. Both the maximal velocity of locomotion and the likelihood of occurrence of convulsions was related to the intensity of the acoustic stimulus. Exposure of Lister hooded rats to white noise for up to 9 min also elicited episodic bursts of locomotion and convulsions in an intensity-dependent manner. The white noise stimulus was found to be a more effective stimulus than the 20-kHz stimulus in this regard. In Experiment 3, it was found that Lister hooded rats exhibited reduced locomotion when they were exposed to a low-intensity 20-kHz acoustic stimulus (e.g., 81 dB, SPL). In Experiment 4, it was found that Wistar rats did not exhibit locomotor bursts or convulsions when presented with 20-kHz tones using stimulus parameters equal to and even greater than those that had been shown to be effective in producing locomotor bursts in Lister hooded rats. Rather, Wistar rats exhibited only reduced locomotion. The present data indicate that (1) running behaviour in Lister hooded rats is not specific for the 20-kHz stimulus. Moreover, (2) when compared to Lister hooded rats, Wistar rats are relatively insensitive to the running and convulsions elicited by acoustic stimuli. Finally, (3) both Lister hooded and Wistar rats exhibited reduced locomotion when presented with the 20-kHz tones, although the range of stimulus intensities that produces freezing behaviour is much more limited in Lister hooded rats because of their propensity to exhibit locomotor bursting and convulsions. Thus, it appears that the difference between the two strains with respect to their unconditioned locomotor responses to novel acoustic stimuli relates to the fact that Lister hooded rats are uniquely susceptible to acoustically elicited locomotor bursts and/or convulsions. PMID:10713293

  5. Ubiquitin expression in atherosclerotic lesions of wistar fatty and wistar lean rats.

    Igarashi, M; Kato, T; Ohnuma, H; Morita, Y; Kawanami, T; Sasaki, H

    1994-01-01

    To clarify whether ubiquitin is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, and, if so, the expression is influenced by diabetes mellitus, we examined atherosclerotic (AS) lesions from Wistar fatty (WF) and Wistar lean (WL) rats immunohistochemically using an antibody against ubiquitin (AUb). Ten-week-old male WF and WL rats were treated to cannulize a silicon tube from the left carotid artery (LCA) to the descending aorta under chloral hydrate anesthesia and the tube was fixed. Age-matched WF and WL rats without cannulization were served as controls. Eight weeks after operation, 1 ml of 0.1% Evans blue solution was injected to all rats from the tail vein. 15 min latter, the aortae were removed, fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemical staining with AUb by the ABC method, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and elastica-Goldner (EG) stains were performed. In the cannulized group, focal areas of the luminal surface of the aorta were stained blue with Evans blue and these areas were microscopically confirmed as AS lesions in all WF and WL rats. In the control group, no Evans blue staining or AS lesions were observed. The destruction of the internal elastic lamina in AS lesions were seen with EG stain in the cannulized aorta of both WF and WL rats. No significant difference of the area ratio of intima/media was present between WF and WL rats in the cannulized group. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in AS lesions of both WF and WL rats. The present study suggests that ubiquitin plays a role in the formation of AS, and the condition of diabetes mellitus has little influence on ubiquitin expression and AS formation in this experimental model. PMID:8826096

  6. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

  7. Study on teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats

    Objective: To investigate the teratogenicity of Nikean in Wistar rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups, three Nikean dosage groups (300, 200, 100 mg/kg) and one negative control group. Nikean or normal saline was given via caudal vein injection for 10 days from the 10 th day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed at the 20th day of gestation, and parers and their fetuses were examined. Results: Compared to the control group, there was no difference in weight of pregnant rats in three Nikean dosage groups. No abnormality was observed in skeleton and internal organs of fetuses in three Nikean dosage groups. There were significant differences between three Nikean dosage groups and control group in fetal weight, trunk length and tail length in female and male rats. Conclusion: Nikean at the dose of 300, 200, 100 mg/kg showed a certain fetotoxicity but had no apparent teratogenesis in rats. (authors)

  8. Histological Studies on Skeletal Muscles of Albino Rats under the Effect of Atorvastatin

    Hassan S. A. El Dawi ,Gamal S. Elgharabawy ,Ezz El-Dein El Sharkawy,

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on the structure of skeletal muscles in male albino rats and the possibility of recovery of any changes in the muscles. Drug used: Atorvastatin (Lipitor 20mg) tablets.The daily single oral dose was 1.6 mg /kg body weight. Experimental animals: Twenty five adult local strain male albino rats with average weight of 160 gm were chosen, divided into five equal groups and fed on ordinary rat diet: Group I (co...

  9. Effects of catuaba cristal on the testis of wistar rats

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  10. DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.

    Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

  11. Effect of Soaked Moringa oleifera Seeds on Growth Rates and the Levels of Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    E. Obi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.

  12. Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar

    SAGAR DAWADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Amelioration of ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats by diallylsulfide.

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2016-03-01

    Garlic contains diallylsulfide (DAS) and other structurally related compounds that are widely believed to be active agents in preventing cancer. This study shows the effect of DAS (a phenolic antioxidant used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products : on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 125-150 g were given a single dose of Fe-NTA (9 mg kg(-1) body weight, intraperitoneally) after 1 week of treatment with 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) DAS in corn oil respectively administered through the gavage. Fe-NTA administration led to 2.5-fold increase in the values of both alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively, and 3.2-fold increase in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, microsomal lipid peroxidation to approximately 2.0-fold compared to saline-treated control. The activities of glutathione (GSH) and other antioxidant enzymes decreased to a range of 2.2-2.5-fold. These changes were reversed significantly (p effects of Fe-NTA and suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25904316

  14. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

    Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day fo...

  15. EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Prathibhakumari P.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

  16. Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus

    Bruno Ikenna Aguh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

  17. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    Johanna W. M. Arts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

  18. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    Eman G. E. Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa*, Amany F. MhMood

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  19. Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats

    O.S. Amaechina; Y.B. Ibiang; Ikpeme, E. V.; U.B. Ekaluo

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. ...

  20. Effects of Crude Extract of Ageratum Conyzoides, Moringa Oleifera and Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides on Serum Lipid Profile in Albino Rats

    OYEWOLE O.I; ADEBAYO A.G; OGUNSAKIN S.M

    2012-01-01

    Ageratum conyzoides, Moringa oleifera and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides are among medicinal plants commonly used in African folk medicine as remedies for the treatments of high blood pressure and heart related diseases. This study was carried out to compare the effects of Ageratum conyzoides, Moringa oleifera and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides extracts on serum lipid profile in albino rats. Thirty five albino rats were grouped into seven each containing five rats. Control rats (Group 1) received dis...

  1. Electromyography and mechanics of mastication in the albino rat.

    Weijs, W A; Dantuma, R

    1975-05-01

    The masticatory apparatus in the albino rat was studied by means of electromyography and subsequent estimation of muscular forces. The activity patterns of the trigeminal and suprahyoid musculature and the mandibular movements were recorded simultaneously during feeding. The relative forces of the individual muscles in the different stages of chewing cycles and biting were estimated on the basis of their physiological cross sections and their activity levels, as measured from integrated electromyograms. Workinglines and moment arms of these muscles were determined for different jaw positions. In the anteriorly directed masticatory grinding stroke the resultants of the muscle forces at each side are identical; they direct anteriorly, dorsally and slightly lingually and pass along the lateral side of the second molar. Almost the entire muscular resultant force is transmitted to the molars while the temporo-mandibular joint remains unloaded. A small transverse force, produced by the tense symphyseal cruciate ligaments balances the couple of muscle resultant and molar reaction force in the transverse plane. After each grinding stroke the mandible is repositioned for the next stroke by the overlapping actions of three muscle groups: the pterygoids and suprahyoids produce depression and forward shift, the suprahyoids and temporal backward shift and elevation of the mandible while the subsequent co-operation of the temporal and masseter causes final closure of the mouth and starting of the forward grinding movement. All muscles act in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion. The pterygoids contract more strongly, the masseter more weakly during biting than during chewing. The wide gape shifts the resultant of the muscle forces more vertically and moreposteriorly. The joint then becomes strongly loaded because the reaction forces are applied far anteriorly on the incisors. The charateristic angle between the almost horizontal biting force and the surface of the food pellet indicates that the lower incisors produce a chisel-like action. Tooth structure reflects chewing and biting forces. The transverse molar lamellae lie about parallel to the chewing forces whereas perpendicular loading of the occlusal surfaces is achieved by their inclination in the transverse plane. The incisors are loaded approximately parallel to their longitudinal axis, placement that avoids bending forces during biting. It is suggested that a predominantly protrusive musculature favors the effective force transmission to the lower incisors, required for gnawing. By grinding food across transversely oriented molar ridges the protrusive components of the muscles would be utilized best. From the relative weights of the masticatory muscles in their topographical relations with joints, molars and incisors it may be concluded that the masticatory apparatus is a construction adapted to optimal transmission of force from muscles to teeth. PMID:1171253

  2. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  3. Influence of granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment on physiological indices in Wistar rats

    Enas Abdul Raouf Mohammed Abdul-Baki; Mohamed Labib Salem; Merveet Anwar Mansour; Said Mohamed Abdou; Abdel-Aziz Awad Zidan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used in clinical practice to mobilize neutrophils alone or in combination with chemotherapy. However, its influence in physiological indices has not been addressed well in certain animal models such as Wistar rats. Aims: To evaluate the single and combinatorial effects of G-CSF and cyclophosphamide (CTX) on physiological indices in Wistar rat. Materials and Methods : Naïve female Wistar rats were treated with subcutaneous injection ...

  4. Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats

    Hardik Soni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnetts test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

  5. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  6. Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

  7. Influence of metabolic cage on Wistar rat physiological state

    Judita Zymantiene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of metabolic cage housing on the Wistar rat physiological state and to analyze the correlation between the minerals in blood and urine. Thirty male rats were used in the experiment. Fifteen rats (control group were housed individually in standard polycarbonate cages and fifteen rats (experimental group in metabolic cages (Techniplast, Italy for two weeks. Body weight, respiration rate, water and food consumptions were recorded for each animal at the beginning of the experiment. The same parameters, as well as blood and urine parameters of control and experimental animals were recorded during the experiment after 72 h, 168 h and 336 h of housing in standard cages and metabolic cages. Urine collection was measured only in the experimental group. Rats weight decreased from 3.84 % to 18.59 % (P<0.05, respiration rate from 18.65 % to 24.59 % (P<0.05 when rats were housed in metabolic cages. Consumption of food and water by the rat depended on how long the animal was kept in metabolic cage. Glucose concentration increased on average by 15.37 %, WBC count decreased by 5.83 % in the blood of rats housed in metabolic cages compared to the animals housed in standard cages. We did not observe significant changes of triglycerides concentration, red blood cells count and total protein between all rats. The positive moderate correlation of rat housing in a metabolic cage was between K blood and K urine, P blood and P urine, Na blood and K blood, between Na urine and P urine and significant negative moderate correlation was determined between K urine and P urine. These present study findings indicate that metabolism cage housing significantly affects rat’s physiological parameters and potentially may influence animal health and well being.

  8. Atrophic Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Taurine Deficiency in Wistar Rats

    Pansani, Mariele Castilho; Azevedo, Paula S.; Rafacho, Bruna Paola Murino; Marcos F. Minicucci; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Gonçalves; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Gilberto João PADOVAN; Fernandes, Ana Angelica Henrique; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Leonardo A.M. Zornoff; Paiva, Sergio A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g) were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C) or taurine-deficient (T (-)). Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals’ water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (-) g...

  9. Spatial Memory Perfomance of Wistar Rats Exposed to Mobile Phone

    Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan; Raju Suresh Kumar; Bhagath Kumar Potu; Satheesha Nayak; Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory ...

  10. Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring

    Inas S. Ghaly; Azza A.M. Abd Elfatah; Safaa M. Hanafy

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

  11. Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats

    De Souza R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

  12. Formulation Characterization and In-Vivo Anti- ischemic activity of Ranolazine loaded Ethyl Cellulose Microspheres in A lbino Wistar Rats

    Gupta Jitendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ranolazine (RZ is an antiischemic/antianginal agent employed in therapy of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, variant andexercise-induced angina and arrhythmias constipation, headache, nausea and dizziness are the most common side effects. So the aim of the present research work was to formulation characterization and in-vivo antiischemic activity of RZ loaded ethyl cellulose microspheres in albino wistar rats. RZ microspheres were developed by oil-in-water (o/w emulsion solvent diffusion evaporation technique with different ratio of drug and ethyl cellulose as a polymer in order to achieve high entrapment efficiency and prolonged release characteristics. The prepared microspheres were subjected for characterization byscanning electron microscopy (SEM, percent yield, Fourier transformer infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, percententrapment efficiency and percentdrug release. The size of microspheres formulations (F1 to F6 were in range of 20±1.2 to 54±1.7μm, percent yield 78.21±2.31 to 94.24±1.21%, percent drug entrapment efficiency 53.25±0.65 to 85.76±0.78% and percent drug release 56.87 ± 0.34 to 92.74 ± 0.83 % up to 12 hrs. XRD and IR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer; no degradation during microspheres preparation and stable at storage conditions. Then compare in-vivo activity of optimized F2 microspheres formulation to standard drug in 120-200g of Albino wistar rats of either sex. The results of present study reflect that successfully prepared free flowing RZ loaded EC microspheres and showed a significant reduction in level of cardiac biomarker LDH and CK-MB enzyme for prolong period of time with respect to standard in isoproterenol induced myocardiac infraction (MI rats

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  14. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments

  15. Chemically induced acute model of sarcosinemia in wistar rats.

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we developed an acute chemically induced model of sarcosinemia in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of 7, 14 and 21 postpartum days received sarcosine intraperitoneally in doses of 0.5 mmol/Kg of body weight three time a day at intervals of 3 h. Control animals received saline solution (NaCl 0.85 g%) in the same volume (10 mL/Kg of body weight). The animals were killed after 30 min, 1, 2, 3 or 6 h after the last injection and the brain and the blood were collected for sarcosine measurement. The results showed that plasma and brain sarcosine concentrations achieved levels three to four times higher than the normal levels and decreased in a time-dependent way, achieving normal levels after 6 hours. Considering that experimental animal models are useful to investigate the pathophysiology of human disorders, our model of sarcosinemia may be useful for the research of the mechanisms of neurological dysfunction caused by high tissue sarcosine levels. PMID:26563127

  16. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  17. 4. Effect of piper nigrum on stomach of wistar rat

    Enobong Bassey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult male and female wistar rats (n=30 weighing between 150 g and 250 g were randomly assigned into experimental (n=24 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the Experimental groups received a mixed diet of feed consistency of crushed piper nigrum fruits ( CPNF to rat mash in a ratio of 50:50 (Group A-higher doses and 25:75 (Group B- minimum doses and water ad libitum for 3, 5 and 7 days. The rats in the control group received equal amount of rat mash without crushed piper nigrum fruits, for the same number of days. The rats were sacrificed on the 4th, 6th and 8th day. The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for histological and histochemical procedure. The body weights of the rats were recorded before and during treatment. The Histological finding after 3 and five 5 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits (CPNF showed no significant changes in the histology of the stomach. There were vacuolations in the mucosa of the stomach after 7 days administration of crushed piper nigrum fruits. The histological changes in the stomach were marked both in the experimental groups that received the higher doses (of feed consistency in the ratio of 50:50 of crushed piper nigrum fruits to rat mash for seven days. The decrease in the body weight in the experimental groups was not significant (P>0.05. The Results shows that consumption of crushed piper nigrum fruits for three (3 is five (5 days may not be harmful, but consumption continuously for seven (7 days even when used with minimum doses may be detrimental to health.

  18. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS

    Jha Urmilesh; Shelke Tushar T

    2011-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats have been studied to find out the possible mechanism of hepatoprotection. It was...

  19. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats...

  20. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Inas Z. A. Abdallah

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  1. Bioremediation of Zearalenone by using Lactobacillus acidophilus in albino rats bodies (in vivo)

    Ibrahim H Jasim

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Lactobacillus acidophilus to reduce zearalenone toxicity in vital systems of albino white rats. Methods Fusarium graminearum isolate was tested to produce zearalenone toxin. L. acidophilus was used to reduce the toxin in rats. This ability was studied by many parameters such as biochemical and physiological parameters in addition to histological study. Results The results showed that L. acidophilus had the ability to reduce ...

  2. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC STALK EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL LINN ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Pradhan Manas Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.

  3. [Comparative analysis of imipramine intake reactions in catatonic and wistar rats].

    Alekhina, T A; Palchikova, N A; Igonina, T N; Kuznetsova, N V

    2015-03-01

    Chronic imipramine intake (7.5 mg/kg) leads to the stable decrease of excitable reactions to sound stimulant in Wistar rats and induced phase behavioral response in catatonic GC rats. Increased noradrenaline level in frontal cortex and striatum in Wistar animals was shown, whereas it didn't reveal noradrenaline level differences in any brain structures in GC rats. The higher blood corticosterone concentration was decreased under antidepressant reaction in GC rats. Differences between intact GC animals were found out: reduced triglyceride level, lesser body weight, and greater weight index of adrenals in comparison with Wistar rats. Various mechanisms of imipramine action in two rat strains were shown: influence on adrenergic brain system, taking part in the control of exiting behavior in Wistar rats and reaction in adrenals in GC rats. PMID:26016319

  4. EVALUATION OF HAEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON PERS IN ALBINO RATS

    Leela; Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the haemostatic activity of Cynodon dactylon pers (CD) in albino rats. METHODS: 12 rats were divided into two groups (control and test) with 6 rats in each group. Determination of Bleeding Time (BT): The rat tail was warmed for one minute in water at 40˚ C and then dried. A small cut was made in the middle of the tail with a scalpel. In test group, a drop of fresh juice of CD was applied on the injured area immediately after making the cut in the middle of the tail, wh...

  5. Impact of Lead Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Recognition Memory and Motor Activity of Wistar Rat

    F.Z. Azzaoui; A.O.T. Ahami; A. Khadmaoui

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L-1 of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, ob...

  6. Impact of Aluminum Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Body Weight and Recognition Memory of Wistar Rat

    F.Z. Azzaoui; A.O.T. Ahami; A. Khadmaoui

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L-1) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a mot...

  7. Genetic loci controlling breast cancer susceptibility in the Wistar-Kyoto rat.

    Lan, H.; Kendziorski, C M; J.D. Haag; Shepel, L A; Newton, M A; Gould, M. N.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat was genetically characterized for loci that modify susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. We used a genetic backcross between resistant WKy and susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) rats as a panel for linkage mapping to genetically identify mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) loci underlying the resistance of the WKy rat. Rats were phenotyped for DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas and genotyped using microsatellite markers. To detect quantitative trait lo...

  8. Pro-oxidant effects of Mebendazole in albino rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis.

    Tolstoj, V A; Lytvynets, A; Langrova, I

    2007-05-01

    Trichinellosis treated with Mebendazole often leads to complications in the course of the disease in humans and animals as a result of intoxication and hyper-sensitization of an organism due to the massive destruction of parasites. This study was conducted to research Mebendazole incidence on lipid peroxidation processes (LPP) in rats' blood in Trichinella spiralis-infected and parasite-free albino rats. The research was conducted to evaluate erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum. The parameters of the SOD-MDA system in infected albino rats, which were treated or untreated with Mebendazole were analyzed. It was concluded that Mebendazole amplifies the LPP in the blood of both infected and parasite-free animals: in a dose of 150 mg/kg anthelmintic causes disturbances of biochemical homeostasis in the SOD-MDA system, thus working as a pro-oxidant. PMID:17186274

  9. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.

  10. Influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine on penile erection in Wistar rats.

    Radosavljevic, Milovan; Pajovic, Bogdan; Radunovic, Miodrag; Radojevic, Nemanja; Bjelogrlic, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The pilot study presented was conducted to determine as to whether ergot alkaloids (alpha-adrenergic blockers) have a potential effect on penile erectile function. The influence of dihydroergotoxine, bromocriptine, and ergotamine was studied on the erection ability in intact, two-grade outbred male Wistar albino rats that were out of their estrous phase. The experimental animals were injected intrapenially with the substances under examination: dihydroergotoxine mesylate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1 mg/0.1 mL), bromocriptine mesylate (0.3 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL, and 3 mg/0.1 mL), and ergotamine tartrate (0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 0.3 mg/0.1 mL, and 1mg/0.1 mL). Every dose was tested on a pattern of 30 rats. These mentioned substances were injected in the amount of 1 mm to the left of the proximal part of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis, in the region of the penis root. After injection, the animals were then observed within the next 90 minutes. In the trial, the following was observed: the number of rats with an erection achieved, the period of time from intrapenial application to the appearance of the first erection, and the duration of the erection. Ultimately, the research results confirm the efficiency of dihydroergotoxine and bromocriptine as erectogenic agents, as well as ergotamine as a detumescent compared with saline solutions. PMID:22441761

  11. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly attenuated the ulcer score in both models. And also attenuated in anti-secretory parameters in aspirin induced ulcer model. MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Abbreviation Used: MEJG: Methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia, mg: Milli gram, kg: Kilogram, b.w.: Body weight, p.o.: Per oral, UI: Ulcer index, pH: Concentration of H+ ion, mL: Milli litre, JG: Jatropha gossypiifolia,USD: United States Dollar, NSAIDs: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, v/v: Volume by volume, w/v: Weight by volume, SCMC: Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, g: Gram, h: Hour, °C: Degree centigrade, n: Number, Rpm: Rotation per minute, Min: Minute, N: Normality, NaoH: Sodium hydroxide, mM - Millimole, TBA: Thiobarbituric acid, nmol: Nanomole, nm: Nanometer, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase, GSH: Reduced glutathione, H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, ANOVA: Analysis of Variance, μmol: Micromole

  12. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  13. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  14. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  15. Influence of nifedipine on gingiva of Wistar rats

    Brki? Zlata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninflammatory hyperplastic growth of gingiva induced by calcium channel blockers, mostly nifedipine, is often seen in everyday dental practice. In order to establish an association of nifedipine and gingival hyperplasia, experimental model was used. Wistar rats were given water solution of nifedipine in different daily doses, using specially designed cannula. At the beginning of the experiment, before the application of nifedipine and in the determined time periods, gingival volume was measured. The volume of lower incisors interdental central papillas, represented multiplied values of vertical hight, mesio-distal width, and bucco-lingual depth, expressed in millimeters. The results indicated that gingival hyperplasia was more excessive in the experimental animals, which were given higher doses of the drug for longer time period. Nifedipine is a drug which induces gingival fibroblasts to produce higher quantity of collagen that causes gingival overgrowth.

  16. Atrophic Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Taurine Deficiency in Wistar Rats

    Pansani, Mariele Castilho; Azevedo, Paula S.; Rafacho, Bruna Paola Murino; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Gonçalves; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Padovan, Gilberto João; Fernandes, Ana Angelica Henrique; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Matsubara, Luiz S.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g) were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C) or taurine-deficient (T (-)). Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals’ water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (-) group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. Results Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (-) rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. Conclusions These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics. PMID:22844478

  17. Radiation-induced damage of the Wistar Rat heart

    A time sequence study was performed on Wistar rats to investigate the early effects of radiation on the mechanical function and energy metabolism of the heart. Two series of rats were exposed to 20 Gy electron irradiation to a field including the heart and approximately a third of the lungs. The hearts were excised at varying time intervals (8-180 days) post irradiation. In one series of hearts the mechanical function was measured using the isolated perfused working rat heart model. At the end of the perfusion the hearts were freeze-clamped for analysis of the high energy phosphate contents (ATP, ADP, AMP and creatine phosphate). In the second series, mitochondria were isolated and the oxidative phosphorylation function measured polarographically (substrate: glutamate). Maximal depression of mechanical function was observed at 60 days post irradiation. Thereafter the work performance of these hearts improved significantly, almost reaching control levels after 180 days. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function (as measured on the total mitochondrial population) was significantly depressed 30-120 days post irradiation. As in the case of the mechanical changes, the depression was transient and after 180 days post irradiation, values similar to those of controls were obtained. Myocardial high energy phosphates remained unaltered throughout the experiment. (author)

  18. Hepatoprotection: A Hallmark of Citrullus colocynthis L. against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats

    Suresh Kumar Bansal; Ramesh Chandra Saxena; Arshed Iqbal Dar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of the ethanolic extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Animal Model: Swiss Albino rats of either sex were used, divided into six groups with six in each group. Group 1-Normal control: The animals were maintained under normal control, which were given distilled water only. Group 2-Induction of hepatotoxicity: The animals received par...

  19. BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ACUTE TREATMENT OF ORCHIS ANATOLICA PLANT ROOTS ETHANOL EXTRACT IN ADULT ALBINO RATS

    Nabi; A. Khouri; Haytham Daradka

    2013-01-01

    We explore through this study blood parameters changes after 7 days treatment with Orchis anatolica (O. anatolica) plant roots ethanol extract in Albino rats. An intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was carried on to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract on blood glucose and insulin titer using Albino rats fasting for 18 hours. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels where determined throughout one hour period prior to a single treatment dose of 400mg/kg/BW O. anatolica ex...

  20. Effects of Dietary Advanced Lipid Oxidation End-products on Colitis Healing in Albino Rats

    Adeleye, G. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control, 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control, 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.

  1. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    Khaled Shaaban Azab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim : The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods : Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses. Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1 st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1 st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3 rd , equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results : In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion : It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant capacity of royal jelly active constituents.

  2. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWEET CORN SILK ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERTHYROIDISM IN SWISS ALBINO RATS

    Thoudam Bhaigyabati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide variety of human ailments due to increase in cost of treatment, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases. In the present study, hyperthyroidism was induced to male Swiss albino rats orally using thyroxine for 14 days. The impact of methanolic extract of sweet corn silk in different concentrations (200, 300 & 400mg/kg for 21 days was assessed in these animals. The serum was analyzed for thyroid hormone level and lipid profile before and during the experiment. Results showed that 400mg/kg concentration of methanolic extract has the highest effectiveness which is equal to that of standard drug to revert the hyperthyroid condition in Swiss albino rats and were confirmed with the histopathological study of the thyroid gland.

  3. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on the Liver of Adult Wistar Rats

    Eweka, AO; Igbigbi, PS; Ucheya, RE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food additive and there is growing concern that excitotoxins such as MSG play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Objectives: The histochemical effect of monosodium glutamate was investigated on the liver of adult Wistar rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n = 24), with an average weight of 230 g were randomly assigned into two treatment groups, (A & B) (n=16) and Control (C) (n=8). The rats in the treat...

  4. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats / Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Pankaj G., Jain; Savita D., Patil; Nitin G., Haswani; Manoj V., Girase; Sanjay J., Surana.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, so usados na medicina natural da ndia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanlico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o.) e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o.), juntamente com dieta h [...] iperlipdica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerdeoss, VLDL, LDL e ndice aterognico, mas no aumentaram o HDL em comparao com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ao do extrato metanlico de Moringa oleifera foi tambm investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreo fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante. Abstract in english The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic d [...] iet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control). The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.

  5. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, so usados na medicina natural da ndia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanlico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipdica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerdeoss, VLDL, LDL e ndice aterognico, mas no aumentaram o HDL em comparao com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ao do extrato metanlico de Moringa oleifera foi tambm investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreo fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

  6. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

    Fatemeh Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

  7. The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat

    Rijn, C.M. van; Marani, E.; Rietveld, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradally transported HRP and Nissl itaining in whole mounted retinas, it \\vas found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are nut smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cel...

  8. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    H. Saikia; A Lama

    2011-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL) on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (...

  9. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

  10. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  11. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  12. Strain differences in toxic effects of long-lasting isoflurane anaesthesia between Wistar rats and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Siller-Matula, J M; Jilma, B

    2008-11-01

    We investigated if long-lasting (5 h) anaesthesia with isoflurane has different pharmacological effects in two different rat strains: Wistar and Sprague Dawley. The mean blood pressure was 34% higher in Sprague Dawley rats as compared to the Wistar rats (p = 0.04). In Wistar rats, the pH value decreased to 7.1, lactate increased by 53%, creatinine increased 2.7-fold, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase increased more than 4-fold and lactate dehydrogenase increased 9-fold (p ketamin/xylazine in the described study design. PMID:18814844

  13. Teratogenic vulnerability of Wistar rats to diphenyl ditelluride

    The effect of single maternal subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.12 mg/kg diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2, diluted in canola oil at days 6, 10 or 17 of gestation were evaluated in Wistar rats. The reduction of body weight gain was statistically significant at GD9, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD6; at GD13, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD10, and at GD20, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD17, when compared to respective control groups. External and internal fetal soft tissues examination was performed on day 20 of gestation. Single maternal injection at day 10 of gestation resulted in appearance of malformation in fore- and hind-limbs, absent or short tail, subcutaneous blood clots, exophthalmia, hydrocephalus and absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue in fetuses on day 20 of gestation. Besides (PhTe)2 reduced fetal body and cerebral weight, kidney length, measurements of body dimension and provoked 73% of fetal mortality. Subcutaneous administration of (PhTe)2 on day 17 of gestation was associated with 94% mortality, hydrocephalus and edema. Histological evaluations of fetal brain demonstrated displaced brain tissue with absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue when diphenyl ditelluride was administered in GD10. Histological evaluation of fetal head exposed at GD17 revealed a decrease of the brain volume with consequent dilation of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent tissues were thinner than that of control group tissues. No fetal changes were observed after administration of (PhTe)2 at day 6 of gestation. Thus (PhTe)2 can be teratogenic to rat fetuses and toxic for dams. The late fetal stages of rat prenatal development appeared uniquely sensitive to organic tellurium exposure

  14. Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats

    O.S. Amaechina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

  15. Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha) and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt). The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt)...

  16. SEQUESTRATION PROPERTY OF SPIRULINA AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE ALBINO WISTER RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS

    K.Hemalatha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and spirulina alone groups. Lead acetate treated group shows sevier histological changes were noticed and lead acetate along spirulina treated group cell recover was observed.

  17. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Poonam Lodhi; Neeraj Tandan; Neera Singh; Divyansh Kumar; Monu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate...

  18. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.

  19. Comparative Genome of GK and Wistar Rats Reveals Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes

    Liu, Tiancheng; Li, Hong; Ding, Guohui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Yunqin; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and ...

  20. Comparison of spatial learning in the partially baited radial-arm maze task between commonly used rat strains: Wistar, Spargue-Dawley, Long-Evans, and outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley.

    Gkek-Sara, i?dem; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Jakubowska-Do?ru, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Strain-related differences in animals' cognitive ability affect the outcomes of experiments and may be responsible for discrepant results obtained by different research groups. Therefore, behavioral phenotyping of laboratory animals belonging to different strains is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the variation in allothetic visuospatial learning in most commonly used laboratory rat strains: inbred Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD), outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (W/SD), and outbred Long Evans (LE) rats. All rats were trained to the arbitrary performance criterion of 83 % correct responses in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze allowing for simultaneous evaluation of both working and reference memory. In the present study, testing albino versus pigmented and inbred versus outcrossed rats revealed significant strain-dependent differences with the inbred SD rats manifesting lower performance on all learning measures compared to other strains. On the other hand, the outcrossed W/SD rats showed a lower frequency of reference memory errors and faster rate of task acquisition compared to both LE and W rats, with W rats showing a lower frequency of working memory errors compared to other strains. In conclusion, albinism apparently did not reduce the animals' performance in the allothetic visuospatial learning task, while outcrossing improved the spatial learning. A differential effect of strain on the contribution of each error type to the animals' overall performance was observed. The strain-dependent differences were more pronounced between subpopulations of learning-deficient individuals ("poor" learners), and generally the reference memory errors contributed more to the final behavioral output than did the working memory errors. PMID:25537841

  1. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  2. Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats

    Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths.

  3. Crocin reduced acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rat through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Soghra Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The administration of crocin markedly improved behavioral and histopathological damages in Wistar rats exposed to ACR. Reduction of oxidative stress can be considered as an important mechanism of neuroprotective effects of crocin against ACR-induced toxicity.

  4. Antipsychotic-like effects of zolpidem in Wistar rats.

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Kolaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Wesolowska, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Maciej; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-15

    Aside from their use in the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia, benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor positive modulators are widely used as add-on treatments in schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic psychoses. However, there is relatively little direct clinical or pre-clinical evidence for antipsychotic effects of GABAergic medications. Previous studies have indicated that zolpidem, a GABAergic drug acting preferentially at α1-containing GABAA receptors, may produce catalepsy through interactions with dopaminergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of zolpidem in experimental models of antipsychotic activity and extrapyramidal side effects in Wistar rats. Effects of zolpidem were compared with that of a classic benzodiazepine drug, diazepam and a second-generation antipsychotic medication, risperidone. High doses of risperidone (10.0mg/kg, i.p.) and zolpidem (10.0mg/kg, i.p.), but not diazepam, induced relatively short-lasting cataleptic responses in the bar test. Zolpidem and risperidone, but not diazepam, produced some antipsychotic-like effects at doses, which produced no catalepsy and did not inhibit spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The present results tend to indicate that zolpidem exerts some neuroleptic-like effects at doses, which do not produce motor side effects. Our findings may provide further rationale for the development of new subtype-selective GABAA receptor modulators for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. PMID:26825544

  5. Subacute toxicopathological studies of methotrexate in Wistar rats

    N. N. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A toxico-pathological study was undertaken to assess the effects of Methotrexate administration in Wistar rats by performing the hematology, serum biochemical analysis and associated histopathological changes in visceral organs. Materials and Methods: Rats in 4 treatment groups with 6 male and 6 female rats each were administered methotrexate (Group II to IV at the dose rate of 0.062, 0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg body weight respectively and distilled water (Group I as vehicle control for 28 days. Hematological parameters viz., total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, MCV, MCH and MCHC, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count and serum biochemical parameters viz., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin (Calculated were estimated after 28 days. Necropsy examination was performed in all sacrificed animals and gross lesions were recorded. Tissue samples (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, testes and heart were collected in 10% formalin solution for histo-pathological examination. Results: The dose dependent reduction in body weight, feed consumption, RBCs count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin was observed in animals of group II, III and IV along with significant increase in lymphocyte count, AST, ALT, AKP, creatinine and BUN in animals of methotrexate treated group IV followed by group III. No significant change in monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in any treatment groups. All the rats exposed to methotrexate at three different dose levels revealed dose dependent pathological changes characterized by degeneration, necrosis, congestion, haemorrhage and vascular changes. The main target organs affected were liver, kidney, lungs and testes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that sub-acute exposure to methotrexate produced no appreciable changes at recommended 0.062 mg/kg body weight dose level. The findings observed at 0.250 mg/kg body weight methotrexate dose level are of public health significance and regulatory importance due to its hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic character.

  6. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  7. Teratogenicity of ionic cadmium in the Wistar rat

    Holt, D.; Webb, M.

    1987-04-01

    In rats of the present (re-derived) Wistar-Porton strain that are dosed either intravenously (i.v.), or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Cd (1.25 mg/kg body weight) on day 12 of gestation (gd 12), foetal uptake of Cd is at least 6-fold greater than that reported in an earlier study (Webb and Samarawickrama 1981). Higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight) are lethal to the maternal animal when administered i.v., but not if given ip. The foetotoxicity of i.p. injected Cd, however, increases with the dose over the range 1.25-2.0 mg Cd/kg body weight. The teratogenic response, which is also wider than that observed previously, is maximal after the injection of 1.25 mg Cd/kg body weight i.v. on gd 10 and i.p. on gd 12. Whilst the incidences of hydrocephalus, urogenital abnormalities, cleft palate and other less common defects are similar after dosing by both routes, the incidence, range and severity of skeletal malformations are greater after i.p. than after i.v. administration of Cd on gd 12. This difference in response is unlikely to be explained by a difference in either foetal, or placental uptake of the metallic ion since, at 4 h after i.p. dosing, the foetal concentration of Cd is not significantly different from that after i.v. injection, whilst the placental concentration is about 33% less. It is suggested that damage to the maternal liver, which is more severe after the i.v. injection of the optimum dose, may be an additional factor that, in conjunction with the inhibition of transport in the placenta and biosynthetic processes in the embryo/foetus, contributes to the teratogenic effects of Cd in the pregnant rat.

  8. Myofibroblasts and colonic anastomosis healing in Wistar rats

    Vasiliadou Kalliopi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myofibroblasts play a central role in wound healing throughout the body. The process of wound healing in the colon was evaluated with emphasis on the role of myofibroblasts. Methods One hundred male Wistar rats weighing 274 9.1 g (mean age: 3.5 months were used. A left colonic segment was transected and the colon was re-anastomosed. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group experimental animals (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 3, while the second group rats (n = 50 were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of colonic anastomosis was studied in terms of anastomotic bursting pressure, as well as myofibroblastic reaction and expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA, adhesion formation, inflammatory reaction and neovascularization. Results The mean anastomotic bursting pressure increased from 20.6 3.5 mmHg on the 3rd postoperative day to 148.8 9.6 Hg on the 7th postoperative day. Adhesion formation was increased on the 7th day, as compared to the 3rd day. In addition, the myofibroblastic reaction was more profound on the 7th postoperative day in comparison with the 3rd postoperative day. The staining intensity for ?-SMA was progressive from the 3rd to the 7th postoperative day. On the 7th day the ?-SMA staining in the myofibroblats reached the level of muscular layer cells. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the pivotal role of myofibroblasts in the process of colonic anastomosis healing. The findings provide an explanation for the reduction in the incidence of wound dehiscence after the 7th postoperative day.

  9. Toxicological evaluation of ametryn effects in Wistar rats.

    Santos, Tamires; Cancian, Graziela; Neodini, Daniella N R; Mano, Deiviston R S; Capucho, Cristina; Predes, Fabrícia S; Barbieri, Renata; Oliveira, Camila A; Pigoso, Acácio A; Dolder, Heidi; Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela D C

    2015-10-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane planting in the world. Extensive use of ametryn, a triazine herbicide, in sugar cane agriculture and the properties of this herbicide suggest it could be present in the environment as a potential contaminant of soil, surface water, groundwater, and river sediment. In order to clarify the mechanism through which ametryn could be toxic, an in vivo study with Wistar rats was conducted using hematological, biochemical, molecular, morphological and genotoxic approaches. For this purpose, two sub-lethal ametryn concentrations (15 mg and 30 mg/kg/day) were administered to 42 rats divided into three groups (n=12) by gavage during 56 days, whereupon blood, liver and bone marrow were collected. The results showed ametryn genotoxic activity by in vivo micronuclei testing. This event probably occurred as consequence of oxidative stress induction demonstrated by GSTM1 transcript levels increase (indicating complexation between ametryn and/or metabolites with GSH) and by SOD activity decrease. Also, Mn-SOD transcripts were increased, probably avoiding mtDNA damage caused by EROS. These mechanisms displayed hepatic stellate cell (HSCs) activation because two major biomarkers were regulated, connexin and cadherin. N-cad transcripts were increased on both exposed groups while E-cad decreased in the T1 group, indicating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, Cx43 transcripts were decreased suggesting an increase in collagen content. Volumetric proportion of sinusoids was significantly decreased in T1 group and no significant alteration in hepatocyte volume was observed, indicating an increase in the space of Disse, due to fibrosis. Hepatocyte nuclei showed significant decrease in diameter and volume. Few hematological alterations were found. We emphasize the importance of other approaches, such as cell death and proliferation assays, so that ametryn toxicity can better be understood. PMID:26310382

  10. Evaluation of clopidogrel on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats

    Netravathi Basavaraj Angadi; Shrishail V. Hiremath; Vijayalakshmi V. Suranagi; Shashikant S. Torgal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remain the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of clopidogrel on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were...

  11. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    Tarameshloo, Mahsa; Norouzian, Mohsen; ZAREIN-DOLAB, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver ...

  12. Histological Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on the Ovaries of Adult Wistar Rats

    Eweka, AO; Om’Iniabohs, FAE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food additive and there is growing concern that this may play a critical role in the aethiopathogenesis of anovulatory infertility. Objectives: The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) used as food additive on the ovaries of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24) weighing between 182 to 186grams were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C of (n=8) in each group. The treatment groups (A and B...

  13. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  14. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  15. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE SMALL INTESTINE OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Eweka, A.O.; F.A.E. Om'Iniabohs

    2007-01-01

    The effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) used as food additive on the small intestine of adult wistar rat was investigated. Both adult male and female Wistar rats (n=24) of average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16) and control (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with grower's mash daily for fourteen days. The control rats received equal amounts of grower's mash without MSG added daily. The grower's mash was ...

  16. Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.

    Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups. PMID:23387246

  17. Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05. The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude petroleum.Keywords: Cassava; Gari; Petroleum; haemato-toxicity

  18. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPITVE ACTION OF PENTAZOCINE IN COMPARISION WITH MORPHINE IN ALBINO RATS

    Manikanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.

  20. Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test

    Suresha RN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.

  1. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  2. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  3. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  4. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  5. CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS

    Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.

  6. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  7. Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats

    The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

  8. EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

    Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim*, Hanan Abdel-Hameid Abdel-Hafeez, Basant Mohamed Mahmoud and Eman Nazeem Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the food’s taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult  male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight),(5mg/kg body weight) of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters  in serum of adult ...

  9. STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS

    Sabiha Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

  10. Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats

    Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

  11. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS LEAF ON HEALING OF BURN WOUND IN WISTAR RATS

    Smita Shenoy; Sukesh,; Vinod MS; Shruthi; Mohan Amberkar; Arul Amuthan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Plectranthus amboinicus on the healing of burn wounds in wistar rats and compare it with silver sulfadiazine treated group. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats were used in the study. Partial thickness burn wounds were made on each rat under ketamine anesthesia.The wounds in the five groups of rats were treated topically with petroleum base, silver sulfadiazine,1%, 2% and 3% ointment of ethanolic extract of Plectran...

  12. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  13. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  14. Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.

    Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

    1993-03-01

    Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

  15. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  16. Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation of Teucrium Polium in Albino Rats

    Khaled Al-Kubaisy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h and subacute (3 weeks treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb and Packed Cell Volume (PVC insignificantly decreased. However, other blood indices, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were not changed. There was significant (p<0.001 increase in white blood cells. Serum glucose level change was insignificant, while the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The Activity of Serum Transaminases (ALT and AST showed non significant changes, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were found non significant changes. In conclusion the statistical analysis of our results indicates that treatment with T. polium did not cause any attension that might suggest the presence of pathological damage at the dose investigation.

  17. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10

  18. Vascular reactivity of arteria femoralis in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Vojtko, R.; Villaris, R.; Varga, Z.; Zicha, Josef; Kristová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 10 (2013), s. 553-555. ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rats * Wistar-Kyoto rats * acetylcholine * norepinephrine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2013

  19. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  20. EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS

    Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim*, Hanan Abdel-Hameid Abdel-Hafeez, Basant Mohamed Mahmoud and Eman Nazeem Abd-Allah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the food’s taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult  male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight,(5mg/kg body weight of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters  in serum of adult male albino rats associated with liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes and  the effect of these additives on the biomarkers of the oxidative stress  and antioxidant enzyme activities in tissue homogenates of liver and kidney. In comparison with the normal rats we found that body weight increased in rats treated with MSG while decreased in rats consumed NaNO2; In the liver functions parameters there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP, total protein, Albumin, Globulin and billirubin of MSG while, in NaNO2 there is an increase in GPT, GOT, ALP and billirubin activity while, there is a decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin. In our view of lipid profile there is an increased level in total cholesterol and TG concentration in MSG and decreased level of total cholesterol and TG in NaNO2 while, there is a decrease in HDL concentration in both MSG and NaNO2. In cardiac enzymes there is an increase in LDH enzyme in both additives and there is a decrease in CK enzyme activity in MSG while, increased in serum of NaNO2. Our investigations showed an increase in kidney functions in both types of additives. In the oxidative stress observation there is an increase in LPO while, there is a decrease in CAT, GSH, and SOD activity in MSG and NaNO2.

  1. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damages.

  2. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Bhaiji Amrita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

  3. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  4. Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:24021428

  5. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  6. Fundamental interstrain differences in cortical activity between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats during global ischemia.

    Fuzik, J; Gellrt, L; Olh, G; Herdi, J; Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Nagy, D; Kincses, Z T; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Toldi, J

    2013-01-01

    Four-vessel occlusion (4VO), a frequently used model of global cerebral ischemia in rats, results in a dysfunction in wide brain areas, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there are pronounced differences in response to global ischemia between the laboratory rat strains used in these studies. In the present work, the immediate acute effects of 4VO-induced global ischemia on the spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals were analyzed in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. The ECoG was isoelectric during the 10 min of global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats and the first burst (FB) was seen 10-13 min after the start of reperfusion. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the FB was detected immediately after the start of 4VO or a few seconds later. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) in Wistar rats decreased to 45% in 5 min after FB, and after 25 min it was approximately 40%. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the BSR was 55% immediately after the FB and it decreased steeply to reach 0% by 10 min. There was also a significant difference between the two strains in the frequency composition of the ECoG pattern. The power spectral densities of the two strains differed virtually throughout the post-ischemic state. The histological results (Evans Blue, Cresyl Violet and Fluoro Jade C stainings) supplemented the electrophysiological data: the neuronal damage in the CA1 pyramids in Wistar rats was severe, whereas in the Sprague-Dawley animals it was only partial. These observations clearly demonstrate that the use of different rat strains (e.g. Wistar vs. Sprague-Dawley) can be a source of considerable variability in the results of acute experiments on global ischemia and it is important that the laboratory rats used in such experiments should be carefully chosen. PMID:23103797

  7. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    Y. Damodar Singh; Rahul Singh Arya

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatm...

  8. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS

    Jha Urmilesh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats have been studied to find out the possible mechanism of hepatoprotection. It was observed that extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb has reversal effects on the levels of above-mentioned parameters in paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb functions as a hepatoprotective agent and this hepatoprotective activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb may be due normalization of impaired membrane function activity.

  9. Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats

    Amit Kumar Jha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of variance and Student’s t-tests were applied to compare the results. Results: It was found that the mean ulcer index varied significantly across the three groups (p = .000. Compared to the control group, the ulcer index was significantly less in both lansoprazole and rabeprazole groups (p = .000. But the ulcer index with rabeprazole was significantly less than that with lansoprazole (p = .001. Conclusion: Rabeprazole is more efficacious than lansoprazole as far as ulcer healing effect is concerned.

  10. The influence of whole-body gamma-irradiation on tests in epidiolymis of albino rat

    The testes weights as well as the histopathological changes of testes and epididymes of albino rats exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation in doses 100, 200 and 400 rad for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days were investigated. Testes weights were reduced in rats exposed to 200 and 400 rad for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological changes of testes and epididymes varied according to the degree of irradiation. The degree and intensity of damage to the organs was in proportion to the intensity of irradiation. With the small dose (100 rad) there was degeneration of the primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm cells. With higher doses (200 and 400 rad) there were degeneration and necrosis of the spermatogenic cells and spermatogonia, hyalinization of the interstitial tissue, as well as connective tissue proliferation around the epididymal tubules

  11. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats

    V.O. Ogugbuaja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

  12. EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA

    Marisa Pascale Quintino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

  13. Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy

    Arykerne Chamon do Carmo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

  14. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Adeyemi, O. S.; T. C. Elebiyo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  15. Effect of Tecoma stans Leaves on the Reproductive System of Male Albino Rats

    Nidhi Mathur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of 50% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans leaves were investigated in adult Wistar male rats. Changes in weight of the liver, kidneys and adrenal of the rats were statistically insignificant (p<0.05. The relative weight of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ventral prostate and seminal vesicle were decreased significantly (p<0.001. Tecoma stans treatment showed significant high cholesterol, glycogen and low tissue sialic acid and total protein in testes and epididymis and low fructose level in seminal vesicle of treated rats. Hormonal assay showed decrease in testosterone level. The epididymal sperm count, motility and fertility test (% reduced significantly in treated rats. Histopathological study of the testes depicted marked degenerative changes in testes. The seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size. Vacuolization was observed in the sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Leydig cells were atrophied. Germ cell proliferation beyond the level of the spermatocyte was affected. The lumen contained sloughed debris and few germ cells.

  16. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

  17. Effects of whey proteins on glucose metabolism in normal Wistar rats and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats

    Gregersen, Sren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B; Snderstgaard Thorup, Anne C; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    -glucagon, HbA1c, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Liver, muscle, and adipose samples were used for RT-PCR. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were performed. RESULTS: HbA1c increased during intervention, and was...... supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six week old male ZDF (n = 60) and Wistar rats (n = 44) were used in a 13 week study. P-glucose, p-insulin, p...

  18. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT, e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão.

  19. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1) and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2). After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females...

  20. The histological effects of Annona Muricata (Soursop) on the Adrenal Gland of Adult Wistar Rats

    Ezejindu D. N; Udemezue O O; Chukwujekwu I E; Uchefuna R C; Maduka S O; Akingboye A J; Ezejindu C N

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the histological effects of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata on the adrenal gland of adult wistar rats. Twenty wistar rats weighing between 180 – 210g were used for the study. They were divided into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and received 0.3 ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C & D were orally administered 0.2 ml, 0.4 ml and 0.6 ml of ethanolic extract of Annona muricat...

  1. The histological effects of Moringa extract on mercury induced hepatotoxicity in adult wistar rats

    1 Ezejindu D.N; Chinweife K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses primarily on the histological effects of aqueous extract of moringa on mercury induced wistar rats. Twenty four adult wistar rats weighing between 190-270g were allocated into four groups of six animals each. Group A served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water, group B received 0.5ml of moringa extract, group C received 0.35ml of mercury while group D received 0.35ml of mercury and 0.5ml of moringa extract. The oral administration lasted for twenty eight days...

  2. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Leaf on Pregnancy Outcome of Wistar Rats

    S.S. Dare; W.O. Hamman, S. Musa, A.D.T. Goji, A.A. Oyewale, S. Abba and I. Ezekiel

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaf extract is used medicinally to treat various kinds of diseases such as diabetes, fever, bronchitis etc, in different parts of the world including Nigeria. This study investigates the effect of A. occidentale leaf extract on reproductive outcome of Wistar rats. Twenty female wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (I, II, III, and IV), n = 5 in each group. Group I is the control while groups II, III and IV are experimental groups. 300 mg/kg of aqueous leaf e...

  3. Resistance to renal damage by chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the Wistar-Furth rat

    Erdely, Aaron; Freshour, Gary; BAYLIS, CHRIS

    2006-01-01

    Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition (NOSI) causes chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat. We previously showed that the Wistar-Furth (WF) rats are resistant to several models of CKD and maintain renal nitric oxide (NO) production compared with SD rats, whereas low-dose NOSI caused progression of CKD in WF rats. Here, we evaluate the impact of high-dose chronic NOSI in WF and SD rats, as well as intrarenal responses to an acute pressor dose of NOSI in the normal WF. R...

  4. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  5. The Role Of Melatonin In Aluminium Induced Genotoxicity In Female Albino Rats

    Zeinab E. Hanafy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work, In spite of the wide range of use of aluminium. With the increasing awareness of possible health hazards associated with their use, more attention have been focused on their biological and biochemical activity. Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant in under cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown. Aluminium is known to have genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects. Melatonin reduces the free radical generation and metal detoxification .This study was planned to determine the effects of melatonin on aluminium induced toxicity in the chromosomes of bone marrow cell . Material and Methods ,Forty female albino rats were used in the present work for the chromosomal analysis. Four groups of adult female albino rats were used in the following way: Group -I, control group; Group-II,50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally; Group-III, 50g / kg b.wt melatonin orally and Group- IV, 50 mg /kg b.wt aluminium orally (am +50 g / kg b.wt melatonin orally(pm. Doses were given 30 days. All animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow of femur bones was taken for subsequent cytogenetic studies. The results, Aluminium treatment induced a significant increase in the structural as well as numerical chromosomal aberrations . The frequency of chromosomal aberrations showed significant decrease when rats treated with melatonin and aluminium .In conclusion, the results indicated that melatonin showed a significant improvement of genetic damages induced by aluminium

  6. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  7. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF NUTMEG ON MEMORY BOOSTING AND REGAINING IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    G Jissa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study provides further evidence for improvement of memory by oral consumption of nutmeg. The present study was undertaken with an objective to study the effects of oral administration of nutmeg on memory boosting and regaining. Methods: Here we investigate the influence of oral intake of nutmeg on behavioral task performance by using T-maze and radial arm maze and physiological measures relative to a milk control group. Results: We have observed significant memory boosting and memory regaining effects of nutmeg when administered orally. This effect may be due to facilitation of acetylcholine activity by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity of nutmeg. Hence we recommend further research in this area by investigating compound metabolism to optimize quantification of memory performance following nutmeg consumption.

  8. Diuretic activity of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa in albino rats.

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the diuretic effect and acute toxicity of a crude aqueous extract of Nigella sativa using animal models. To evaluate the diuretic activity of the plant, Albino rats were divided into five groups. The control group received normal saline (10 mL/kg), the reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and the test groups were administered different doses (i.e., 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) of the crude extract by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. However, urinary pH remained unchanged during the course of the study. The diuretic index values showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. The Lipschitz values demonstrated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 46% diuretic activity compared with furosemide. With regard to the acute toxicity study, no lethal effects were observed among Albino mice even at the higher dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract of Nigella sativa, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary volume and modified the concentration of urinary electrolytes, and there was observed no signs of acute toxicity associated with the crude extract. Further studies are encouraged to isolate the pure phytochemical responsible for diuresis. PMID:25850208

  9. Bacteriological Effects of Xylitol and Different Carbohydrate Containing Diets in Swiss Albino Rats Inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519

    ERTUĞRUL, Fahinur

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bacteriological effects of different diets by Streptococcus mutans counts on 50 Swiss albino rats inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519 serotype c. A powdered form of standard basal diet meeting rats' nutritional needs was used in combination with diets containing different percentages of starch, sucrose and xylitol for 90 days. Dental plaque samples were collected at the end of the experiment and S. mutans and total bacterial counts w...

  10. Voluntary Alcohol Consumption Alters Stress-induced Changes in Dopamine-2 Receptor Binding in Wistar-Kyoto Rat Brain

    Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.

    2009-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depressive behavior and exhibits hyper-responsiveness to stressful stimulation when compared to other rat strains. We have demonstrated that WKY rats consume 200% more alcohol under naïve conditions as compared to their outbred counterparts, Wistar (WIS) rats. The present study was designed to understand the influence of stress and alcohol consumption on central dopamine type-2 (D2) receptor sites in these two behaviorally dis...

  11. Phytochemical evaluation and antispermatogenic activity of Thevetia peruviana methanol extract in male albino rats.

    Gupta, Rajnish; Kachhawa, Jai B S; Gupta, R S; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Sharma, M C; Dobhal, M P

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifertility potential of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae) in male albino rats with their phytochemical evaluations. Phytochemical examination showed that plant is rich in active constituents, i.e. ?-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol and thevetigenin. T. peruviana stem bark methanol extract (TPMtE) administered orally to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day did not cause any significant reduction in body weight, while the weight of reproductive organs reduced significantly. A significant fall in the total protein and sialic acid content of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate, as well as in the glycogen content of testes was also observed; however, cholesterol was increased significantly. TPMtE also caused a decline in spermatogenic elements, i.e. preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, round spermatids and mature Leydig cells. At this dose level Leydig cell nuclear diameter, seminiferous tubular diameter and Sertoli area were significantly reduced (p?peruviana inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing a herbal male contraceptive. PMID:21466267

  12. Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats

    Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

  13. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    Jastrz?bska, Joanna; Frankowska, Ma?gorzata; Szumiec, ?ukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Ma?gorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. PMID:26192911

  14. Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.

    Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

    2004-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

  15. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  16. Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.

    Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

  17. Effect of 60Co whole-body itradiation on thyroid of albino rats

    The whole body of the adult albino rat was exposed to tele 60Co radiation in a single dose of 600 R. Histopathological examinations of thyroid, were made at different intervals under light and also under electron microscope. These studies showed atrophied follicles with scanty amount of colloid. In addition, necrotic changes were also observed. The electron microscopic picture of the thyroid revealed the maximum change only at the end of 1st week as evidenced by disturbed condition of mitochondria, nucleus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The serum protein bound iodine level was found raised only at the end of 1st week, followed by a fall at the end of 2nd week. All these studies suggest that radiation could produce damage to the thyroid cell not only functionally but also morphologically, even at subcellular level. (author)

  18. Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses

    The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external γ-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

  19. Assessment of Hypolipidaemic Effect of Leptadenia Hastata Leaves in Albino Rats

    Muhammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Leptadenia hastata leaves on serum lipid profile and glucose in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Sixteen adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of four rats each. Group 1 was the hyperlipidemic group (positive control, Group 2 was the hyperlipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group, Group 3 was the normolipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group and Group 4 normal group fed on normal diet (negative control. The changes in the serum lipid profile and glucose were monitored after three weeks. The result of the serum lipid analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with concurrent significant (p<0.05 increase in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipidemic group treated with L. hastata leaves (group 2 compared with the hyperlipidemic group (group 1. Serum glucose level was also significantly higher in hyperlipidemic group (p<0.05 compared with other three groups. The result of this study suggests possible hypolipidemic effect of L. hastata leaves.

  20. Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.

    Mathew Joe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

  1. Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  2. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential dietary supplement to minimize the side effects of radiotherapy

  3. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  4. The Effect of Hypericum Perforarum on Anxiety and Depressant Activity in Wistar Rats Exposed to Phenol

    M Modhej

    2015-02-01

    Results: The statistic findings indicated that there were no significant differences between behavior tests with respect to the treatments (P> 0.05. Conclusion: The study results proposed that the used levels of Hypericum Perforarum extract did not show any significant effects on reduction of anxious and depressant behaviors in phenol exposed Wistar rats.

  5. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  6. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Ladefoged, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cells...

  7. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling; Jakobsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  8. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks o...

  9. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

    O. A Komolafe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

  10. Behavioral changes of Wistar rats with experimentally-induced painful diabetic neuropathy

    D'ALMEIDA JOSÉ ARTUR C.; CASTRO-COSTA CARLOS M. DE; FROTA CARINA H.; SEVERO JANAIRA F.; ROCHA TARCISO D. S.; NOGUEIRA TRÍCIA F.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of studying data on spontaneous customary changes in diabetic rats, we induced diabetes in 28 Wistar rats with streptozotocin. The animals were observed for 27 weeks in an attempt to characterize spontaneous customary changes that could suggest signs of chronic pain. Morphine, as a central-acting potent analgesic and its specific antagonist naloxone, were used. Our results evidenced in the animals a clinical syndrome similar to human diabetes. Long-term customary analysis rev...

  11. Alterations in lenticular proteins during ageing and selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rats

    Sakthivel, Muniyan; Elanchezhian, Rajan; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine putative alterations in the major lenticular proteins in Wistar rats of different ages and to compare these alterations with those occurring in rats with selenite-induced cataract. Methods Lenticular transparency was determined by morphological examination using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Alterations in lenticular protein were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS–PAGE) and confirmed immunologically by western blot. Results Morphological examination did not reveal ...

  12. Passive transfer of diabetes from BB/W to Wistar-Furth rats.

    Koevary, S B; D. E Williams; Williams, R. M; Chick, W L

    1985-01-01

    Autoimmune diabetes can be transferred to young, diabetes prone BB/W rats by injecting them intravenously with concanavalin A (Con A)-treated spleen cells from acute diabetic BB/W donors. This study describes the transfer of diabetes to the normal Wistar-Furth strain of rats using a similar procedure. For the successful transfer of diabetes it was necessary to immunosuppress recipient animals with a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 24-48 h before administering Con A-stimul...

  13. Histological Observations of the Testis of Wistar Rats Following the Oral Administration of Cotecxin (dihyroartemisinin

    T. Murdakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cotecxin has been reportedly used in the treatment of malaria with high clinical effect and low toxicity. This study therefore, tried to examine the effects of cotecxin on the histology of the testis of wistar rats. A total of twenty four (24 male wistar rats were the subjects used in this experiment. The wistar rats were divided into three groups with each group containing eight (8 rats. Different concentrations of cotecxin were administered orally to the wistar rats which had an average weight of 150 g. Group I is the control group, Group II received 3.42 mg/kg and Group III were given 17.10 mg/Kg. The duration of administration was seven days. After which four (4 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day. The remaining twelve rats were equally sacrificed on the 15th day and immediately fixed in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed and stained in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The changes observed on the eighth day in the testis were disarray of the spermatogenic cells and disorientation of the testis. These changes were observed to have been disappearing and normal histological features being restored in those rats sacrificed at the 15th day. It was therefore concluded that cotecxin has negative effect on the histology of the testis during administrations and these effects were reversible some days after stoppage of the administration. This suggests that cotexcin could be safe but It’s prolong usage may be discouraged.

  14. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in Wistar rats

    Naveen, A.; Shankar J.; Premendran John; N. Venkatanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in wistar rats. Methods: Liver, the key organ of metabolism and excretion, is constantly endowed with the task of detoxification of xenobiotics, environmental pollutants and chemotherapeutic agents. The animals were divided into six groups with six rats in each group. First group were taken as control, and they received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg body weight orally. Sec...

  15. Fish oil increases atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, although decreases serum cholesterol in Wistar rat

    M-Shirazi, Minoo; Taleban, Fourugh-Azam; Abadi, Ali Reza; SABETKASAEI, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that fish oil consumption decreases incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, some studies showed that it increases atherosclerosis as it does not get completely metabolized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fish oil on aortic atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and serum lipids in rats. METHODS: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were fed with a fish oil-containing diet or standard diet (containing soy bean oil) during pregnancy ...

  16. Anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats

    R.K. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the anti-diabetic and haematological effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. In this work, thirty six adult strain of albino wistar rats were used, which included six normal, diabetic untreated and twenty four diabetic treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneally injection of 60 mg/kg body weight dose of streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 ml fresh cold citrate buffer pH 4.5 into 16 h-fasted rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided as follows: Group I served as normal control, Group II served as diabetic untreated rats, while Group III to Group VI received 200, 400 and 800mg/kg b w of the extract and glibenclamide 10mg/kg b w respectively by orally by gavages for a period of 28 days. The animals were weighed weekly to determine the change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was measured after every seven days. After the last day of treatment, blood samples were collected from the animals from each group on the 29th day by cardiac puncture in 16 hours fasted animals for the determination of haematological parameters. The results obtained in this present study showed that the blood glucose level was significantly (pth, 21st and 28th day when compared to diabetic control group. There was a statistically significant increase (pth days. In conclusion, the plant extract showed a significant hypoglycemic as well as erythropoetic effects in the diabetic animals, justifying its use traditionally in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  17. THE USE OF CASSAVA ROOT MEAL AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN DIETS FOR ALBINO RATS

    Thomas Nii NARKU NORTEY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine if partial replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM in diets for albino rats will have an effect on performance, organ characteristics and blood parameters. Twenty five Sprague Dawley albino rats (F344 strain, initial body weight (216 ± 8g were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1 to T5 in a completely randomized (CRD arrangement. T1 was the control and contained zero CRM. T2 and T3 contained 30% CRM, while T4 and T5 contained 45% CRM. These levels of inclusion represented 50 and 75% replacement of corn in the diets respectively. T2 and T4 had 0.15% methionine (Met while T3 and T5 had 0.3% Met. The rats were each fed a single diet for 28d. Average daily feed intake (ADFI of rats on T1 was lower (P 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE. Similarly there were no differences (P>0.05 in carcass, viscera and other internal organ weights. Results of this trial indicate that albino rats can tolerate diets with added CRM (45% of the diet with no adverse effects on growth and internal organ characteristics. Future work will need to look at the possibility of using CRM at similar or higher levels in diets for growing pigs.

  18. Effect of the Overcrowding Stress on Fundus of Stomach in Adult Male Albino Rats

    Maisa Mohammad Amin Al-Qudah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overcrowding as a chronic source of stress constituted a major threat to psychological well-being. Dense populations were characterized by considerably increased aggressive behavior . The present study aimed to examine the effect of overcrowding stress on the histology of fundus and fundic glands of male albino rats .Ten animals were used in this study divided into two groups: control group (group A was formed of 5 animals and experimental group (group B was formed of 5 animals that were subjected to overcrowding. The rats were kept in the overcrowded condition continuously for 4 h/day, for a period of 7 days. at the end of the experiment stomach specimens were obtained, processed and subjected to different histological techniques. All the layers of stomach were affected in rats exposed to overcrowding stress conditions. Overcrowding stress led to desquamation, necrosis and ulceration of gastric epithelium. Mononuclear cellular infiltrate and congested blood vessels were also noted in lamina propria. Necrosis in mucosa was the prominent histological change when the effect reached the maximum. It could be concluded that overcrowding stress lead to gastric mucosal damage represented by necrosis and ulceration. Moreover, the other layers of fundus were affected such as muscularis.

  19. Effect of methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcifium pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

    Nkwocha Chinelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract of Synsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group, 100 mg/kg (Group 2, 200 mg/kg (Group 3 and 500 mg/kg (Group 4 body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05 in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05 in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  20. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  1. Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats

    Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

  2. WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA BARK EXTRACT ON ALBINO RATS

    Ch. Sampath kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of topically applied extract of bark of Ziziphus jujuba was evaluated in albino rat by excision wound model for a period of 24 days. In this study, the rats were divided into four groups, each groups continued healing process with 5 and 10% w/w methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba mg/cm2. Test duration was 24 days, wound diameter measurement using digital image analysis on days 0, 8th, 16th , 21st and 24th with biopsy of two rats from each group were taken. The results revealed that treatment with low-dose group of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (5% less shrinkage of wound area and also from the perspective of Histopathological change. In the second and third week, tissue had better organization than most other groups (p<0.01, but the group treated with high doses of methanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba (10% had most wound shrinkage and organization.

  3. The effect of neonatal capsaicin treatment on gustatory behavior in the albino rat.

    Ganchrow, J R; Seltzer, Z; Bitchacho, N

    1992-12-01

    Small-diameter fibers present in gustatory peripheral nerves have historically been suspected of relaying information about the bitter quality of a taste stimulus. Neonatally injected capsaicin irreversibly destroys a proportion of unmyelinated C- and some A delta-fibers. Consummatory responses to increasing concentrations of quinine and other chemical solutions following neonatal capsaicin injection were compared to those of untreated and vehicle-injected control Sabra albino rats. Capsaicin-treated rats significantly increased their withdrawal thresholds to noxious, CO2 laser-generated heat pulses verifying treatment effectiveness. Furthermore, neonatal capsaicin treatment diminished sensitivity to pungent capsaicin solutions in mature rats. However, there were no group differences in quinine intake, suggesting that the full array of unmyelinated fibers associated with taste buds is not essential for the transmission of bitter taste. Capsaicin-treated animals showed a significant reduction in intake of normally highly preferred sodium chloride and sucrose concentrations. These results were probably not due to loss of peripheral unmyelinated afferent fibers per se, but rather to secondary central changes. PMID:1484858

  4. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  5. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  6. Effect Of Polyphenols Klika Ongkea Mezzetia Parviflora Becc Against Blood Glucose Wistar Rats Induced By Streptozotocin

    Jangga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When this has been developed medicines from natural ingredients to control diabetes mellitus most of these materials have been studied and shown to be effective as an alternative therapy. This study aimed to determine the effect of polyphenols Klika ongkea Mezzetia parviflora Becc. To decrease blood glucose levels induced streptozotosin wistar rats STZ and to determine the concentration of how the effect is not significantly different from the control group of drugs. In this study used Wistar rats were 120 tails are divided into six treatment groups the first group of healthy controls were given Na. CMC 1 group II were given pain control STZ 40 mg kg body weight of mice group III was given the drug control galvus vildagliptin group IV V and VI are given polyphenols Klika ongkea each 100mg kg and 300mg kg for 21 day. The results showed that administration of polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg kg body weight of rats and 300 mg kg body weight of mice as a protective effect on the decreased levels of blood glucose Wistar rats induced by STZ and giving polyphenols Klika ongkea 300mg kg body weight of rats and 300 mg kg rat as protective effect was not significantly different the effect of galvus vildagliptin 0.9 mg 200 gBW mice.

  7. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  8. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis. PMID:25743726

  9. Colon cancer and swimming exercise: effect on wistar rat testes

    Karine Moura de Freitas; Antônio José Natali; Wellington Lunz; Kyvia Lugate Cardoso Costa; Rodrigo Paula Leite; Heidi Dolder; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether colon cancer (CC) and chronic swimming exercise alter rat testis. Eleven weeks old rats were distributed into control group (n=6) and the groups that were induced to develop CC by dimethylhydrazine injections (nEG, EG0, EG2 and EG4; n=10 each group). In the group nEG, the rats did not swim, whereas groups EG0, EG2 and EG4, underwent a swimming program with distinct loads (0, 2 and 4% of body mass, respectively) for 35 weeks. The morphometry, ster...

  10. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae on in Vivo Leukocyte Mobilization in Wistar Rats

    O.A. Daikwo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Immune system (the body’s defense system which protects the body from diseases, is subject to modification by substances to either enhance or suppress its ability to resist invasion by pathogen. Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae, a wild fig tree, is believed by the Igala people of Kogi State in Nigeria to possess an immune boosting property, hence, forming part of most of their traditional remedies for several ailments. This study was aimed at investigating, so as to ascertain this claim. Twenty wistar strain albino rats divided into four groups of five animals each were used. One hour prior to introduction of an inflammatory stimulus, each rat in groups (Group 2-4 received oral administration of 100, 150 and 250 mg/kg, respectively of aqueous extract of leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae. The control group (Group 1 received distilled water. After four hours, the animals were sacrificed and both Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts were performed on the peritoneal fluid obtained from these animals. Evaluation of the data obtained from this study indicated a significant (p<0.05 dose-dependent increase in leukocyte mobilization, with doses 150 and 250 mg/kg giving total leukocyte count of 4.44±0.39×109 and 6.10±0.86×109/L, respectively, the most mobilized being Neutrophils. The results obtained from this study suggest that the extract might have a pharmacologically active substance which may be responsible for the above effect and its applications in traditional medicines as an immune boosting agent.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Psidium guajava Leaves Water Extract on Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats

    E.U. Etuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.

  12. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

  13. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    Johanna W. M. Arts; Klaas Kramer; Saskia S. Arndt; Frauke Ohl

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in female rats, before using these animals in research. Abstract Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have conside...

  14. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery

  15. Impact of aluminum sub-chronic toxicity on body weight and recognition memory of wistar rat.

    Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A

    2008-07-15

    The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L(-1)) of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a motor activity, object recognition memory (NOR) and brain aluminum concentration has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the open field test and to the novel object recognizing memory test. The results have showed a significant decrease in rats' body weight (p < 0.05). Though, no significance was registered for motor activity. Nevertheless, a high significance is showed for recognition memory compared to control rats (p < 0.01), especially at the end of testing period, even the difference between control and aluminium treated rats in brain aluminum levels was not significant. PMID:18817225

  16. Impact of Aluminum Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Body Weight and Recognition Memory of Wistar Rat

    F.Z. Azzaoui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to investigate the impact of aluminum nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity, on body weight gain, motor activity, brain aluminum accumulation and especially in recognition memory of wistar rats. Two groups of young female wistar rats were used. Treated rats received (80 mg L-1 of aluminum nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received a drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, a motor activity, object recognition memory (NOR and brain aluminum concentration has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the open field test and to the novel object recognizing memory test. The results have showed a significant decrease in rats` body weight (p<0.05. Though, no significance was registered for motor activity. Nevertheless, a high significance is showed for recognition memory compared to control rats (p<0.01, especially at the end of testing period, even the difference between control and aluminium treated rats in brain aluminum levels was not significant.

  17. Protection of radiation-induced DNA damage in albino rats by Zingiber Montanum extract

    The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 μg). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)

  18. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)

  19. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  20. Possible Hepatoprotective Effects of Lacidipine in Irradiated DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Albino Rats

    Sahar Mohamed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers are increasingly used for the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is an important risk factor for liver damage and several other circulatory abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lacidipine in a irradiation-induced hepatocellular damage model in Deoxyc Orticosterone Acetate (DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive model in rats. In this study, animals were divided into five groups as follows: control (Group 1, hypertensive (Group 2, irradiated (Group 3, irradiated and hypertensive (Group 4 and irradiated, hypertensive and lacidipine-treated (Group 5. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and its homogenates were biochemically examined. Significant differences were found between values of all groups (p<0.05. Group 3 and particularly Group 4 showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation and Nitric Oxide (NO and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α with a significant reduction in serum level of alanine amine transferase (ALT enzyme and in superoxide dismutase in red blood cells lysates. Lacidipine-treated group (5 showed a significant reduction in elevated systolic blood pressure together with a great protection of ALT and SOD enzymes from the destructive effects of irradiation and hypertension. Additionally, this CCB reduces hepatic NO and serum TNF-α levels that were increased in groups (2,3,4. The present study suggests that lacidipine has some important protective effects on liver of hypertensive irradiated albino rats.

  1. Protective role of desferrioxamine against gamma-irradiation induced histopathological damage in albino rats' liver

    Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by γ-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body γ-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by γ-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.

  2. In Vivo Internal Decontamination of 134Cs and 60Co from Male Albino Rats

    The Present work aimed to evaluate the therapeutic role of prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and calcium trisodium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as internal de contaminants of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt in adult male albino rats. Radionuclides were given as a single doses; 60Co was introduced orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally (ip) while 134Cs was taken orally or in combination with ip injection of 60Co. The de contaminants were supplied daily for three weeks immediately after 60Co or 134Cs intake; oral dose of PB + vermiculite treated the oral 134Cs group, oral and subcutaneous 60Co groups and combined 60Co and 134Cs groups. Rats receiving ip dose of 60Co were treated with daily ip dose of DTPA while the three de contaminants were added to the combined 60Co and 134Cs groups.Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrite percentage (Ht), red blood cells count (RBC's), as well as liver function tests (total bilirubine, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/ G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), spartic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed in all groups. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant decrease in the RBC's counts, Hb concentration, haematocrit value, serum total proteins and albumin. On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degree. Thus, it could be concluded that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against internal contamination hazards

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  4. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  5. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  6. Protective Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus Against Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Wistar Strain Rats.

    Mishra, Neetu; Kumar, Dileep; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) has been reported to possess many important biological properties. We undertook in vivo studies on male Wistar rats to examine the antioxidative potential of okra in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic rats. Okra extract was administered to control and diabetic rats for 35 consecutive days. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity (p diabetes for prevention of oxidative stress-mediated complications. PMID:27065051

  7. Crypt cell production rates at various sites around the colon in Wistar rats and humans.

    Hall, C.; Youngs, D.; Keighley, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The crypt cell production rate (CCPR) is considered the most robust estimate of cell turnover. The CCPR was determined at various sites around the colon in the Wistar rat (using an in vivo technique) and in six healthy humans (using in vitro organ culture). In both the rat and human colon, the CCPR increased proximally from the rectum to the caecum. The caecum had a significantly higher cell turnover than any other site in the colon (p < 0.05 in the rat, p < 0.01 in humans, Student's t test)....

  8. Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hepatic Glycogenosis in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Oluwole B. Akinola; Olufunke O Dosumu; Oluwafunmike S Akinola; Laura Zatta; Luciana Dini; Caxton-Martins, Ezekiel A

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on hepatic microscopic anatomy and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Seventy-five Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control; diabetic; diabetic+AIE; AIE only; and diabetic+glibenclamide. Hyperglycemia was induced in fasted rats with streptozotocin. AIE was administered orally at 500 mg/kg bw/d and glibenclamide at 600 μg/kg bw/d for 50 days (50 d). Animals we...

  9. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and alb...

  10. Acute Effect of Sidr Leaves Extract on some Neurotransmitter Contents in Different Brain Areas of Male Albino Rats

    The acute i.p. injection of Sidr ( Zizyphus spina-christi) leaves extract ( 100 mg / kg body wt ) caused a significant increase in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and a significant decrease in gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in E, NE, DA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA content in the different CNS areas of albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters, at the same time GABA inhibits the release of these neurotransmitters by increasing the permeability to Cl ions and such effect may be due to the presence of peptide and cyclopeptide alkaloids in the extract. Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. (author)

  11. Genetic consequences of irradiation of one or both parents (results of experiments on Wistar rats). Exitus Lethalis in Wistar rats progeny after irradiation of one or both parents

    Using offsprings of Wistar rats the quantitative regulations in their death in ontogenesis following irradiation of one or both parents at 0.25-4 Gy doses, the sex cells of which were at stages of mature oocytes and spermatozoa. are investigated. It is determined that the progeny death depends on the value of radiation dose to gametes of parents and takes place mainly in embryogenesis. Progeny of both exposed parents may have an increase in death as compared to that for one parent exposed. Phenomenon of progeny death increase resulted from the fertilization of both parents exposed to radiation is observed at the low doses and is absent at high radiation doses

  12. Effects of Whey Proteins on Glucose Metabolism in Normal Wistar Rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats

    Gregersen, Soren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B.; Sonderstgaard Thorup, Anne C.; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of milk protein on glucose metabolism have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with specific milk protein fractions could prevent diabetes and differentially alter tissue gene expression. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, ?-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six wee...

  13. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  14. Protective Effect of Gingo biloba Extract on Carbendazim-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Hawazen A. Lamfon; Faiza A. Mahboub

    2013-01-01

    Carbendazim is a broad spectrum carbamate fungicide used in the control of various fungal pathogens. The present work studied the effect of carbendazim on the liver of albino rats and the possible protective role of Ginko biloba extract (EGB). Liver of carbendazim-treated animals showed histopathological and histochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, and congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infil...

  15. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  16. Effect of fruit extract of Fragaria vesca L. on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats

    Lalit Kanodia; Mondita Borgohain; Swranamoni Das

    2011-01-01

    Aim : Ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease are chronic recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown origin. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key factor in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of the mucosal damage in IBD. Materials and Methods : Ethanolic extract of Fragaria vesca (EFFV) fruits was prepared by percolation method and subjected to oral toxicity testing using OECD guidelines. Albino rats were pretreated orally for 5 days with 3% gum acacia in control, EFFV 500 mg...

  17. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    Arun K Mishra; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...

  18. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...

  19. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Wafa Siouda; Cherif Abdennour

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 m...

  20. Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus On Diabetic Albino Rat

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 23 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It's well recommended to use variable doses and different periods of treatment to evaluate the best dose and period

  1. Comparative Genome of GK and Wistar Rats Reveals Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Liu, Tiancheng; Li, Hong; Ding, Guohui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Yunqin; Liu, Lei; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and 2834 CNV deletion, 1796 protein affecting SNVs or indels) by comparative genome analysis and identified 192 potential T2D-associated genes. The genes with variants are further refined with prior knowledge and public resource including variant polymorphism of rat strains, protein-protein interactions and differential gene expression. Finally we have identified 15 genetic mutant genes which include seven known T2D related genes (Tnfrsf1b, Scg5, Fgb, Sell, Dpp4, Icam1, and Pkd2l1) and eight high-confidence new candidate genes (Ldlr, Ccl2, Erbb3, Akr1b1, Pik3c2a, Cd5, Eef2k, and Cpd). Our result reveals that the T2D phenotype may be caused by the accumulation of multiple variations in GK rat, and that the mutated genes may affect biological functions including adipocytokine signaling, glycerolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, T cell receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. We present the genomic difference between two closely related rat strains (GK and Wistar) and narrow down the scope of susceptible loci. It also requires further experimental study to understand and validate the relationship between our candidate variants and T2D phenotype. Our findings highlight the importance of sequenced-based comparative genomics for investigating disease susceptibility loci in inbreeding animal models. PMID:26529237

  2. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Globimetulla browni Extracts in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats during Wet Season

    H.M. Inuwa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Globimetulla browni is a specie of African mistletoe (Lorantheceae and is hemi-parasitic in nature. It was studied for ascribed/folkloric antidiabetic properties. Stretozotocin which is well known for its selective pancreatic $-cell cytotoxicity was used to induce type 1 diabetes in the experimental rat model Glibenclamide was used as a standard antidiabetic drug in streptozotocin induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycaemic agents. The extracts from this specie significantly increased the body weights of the albino rats with the extracts effectively controlling the increase in the glucose levels in the diabetic group of rats which could be attributed to its antihyperglycemic effects. Further, the antihyperglycemic activities of the extracts was associated with an increase in plasma insulin level, suggesting an insulinogenic activity of the plant extract.

  3. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Globimetulla browni Extracts in Streptozotocin -induced Diabetic Wistar Rats during Dry Season

    H.M. Inuwa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Globimetulla browni is a specie of African mistletoe (Lorantheceae and is hemi-parasitic in nature. It was studied for ascribed/folkloric antidiabetic properties. Stretozotocin which is well known for its selective pancreatic β-cell cytotoxicity was used to induce type 1 diabetes in the experimental rat model. Glibenclamide was used as a standard antidiabetic drug in streptozotocin induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycaemic agents. The extracts from this specie significantly increased the body weights of the albino rats with the extracts effectively controlling the increase in the glucose levels in the diabetic group of rats which could be attributed to its antihyperglycemic effects. Further, the antihyperglycemic activities of the extracts was associated with an increase in plasma insulin level, suggesting an insulinogenic activity of the plant extract.

  4. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  5. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  6. Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory

    Celso Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8μg/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.

  7. Histomorphometry of the tibia and mandible of healthy female Wistar rats at different stages of growth

    Nenda, María M.; Lewicki, Marianela; Mandalunis, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Female Wistar rats are frequently used in experimental models to study hormone and bone pathologies and treatments. Most experimental studies involving histomorphometric evaluation assessed long bones, and few reports also studied mandibular bone. The aim of this work was to clarify and distinguish the age-related histomorphometric changes that occur in the tibia (subchondral bone) and in the mandible (interradicular bone), and thus obtain reference histomorphometric data of healthy female Wistar rats at different growth stages. Three groups of 8 healthy female Wistar rats were euthanized at 6 (GI), 10 (GII), and 14 (GIII) weeks. The tibiae and mandible were resected and histologically processed to obtain H&E stained sections of the tibia and the lower first molar to analyze the following histomorphometric parameters: Bone volume, trabecular width, trabecular number (Th.N)(1/mm), growth cartilage width, hypertrophic cartilage width and number of osteoclasts per area in the tibiae, and bone volume and number of osteoclasts per area N.Oc/mm2 in the interradicular bone of the first lower molar. A significant decrease in subchondral bone volume as a result of a decrease in trabecular number and growth cartilage width was observed in 14-week-old rats. Conversely, interradicular bone volume was found to increase with age. The results highlight the importance of analyzing both types of bone to better understand the response of two different trabecular bones, contributing in turn to decision making regarding treatment strategies and disease management. PMID:26568145

  8. Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring

    Inas S. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated, each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1 the gestation period (subgroup one, (2 the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two and (3 animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  9. Modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by administration of composite root extract in albino rat.

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-07-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to study the modulation of morphological changes of endometrial surface epithelium by Scanning Electron Microscope (SCEM) in the adult albino rat after oral administration of roots extract. The origin of this experiment lies in the fact that the dry powdered roots of five plants, i.e., Plumbago rosea, Borassus flabellifer, Carica papaya (male), Dolichos lablab, and Shorea robusta in mixed form, has been traditionally used by the folk women of this region through oral route during the first seven days of a menstrual cycle to prevent conception. Ethanolic crude extract of these roots in composite form which has been referred to here as composite root extract (CRE) was administered to the adult female albino rat in a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight/day through oral route continuously for 12 days starting from proestrous. The observations under SCEM showed that administration of the CRE induced morphological changes of the endometrial surface epithelium in albino rat uterus. The characteristic smooth regular pattern of normal epithelium appears to have been changed at places by haphazardly oriented groups of cells and loss of microvilli indicating a disorganized picture. This structural disparity has been thought to affect the smooth functioning of nidatory preparation in the endometrium. PMID:11024229

  10. Colon cancer and swimming exercise: effect on wistar rat testes

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether colon cancer (CC and chronic swimming exercise alter rat testis. Eleven weeks old rats were distributed into control group (n=6 and the groups that were induced to develop CC by dimethylhydrazine injections (nEG, EG0, EG2 and EG4; n=10 each group. In the group nEG, the rats did not swim, whereas groups EG0, EG2 and EG4, underwent a swimming program with distinct loads (0, 2 and 4% of body mass, respectively for 35 weeks. The morphometry, stereology and cell counts showed damage caused by the CC on the germ epithelium. These results were noteworthy since this was the first report to associate the CC with testicular damage. Swimming exercise had no significant role in reducing, or increasing the CC effects on the testis, despite having slightly improved the testis structure of the exercised rats without load. In conclusion, CC caused testis impairment, which could not be avoided by the swimming exercise.

  11. Immunolocalization of laminin during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of albino rat

    Dina Helmy Abdel-Kader and Safinaz Salah Eldin Sayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders of testicular function may have their origins in fetal or early life as a result of abnormal development. Laminin-1 is emerging as the key molecule in early embryonic basement membrane assembly. Accumulating evidence supported the idea that extracellular matrix (ECM molecules and mesenchymal cells might influence Sertoli and spermatogenic cell functions. Aim of the work: detecting the changes in the distribution and prevalence of laminin-1 assembly during postnatal development of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens in albino rats. Materials and methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and divided into six groups (n= 5 each according to the age (postnatal day. These were one day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks postnatal. Specimens were fixed and processed, sectioned and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stain for laminin-1. The area percent of positive laminin immunostaining was measured and results were statistically analyzed. Results: at day one postnatal, the testis was formed of solid un-canalized cords of seminiferous tubules with abundant laminin expression in the cells of the cords. With advancement of development the cords were luminized and the laminin expression declined to involve the basement membrane and the apical portions of the Sertoli cells at the 8th week postnatal. The epididymis at postnatal day one had a small diameter and narrow lumen and laminin expression involved the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining. As development proceeded the expression became confined to the apical portion, the site of stereocilia together with its presence in the basement membranes. The same pattern of changes in laminin expression together with morphological appearance was detected in the vas deferens. Conclusion: The present study was able to demonstrate a change in the distribution as well as the prevalence of laminin-1 immunoreactivity within the testis, epididymis and vas. During the period of postnatal development starting at postnatal day one up to 8 weeks postnatal. This would reflect an essential role for laminin in early postnatal period of development

  12. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks. 7. Group VII: The animals were given both sodium nitrate & sunset yellow by the same dose and route of administration as in group IV for one month and kept without intubations for 2 weeks.

  13. Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 μ1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 μ1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 μ1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 μ1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

  14. OA02.09. Evaluation of varatika bhasma for its ulcer protective effect on albino rats.

    Bhatt, Paritosh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Gastritis leadind to G.I.ulcers is a very prevalent metabolic and life style disorder. Many a times it is condition which arise due to various medications like NSAID's. Drugs effective in Ulcer protection is the need of the hour. Medications such as sucralfate in conventional system do work but in higher dose and with limitations. Thus, present study has been carried out, to evaluate efficacy of Varatika bhasma in ulcer protective activity with standard control as Sucralfate in aspirin induced ulcer. Method: Varatika bhasma was prepared by shodhana with kanji, bhaavana with kumari swarasa and subjecting to gajaputa. Further it was analyzed and used for experimental study. Winstar strain albino rats of either sex was taken in 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. Control group with food and water, standard with sucralfate and test with varatika bhasma was given for 6 days. on 7th day ulcer was induced with aspirin. later rats were sacrificed to cut open the stomach and to study the ulcer index and histopathology. Result: When compared to Sucralfate for ulcer protective effect, Varatika Bhasma shows significant result in lower doses. (Sucralfate 1 gm 6 hourly and Varatika Bhasma 250 mg twice daily). In ulcer index and histopathology studies, there were less / no ulcers found in the group treated with Varatika Bhasma in comparison with Sucralfate and Control group. Conclusion: For the ulcer protection, Varatika Bhasma provides better and promising result when compared to Sucralfate. This also cuts the cost of medication and time constrain for the administration of the medicine.

  15. The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat

    Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

  16. Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  17. Intrathecal Ketorolac Injection in Albino Rats;Pharmacological and Histological study

    Tarek A. Atia, **Mostafa I. Shalaby, ***Nemat M. Al-Baz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent injectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. Ketorolac provides successful analgesia after intrathecal or epidural injection. It is frequently used to manage post-operative pain, cancer pain, and arthritis either intrathecally, or intramuscular. However, its long term administration could induce renal toxicity and/or gastro-intestinal ulceration. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic potency of ketorolac after intrathecal injection. Also, we aimed to study the histological effect of ketorolac on the spinal cord and the duodenum after treatment in an animal model. Methods: 40 adult male albino rats, weighing 250-350 gm, were used and divided into 4 groups, 10 rats each. Group S (control received 10l normal saline intrathecally, group K50 received 50g ketorolac intrathecally, group K50 + omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor received 50g ketorolac intrathecally plus 0.2 mg omeprazole orally, and finally, group K100 received 100g ketorolac intrathecally. All animals were treated for four successive days. Result: The rat tail flick latency was longer in K50, K50 + omeprazole, and K100 groups when compared to normal control (P = 0.002. Also, the hind-paw withdrawal latency was longer in treated groups when compared to those of the control group (P = 0.0001. Moreover, K50 group showed decreased phase II response by 61%, K50 + omeprazole group showed decreased phase II by 62%, while K100 group showed decreased it by 76%. Histological examination revealed no changes in the spinal cord of all treated animals. Also, examination of the duodenum showed normal duodenal mucosa in group K50 and those of group K50 + omeprazole. On the other hand, cellular infiltration as well as destruction of the mucous acini have been noticed in the duodenum of K100 group. Conclusion: Ketorolac could be a good alternative drug used intrathecally to manage pain.

  18. Effects of intraperitoneally injected silver nanoparticles on histological structures and blood parameters in the albino rat

    Sarhan OM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osama Mohamed M Sarhan,1,2 Rehab M Hussein31Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute dosing with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and identify potential ultrastructural alterations in the liver and kidney and their effect on blood parameters in the albino rat.Methods: Twenty rats were used to assess the acute effects of AgNPs. Rats in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of distilled water containing AgNPs at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight followed by a second injection after 48 hours. Control rats received two 0.5 mL doses of distilled water only. After 3 days, blood samples were collected, and the rat kidneys and livers were extracted and processed for electron microscopy to investigate for hematologic and histopathologic alterations.Results: Renal tubules showed swollen epithelium with cytoplasmic vacuolization, thickening of the basement membrane, and destruction of some mitochondrial cristae. Podocytes showed elongation and swelling of their primary and secondary processes. The basement membrane of the capillary tufts became thicker. The hepatic tissue showed narrowing of the sinusoids, swollen hepatocytes with hypertrophied nucleoli, and accumulation of fat globules in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The hepatic sinusoids showed hypertrophied endothelial and Kupffer. Destructed cristae of some mitochondria, endosomes, and larger lysosomes filled with Ag-NPs were also observed in the Kupffer cells. Significant increases were observed in white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, granulocytes, and hemoglobin. There was a significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.Conclusion: To the best of the authors' knowledge, the ultrastructural changes in renal and liver tissue observed in this study have not been described before. Our results suggest that injection of AgNPs could have severe cytotoxic effects on the structure and function of these organs.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, kidney, liver, blood, toxicity, rat

  19. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory cel s infiltration, while aspartame group showed no histopahtological alterations. It could be recommended that the use of saccharin as an artificial sweetener should be restricted, while aspartame should not be administered to diabetic. When it is necessary to use artificial sweeteners, fresh fruits and vegetables should be ingested as they act as scavengers for the liberated free radicals and help to delay the postprandial rise in blood glucose level.

  20. Increased risk of fetal anomalies following maternally induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats

    evaluate the alleged association of fetal abnormalities associated with maternal thyroid hypo function, hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats by means of daily oral administration of carbimazole (CA) at a dose of 1 mg per rat. The female were allocated into 5 groups. Group 1. comprised female rats administered CA for 15 days prior to conception and throughout the whole gestational period unit day 20. Group 2, included pregnant rats treated with CA from the 1st to the 20 th d gestational day. Group 3, contained pregnant rats treated with CA from the 7 th to the 18 th gestational day. The animals were sacrificed at the evening of the last day assigned for the drug intake. Two groups of euthyroid pregnant rats orally received the vehicle daily from the 1st to the 20th gestational day (control 20 days) and from the 7th to 18th gestational day (control 18 days) after which they were sacrificed. Blood was then collected for quantitative hormonal evaluation and uteri were removed and dissected for embryological studies. Overall, all the CA treated groups showed reduced thyroid hormones (total T4 and T3) and elevated TSH concentration, the extent of which was amplified with prolonged drug administration. Concomitant with TSH, FSH revealed elevated values in both groups treated for longer time duration with CA (Groups 1 and 2). Accordingly, the female sex hormones showed significant fluctuations. Where estrogen levels were inversely correlated with the progesterone levels in all the CA treated groups. In the 2nd and 3rd treated groups estrogen concentrations decreased whereas progesterone levels increased. However, in the 1st experimental group treated 15 days preconception and throughout pregnancy till day 20. estrogen levels recorded an obvious rise versus an abrupt fall in the progesterone concentrations as compared to the control pregnant euthyroid hormonal values. On the other hand, embryological studies discerned, in most of the pregnant hypothyroid females, shortening and shrinkage in uteri with unequal distribution of embryos between the two horns. Moreover, a considerable number of resorption sites and dead malformed undeveloped embryos were easily recognized. The affected embryos suffered prominent bulge of eyeballs, fragile skin, Sub dermal hemorrhage, together with some deformities in the head region and the fore and hind limbs. Group 1 treated with CA for the longest experimental duration showed the highest mortality rate while Group 3 treated during the sensitive period of organogenesis (from the 7th to the 18th gestational days) revealed the highest decrement in both the length and weight measurements of the surviving embryos of the three experimental groups

  1. Phytochemistry and Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats Treated with Crude Leaf Extract of Great Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis)

    Ikpeme, E. V; U.B. Ekaluo; Udensi, O. U; E.E. Ekerette; M. Pius

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis. The total of thirty sexually matured male albino rats of about eleven weeks, weighing between 120-180 g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 6 rats in each group. Rats in group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only; groups B, C, D and E received 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg-1 Body Weight (BW) of the test...

  2. Immunosuppressive Effect of Ochratoxin A in Wistar Rats

    R.D. Patil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxins are potent mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Incidence of ochratoxin A (OT-A in feed and natural occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animals have been reported from various parts of the world, including India. In this study, we report the immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxin A in rats. The cell mediated immune responses, as assessed by 2, 4-di-nitro-chloro-benzene (DNCB induced contact hypersensitivity reaction and macrophage function test ( NO2- production assay were found to be decreased significantly in OT-A intoxicated rats as compared with those in controls. Humoral immune response, assessed by antibody titres against sheep red blood cells, was also found to be decreased in toxin fed rats. The haemato-biochemical alterations such as leucopenia, lymphopenia and hypoproteinemia associated with OT-A toxicity were also indicative of immunosuppression. These findings suggest that OT-A induces the suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and must be taken into account while dealing with cases of vaccination failure or frequent bacterial and viral infections in livestock and poultry.

  3. No clastogenic activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Leguminosae extract on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats

    Andréa Bêcco de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Leguminosae are widely consumed in folkloric medicine in Brazil and several other countries without any genetic toxicity evaluation. In this study we investigated, the clastogenic and cytotoxic potential of the crude aqueous extract of the fruits of C. ferrea in Wistar rat bone marrow cells using the micronucleus and chromosomal aberration test systems. The animals were treated by gavage with 3 concentrations of the extract, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg, and cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg. Bone marrow cells were collected 24 h after the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE, mean number of chromosomal aberrations or mitotic index (MI for the 3 concentrations compared with negative control suggesting that the crude aqueous extract from the fruits of the C. ferrea has no clastogenic and cytotoxic effect in Wistar rat bone marrow cells.

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  5. Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of MCHC was recorded after the recovery period of tenuate treated group. Skin-fold thickness of the three regions tested (gluteal, back and belly revealed significant decrease in all the treated groups except the belly region in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant decrease after treatment for 30 days. Significant decrease of skin-fold thickness of different regions still present after the recovery period of 15 days in the three treated groups except the back region of mirapro-N and the belly region of apple-lite- treated rats which showed insignificant decrease. Percent of organs weight/body weight were affected according the type of tested drug, while apple-lite- caused non significant changes, mirapro-N caused significant increase in hepatosomatic ratio and cardiosomatic ratio, and significant decrease in gonadosomatic ratio. On the other hand, tenuate resulted in a significant increase in percentage weight of kidneys and hepatosomatic ratio and significant decrease of gonadosomatic ratio after treatment for 30 days. After the recovery period, apple-lite revealed significant decrease in brain/b.wt. ratio, while mirapro-N still affected kidneys, gonadosomatic ratio and brain and tenuate still affected gonadosomatic ratio and brain; they recorded significant decrease. The physical measurement of vital signs, i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature recorded insignificant change after treatment with apple-lite, mirapro-N and tenuate for 30 days, but significant increase of rectal temperature was recorded in the tenuate group of the treated rats. After recovery period insignificant changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature of the treated rats were observed in the three treated groups.

  6. Effect of Tribulus terrestris Extract on Ovarian Activity in Immature Wistar Rat: A Histological Evaluation

    Esmaeil Vesali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Rats in treatment group received 10 mg of the extract per rat. The period of the study divided into 7 and 14 days period. Half of the rats in each group (n = 5 were euthanized at final day of each period and the ovaries removed for preparating of histology sections. Number and diameter of corpus luteum, thickness of theca interna layer and number of all follicles were evaluated in each left and right ovaries. Results showed that number of corpus luteum and diameter of theca interna increased in treatment group as compared with control group. Number of secondry and graafian follicles after 14 days treatment were be higher than control and 7 days treatment. The present results indicated that Tribulus terrestris induces corpus luteum formation and growth and therefore beginning of puberty with its LH-like activity.

  7. Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis.

    Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simes, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, Joo; Vilela, Mrcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, Jos A; Teixeira, Antnio Lucio

    2012-12-15

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10?l of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-? level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel. PMID:23085269

  8. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of ShirishavalehaAn Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  9. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  10. ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS IN AZASERINE INDUCED PANCREATIC CANCER OF WISTAR RATS

    Ankit Prajapati; Sunant Raval; TapanVaria

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is adeno-carcinoma. The present experiment was carried out to study histopathological changes occur in pancreas in different groups of azaserine induced pancreatic cancer in Wistar rats with and without the treatment of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Phyllanthus amarus at different doses. Histopathological examination of ...

  11. Ameliorative potential of Psidium guajava in induced arsenic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Manju Roy and Sushovan Roy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effect of Psidium.guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Significant (P<0.05 increased glucose serum urea nitrogen and serum creatinine was observed whereas non significant decrease in total protein, calcium and phosphorus was observed. It is concluded that kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired up to some extent by AEPG50. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 82-83

  12. Ameliorative Potential of Psidium guajava on Hemato-biochemical Alterations in Arsenic-exposed Wistar Rats

    Tandan, Neeraj; Roy, Manju; Roy, Sushovan

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) when administered in combination with sodium arsenite @ 20 ppm in drinking water with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical, hematological parameters suggestive of hepatic damage and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Thirty adult Wistar rats were given 20 ppm arsenic for eight weeks along with hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P. guajava at a dose of 100 mg/...

  13. Ameliorative potential of Psidium guajava in induced arsenic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Manju Roy and Sushovan Roy

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of Psidium.guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Significant (P<0.05) increased glucose serum urea nitrogen and serum creatinine was observed whereas non significant decrease in total protein, calcium and phosphorus was observed. It is concluded that kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired up to some extent by AEPG50. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000): 82-83

  14. Effect of Various Physical Stress Models on Serum Cortisol Level in Wistar Rats

    Jameel, Mohammed Khaleel; Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv; Dawane, Jayashree; Padwal, Meghana; Joshi, AR; Pandit, V A; Melinkeri, RR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stress indicates the response or reaction of an organism to the environmental circumstances and their outcomes. Acute stress is well known to trigger several hormonal alterations in animals. An increase in glucocorticoid concentration can represent intensity of discomfort or distress experienced by an animal. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various physical stress models on serum cortisol level in Wistar male rats.

  15. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Débora C. Damasceno; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Vanessa Sellis da Silva; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Marie Oshiiwa; Flávia M. V. Farinazzi Machado; Claudemir Gregório Mendes

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of...

  16. Study on Antioxidant Potential of Murraya koenigii Leaves in Wistar Rats

    Naresh Singh Gill; Bhartendu Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Family: Rutaceae), leaves was investigated in male wistar rats. Potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative stress. The traditional medical literature describes its potential role as a source of many vitamins, flavonoids, phenols and domestic remedy for many human disorders. The whole plant is considered to be tonic, antidiarrhoeal, febrifuge, blood purifier and as stomachic. In the present study animals were divided into f...

  17. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  18. Nigella sativa oil for the control of irradiation induced disorders in serum protein components of male albino rats

    The effect of whole body gamma irradiation at the dose level 7 Gy delivered as shot dose or cumulative doses, on the electrophoretic pattern of serum protein components, was studied in male albino rats subjected to Nigella sativa treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of serum proteins of irradiated rats showed significant increases in percentages of some fractions of high molecular weights. Administration of nigella sativa oil before radiation exposure resulted in detectable radioprotective effect. Radiation protection effect exerted by nigella sativa oil prior to cumulative doses was more pronounced than that in case of one shot dose

  19. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examinat...

  20. CARDIOMETABOLIC PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Waleed S. Mohamed, 1 Ashraf M. Mostafa, 2 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 3

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study: DM represents an important independent risk factor for the development of and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD, increasing the risk by 2 to 4 times. According to WHO data, more than 75% of patients with DM die due to vascular accidents. This study investigated the effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents and explores its metabolic effects. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino Rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella sativa and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds (100 mg / kg of body weight. The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds (100 mg/kg body weight. After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and Eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of the Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. Also, improve dyslipidemia present in diabetic rats. The results showed that the activity of the mixture was better when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek or Termis seeds alone. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on hematological parameters and lipid profile. Also, it can control most of the metabolic risk factors of CAD in diabetic rats. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required dose.

  1. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  2. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration

  3. Selenium Content in the Liver of Wistar Rats Fed Diets of Different Fatty Acid Quality.

    de Castro Barra, Patrcia Mendona; Sabarense, Cphora Maria; Alvarenga, Marcelo Bonnet; de Sousa, Rafael Arromba; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to measure the amounts of selected mineral elements (sodium, calcium, iron, selenium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese) in the liver of Wistar rats and evaluate possible correlations between the levels of these minerals and the lipid metabolism in the studied animals. Three experimental groups each containing six Wistar rats were designed. Each group was fed a different diet. The control group was fed a diet prepared with fresh soybean oil and named control group--CG. The second group (named experimental group B--EGB) and third group (named experimental group C--EGC) were fed a diet containing soybean oil that had been used to fry different foods for four or ten cycles, respectively. The mineral elements in Wistar rat livers were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Only the elements calcium and selenium differed significantly between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant reduction of 33% for Ca and 41% for Se in the EGB in comparison to the control group. The reduction in mineral concentration, especially Se, is the result of interactions with fatty acid metabolism. The animals in the EGC exhibited more intracytoplasmic accumulation of fat and more intense vasodilatation, in relation to the other groups. Collectively, evidence hereby collected suggests that impaired dietary lipid quality in otherwise balanced diets can reduce hepatic Se levels and potentially harm liver function. PMID:25957597

  4. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    A.C., Issy; V., Castania; M., Castania; C.E.G., Salmon; M.H., Nogueira-Barbosa; E. Del, Bel; H.L.A., Defino.

    2013-03-15

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be u [...] sed for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360 twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  5. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    A.C. Issy

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  6. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    A.C. Issy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  7. Steroidogenetic and Spermatogenetic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Phragmanthera capitata in Wistar Rats

    Lapah Pièrre Takem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities of aqueous extract of Phragmanthera capitata (AEPC in male Wistar rats. Healthy adult male Wistar rats of proven fertility weighing 150-200 g were randomized into three groups with body weights measured weekly. Group I (control received 10 ml/kg saline, Groups II and III (tests received 150 and 300 mg/kg AEPC respectively per oral per day for 60 days. Mating test was assessed from day 55 with cohabitation with coeval females for 5 days with the resulting sired litters counted and pup weights measured. The males were sacrificed; testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostrate were excised and weighed. Epididymal sperm motility (EPM, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR, daily sperm production (DSP, blood testosterone and cholesterol concentrations were measured. Mean weekly body weight as well as weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate revealed no significant change as compared to control. Similarly, no significant changes in EPM, ESR and DSP in test groups were observed. However, cholesterol and testosterone levels were significantly (P <0.05 increased while mating test showed a corresponding significant (P <0.05 increase in pup weight of 28.85±0.76 for 300 mg/kg AEPC as compared to 20.53±0.52 for control. Therefore, AEPC enhances steroidogenetic and spermatogenetic activities in male Wistar rats.

  8. Reduced Gamma Range Activity at REM Sleep Onset and Termination in Fear-Conditioned Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Laitman, Benjamin M.; DaSilva, Jamie K.; Ross, Richard J; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) continuity have emphasized the importance of transitions both into and out of REMS. We have previously reported that, compared to Wistar rats (WIS), Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) responded to fear conditioning (FC) with more fragmented REMS. Gamma oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are synchronized throughout the brain in periods of focused attention, and such synchronization of cell assemblies in the brain may represent a tempora...

  9. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  10. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  11. Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

  12. Hematological and histopathological changes in female albino rats after gamma irradiation and /or piper nigrum treatment

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole body gamma irradiation, at dose level of 6.0 Gy (single dose), and or daily treatment with P. nigrum (black pepper) at doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg body weight up to 36, 71 and 99 days on some hematological aspects as well as histopathological changes in lung, kidney and brain tissues of female albino rats. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation significantly elevated the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hematocrit percentage (HC %) but hemoglobin level was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated after treatment with P. nigrum. Non-significant changes were obtained regarding the effect of both doses of P. nigrum on red and white blood cell counts throughout the three time intervals. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight of P. nigrum significantly reduced the hemoglobin contents throughput the experimental period. Histopathological examination revealed that lung, kidney and brain tissues showed marked to moderate pathological changes after irradiation and/or P.nigrum treatments. However, treatment with P. nigrum showed positive effect against the harmful effects of gamma irradiation, concerning kidney and brain. Although no malignant transformation could be detected, the resultant marked alveolar inflammation, bronchial wall hyperplasia and reactive astrocytic proliferation are important pathological changes that should be considered as pre-neoplastic changes

  13. Effect of Aloe vera extract on some physiological parameters in diabetic albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal; **Mohamad H.A. Hasan;***Ashraf M. Mustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract from Aloe vera on thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups, the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg / kg B.wt. and served as diabetic group and the third was injected with alloxan and treated with Aloe vera water extract ( 0.5 ml / 100 g B.wt. . After thirty days of treatment half of each group were scarified and the other one were left for 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period . The results revealed highly significant decrease ( p> 0.01 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueos extract of A. vera when compared with the diabetic untreated group. It seems, therefore that water extract of A. vera results in a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinemic effect. On the other hand, a significant increase of body weight gain and liver glycogen content was achieved. The results of this study clarify the role of Aloe vera active as antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching. A. vera extract and insulin production which needs further investigation

  14. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  15. Wistar rats: A forgotten model of age-related hearing loss

    Juan Carlos Alvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL is one of the most frequent sensory impairments in senescence and is a source of important socio-economic consequences. Understanding the pathological responses that occur in the central auditory pathway of patients who suffer from this disability is vital to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize age-related modifications in auditory brainstem responses (ABR and to determine whether these functional responses might be accompanied by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of Wistar rats. To do so, ABR recordings at different frequencies and immunohistochemistry for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1 and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN were performed in young, middle-aged and old male Wistar rats. The results demonstrate that there was a significant increase in the auditory thresholds, a significant decrease in the amplitudes and an increase in the latencies of the ABR waves as the age of the rat increased. Additionally, there were decreases in VGLUT1 and VGAT immunostaining in the VCN of older rats compared to younger rats. Therefore, the observed age-related decline in the magnitude of auditory evoked responses might be due in part to a reduction in markers of excitatory function; meanwhile, the concomitant reduction in both excitatory and inhibitory markers might reflect a common central alteration in animal models of ARLH. Together, these findings highlight the suitability of the Wistar rat as an excellent model to study ARHL.

  16. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    Talha Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%, and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o. and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg (224.82 ± 7.01 and (912.25 ± 27.22 when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17 and (506.67 ± 21.39. HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes.

  17. Effect of andiroba oil on periodontitis in Wistar rats

    Glaucia Babeto, Carmona; Renan Kleber Costa, Teixeira; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Flavia Sirotheau Correa, Pontes; Eloisa Helena Aguiar, Andrade; Felipe Paiva, Fonseca; Ricardo Miranda Brito, Costa; Francideise Martins, Carvalho.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of andiroba oil on the periodontitis in rats. METHODS: The periodontitis was induced by the placement of cotton ligatures around the cervix of the second upper molars on fifteen rats, and waiting fifty days. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups: sa [...] line group, andiroba oil group and meloxican group, differentiated by substance used in the treatment of periodontitis. The groups received the respective substance by gavage for seven days, after the periodontitis induced. It was analyzed the score of inflammatory cells and the measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest. RESULTS: The andiroba oil group (p=0.008) and meloxican group (p=0.0347) show a less score of inflammatory cells than saline group, however there weren't difference between them (p=0.2754). Regarding the analysis of measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest, there was no difference between groups studied (p=0.3451). CONCLUSION: Andiroba oil decreased the quantity of inflammatory cells, however, it didn't have an effect on the measurement of alveolar bone loss, like the treatment with Meloxican.

  18. Safety evaluation studies on Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds in Wistar rats

    Datta, P. K.; B K Diwakar; S Viswanatha; K N Murthy; K A Naidu

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) leaves and seeds are used in India as food supplement and also in traditional medicine. We have assessed the safety of Garden cress (GC) seeds by conducting acute and subchronic toxicity studies in adult Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity study, 0.5 5.0 g/kg body weight of the GC seed powder was administered through diet to rats and obvious symptoms of toxicity and mortality were monitored for 72 h . Acute doses of GC seed powder did not induce ...

  19. Phytochemistry and Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats Treated with Crude Leaf Extract of Great Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis

    E.V. Ikpeme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at assessing the reproductive activities of male albino rats treated with crude leaf extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis. The total of thirty sexually matured male albino rats of about eleven weeks, weighing between 120-180 g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E with 6 rats in each group. Rats in group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only; groups B, C, D and E received 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg-1 Body Weight (BW of the test substance, respectively. The results of the phytochemistry showed high content of phytates (49.27% and other bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts. Results on the sperm parameters revealed significant reduction (p-1 BW (8.75%. Although, there were no significant difference in the epididymides weight of rats in the different groups, the testes weight was significantly reduced (pB. spectabilis in combating diseases considering the possible adverse effects that it could pose on spermatogenic pathways.

  20. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  1. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  2. Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

  3. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD50 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 10''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 10th day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  4. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on chemically induced tumorigenesis in Wistar rats

    Gal Adrian F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astaxanthin (ASTA is a fat-soluble xanthophyll with powerful antioxidant functions. It is extracted from e.g. salmon, an important food source for certain human populations known to have a reduced risk of tumor development. It is possible that ASTA plays a role in cancer chemoprevention in such populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ASTA on chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis using N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea (MNU in immature Wistar rats. Methods Thirty-six 37 days old juvenile female Wistar rats were at random allocated to 4 groups of which Groups 1 and 2 received a single dose of 55 mg MNU/kg body weight. The effects of ASTA was evaluated by giving rats of Groups 2 and 4 a dose of 50 mg ASTA/kg/day for the entire duration of the study. Group 3 rats received feed added alimentary oil. Necropsy and histopathological examinations were carried out on each rat 14 months after the administration of MNU. Haematological values and antioxidative status were determined. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities in hepatic tissue. Lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins was determined in protein extracts from the liver. Results Tumor development occurred only in rats of Groups 1 and 2, i.e. MNU exposed animals. Frequency of tumor development in general and average number of tumors per animal were insignificant between these two groups. Mammary gland tumors developed in equal frequencies in Group 1 and 2 rats, respectively. Although only rather few tumors were found in the mammary glands, a substantial number of other tumors were found in Group 1 and 2 rats, but at equal rates. Biochemical analyses showed significant higher levels of GPx, malondialdehyde and dinitrophenylhydrazine in Group 1 rats that for rats in all other groups thus indicating protective effects of ASTA on MNU induced hepatic oxidative stress. Conclusions Supplementation with ASTA did not reduce tumorigenesis induced by MNU in Wistar rats. However, supplementation with ASTA seemed to have anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Impact of Lead Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Recognition Memory and Motor Activity of Wistar Rat

    F.Z. Azzaoui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity, on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L-1 of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, object recognition memory and measure of brain lead levels has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the Open Field (OF test and to the Novel Object Recognizing (NOR memory test. The results have shown a non significant effect in gain of body weight. However, a high significance was shown for horizontal activity (p<0.01, long memory term (p<0.01, at the end of testing period and for brain lead levels (p<0.05 between studied groups.

  6. Impact of lead sub-chronic toxicity on recognition memory and motor activity of Wistar rat.

    Azzaoui, F Z; Ahami, A O T; Khadmaoui, A

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L(-1) of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, object recognition memory and measure of brain lead levels has been evaluated. The body weight was taken weekly, whereas the memory abilities and the motor activity are measured once every fortnight alternatively, by submitting rats to the Open Field (OF) test and to the Novel Object Recognizing (NOR) memory test. The results have shown a non significant effect in gain of body weight. However, a high significance was shown for horizontal activity (p<0.01), long memory term (p<0.01), at the end of testing period and for brain lead levels (p<0.05) between studied groups. PMID:19579940

  7. Response of Wistar Rats to Low Levels of Dietary Sudanese Trichodesma africanum L

    Shama I. Younis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesma africanum is not recognized in Sudanese folk medicine and villagers of Northern Kordofan State have observed casualties among grazing livestock as a result of consuming the plant when other pasture plants are scarce. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects on Wistar rats of various levels of dietary T. africanum aerial parts through clinical, biochemical, hematological and pathological parameters. T. africanum aerial parts were fed to rats at 2, 5, 10 and 20% of the standard diet for 12 weeks. Incorporation of T. africanum aerial parts in diet at 20% was lethal to Wistar rats 6-7 weeks after treatment and caused severe hepatonephrotoxicity and depression in growth and soft feces prior to death. These findings were accompanied by macrocytic normochromic type, leukocytosis due to lymphocytosis and alterations in hematology, serum enzyme activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, cholesterol and urea and other serum constituents. The results of the present study indicated that T. africanum aerial parts were toxic to rats when fed at 2, 5 and 10% of the diet for 12 weeks and lethal to rats when fed at 20% of the diet for 6-7 weeks of treatment. Our conclusion from this study is that T. africanum is toxic to livestock and can result in dysfunction of various organs, alteration in serbiochemical and hematological parameters, in addition to that; it may cause death if consumed in elevated doses.

  8. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schanaider, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Escola de Medicina, Departamento de Cirurgia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Escola de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Krüger, M.A. von; Pereira, W.C.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

  9. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PLECTRANTHUS AMBOINICUS LEAF ON HEALING OF BURN WOUND IN WISTAR RATS

    Smita Shenoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Plectranthus amboinicus on the healing of burn wounds in wistar rats and compare it with silver sulfadiazine treated group. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats were used in the study. Partial thickness burn wounds were made on each rat under ketamine anesthesia.The wounds in the five groups of rats were treated topically with petroleum base, silver sulfadiazine,1%, 2% and 3% ointment of ethanolic extract of Plectranthus amboinicus, respectively, once daily for 21 days or till complete healing whichever was earlier. The wound contraction rate and period of epithelization were monitored. Results: The rate of wound contraction was significantly more in Plectranthusamboinicustreated groups in comparison to the control. The mean period of epithelization was significantly decreased in Plectranthus amboinicus treated group when compared to control (P < 0.01 and silver sulfadiazine (P =0.02 treated group. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Plectranthusamboinicus promoted healing of burn wound in wistar rats.

  10. Histopathological lesions in the pancreas of the BB Wistar rat as a function of age and duration of diabetes.

    Wright, J; Yates, A; Sharma, H; Thibert, P

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic histopathology was studied in 121 BBWd, 43 BBWnd, and 33 Wistar rats. Insulitis was the most common inflammatory lesion in both BBW and BBWnd rats. The incidence was inversely associated with age and with duration of diabetes in BBWd rats, but there was no age-related pattern in BBWnd rats. Small end-stage islets were typical of BBWd rats but were not seen in BBWnd rats. Several BBWd rats showed hyperplastic islets months after the onset of diabetes, a pattern that is also seen in a small percentage of human JOD patients. Several non-specific exocrine inflammatory lesions occurred in both BBWd and BBWnd rats: acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, eosinophilic infiltrates, granulomatous lesions and acute and/or chronic interstitial inflammation. Only chronic interstitial inflammation was seen in outbred Wistar rats. PMID:3882779

  11. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats is related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites

    Ethylene Glycol (CAS RN 107-21-1) can to cause kidney toxicity via the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in a variety of species including humans. Numerous repeated dose studies conducted in rats have indicated that male rats are more susceptible than female rats. Furthermore, subchronic and chronic studies using different dietary exposure regimens have indicated that male Wistar rats may be more sensitive to renal toxicity than male F344 rats. This study was, therefore, conducted to compare the toxicity of ethylene glycol in the two strains of rats under identical exposure conditions and to evaluate the potential contribution of toxicokinetic differences to strain sensitivity. Ethylene glycol was mixed in the diet at concentrations to deliver constant target dosage levels of 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 16 weeks to groups of 10 male Wistar and 10 male F-344 rats based upon weekly group mean body weights and feed consumption. Kidneys were examined histologically for calcium oxalate crystals and pathology. Samples of blood, urine and kidneys from satellite animals exposed to 0, 150, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day for 1 or 16 weeks were analyzed for ethylene glycol, glycolic acid and oxalic acid. Treatment of Wistar rats at 1000 mg/kg/day resulted in the death of 2 rats; in addition, at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, group mean body weights were decreased compared to control throughout the 16 weeks. In F-344 rats exposed at 1000 mg/kg/day and in Wistar rats at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, there were lower urine specific gravities, higher urine volumes, and increased absolute and relative kidney weights. In both strains of rats treated at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, some or all treated animals had increased calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tubules and crystal nephropathy. The effect was more severe in Wistar rats than in F-344 rats. Accumulation of oxalic acid in the kidneys of both strains of rats were consistent with the dose- and strain-dependent toxicity. As the nephrotoxicity progressed over the 16 weeks, the clearance of ethylene glycol and its metabolites decreased, exacerbating the toxicity. Benchmark dose analysis indicated a BMDL05 for kidney toxicity in Wistar rats of 71.5 mg/kg/day; nearly four-fold lower than in F-344 rats (285 mg/kg/day). This study confirms that the Wistar rat is more sensitive to ethylene glycol-induced renal toxicity than the F344 rat and indicates that metabolism plays a role in the strain differences

  12. [Hematologic indices in different age wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet].

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change. PMID:24000694

  13. Phytochemical Constituents and Effect on Haematological Parameters and Lipid Profile of Aqueous Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Leaves, Stem Bark and Root Bark in Normal Albino Rats

    O.A. Owolabi; James, D.B.; E.B. Adejor; N.Q. Nwaozuzu; T. Oloba; C.D. Luca

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Eugenia jambolana This study was designed to investigate the effect of Eugenia jambolana were screened for phytochemicals and its effect on haematological parameters and lipid profile in normal albino rats were investigated. Twenty four Albino rats weighing between 150-200 kg body weights were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered (50 mg/kg body weight) of leaves, stem...

  14. Hormonal Profile And Histopathological Study On The Influence Of Silymarin On Both Female And Male Albino Rats

    Enas A.M.Khalil

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L] Gaertn . Extracts of S. marianum have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for more than 2000 years. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin. Flavonoids displaying estrogenic effects (phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens show an estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton ,mimicking natural estrogens, it binds to estrogen receptor and modulates its activity . These effects cause complex changes inducing a shift in an overall hormonal balance of the individual. Long term intake of feeds with a higher content of phytoestrogens can induce transient or permanent infertility. Silybum marianum leaves have been traditionally used in Egypt for their antifertility effects .Also, the antifertility property of silybum marianum leaves was investigated in female albino rats. This property highlights the impotance to clarify the role of silymarin (420mg /day a human therapeutic dose on both female and male albino rats. Silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW prevented pregnancy in adult female albino rats on days 1-5 post coitum. In female rats the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH displayed marked increase, while the luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol remained within normal levels. These results showed a distinct increase in number and size of ovarian growing follicles while the effect of silymarin on the uterine wall was in the form of hypertrophy of endometrial epithelium, also increase in the number of uterine glands. Ovaries taken from females treated with silymarin for one and two months contained a large number of growing follicles. In male rats treated with silymarin (151.2 mg/kg BW for one month, testosterone and LH were increased significantly, meanwhile estradiol not changed. Testes of rats treated with silymarin for one month showed well developed spermatogenesis with lot of sperms. The epididymis of the same group contained a heavy number of sperms. While rats treated with silymarin for two months displayed significant decrease in serum testosterone levels, while LH and estradiol not changed. These rats displayed some tubules contained well developed spermatogenic layer and normal leyding cells, others appeared moderated by affected. The epididymis contained less number of sperms. These results indicated that silymarin (151.2mg /kgBW a dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose (420mg/ day prevented pregnancy in female rats and caused some histological changes in the ovary and uterus, while it has biological benefits for male rats during short treatment.

  15. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, Δ5-3β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (Δ5 -3β-HSD) and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular Δ5 -3β-HSD, 17 β-HSD activities and gametogenesis

  16. EFFECT OF TOPICAL PHENYTOIN CREAM ON LINEAR INCISIONAL WOUND HEALING IN ALBINO RATS

    MORTEZA JARRAHI ; ABBAS ALI VAFAEI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of phenytoin cream on linear incisional wound healing was investigated. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental, control, cold cream and treatment groups. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Cold cream group received topical cold cream once a day from the beginning of experiments until the day that wounds were closed. Treatment group were treated topically by 1% phenytoin cream at the same time. For computation of the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound were measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 and 16 days. The percentage of the healing wounds were calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there weren’t statistically significant differences between treatment and cold cream animals (P>0.05 in most of the days. It is concluded that phenytoin has possibly no significant effect on the rate of wound closing in acute wound model of incision in rat. Therefore further study is required for detection of the role of phenytoin on wound healing and the related parameters in various kinds of experimental wound models.

  17. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  18. PRUSSIAN BLUE, VERMICULITE AND DTPA EFFECTS ON 134Cs AND 60Co DECONTAMINATION OF MALE ALBINO RATS

    This study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite (verm.) and calcium Trisodium salt of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) on internal decontamination of radio-active cesium and/ or cobalt from albino rats and to investigate the side effects of these compounds as well as radiation hazards of these radioactive materials.Adult male albino rats were divided into 15 groups (each of 6 rats);group 1: control, groups (2) - (4) were given PB + vermiculite oral and/or intraperitoneal DTPA. Another five groups of rats were given only a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 for three weeks. Groups (10) - (15) were given a single dose of Co60 and/or Cs134 with daily dose of therapeutic agents.Biochemical parameters included blood glucose, renal function (serum urea concentrations and creatinine), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and some minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous) were investigated. The data obtained revealed that internal contamination by radioactive materials causes a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine concentration, glucose, CPK and LDH activities. In addition, a significant decreased in serum inorganic phosphorous was recorded and non-significant changes were recorded sodium, potassium and calcium levels. The treatment by different therapeutic agents had non-significant effects on the same parameters.On the other hand, the therapeutic agents caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by internal contamination with variable degrees

  19. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    I.G. Bako; Abubakar, M S; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...

  20. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats

    Zhao Jiexiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endurance exercise is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance in rats and humans. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms for the appetite-suppressive effects of endurance exercise. We hypothesized that endurance training might activate signaling cascades in the hypothalamus known to be involved in leptin signaling. Methods 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (n = 8 and exercise groups (n = 8. Animals in the exercise group started treadmill running at 30 m/min, 0% grade, for 1 min/bout. Running time was gradually increased by 2 min/bout every day. The training plan was one bout per day during initial two weeks, and two bouts per day during 3rd-9th week. At the end of nine-week experiment, blood was analyzed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, free fatty acid (FFA, interleukin (IL-6, and leptin in both groups. Activations of janus kinase 2-signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2-STAT3, protein kinase B (Akt, extracellular regulated kninase (ERKs, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 in hypothalamus were measured in the end of nine weeks of exercise protocol. Results Nine-week endurance exercise induced lower concentrations of LDL-C, TG, TC, FFA, and leptin in rats (P P P P Conclusion The data suggest that endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats.

  2. Effects of Oral Administration of Aluminium Chloride on the Histology of the Hippocampus of Wistar Rats

    A.A. Buraimoh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the effects of oral administration of aluminium chloride on the Hippocampus of wistar rats was designed in order to ascertain whether the small daily amount of aluminium that gain access to the body produce any damage to the hippocampus. This investigation was carried out using 50 female adult wistar rats.The animals were divided into five groups; 10 rats per group (cage. Stock solution of aluminium chloride was prepared (2 g/L or 2 mg/mL. Different concentrations of aluminium were administered to different groups orally. Group I was control, while Groups II-V were given 0.4, 1, 2, and 3 mg, respectively per each rat with an average weight of between 150-200 g for duration of twelve (12 weeks. The animals were humanly sacrificed using chloroform and then the brain tissues were fixed immediately in Bouins fluid. The brain sections (hippocampus were processed through the routine tissue processor. The stained samples were examined by means of light microscope for histological changes. Histological examinations showed clumpy of cell neurons, or reduced pyramidal cells and scant,y neurofibrillary tangle which was an indication of neurodegeneration in the treated groups when compared to the control. It was however, concluded that the oral administration of aluminium chloride could induce brain damage which may impair memory and learning as seen in Alzheimer disease.

  3. Histological Effects of Oral Administration of Artesunate on the Liver in Wistar Rats

    Dr. Al-Hassan M. Izunya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the histological effects of oral administration of normal anddouble normal doses of artesunate on the histology of the liver in wistar rats. The rats were divided into threegroups (A, B and C of five rats each. A and B served as the treatment groups, while C served as the controlgroup. Group A rats were given 4 mg/kg b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 2 mg/kg b.w daily fornext for 4 days. Group B rats were given 8 mg/kg2 b.w of artesunate daily for 3 days followed by 4 mg/kg b.wdaily for next 4 days, while group C rats were given only distilled water. The rats were fed with grower's mashpurchased from Edo feeds and Flour M ill Ltd, Ewu, Edo state and were given water ad libitum. On day eightof the experiment, the rats were weighed and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The livers were carefullydissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after Hand E method showed sinusoidal congestion with cytoplasmic vacuolation (hepatocyte oedema and mildinflammation of the portal tracts. Our study suggests that artesunate at normal dose has a toxic effect on theliver cells and could be a potential hepatotoxic drug. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimedat corroborating these observations be carried out and self-medication with artesunate should be discouraged.

  4. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood sugar level was corrected. The present results showed that the activity of the mixture was the best when compared with Nigella, Foenugreek and Termis seeds. Conclusions: The water extract of the mixture is the most powerful in amelioration hyperglycemia and most of all damage effects of Alloxan on the liver and texture, hematological parameters, and lipid profile. So it is advised to use the plant mixture as an antidiabetic agent rather than the use of each plant separately. Repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses.

  5. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a significant protection against the toxic effect of acetaminophen, in comparison with that of acetaminophen treated group. In conclusion, biochemical evaluation revealed that zinc aspartate has a partial protective effect against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity and oxidative stress. Accordingly, zinc may be an effective therapeutic agent in prevention and treatment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and free radical production

  6. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Gumieiro, Emne Hammoud; Abrahao, Marcio; Jahn, Ricardo Schmitutz, E-mail: gumieiro@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Otorhinolaringology and Head and Neck Surgery; Segretto, Helena [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Oncology; Alves, Maria Tereza de Seixas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Patology; Nannmark, Ulf [The Sahlgrenska Academy of Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Clinical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology; Granstroem, Goesta [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Dib, Luciano Lauria [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Dentistry. Dept. of Stomatology

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  7. The Effects of a Moderate Exercise Program on Knee Osteoarthritis in Male Wistar Rats

    Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joints range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P

  8. SUBCHRONIC MANCOZEB TREATEMENT INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY VIA OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE WISTAR RATS.

    Yahia, E; Aiche, M A; Chouabbia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2014-01-01

    Mancozeb is a manganese/zinc ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide that is widely used in agriculture to control a broad variety of fungal infections of both vegetables and ornamental plants. The present study has been carried out to investigate the possible effect of mancozeb on animal the oxidative stress and some of the biochemical markers in male Wistar rats. In this experiment, adult male rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were treated per os for 4 weeks with two different doses of 800 and 1200 mg/kg per day. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in all treated groups compared to control ones. It has been observed a significant increase in the fresh weight of liver in individuals of both doses. Moreover, mancozeb exposure caused a significant (p mancozeb in rats and constitute, therefore, an environmental health risks to living organisms. PMID:26080489

  9. Carcinogenicity study of the emulsifier TOSOM and the release agent TOS in Wistar rats

    Meyer, Otto A.; KRISTIANSEN, E.; GRY, J.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; OLSEN, P.; THORUP, I.

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 60 Wistar rats of each sex were fed diets containing 3, 6 or 12% of the margarine emulsifier TOSOM (thermally oxidized soybean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) for 2.5 yr. In addition, three groups of 60 rats of each sex were fed two products of the release agent...... TOS (thermally oxidized soybean oil) in dietary levels of 1.2% TOS(G) (TOS from Grindsted Product A/S, Denmark) and 0.3 and 1.2% TOS(N) (TOS from Nexus Aps, Denmark), respectively for 2.5 yr. 120 rats of each sex fed a diet containing mono- and diglycerides served as controls. The diets given to all...

  10. Platelet-rich plasma in bone repair of irradiated tibiae of Wistar rats

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of PRP addition on bone repair of circular defects created in irradiated tibiae of rats by histometric analysis. Methods: sixty male Wistar rats had the right tibiae irradiated with 30 Gy. After 30 days monocortical defects were created and platelet-rich plasma as applied in 30 rats. In the control group defects were created but not filled. The animals were sacrificed after 4, 7, 14, 21, 56 and 84 days and the tibiae removed for histological processing. Results: there was a tendency in the PRP group to increased bone neoformation from 14-days to 84-days; in the control group increased bone neoformation was not seen after 21 days or later. Conclusion: the addition of platelet-rich plasma had a beneficial effect in the initial cellular regeneration period and enhanced bone formation in later periods when compared to control. (author)

  11. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  12. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract, reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract.

  13. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract. 

  14. Impact of α-tocopherol on Metronidazole and Tetracycline-induced Alterations in Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats

    Y. Raji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs have been reported to have adverse effects on male fertility. The present study reports the role of α- tocopherol on metronidazole and tetracycline induced reproductive alterations in albino rats. Male albino rats (5/group were treated with 20 mg kg-1 bw day-1 metronidazole or 60 mg kg-1 day-1 tetracycline with or without 15 mg kg-1 bw α-tocopherol for 8 weeks. The reversibility of effects after 4 weeks recovery period was determined in separate groups of 5 rats. The control groups received distilled water (vehicle and 15 mg kg-1 day-1 α- tocopherol for 8 weeks. Metronidazole and tetracycline significantly (p<0.05 reduced the weight of the epididymis, sperm count, motility and serum testosterone levels and increased the activity of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD in the testis. Alpha-tocopherol significantly (p<0.05 decreased the weight of the testis, epididymis, sperm motility and serum testosterone levels. Co-administration of metronidazole or tetracycline with α-tocopherol caused significant restoration in sperm indices and SOD activity while it produced no effect on testosterone secretion. The results suggest that the effects of metronidazole and tetracycline on male reproductive functions, which are partially reversible, could be mediated via a reduction in serum testosterone level and probably also via the free radical generating mechanism.

  15. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  16. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  17. Changes In Some Haematological And Biochemical Parameters of Albino Rats In Response to Low-energy Diet

    Somaia Z.A. Rashed

    2000-01-01

    The effect of low-energy diet (Low protein or low fat-diet) was studied using male albino rats. The experiment was expended to 45 days (30 days treatment and 15 days recovery period). Body weight gain or loss as well as blood samples for blood picture (R.B.CS. W.B.CS count, Hb. concentration, Hct value and erythrocyte indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC) well recorded Biochemical examination for glucose concentration, total protein, albumin, globulin and A/g ratio. Triglyceride level, total cho...

  18. EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC RHIZOMES EXTRACTS OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS LINN IN WISTER ALBINO RATS

    Dubey Subodh; Verma Vijendra K.; Sahu Amit K.; Jain Amit K; Tiwari Akash

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried with the rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. It is an erect perennial herb and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of diosgenin and commonly known as Push Kara, Kashmeera, Keu and Kust. In Pharmacological screening the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of rhizomes of Costus Speciosus Linn was evaluated in Albino rats of either sex (150-200g) for diuretic activity at a dose of 250mg/kg. b.w. the effe...

  19. Phytochemical and anti-ulcer investigations of the whole plant extract of Neregamia alata wight & Arn. in albino rat model

    M Purushothaman; R. Dhanapal; Balakrishnan, M.; Srinivasan, S; C. Anbarasu; Sriram, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the chemical constituents and anti-ulcer profile of the methanolic extract of Neregamia alata Wight & Arn. (MENA) whole plant in albino rats. The phytochemical examination of methanolic extract of whole plant of Neregamia alata was performed by the standard methods. MENA at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using pyloric ligation (PL) and hypothermic-restraint stress (HR...

  20. Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats

    T.G. Sivasankaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 μg gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.

  1. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

    Y. Damodar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections. Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics. Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.

  2. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased in the experimental group when compared with control group; there were also changes in the histological structure of the parotid salivary gland. (author)

  3. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with ginger ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with ginger before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Ginger as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  4. Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the induced degenerative histopathological changes. The pre-treatment with chicory before the induction of fatty liver gave some protection against factors that experimentally induced fatty liver. Conclusion: Chicory as diet additive is recommend for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  5. Effect of oral arginine supplementation on GH secretion and lipid metabolism in Wistar trained rats

    E. Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oral Arginine Supplementation (OAS and exercise are able to modify the secretion of the Growth Hormone (GH that stimulates the lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of the OAS, the aerobic exercise and the combination of the OAS with the aerobic exercise on the GH secretion and lipid metabolism in rats. The sample was composted for 40 male wistar rats, divided in four groups: Sedentary control (SC, sedentary arginine (SA, trained control (TC and trained arginine (TA. The AS and AT received the oral supplementation in alternated days and the groups CT and AT realized swimming exercise for 1hour/day with overload equivalent to 5% of body mass five days per week during 4 weeks. The concentrations of GH were significantly difference between the sedentary groups (SC and AS and (TC and AT and the lipid metabolism did not change throughout all groups. In conclusions, aerobic physical training did not modify the lipid metabolism and diminishes the values of GH concentration and the OAS did not modify the concentration of GH in Wistar rats.

  6. PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS

    P. S. Jamadagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differential leukocyte Count, Reticulocyte count and Organ weights were recorded and analyzed statistically. At termination, rats were sacrificed, examined for gross pathological changes, organs were collected, weighed and processed for histopathological evaluation. There was no effect on body weights and feed consumption, no abnormal findings in the histopathological evaluation of high dose group animals but there was significant increase in weight of liver in females of high dose group as compared to control. Hence, the dose level 450 mg/kg of Punarnava Mandur was found as NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level. However, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level could not be established. It was suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses so as to establish target organ of toxicity.

  7. Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra with Ethanol Modulates on Lipid and Lipoprotein in Testis of Albino Rats

    T.G. Sivasankaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate (Viagra is the pharmacological agent used to treat erectile dysfunction in men, a common problem that in the United State affects between 10 and 30 million men. Because this drug has a vasodilatory effect. Sildenafil citrate and ethanol consumption are used in societies world wide and have been identified as injurious to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sildenafil citrate and Ethanol consumption on lipid and lipoprotein levels in testis tissue and serum of Albino rats. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each and maximum treated for 45 days as follows, control rats were administered with normal saline orally. Sildenafil citrate (1 μg gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 body weight was given orally at a single doses (short-term after 1, 2½, 4 and 24 h were sacrificed and 15, 30 and 45 days daily continuous doses (long-term of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given and to be sacrificed after 4 h of the last dosage. Further, the average total body weight gain was significantly higher in 30 days treatment, but 45 days no significant change in the body weight of the rats were observed due to the productive role of Sildenafil citrate and ethanol. This combination was found to be increased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels, whereas the levels of serum HDL was found to be decreased as compared with the control rats. Simultaneously tissue cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (p<0.05 inhibited were found to be the rise in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Whereas, It is suggested that prolonged exposure to Sildenafil citrate and ethanol administration to rat is found to be increased in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations significantly in an animals.

  8. Effects of Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy on Postnatal Development of Testis in Wistar Rats Offspring

    Noraei P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In recent years there are growing concerns about the decrease of male reproductive health by different factors. So, present study was aimed to determine the effects of caffeine consumption during gestation on development of histomorphometric structure of testis in Wistar rats offspring. Subjects and Methods: Pregnant female Wistar rats in treatment groups received low and high doses (26 and 45 mg/kg of caffeine during gestation via drinking water. At 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after birth, body weight of male offsprings were measured, serum testosterone levels analyzed and the testis were removed, their weights recorded and were fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5-6µm sections were prepared, then, at different stages of postnatal development the volumes of testis were estimated by Cavellieri method and structure of seminiferous tubules analyzed quantitatively. Results: The results showed significant (p<0.05 decreases in mean weight of pups, weight and absolute volume of testis in high dose treatment group in comparison with control group. Also, loss of spermatogenesis as increase of spermatogenic cells distribution, decreases of spermatgenic cell layers and germinal epithelium height and vacuolated germinal epithelium were seen in treatment groups. Mean diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased significantly (p<0.05 at 30 and 90 days of age in high dose treatment group. Moreover, serum testosterone levels at 60 and 90 days of age decreased significantly (p<0.05 in high dose treatment group.Conclusion: Present study indicates that caffeine consumption during gestation can reduce testicular parameters during postnatal development in male offspring Wistar rats.Sci Med J 2011; 10(1:69-79

  9. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  10. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats

    Boonnate, Piyanard; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Pethlert, Supattra; Sharma, Amod; Selmi, Carlo; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Cha’on, Ubon

    2015-01-01

    Background The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology. Methods Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group). All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets. Results MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated. Conclusion Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account. PMID:26121281

  11. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Soghra Mehri; Mehran Shahi; Bibi Marjan Razavi; Faezeh Vahdati Hassani; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s):Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or wi...

  12. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer....... TEBs in zone C was representative of the number of TEBs in the whole gland. Further studies in older Wistar rats and with weak oestrogenic compounds could be performed to validate mammary gland examination as an endpoint in reproductive toxicity studies and to examine how early life environmental...

  13. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  14. The Protein Synthesis Inhibitor Anisomycin Impairs Consolidation and Extinction of Spatial Reference Memory in Wistar Rats

    Viviana Vargas; Marisol Lamprea

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determinate the role of protein synthesis de novo in the formation of spatial reference memory as well as in its extinction. 27 male Wistar rats received eight reinforced trials (acquisition) in the Barnes maze and were tested in one reinforced trial 24 hours after training (retrieval). Next day, animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a) Anisomycin/Extinction, b) Vehicle/Extinction, c) Anisomycin/No-Extinction or d) Vehicle/No-Extinction. Animal...

  15. Determination of Median Lethal Dose of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rat

    Raj, Jaya; Chandra, Mohineesh; Dogra, Tirath D.; Pahuja, Monika; Raina, Anupuma

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD50) of combination of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid, and endosulfan, an organochlorine compound in Wistar rats. LD50 is the amount (dose) of a chemical, calculated as per the concentration of chemicals that produces death in 50% of a population of test animals to which it is administered by any of a variety of methods. A single oral dose of combination of cypermethrin and endosulfan were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in a...

  16. Effect of dietary co-administration of sodium selenite on sodium arsenite-induced ovarian and uterine disorders in mature albino rats.

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Pal Ghosh, Sampa; Ghosh, Debidas; Debnath, Jogen

    2003-10-01

    The subchronic treatment of mature female Wistar-strain albino rats in diestrous phase with sodium arsenite at a dose of 0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/rat/day via drinking water for period of 28 days (seven estrous cycles) caused a significant reduction in the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol along with a significant decrease in ovarian activities of delta five, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta5,3beta-HSD), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) followed by a reduction in ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities. A significant weight loss of the ovary and uterus was also observed after this treatment, along with a prolonged diestrous phase and a high accumulation of arsenic in the plasma and these organs. Moreover, sodium arsenite was also responsible for ovarian follicular and uterine cell degeneration characterized by a high number of regressing follicles and a reduction in the uterine luminal diameter, respectively, in comparison with the controls. A dietary supplementation of sodium selenite at the dose of 0.6 mg/100 g body weight/rat/day for a period of 28 days along with arsenic treatment minimized the gonadal weight loss significantly and increased the activities of the ovarian steroidogenic enzymes as well as the ovarian and uterine peroxidase at the control level. Selenium was also able to increase the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol toward the control level. Vaginal smears showed normal estrous cyclicity in sodium selenite-supplemented arsenic-treated rats along with lower arsenic levels in the plasma and gonadal tissue in comparison with arsenic-only-treated rats. Histological sections of ovary and uterine tissues in the control and experimental groups confirmed that sodium selenite supplementation was able to prevent arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the midbrain and diencephalon decreased significantly, whereas the serotonin level was increased significantly after 28 days of sodium arsenite treatment. All of these parameters were, in most cases, unchanged from the control level when sodium selenite was co-administered with sodium arsenite. Arsenic intoxication was also associated with increased liver weight and elevation in the activities of hepatic and renal acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases, but selenium co-administration was not able to change these toxic effects of arsenic. The results of our experiments indicate the significant protective action of sodium selenite on arsenic-induced toxicity in the female reproductive system, while there was no significant protective effect of selenium on arsenic-induced toxicity in other organs. PMID:12883085

  17. Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Hepatic Glycogenosis in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Oluwole B. Akinola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    We studied the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE on hepatic microscopic anatomy and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats. Seventy-five Wistar rats (8 weeks old were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control; diabetic; diabetic+AIE; AIE only; and diabetic+glibenclamide. Hyperglycemia was induced in fasted rats with streptozotocin. AIE was administered orally at 500 mg/kg bw/d and glibenclamide at 600 μg/kg bw/d for 50 days (50 d. Animals were sacrificed on treatment days 7, 21 and 50. The liver was stained with PAS. Hepatic markers of oxidative stress were also estimated. At 50 d, histological study of the liver of diabetic rats showed swollen PAS+ hepatocytes, whose content was confirmed to be glycogen. On the contrary, hepatocytes of AIE-treated diabetic rats lacked glycogen. The major finding in these rats was exacerbated oxidative stress. Our findings in this model showed the beneficial effect of AIE in the amelioration of diabetic hepatic glycogenosis.

    Keywords: Diabetes, Azadirachta indica, hepatic glycogenosis, oxidative stress, liver

  18. [The Manifestation of the Anxiety during Fear Conditioning in Wistar Rats].

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the correlation between anxiety and conditioned fear, the behavior of the same male Wistar rats was compared in three anxiety tests (open field, light-dark box and elevated plus-maze) and in Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning paradigm using correlation, factor and variance analyses. The correlation between anxiety/bravery and locomotion indexes in different tests was not revealed. Positive correlations between grooming, urinations and defecations, rearing in three tests were revealed. These data suggest that animals reacted to various tests differently, resulting, apparently in the emergence of different anxiety levels, specific for each test. Vegetative reactions, inclination to exploration and substituting behavior were more stable characteristics of rats. Anxiety behavior in elevated plus-maze correlated to freezing response to context after fear conditioning, while high-anxiety rats had higher level of freezing to context than low-anxiety rats. The higher freezing response to sound after fear conditioning was found in rats with middle locomotor activity in open field. Conditioned fear to the context and to the sound was associated with different forms of rat anxiety during different tests. PMID:26841660

  19. Effects of metabolic syndrome on masseter muscle of male Wistar rats.

    Tükel, H Can; Alptekin, Özlem; Turan, Belma; Delilbaşı, Ertan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the metabolic indicators of masticatory muscles in an animal model. A total of 16 male Wistar rats were used. To induce MetS, 10 rats were fed with standard rat chow and 32% sucrose solution ad libitum for 16 wk. Six rats fed with standard rat chow and water ad libitum formed the control group. All rats were killed at week 16, and the right superficial masseter muscles were harvested. Metabolic indicators of masticatory muscle metabolism, including antioxidant enzyme activities, ion transport ATPase activities, and the levels of macro and trace elements, were determined in the muscles. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities were significantly decreased by 32%, 26%, 33%, and 16%, respectively, in the MetS group. Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity was significantly decreased in the MetS group by 54% compared with the control group. The levels of chromium and selenium were significantly decreased, and the level of copper was increased, in the MetS group compared with the control group. These results show that significant alterations occurred in antioxidant defense mechanisms, ion transport mechanisms, and trace element levels of masseter muscles in MetS. PMID:26521868

  20. Chronic Effects of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate on Stereological Parameters of Testis in Adult Wistar Rats

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIn recent years concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of male reproductive disorders from exposure to endocrine disruptors. So, chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate were studied on histological and stereological structure of testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and MethodsThirty two adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in four equal experiment groups; oil vehicle group and three treated groups which received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day di(2-ethylhexylphthalate by gavage for 90 days, respectively. At the end of exposure period the volume of testes was measured by Cavellieri method, testes weight was recorded and then fixed in Bouin’s solution. Following tissue processing, 5 µm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, relative and total volumes of seminiferous tubules, tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were estimated.ResultsThe results showed that mean weight and volume of testis were decreased significantly (35.2% and 23.9% respectively in rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP for 90 days. Seminiferous tubules diameter reduced, 4.4% and 13.4% in 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP-treated groups, respectively. Relative volumes of tubular lumen and interstitial tissue were increased significantly in 100 (P< 0.05 and 500 (P< 0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups. Also, testosterone serum levels were significantly higher (P< 0.05 in rats exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. ConclusionPresent study indicated dose-dependent reductions of testicular parameters in adult male rats chronically exposed to di(2-ethylhexylphthalate.

  1. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    Hyungwoo Nam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs’ phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs’ behavior to that of Sprague-Dawley (SD, Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST. WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness. WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs’ behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e. neonatal handling that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression.

  2. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Massoud Seifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Root resorption (RR after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method: Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China. Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results: The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001 and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001. Conclusion: It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR.

  3. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α2- and β1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, α1 and α2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  4. Passive Immunization of Anti bZP3 (Zone Pellucida3 in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus and Mouse (Mus musculus

    Y. Pantiwati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freunds Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.

  5. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R B; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  6. Differential gene expression in Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice

    Liu Jinming

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 46 species of mammals can be naturally infected with Schistosoma japonicum in the mainland of China. Mice are permissive and may act as the definitive host of the life cycle. In contrast, rats are less susceptible to S. japonicum infection, and are considered to provide an unsuitable micro-environment for parasite growth and development. Since little is known of what effects this micro-environment has on the parasite itself, we have in the present study utilised a S. japonicum oligonucleotide microarray to compare the gene expression differences of 10-day-old schistosomula maintained in Wistar rats with those maintained in BALB/c mice. Results In total 3,468 schistosome genes were found to be differentially expressed, of which the majority (3,335 were down-regulated (? 2 fold and 133 were up-regulated (? 2 fold in schistosomula from Wistar rats compared with those from BALB/c mice. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that of the differentially expressed genes with already established functions or close homology to well characterized genes in another organisms, many are related to important biological functions or molecular processes. Among the genes that were down-regulated in schistosomula from Wistar rats, some were associated with metabolism, signal transduction and development. Of these genes related to metabolic processes, areas including translation, protein and amino acid phosphorylation, proteolysis, oxidoreductase activities, catalytic activities and hydrolase activities, were represented. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of differential expressed genes indicated that of the 328 genes that had a specific KEGG pathway annotation, 324 were down-regulated and were mainly associated with metabolism, growth, redox pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, the cell cycle, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, protein export and the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. Conclusions This work presents the first large scale gene expression study identifying the differences between schistosomula maintained in mice and those maintained in rats, and specifically highlights differential expression that may impact on the survival and development of the parasite within the definitive host. The research presented here provides valuable information for the better understanding of schistosome development and host-parasite interactions.

  7. Actin Distribution in Lamina Neuralis During Cranial Neurulation of Wistar Rats Embryo (Rattus rattus

    Indriayuni Prahastuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available such as craniorachisis and exencephaly. One of the processes is changing in lamina neuralis cells shape, which iscaused by actin microfilament rearrangement within lamina neuralis cells. To examine the distribution of actinmicrofilament during cranial neurulation Wistar rats embryo were used. Embryos were obtain at following days ofdevelopment; 8 days 18 hours, 9 days, 9 days 6 hours, 9 days 12 hours, 9 days 18 hours, and 9 days 20 hoursrespectively. Immunohistochemistry Avidin Biotin-peroxidase Complex (ABC method was used to examine andidentify the distribution of actin in lamina neuralis cells. Light microscopic observation shows positive reaction foractin immunoreactivity in the apical surface of bending lamina neuralis cells. In contrast, actin is not observed in nonbendinglamina neuralis. Actin is not detected at 8 days 18 hours embryos. At 9 days embryos, positive reaction isobserved over the entire apical surface of lamina neuralis.Key words: Cranial neurulation, Actin, lamina neuralis, Rats embryo.

  8. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals. PMID:24597149

  9. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  10. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  11. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  12. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21

  13. The effects of Tynnanthus fasciculatus (Bignoniaceae infusion on testicular parenchyma of adult Wistar rats

    Fabiana C. S. A Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine provides strong guidance for scientific experiments involving plant products used by the Brazilian people. The species "cip-cravo" (Tynnanthus fasciculatus is a plant commonly used either to combat indigestion and stomachaches, or as a general stimulant and aphrodisiac. In this study, the effects of "cip-cravo" infusion were investigated within the testicular parenchyma of adult Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups: a control (distilled water and two treated groups, which received the plant infusion (100 and 200mg/animal/day. The 200mg dose promoted a significant increase of the testicular parenchyma weight and of the volume and total length of the seminiferous tubules, as well as in total daily sperm production and sperm production per gram of testis.

  14. Renal biomarkers of male and female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) undergoing renal ischemia and reperfusion

    Telma, Bazzano; Tamy Ingrid, Restel; Lenir Cardoso, Porfirio; Albert Schiaveto de, Souza; Iandara Schettert, Silva.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate biomarkers of acute renal injury in Wistar rats, subjected to left renal ischemia for 10 minutes, and then compare reperfusion at 24 hours, and at 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after the procedure. METHODS: Eight female and male rats between 60 and 81 days old were used in the Centra [...] l Animal Facility of the UFMS. Assessed biomarkers included urine protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, urine alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities, and protein-to-creatinine ratio; and in serum: urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, urine flow and creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Greater variance was observed in the parameters at 24 hours and at five days (p

  15. Study on Antioxidant Potential of Murraya koenigii Leaves in Wistar Rats

    Naresh Singh Gill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng (Family: Rutaceae, leaves was investigated in male wistar rats. Potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative stress. The traditional medical literature describes its potential role as a source of many vitamins, flavonoids, phenols and domestic remedy for many human disorders. The whole plant is considered to be tonic, antidiarrhoeal, febrifuge, blood purifier and as stomachic. In the present study animals were divided into four groups Group I (Control, Group II (Potassium dichromate, Group III (Murraya koenigii+Potassium dichromate and Group IV (Murraya koenigii. in vivo antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii inhibited the toxicity of potassium dichromate. The GSH content in liver (1.79±0.019 and kidney (1.967±0.013 of Group IV rats significantly (p Murraya koenigii (Group III significantly (pMurraya koenigii leaves have significant potential as a natural antioxidant agents.

  16. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation

  17. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  18. GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FRUITS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. IN PYLORUS-LIGATED WISTAR RAT MODEL

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L. (TT; Zygophyllaceae is employed in the folk medicine against sexual impotence, oedemas, abdominal distention and cardiovascular diseases. Gastroprotective (i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory potential of methanolic extract of TT fruits was evaluated in pylorus-ligated rat model of Wistar rat. The methanolic extract of TT was tested orally at the doses of 150, 300 & 600 mg/kg, on gastric ulcerations experimentally induced by pylorus ligation. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of TT showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and proteins. The methanolic extract at the doses of 300 & 600 mg/kg produced more significant inhibition when gastric ulcerations were induced by pylorus ligation respectively. The methanol extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. possess gastroprotective i.e. antiulcer and anti-secretory effect.

  19. Moringa oleifera Impairs the Morphology and Functions of the Kidney in Adult Wistar Rats / Moringa Oleifera Altera la Morfologa y Funciones del Rin en Ratas Wistar Adultas

    Abdulazeez Adelaja, Akinlolu; Olaide Kamal, Ghazali; Oloduowo Mubarak, Ameen; Seunayo Comfort, Oyebanji; Gabriel Olaiya, Omotoso; Bernard Ufuoma, Enaibe.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se puso a prueba la hiptesis que Moringa oleifera altera la morfologa y funcin del rin en ratas. Fueron utilizadas 24 ratas Wistar macho adultas. El grupo control recibi suero fisiolgico mientras que los Grupos II a IV recibieron 250, 500 y 750 mg/kg peso corporal del extracto metanlico de M [...] oringa oleifera respectivamente, durante 21 das. No se observaron anomalas en el comportamiento en ratas de los Grupos I - IV. En las ratas del grupo de control se registr un aumento de peso corporal estadsticamente significativo, mientras que las ratas de los grupos II - IV experimentaron una disminucin no significativa de peso corporal durante el procedimiento experimental (P0,05). No se observaron diferencias estadsticamente significativas (P0,05) en el anlisis de los pesos relativos en riones de las ratas de los grupos I - IV. Los exmenes histolgicos mostraron citoarquitectura normal de los riones de las ratas del grupo I, mientras que en ratas de los grupos II IV los espacios capsulares de los riones aparecan ms amplios que los del Grupo I. Los anlisis estadsticos mostraron niveles superiores significativos ( P 0,05 ) de la alanina y aspartato aminotransferasa, y de urea en suero en ratas de los Grupos II - IV no dependiente de la dosis, en comparacin con las ratas del Grupo I. Estos resultados coinciden con la hiptesis planteada. Abstract in english We tested the hypothesis that Moringa oleifera impairs the morphology and functions of the kidney in rats. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were employed in the study. Rats of Control Group I received physiological saline while rats of Groups II IV received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bodyweight of m [...] ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera respectively for twenty one days. No behavioral anomalies were observed in rats of Groups I IV. Rats of Control Group I gained statistically significant increased bodyweight while rats of Groups II IV experienced non-significant decreased bodyweight during experimental procedure. (P0.05). No statistical significant differences (P0.05) were observed in the analyses of the relative weights of kidneys of rats of Groups I IV. Histological examinations showed normal cyto-architecture of the kidneys of rats of Group I while the Capsular spaces of the kidneys of rats of Groups II IV appeared wider than those of Group I. Statistical analyses showed significant higher levels (P0.05) of Alanine and Aspartate Transaminases, and serum urea in rats of Groups II IV in a non- dose-dependent manner when compared to rats of Group I. Our findings are consistent with the stated hypothesis.

  20. Comparative evaluation of Baccharis trimera, Pimpinella anisum and statin on the biochemical profile of Wistar rats

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the plants for therapeutic purposes. Baccharis trimera is known to treat rheumatism, diabetes, and liver disorders. Pimpinella asinum is known to control colds, cough, bronchitis, fever, cramps and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of B. trimera and P. anisum and compare with statin effects on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. Sixty Animals were divided in control group (CG and G2 (treated with anise, G3 (B. trimera and G4 (simvastatin. Plants and statin were administrated by intra-gastric route twice a day for 30 days. No modifications in glycaemia were observed in the experimental groups. Reductions were observed in cholesterol levels in treated groups. For LDL-c levels, significant differences were observed in G2 and G4. G3 showed significant reduction in the triglycerides levels and no significant differences were observed in the glycaemia in the studied groups. Increased levels of HDL-c were presented by the groups treated with the plants. The group treated with B. trimera showed significant reduction in triglycerides when compared to the control group. The use of the plants also shows Atherogenic Index lower than control group and the one treated with simvastatin. Our results suggest that the plants used in this work have similar or better effects in the lipid profile of Wistar rats when compared to the use of statin.

  1. Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism.

    da Conceição, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Oliveira, Kelen Carneiro; de Carvalho Melo, Maria Clara; Kasamatsu, Tereza Sayoko; de Barros Maciel, Rui Monteiro; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Giannocco, Gisele

    2016-04-01

    Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in cases of several maligned or benign thyroid diseases, thus, the aim of our study was to verify how the hypothyroidism induced by thyroidectomy influences behavioral parameters and its relation to thyroid hormones metabolism and neurogenesis at hippocampus. For this purpose, Adult male Wistar rats underwent to thyroidectomy to induce hypothyroidism. Behavioral tests, the thyroid profile and hippocampal gene expression were evaluated in control and in thyroidectomized animals. It was observed that thyroidectomized group had a significant increasing in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a decreasing in thyroxine (T4) levels as well as in triiodothyronine (T3) serum level. It was also observed reduction of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8), thyroid hormone receptor alfa (Trα1), deiodinase type 2 (Dio2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (Enpp2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) mRNA expression in hippocampus of thyroidectomized animals. In the forced swimming test, it was verified that thyroidectomy promotes a decrease in time of immobility and climbing when compared with the control group. In summary, we demonstrated that antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. This effect could be associated to an impaired neuronal activity in acute stress response as it is observed in forced swimming paradigm. PMID:26861177

  2. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF KIGELIA PINNATA LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR RATS

    Parmar Namita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats. Analgesic activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata at a dose of 200 mg/kg & 400 mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug pentazocine at a dose of 10mg/kg. Wistar rats of either sex of five numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated by hot plate and tail flick method. The both doses of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata was found to produce significant (p < 0.001 analgesic activity. In hot plate method, the analgesia began at 60 min, remained for 120 min and the peak effect was noted at 90 min in comparison to control but in tail flick method, the extract at 200mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 after 60 minutes and remained for 90 min. The results showed significant analgesic activity. The leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata have potential analgesic activity against stimuli in the tested animals. So, it can be recommened for further studies.

  3. Antiurolithiatic effect of lithocare against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    Lulat, Sumaiya I.; Yadav, Yogesh Chand; Balaraman, R.; Maheshwari, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of Lithocare (LC) (a polyherbal formulation) against ethylene glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The protective effect of LC (400 and 800 mg/kg) was evaluated using EG-induced urolithiasis in rats. Results: Administration of EG in drinking water resulted in hyperoxaluria, hypocalcemia as well as an increased renal excretion of phosphate. Supplementation with LC significantly reduced the urinary calcium, oxalate, and phosphate excretion dose-dependently. There was a significant reduction in the levels of calcium, oxalate as well as a number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits in the kidney tissue of rats administered with LC in EG-treated rats. There was a significant reduction in creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen when LC was administered in EG-treated rats. Conclusions: From this study, it was concluded that the supplementation of LC protected EG-induced urolithiasis as it reduced the growth of urinary stones. The mechanism underlying this effect might be due to its antioxidant, diuretic, and reduction in stone-forming constituents. PMID:26997728

  4. Fenugreek seed extract attenuates cisplatin-induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.

    Hamza, A A; Elwy, H M; Badawi, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cisplatin (CIS) provides oxidative stress and inflammations in testicular tissues. Fenugreek seed extract (FSE) is a widely used herbal medicine with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of FSE against CIS-induced testicular damage in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were given vehicle, single dose of CIS alone (10 mg kg(-1) ), single dose of FSE alone or single dose of CIS followed by FSE (50, 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) ) every day for 5 days. On day 6, oxidative stress and apoptotic testicular toxicity were evaluated. FSE attenuated both germ cell degenerations and apoptosis in seminiferous tubules in CIS-treated rats. Furthermore, FSE counteracted CIS-induced oxidative stress in rats as assessed by the restoration of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduction in the myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels in testes. CIS increased expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-kappa B in testicular tissues. Importantly, treatment with FSE at all doses effectively alleviated all of these inflammatory parameters in testes. Based on these results, we concluded that FSE reduces CIS-induced reproductive toxicity in rats by the suppression of testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammations. PMID:25996647

  5. Anti Inflammatory Studies of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn Fruits on Wistar Rats.

    Avula Muralidhar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn fruit extracts in wistar rats. In this study fruits of Barringtonia acutangula were extracted with ethanol and purified water, these extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to identify their phytoconstituents. The ethanol and aqueous extracts were evaluated in vivo by using acute inflammatory models like; carrageenan induced paw oedema and chronic models like; cotton-pellet induced granuloma and carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. The biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation and catalase were also estimated as supportive studies. Acute toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of ethanol and aqueous extracts. The ethanol extract reduced the inflammation more significantly than the aqueous extract in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, cotton-pellet induced granuloma and carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. The phytochemical investigation of the ethanol fruit extract showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and carbohydrates. From the present study the ethanolic fruit extract of Barringtonia acutangula exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect by augmenting antioxidant defense system in the inflammation bearing rat, which is largely attributable to the additive or synergistic effect of its constituents.  

  6. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    Afshar Jafari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed anduntrained (control or group 1, n = 6, ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6, ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8, ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8. All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week. After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
    • RESULTS: All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001. However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
    • KEYWORDS: Moderate Aerobic Exercise, Ozone Exposure,  eukocytosis, Wistar Rats.

  7. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Figueroa-Garca, Mara del Consuelo; Espinosa-Garca, Mara Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martn; Meja-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 67 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  8. Dried Fruit Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) Protects Albino Rats from Adverse Effects of Whole Body gamma-Radiation

    The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered

  9. Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

  10. Rheological Studies and Effect of Feeding Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Seeds on Histology of Some Organs of the Albino Rats

    Sherif E.A. Badr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the rheological properties of composite flour and their guar meal blends were studied by farinography. The water absorption percent, arrival time, development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance, ash, protein, falling number, baking strength, index of swelling and extensibility were estimated. The effect of feeding guar seeds powder on liver enzymes (GOT and GPT and kidney functions (urea and creatinine of rats were investigated. The results showed that diets with 5% guar seeds powder had the best effect on GOT (17.7 U L-1, GPT (22.2 U L-1, urea (26.0 mg dL-1 and creatinine (0.83 mg dL-1. Histopathological studies were also carried out in the kidney and liver of the albino rats.

  11. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Andrew Osayame Eweka; Abieyuwa Eweka; Om’Iniabohs, Ferdinard A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24) of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8). The treatment groups (A & B) were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers’ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C) received equal amount of feeds (...

  12. Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar

    G Asuntha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min till 90 min and thereafter every 30 min till 180 min, using the scoring system. The in vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured. The in vitro NO free radical scavenging activity of plant extract was assessed. The interaction between plant extract and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH was also observed for in vitro free radical scavenging activity. The severity of status epilepticus was reduced with the administration of ethanolic extract of T. purpurea. Ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea was found to be useful to control lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in albino rats of Wistar strain.Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, é conhecida pelo seu uso no controle e tratamento de uma variedade de distúrbios epilépticos no sistema indiano de medicina. O presente estudo pretende avaliar de forma sistemática T. purpurea e verificar essa alegação. Status epilepticus foi induzido em ratos albinos machos da linhagem Wistar pela administração de pilocarpina (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h após o cloreto de lítio (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Diferentes doses do extrato de T. purpurea foram administrados por via oral uma hora antes da injeção de pilocarpina. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi observada e registrada a cada 15 min até 90 min e, posteriormente, a cada 30 min até 180 min, utilizando um sistema de pontuação. A peroxidação lipídica in vivo do tecido cerebral de ratos foi avaliada. A atividade captadora de radicais livres do extrato da planta foi avaliada in vitro. A interação entre o extrato da planta e 2-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH também foi observada in vitro para atividade sequestradora de radicais livres. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi reduzida com a administração do extrato etanólico da T. purpurea. Extrato etanólico da planta apresentou, tanto in vivo quanto in vitro atividade antioxidante. O extrato etanólico da T. purpurea parece ser útil no controle de lítio de status epilepticus induzido pela pilocarpina em ratos albinos da linhagem Wistar.

  13. Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol

    Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body weight per os for 20 days; while Group C was treated for 25 days. Semen used in this study was obtained from the caudal epididymides while morphological aberrations were determined from spermatozoa counted after stained with Wells and Awa stain. Results of the spermiogram showed that the volume was decreasing as the prolonged dosage of chloramphenicol increases. The percentage motility in Group A (89.0 + 2.45%, differed significantly (p Fueron estudiadas las características morfológicas y hematológicas de 15 ratas albinas Wistar, macho, entre 12 y 14 semanas y con un peso corporal de 150 - 180g. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con pellet preparado comercialmente y con agua fresca ad libitum. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos de 5 ejemplares cada uno. El Grupo A sirvió como control; Grupo B fue tratado con cloranfenicol en dosis de 25mg/kg de peso corporal durante 20 días, mientras que el Grupo C recibió este tratamiento durante 25 días. El esperma utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo desde la cauda del epidídimo, donde las aberraciones morfológicas fueron determinadas a partir del conteo de espermatozoides, después de ser teñidos con la tinción de Wells y Awa. Los resultados del espermiograma puso de manifiesto que el volumen fue disminuyendo a medida que la dosis de cloranfenicol aumentaba. El porcentaje de motilidad en el grupo A (89,0 ± 2,45%, fue diferente significativamente (p <0,05 en comparación con el Grupo B (72,0 ± 3,74% y Grupo C (66,0 ± 2,45%. El mismo patrón se observó en los porcentaje de habitabilidad, aberración morfológica y la concentración de espermatozoides. Esto indica que la prolongación de la dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad en los animales machos. Por lo tanto, se concluye y recomienda que una prolongada dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad o esterilidad, así que no debe utilizarse en animales machos destinados a la cría y en los programas de inseminación artificial.

  14. Hormonal and Histomorphologic Effects of Azadirachta indica leaf Extract on the Pars Anterior of Wistar Rats Efectos Hormonales e Histomorfológicosdel Extracto de la Hoja de Azadirachta indica en la Pars Anterior de Ratas Wistar

    Akpantah, Amabe O.; Ekong, Moses B.; Kebe E Obeten; Mfon I Akpaso; Ekanem, Theresa B.

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica is a tree whose medicinal value is unquantifiable. Any part of the tree can be used in the treatment of malarial infection. Reports have indicated its antifertility effects, and this necessitated this study on the effects of the methanol leaf extract on serum luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) levels and the histomorphology of the pars anterior of Wistar rats. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups of A, B and C. Group A was t...

  15. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:26851557

  16. Funcionalismo hepático en ratas Wistar tratadas con dosis terapéuticas de Nimesulide Liver function in Wistar rats treated with therapeutic doses of Nimesulide

    María E Amendola L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El nimesulide es un analgésico antiinflamatorio no esteroideo, asociado en reportes de casos clínicos con hepatotoxicidad. Sin embargo, se han publicado pocos estudios controlados en animales. Objetivo: Determinar si la administración de dosis terapéuticas de nimesulide, durante diferentes periodos, altera el funcionalismo hepático en ratas Wistar machos y hembras. Materiales y métodos: Cuarenta ratas Wistar fueron distribuidas en 4 grupos de 10 cada uno (5 hembras y 5 machos. Grupo I (control: recibió 0.1 mL de solución salina durante 7 días, los animales de los grupos II, III y IV fueron tratados con nimesulide (3 mg/kg durante 7, 21 y 35 días, respectivamente. Se determinaron niveles séricos de bilirrubina, fosfatasa alcalina y transaminasas. Resultados: La actividad de la enzima alanino-amino-transferasa (ALT aumentó en machos (pIntroduction: Nimesulide is a non-steroidal antiinfflamatory drug associated with hepatotoxicity. Nevertheless, there have few published controlled studies with animals. Objec - tive: Determine whether the administration of therapeutic doses of nimesulide during differents periods alters hepatic function in male and female rats. Materials and me - thods: Forty Wistar rats were classified into 4 groups of 10 rats each. Group I received 0,1 ml of saline for 7 days, whe reas the animals from groups II, III and IV were treated with Ni mesulide (3 mg/kg during 7, 21 and 35 days, respectively. It has determined serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phos pha tase and transaminases. Results: Alanino-amino-transferase (ALT enzyme was increased in males (p<0.01 and females (p<0.02 from groups III and IV in com parison with the control group. Alkalin phosphate increased in males from groups II and IV in comparison with the females from these same groups (p< 0.05. Direct and total bilirubins decreased in group IV females (p< 0.03 in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: The administration of therapeutic doses of nimesulide affects hepatic function on Wistar rats.

  17. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  19. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  20. Gastroprotective effect of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats

    S S Sakat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The extract was preliminary evaluated for acute oral toxicity test using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423. Further, it was studied for antiulcer potential at the dose levels of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Ranitidine was used as a standard drug (100 mg/kg. Acid secretory parameters like gastric volume, pH, total acidity and free acidity were measured in pylorus ligation model, whereas numbers of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index was measured in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Pretreatment of test extract significantly (p<0.05 decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. It also showed significant (p<0.05 decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Results of the study suggest that, the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers.