WorldWideScience
1

Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Leucas Aspera is used in traditional medicine for many ailments. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuro behavioural effects in Wistar albino rats after oral administration of leaves of Leucas Aspera for 28 days. Methods: Wistar albino rats of either sex were treated with the aqueous suspension of dried powdered leaves of L. aspera. Three different groups of animals received L. aspera suspension in doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 100 mg /kg/day or 200mg/kg/day orally for 28 da...

Mrs. Kavitha. R,; Kannan R; Glory Josephine I

2013-01-01

2

Serrobiochemical Effects of Potassium Bromate on Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study aimed to clarify the toxic effect of potassium bromate in Wistar albino rats. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group severed as control and the other four groups received potassium bromate orally at doses 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 3 days and those received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died on the 18th day post treatm...

Rehab Omer; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Elmahdi, B.

2008-01-01

3

Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down by the sixth and seventh day of treatment. The initial stimulation of haemopoiesis and later inhibition of haemopoesis by a negative feed-back effect on haemopoiesis suggest that DHA has erythropoietin-like properties.

Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

2011-01-01

4

Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. ed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker enzymes of liver function indicating hepatic damage. Conversely, no histopathological alterations were observed in liver tissues. (author)

5

Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

Anurag Payasi

2010-04-01

6

Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

Uduak Akpan Okon

2014-06-01

7

Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantl...

Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

2012-01-01

8

Effect of Potassium Bromate on Liver and Blood Constituents of Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Twenty four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups and treated orally with potassium bromate at doses of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) for 21 days. Rats received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. died within 18 days. A significant reduction in Hb, PCV and MCHC values were observed in animals received 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. in the second week while no changes occurred in the groups treated with 50 and 100 mg kg

Elmahdi, B.; Abuelgasim, Afaf I.; Rehab Omer

2008-01-01

9

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

OpenAIRE

Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of t...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

2010-01-01

10

Acoustic startle response in the opossum Monodelphis domestica in comparison with the Wistar albino rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acoustic startle response (ASR) was studied in 20 gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) and its characteristics were compared with those obtained from responses of 20 Wistar albino rats. The animals were exposed to 10 ms, 110 dB white noise acoustic pulses in the Coulbourn apparatus. Amplitude of ASR was normalized to the weight of animals and then analyzed. The results show that probability of a freezing response is much higher in the opossums that generally respond with lower startle amplitudes in comparison to rats. These differences may reflect different emotional characteristics of the two species, different reactions to fear in opossum and/or different ecological specializations of the two species. PMID:15960307

B?aszczyk, Janusz W; Turlejski, Kris

2005-01-01

11

Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

R. Narmadha

2013-12-01

12

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were...

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R.; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

13

1. Antidiabetic efficacy of leaf extracts of Asteracantha longifolia (Linn.) Nees. on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia on alloxan induced diabetics in male albino Wistar rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with aqueous extract of Asteracantha longifolia at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and its influence on glucose level, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, serum total cholesterol, levels of pancreas enzymatic and non-enzymatic...

Muthulingam, M.

2010-01-01

14

Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD50; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. Results: The acute oral toxicity result, LD50, revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. Conclusion: The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

15

ACUTE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SARACA ASOKA BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anxiety is defined as a psychological state characterized by abnormal cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. Anxiety is normal reaction to stress. However, when it becomes excessive, falls under the classification of an anxiety disorder. Even though Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the major class of compounds used in anxiety; long-term use of the same may cause many adverse psychological and physical effects. In the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the acute anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of Saraca asoka Bark (EESAB in Wistar Albino Rats. The rats weighing 150–200gm were divided into 5 groups containing 6 animals for each dose and were housed for 10 days prior to testing. In this study, control (1% Gum acacia, test drug EESAB (100, 200 & 400mg/ kg and standard drug Diazepam (1.0mg/kg were administered orally. One hour after oral administration of the drugs / vehicle, the experiment were conducted by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM. Our results suggest that, behavioral dis-inhibitory effects of EESAB exhibited anxiolytic activity at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg compared to control.

Chandra shekar Rajan

2013-06-01

16

Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Some Polyherbal Formulations in Albino Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute oral toxicity potentials of certain herbal veterinary preparations in albino Wistar rats. In the sighting study, the test substances were administered in sequential manner to one animal each at 2000 and 5000 mg kg-1 body weight followed by four animals at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight in the main study; whereas the test materials with well documented traditional use were evaluated at 5000 mg kg-1 body weight. The treated animals were observed for mortality, untoward clinical/toxic signs, alterations in body weight gain and necropsy findings during the study. The treated animals survived throughout the study period and did not reveal any treatment related major abnormal clinical signs at the tested dose levels for all the products. The overall percent body weight gain in rats treated with the herbal products was found to be normal during the 14 day observation period. On necropsy, no abnormalities were observed. In conclusion, acute oral toxicity testing of screened herbal veterinary products did not produce any treatment-related adverse effects upto the dose level of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight.

A.J. Joshua

2008-01-01

17

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

Thamizh Selvam N

2011-11-01

18

Antidiarrheal activity and Phytochemical profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion's ear) in Wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in wistar albino rats. Methods: This study was done in February 2013. The ethanolic leaf extract of L. nepetifolia was evaluated for its antidiarrheal activity. A total of sixty rats were used in the study. At first, thirty rats in five groups of six animals were orally dosed with the extract at dose rates of 225mg/kg, 450mg/kg, 900mg/kg body weight respectively...

Ndukui James Gakunga; Godfrey Kateregga; Larry Fred Sembajwe; John Kateregga

2013-01-01

19

Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20?C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported that chronic and acute stress procedures weaken working memory functions in rats. There are very fewstudies on sub acute forced swim stress on working memory status of the animal. The study was undertaken to assess the various behavioral changes by applying sub acute forced swim.

Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

2012-09-01

20

ROLE OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF REPERFUSION-INDUCED RENAL ISCHEMIA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acute renal failure is defined as rapid loss of renal function and has been associated with a high mortality rate. Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury of the kidney is the most prominent cause of intrinsic acute renal failure. Activation of reactive oxygen species is implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. This study investigated the anti-ischemic effect of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC against renal I/R injury by its effect on reactive oxygen species. Wistar albino rats were administered different doses of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC before renal ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Serum creatinine, Serum Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured for renal dysfunction. Serum and tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels were measured. Renal sections were analyzed for histological grading of renal injury. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum (OC significantly reduced increased creatinine, Cystatin C, serum oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Ocimum canum also increased kidney superoxide dismutase activity, catalase and reduced glutathione levels and reduced the malondialdehyde levels. Hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduced histological renal damage. These results suggest that the hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum canum reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R.

Saiprasanna Behera

2012-08-01

21

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

OpenAIRE

Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orall...

Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Thomas Idowu; Godwin Avwioro; Luqman Olatubosun; Ganiyu Adeosun

2010-01-01

22

The Effect of Nigerian Qua-iboe Brent Crude Oil on the Reproductive Performance of Female Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reproductive performance of rats given graded levels of the Nigerian Qua-Iboe brent crude oil was investigated in 32 female wistar albino rats. The experiment was divided into three parts, whereby, crude oil was given orally at the dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL, corresponding to Groups A, B and C, respectively, for four weeks, while the untreated group served as control (Group D. Experiment one investigated the effect of the crude oil on the oestrous cycle in rats divided into four groups of four replicates, monitored for four consecutive cycles for regularity of oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology. Three of the four groups were drenched with graded levels of the crude oil while remaining group served as the control. Experiment two investigated the effect of crude oil on gestation, using another set of female Wistar albino rats which were grouped and drenched as in experiment one. Mating was monogamous, while drenching done every other day following mating. The gestation length, litter size, stillbirth and gross malformation of foetuses were monitored. The same group of animals in experiment two was used for experiment three, whereby the animals were drenched prior to mating and until parturition. Results showed irregularity of oestrous cycle in the drenched groups, with significant differences (p<0.05 existing between the experimental group and control group considering stillbirths, conception rates, gestation length and litter size. These findings suggested that exposure to Nigerian Qua-Iboe Brent crude oil affected the reproductive performance of the rats.

C.U. Nwaigwe

2012-01-01

23

Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

Taofeeq Oduola

2010-05-01

24

Protective effects of selenium against potassium dichromate-induced hematotoxicity in female and male Wistar albino rats Effets protecteurs du sélénium contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le dichromate de potassium chez les rats femelles et mâles albinos Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 is a potent pollutant for human and animal health. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats and to research the interaction of chromium and selenium with a special focus on hematopoiesis. Materials and methods: K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight or K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg in association with selenium (0.3 mg/kg was administered to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/day alone or in association with Se (0.3 mg/L/day for 20 consecutive days. The hematological parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc. treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. Results: K2Cr2O7? induced during the first three days a significant (p  Objectif : Le dichromate de potassium (K2Cr2O7 est un polluant potentiellement néfaste pour la santé humaine et animale. Cette étude a été entreprise afin de rechercher une éventuelle interaction entre le K2Cr2O7 et le sélénium (Se sur l’hématopoïèse chez les rats albinos Wistar mâles et femelles. Matériel et Méthodes : Le K2Cr2O7 est administré seul (10, 50 et 100 mg/kg par voie sous-cutanée (sc ou en association (10 mg/kg avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/kg. Les rats mâles reçoivent dans l’eau de boisson le K2Cr2O7 (30 mg/L/jour seul ou en association avec le sélénium (0,3 mg/L/jour pendant 20 jours consécutifs. Les variations des paramètres hématologiques sont évaluées au 3e, 6e et 21e jour chez les rattes et au 10e et 20e jour chez les mâles. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le chrome engendre dès le 3e jour après son administration par voie sc chez la femelle une diminution notable et dose-dépendante (p < 0,05 du nombre d’érythrocytes, du taux d’hématocrite, du nombre de plaquettes sanguines, de leucocytes, de lymphocytes et une augmentation dose-dépendante du nombre de granulocytes et de monocytes. Le chrome administré par voie orale diminue le nombre de leucocytes et de lymphocytes dès le 10e jour du traitement et augmente celui des monocytes et des granulocytes 20 jours plus tard. La présence du sélénium par voie sous-cutanée contrebalance les effets hématotoxiques du chrome chez la ratte. Conclusion : Ces résultats suggèrent que le sélénium a un rôle protecteur contre l’hématotoxicité induite par le chrome administré par voie sc chez la ratte Wistar.

Adjroud Ounassa

2010-12-01

25

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COCCINIA GRANDIS ROOT EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis root extract against paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress in wistar albino rats. The ethanolic extracts of Coccinia grandis (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg were administered orally to the animals and hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (750mg/kg. The extracts were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. Silymarin (25mg/kg was given as reference standard. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis roots produced a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SGOT, SGPT, SALP, Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin and it also produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in Total protein when compared to paracetamol treated group indicating hepatoprotective action. The ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis root produced a significant (P<0.01 increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activity when compared to paracetamol treated group and it also produced significant (P<0.01 increase in activity of Px and GPx at 400mg/kg dose, indicating antioxidant activity. But it produced less significant in Px at 200mg/kg dose and it showed no significant activity in GPx at 200mg/kg dose. The histopathological study of liver section of rat treated with ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis (200 and 400 mg/kg showed mild hepatocyte degeneration. It was concluded from the result that ethanolic extract of Coccinia grandis possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Moideen K

2011-03-01

26

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

Mirza Danish Baig

2014-04-01

27

Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant increase when compared with the control. The treated groups also produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum LDL, VLDL and TG when compared with the control. Also, in female albino rats, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total cholesterol when compared with the control. Though the group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum HDL, a significant increase (P<0.05 was observed in groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C. The group treated with fansidar alone produce a significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum LDL while groups treated with fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C produced a significant (P<0.05 increase when compared with the control .Likewise, both treated groups produced a significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum VLDL when compared with the control. The serum triglyceride in fansidar treated group was significantly(P<0.05 decreased in fansidar+ Vit.C treated group when compared with the control. Conclusion:The biochemical alterations and responses above from this study are indications that fansidar and Vitamin C exhibits a synergistic reaction which might aid hypocholesterolaemic effect or cholesterol clearing or lowering ability which can reduce the risk of predisposition to atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular related disorders.

Dasofunjo Kayode

2014-10-01

28

Assessment of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation by intermittent fasting in Wistar albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermittent fasting (IF), a type of feeding regimen where the frequency of eating is reduced enhances cardiovascular stress adaptation and improves cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Data on the effect of IF on the endothelium is not common, so we examined whether IF showed similarity to documented beneficial effects of caloric restriction on endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of rat aortic rings. 25 young male Wistar rats had ad libitum (AL) access to food and 25 others were provided with food every other day for 2 months, during which their weight was measured every 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity of abdominal aorta was simultaneously evaluated using dual wire myographs. Weight gain was greater in the AL group (P<0.001) at all weighing intervals. Acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10)-10(-5)M) produced greater (P<0.05) vasorelaxation in IF rats at the two highest concentrations. IF reduces weight gain in young male rats and improves their aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23362726

Razzak, Rima L Abdul; Abu-Hozaifa, Bodour M; Bamosa, Abdullah O; Ali, Nemah M

2011-01-01

29

Stimulatory Effects of Dihydroartemisinin on the Leucocyte Population of Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Five dosages of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA which included 1mg kg-1; a repeated dose of 1; 2; 60 and 80 mg kg-1 were administered orally to albino rats for 5 days. The results of the study showed that dihydroartemisinin treatment significantly elevated the total white cell count (pApproach: By increasing the population of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (which engage in chemo tactic response; microbial killing; microbial ingestion and antibody production in the blood, dihydroartemisinin demonstrated that it stimulates increase in their population and uses them as part of its own arsenals of warfare against endoparasites (like malaria parasites and pathogens. Results: The results of this study show that dihydroartemisinin stimulated a lot of new white blood cell production by haemopoetic sites of the body The increases in the total white blood cell count; the percentage neutrophils count and the percentage lymphocyte counts were significant at pConclusion: The results of the study suggest that the phagocytic and immunological activities of the body?s white blood cell population are important components of the efficacious Plasmodium Schizonticidal actions of Dihydroartemisinin in malaria treatment.

U. A. Utoh-Nedosa

2011-01-01

30

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are highly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan Zora

2012-04-01

31

Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

K. Konaté

2011-02-01

32

Effect of a plant origin drug on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA in Wistar albino rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years all over the world, medicinal plants are used quite a lot but side effects of biological and chemical contents and radiopharmaceutical interactions for each consumer in question aren't entirely well-known. The studies of plant origin drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals are hig [...] hly relevant and desired. One of them is passiflora syrup (Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae) which is widely used for depression, insomnia, anxiety and menopause period. The aim of current study is to evaluate possible effects of passiflora syrup on the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA and its blood cells uptake. DTPA was labeled with 99mTc radionuclide. Biodistribution studies were performed on male Wistar albino rats which were treated via oral feeding-gavage-method with either passiflora syrup or 0.9 % NaCl as control group for ten days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac blood withdrawal from the rats and they were radiolabeled. The biodistribution results showed that the passiflora syrup decreased the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA in kidneys and in blood cells. 99mTc-DTPA being used widely as a kidney diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine seems to be interacting with orally taken passiflora. Passiflora syrup may modify the uptake of 99mTc-DTPA by kidney. The knowledge of this negative effect may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine.

Hasan, Zora; Zumrut F. Biber, Muftuler; Ilknur, Demir; Ayfer Yurt, Kilcar; Cigdem, Ichedef; Perihan, Unak.

2012-04-01

33

KETAMINE AS A SINGLE GENERAL ANESTHETIC AGENT FOR ORAL SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimentally induced periodontitis forms the basis for trials of novel drugs and therapeutics. Ketamine, an N- amino-D- aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist is considered to be safe dissociative anesthetic agent. But, the literature on the use of Ketamine as an effective general anesthetic is conflicting. We had to determine, safe and effective dose range of intra-peritoneal Ketamine hydrochloride injection in Wistar albino rats for the placement of ligatures in the oral cavity. 50 rats of the age group (greater than 4 months and weight of160g-350g were selected for the study from the Department of Pharmacology, Yenepoya University, and Mangalore. Intraperitonial injection was administered using Tuberculin syringe. The optimal dose for each animal was tabulated and log dose was calculated. Nonlinear regression analysis was done. 95% confidence limit and ED50 was calculated from the graph was 101.9mg/kg (68.1-152.6mg/kg correlation coefficient was 0.4946.  Profound and effective anesthesia was obtained at a dose of 60mg/kg-275mg/kg. The dose range of Ketamine alone from 60-275mg/kg i.p.route produced profound reproducible anesthesia. Minor oral surgical procedures could be carried out without discomfort. Mortality and morbidity due to anesthesia was low.

Rajesh H*, Rejeesh EP and Rao Sudarshanram Narayan

2013-07-01

34

CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCENT LEAF (OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM ON CISPLATIN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used for a wide variety of tumors, but is reported to be hepatotoxic. In the current study, the dose dependent and time course curative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (O.G. on cisplatin induced hepatotoxic rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches was evaluated. Male albino wistar rats weighing between 150-200g were randomly separated into four different groups of eighteen (18 rats per group. Rats in group 1 received no cisplatin. Normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. The rats in group 2 were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight i.p. Tissue damage was also induced in rats in groups 3 and 4 by a single intraperitoneal-administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight. After three days, 2ml/kg body weight of 5% and 10% aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum were administered to rats in groups 3 and 4 respectively, through the oral route using the gavage once daily for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Rats in group 2 were given sterile water in place of the extracts while rats in group 1 were the untreated controls. They were all allowed unlimited access to tap water and growers’ mash. Results showed the extract to cause significant (P? 0.05 dose and time related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST and ALP and increase in serum protein. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase (P? 0.05 in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT from 43.03 ± 1.29 to 127.90 ± 0.89 U/L and a decrease (P? 0.05 in serum protein concentration from 93.70 ± 0.61 to 50.43 ± 1.53 g/l. There were considerable decreases (P? 0.05 in body weight and liver weight to body weight ratio in the test animals. However, most of these observed changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum which was also found to be dose and time dependent (P ? 0.05. The ameliorating effect was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations of liver tissues in the groups treated with aqueous extract of O. gratissimum (5% and 10%. The results from this study indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of O. gratissimum has anti-hepatotoxic action against cisplatin induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Hence the extracts have the potential to be used for the management of hepatopathies and as a therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin toxicity.

E. M. Arhoghro

2012-08-01

35

Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Youcef Necib

2014-03-01

36

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which abelongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

37

Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

S. Zahra Bathaie

2013-01-01

38

Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract protects of radiation induced glycogen depletion in Albino Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to ionizing radiation cause variety of pathological processes in irradiated cells. The killing action of ionizing radiation is mainly mediated through the free radicals generated from the radiolysis of cellular water. In the present study, protective effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi root extract (NJE) on radiation induced depletion of glycogen in rats exposed to 3 Gy whole body electron beam irradiation (EBR) was investigated. EBR was performed at Microtron centre, Mangalore University. Treatment of rats with NJE at a dosage of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw respectively once daily for 15 days before, after and both before and after irradiation was done. The liver, kidney and muscle was separated and used for the estimation of total glycogen content using standard procedures and also for the histochemical localization of glycogen by PAS staining method. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Kruskal Wallis test. P<0.05 was the level of significance. The irradiated rats exhibited significant decline (p=0.000) in the level of total glycogen content in the tissues of liver, kidney and muscle whereas, a nonsignificant variation was recorded in rats treated with NJE. This study indicated that treatment with NJE both before and after irradiation for 15 consecutive days provided significant protection against irradiation induced depletion of glycogen. (author)

39

The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...

Vijay P; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

2008-01-01

40

ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01 and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05 respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

Rao S.N

2013-04-01

41

Sub-Acute Toxicity Profile of Fixed Dose Combination of Pirotum (Cefpirome-Sulbactam in Swiss Albino Mice and Wistar Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of ?-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio, a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female. Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1 of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.

A. Tamta

2010-01-01

42

Hepatoprotective effect of Cocculus hirsutus on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in Albino Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this animal model (Wistar rats of either sex common bile duct was ligated for 28 days. Rats were treated for 28 days with methanol extract of Cocculus hirsutus. On day 29, blood and liver were collected for biochemical estimation and histopathological studies. Bile duct ligation produced liver fibrosis with generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative stress. Hence the different concentrations of methanolic extract of C. hirsutus were evaluated for in vivo glutathione reductase activity. On bile duct ligation the liver fibrosis was induced with significant rise in serum marker enzymes levels. The hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels. Treatment with C. hirsutus extract decreased the elevated levels of serum marker enzymes showing hepatoprotection, which was further confirmed by histopathological results.

Sagar P. Thakare, Hitesh N. Jain, Savita D. Patil and Umesh M. Upadhyay

2009-12-01

43

Effect of vasopressin on the expression of genes for key enzymes of hyaluronan turnover in Wistar Albino Glaxo and Brattleboro rat kidneys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyaluronan (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix, is heterogeneously distributed within the kidney. Using real-time RT-PCR, we tested the assumption that renal HA may be involved in the long-term effect of vasopressin on water reabsorption. The expression of the genes encoding hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2), hyaluronidase-1 and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal1 and Hyal2) was studied in the kidneys of Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) and homozygous vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats treated with the V2 receptor-selective vasopressin analogue dDAVP (100 ?g (kg body wt)(-1), i.p., twice a day for 2 days). The Has2 mRNA content was the highest in the kidney papilla of the hydrated WAG and control Brattleboro rats, devoid of vasopressin. In WAG rats, dDAVP induced a considerable decrease in Has2 mRNA content in the papilla, with less pronounced changes in the cortex. The changes elicited by dDAVP in Brattleboro rats tended to be the same as in WAG rats, but weaker. In contrast to Has2, dDAVP treatment caused a significant increase in the Hyal1 and Hyal2 mRNA content in the renal papilla of WAG and Brattleboro rats. In rats of both strains, there was a good fit between Hyal1 and Hyal2 transcriptional levels and changes in hyaluronidase activity in the renal tissue. It is suggested that vasopressin is able to inhibit the synthesis of HA and concomitantly promote its degradation in the interstitium of the renal papilla, thereby facilitating water flow between elements of the renal countercurrent system. The implications for this effect are discussed in the context of the data in the literature. PMID:23955305

Ivanova, Lyudmila N; Babina, Alina V; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Lyubov E

2013-11-01

44

Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (?0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory cells, congested vessel and interstitial hemorrhage in rats treated with Solignum®. Therefore, this present study is aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic potentials associated with sub-chronic exposure to the commercial pesticide Solignum®.

Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

2014-03-01

45

JATROPHA MULTIFIDA LINN (EUPHORBIACEAE : EXPLORATION DES PROPRIETES ANTIBACTERIENNES ET DU POUVOIR CICATRISANT DE LA SEVE DE CETTE PLANTE CHEZ LE RAT ALBINOS DE SOUCHE WISTAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jatropha multifida Linn is a plant used in traditional medicine in the treatment of certain diseases or skin troubles in Republic of the Benin. In this study, the sap of the plant was used to evaluate its healing and antimicrobial activities.With this intention, the antimicrobic activity of the sap carried out starting from the method of dilution in solid medium was evaluated on two germs of references: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The results showed that J multifida has a very strong inhibiting activity on the growth of S. aureus (nearly 100% with one CMI equal to 20mg/ml and an average inhibition on the growth of E coli. The healing activity of the sap was required on the wounds (wound of excision of size 2,25cm2 carried out in the albino rat Wistar. The results indicated that at the end of 19 days of treatment (once every 48 hours, the wounds of the rats of the treated batch were healed to 99% compared to those of the batch untreated and being used as witness of which the percentage of retraction of the wounds is 43% at the same stage.

J.R. KLOTOE

2015-01-01

46

Effect of Iron-fortified ‘Gari’, Cassava Meal on Serum Iron, Hemoglobin Concentration and Total Iron-binding Capacity in Albino Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of iron fortified ‘gari’, a cassava fermented meal on serum iron, hemoglobin concentration and total iron binding capacity on Albino Wistar rats were investigated. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA among the low income house-hold is high in developing countries due to low intake of dietary iron. Developing an intervention strategy for IDA is a major concern and food fortification is considered the sustainable strategy to alleviate IDA. Freshly grated cassava tubers were divided into four subsamples; A-C and then mixed with Ferrous Sulphate (FS, Iron (III sulphate (F3 and Ferric Alum (FA, respectively in ratio 1:5000 (0.2 g fortificant kg-1 mash. The samples along with the Control (D were each fermented in a solid state for 24 h and stir-fried to obtain gari granules. The gari samples were fed to rats divided into four groups of five for fourteen days and the serum, then analyzed for serum iron concentration, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and hemoglobin concentration. The results showed significant increase (p-1 and hemoglobin (13.63±2.8 g dL-1 and significantly lower level (55.5±2.2 ?mol L-1 of TIBC(p<0.05, indicating a better iron bioavailabilty. The findings suggests that fortification of gari with Ferrous Sulphate (FS had higher bioavailability of iron and therefore hold promise in combating iron deficiency anemia.

O. Igile Godwin

2013-01-01

47

Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

Chandrashekar R.

2013-06-01

48

Evaluation of Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don Pulp Oil on Serum Lipid Parameters in Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was compounded using the oil extract (10%, whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%. After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p>0.05 alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%. Insignificant (p>0.05 increases in the weights (g 100 g-1 BW of the liver (2.91±0.17 to 3.38±0.25, kidney (0.36±0.06 to 0.40±0.02 and heart (0.32±0.02 to 0.33±0.04 were observed in the test group. No significant change (p>0.05 in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%, linoleic acid (28.6%,oleic acid (12.9%, stearic acid (5.0%, lauric acid (2.2%, linolenic acid (1.7% and myristic acid (0.9%. The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered.

C.N. Ezekwesili

2014-01-01

49

Sub-acute Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius Root on Some Physiologically Important Electrolytes in Serum of Normal Wistar Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯ were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p>0.05, for A, D and E but significant (p2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p0.05. Decreases (p0.05 for A and B were observed for Cl¯. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C, with test group B showing a significant decrease (pSarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant.

V.H.A. Enemor

2013-01-01

50

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF Pedalium murex Linn. IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The levels of ACP and ALP, AST, ALT in renal and hepatic tissues of ethylene glycol induced rats might be due to leakage of the enzyme into the general circulation from the collateral circulation. LDH levels in serum, urine and tissues were increased on ethylene glycol intoxication is due to the oxalate induced renal and hepatic cellular damage. PMID:22557365

Teepa, K S Ananta; Kokilavani, R; Balakrishnan, A; Gurusamy, K

2010-04-01

51

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC FRUIT EXTRACT OF Pedalium murex Linn. IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The...

Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Kokilavani, R.; Balakrishnan, A.; Gurusamy, K.

2010-01-01

52

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Althaea officinalis against Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver function were assessed by the determination of SGPT and SGOT studies. The serum biochemical analysis results suggested that the use of ethanolic extract of Althaea officinalis exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model.

Jabbar Zoobi

2011-12-01

53

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of a...

Ayfer Aktas; Serhan Tasdemir, M.; Cudi Tuncer, M.; Yusuf Nergiz; Murat Akkus; Hüsnü Alper Bagriyanik

2011-01-01

54

A contribution to the knowledge of thyroid-pituitary-hypothalamus - axis in experimental hypoproteinemia in albino wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of a protein-deficient that on rat TSH levels were evaluated in basal conditions and after TRH administration. Two groups of animals were studied. One group was fed with a normal-protein diet, and the other with a protein-deficient diet. The animals were kept under controlle conditions during the experiment (30d). Their weight was periodically controlled, and its variation analysed. Data were statistically evaluated. The animals in the two groups had similar average initial weight. During the experiment the control had a weight increase whereas the protein-deficient group showed a decrease. The concentration of total serum proteins, and protein fraction (albumin, globulins) analysed, presented significantly lower values in the protein-deficient group, when compared to the control group. After TRH administration, the control group had approximately a tenfold increase in its average basal TSH level, while the protein-deficient group showed a seventeenfold increase. An exaggerated TSH release was demonstrated, in response to TRH in the protein-deficient animals without any evidence of basal level alteration. The increased responsiveness to TRH in protein-deficient animal is probably related to the reduced modulation of pituitary TSH secretion by lower triiodothyronine levels due to deficient extrathyroidal thyroxine conversion

55

The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-{sup 14}C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of {sup 14}C elimination, mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of {sup 14}C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of {sup 14}C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of {sup 14}C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Toxicokinetics Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

1998-04-01

56

Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

1980-01-01

57

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are bes...

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-robins; Obi-abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

58

Acute oral administration of Khat (Catha edulis) aqueous extract elevates blood pressure and prolongs QT and QTC intervals in Wistar albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To investigate the effect of Khat (Catha edulis) acute administration on blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in vivo. Methods: This study was performed between January and February 2009 at the Physiology Laboratory, Medical College of King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two groups of Wistar rats (n=10), weighing 190-200 g were divided into control group and Khat treated group. Throughout the study, arterial BP and ECG were recorded for 60 consecu...

Al-hashem, Fahaid H.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.

2012-01-01

59

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

60

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against ?-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in ?-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. ?-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animficantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against ?-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. (author)

61

Protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, in brain of Wistar albino rats exposed to gamma-radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds, against gamma-radiation (5 Gy)-induced oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each. One group was un-irradiated (normal), two groups were treated with KV and VC (250 mg/kg) for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Cellular alterations were monitored using changes in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-an index of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), urea and creatinine. MDA levels increased significantly (p<0.05) by 90% and 151% after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation. Furthermore, levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in gamma-irradiated animals. GSH and GST decreased by 61% and 43% after 1 week, and by 75% and 74%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. gamma-Irradiation decreased SOD and CAT levels by 53% and 68%, respectively, and caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum ALT, AST and urea after 8 weeks of exposure. Treatment with KV and VC significantly decreased the levels of MDA, ALT, AST and urea. The antioxidant indices were significantly ameliorated in KV-treated animals. These data suggest that kolaviron may protect against gamma-radiation-induced oxidative stress in brain of exposed rats. PMID:20118550

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

2010-01-01

62

WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY ON THE LEAVES OF ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM L. BY EXCISION, INCISION, AND DEAD SPACE MODEL ON ADULT WISTAR ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the wound healing activity of the Indian medicinal plant Achillea millefolium L. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L was studied for its effect on wound healing in Wistar rats, using incision, excision, and dead space model at dose levels of 200mg/kg. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Achillea millefolium L. showed a definite, positive effect on wound healing with a significant increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight and wet weight content, and breaking strength of granulation tissue. In histopathological studies showed increased collagen when compared to the control. The efficacy of Achillea millefolium L. in wound healing may be due to the presence of active principles, which accelerate the healing process and confers breaking strength to the healed wound. So it is possible to conclude that, this plant has wound healing activity and there by justifying traditional claim.

S. Nirmala

2011-03-01

63

Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

2014-01-01

64

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

OpenAIRE

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built en...

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modlin?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

65

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

OpenAIRE

Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization) were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group): in this gr...

Abu Gabal H, Moamena M. And Al Moalla H.

2013-01-01

66

Gonadal Responses to Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine and Thioridazine Reversibly Suppress Testicular Functions in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

This work was undertaken to investigate the individual effects and probable mechanism of action of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (largactil) and thioridazine hydrochloride (melleril) on male reproductive functions, in albino rats. A total of 45 adult male albino Wistar-strain rats were used. Five rats served as the control while the remaining forty rats were divided into four groups, of 10 rats each. Rats in group I were treated with 2.3 mg kg-1 BW, while those of group II received 5.7 mg kg-1...

Raji, Y.; Ifabunmi, S. O.; Akinsomisoye, O. S.; Morakinyo, A. O.; Oloyo, A. K.

2005-01-01

67

Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) ...

Ghezzi Ana; Cambri Lucieli; Botezelli José; Ribeiro Carla; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria Alice

2012-01-01

68

EFFECTS OF AMLODIPINE ON THE TESTICULAR PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the effect of exposure of calcium channel blocker Amlodipine for different periods on the reproductive parameters of adult male Wistar albino rats Amlodipine in a dose equivalent to the normal clinical dose was administered orally to albino rats in their reproductive age for different periods ranging from two weeks to eighteen weeks and the reproductive parameters such as sperm count, motility and gonado-somatic index were verified. Reproductive parameters such as sperm count and sperm motility were found to be adversely affected in a significant (p<0.05 and duration dependent manner from 28th day onward of once daily administration of Amlodipine while gonado-somatic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05 from 42nd day of continuous administration Potential risk of the calcium channel blocker Amlodipine on male fertility, especially on long term use must be considered while prescribing this drug to young adults.

Shini Dominic

2013-08-01

69

Nigerian bonny-light crude oil induces alteration in testicular stress response proteins and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in albino wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past few decades, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and Crude Oil in particular around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where all the crude Oil exploration is taking place. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by BLCO is not well known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to BLCO. Experimental rats were divided into five groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL, NF-kB and TNF-? were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptotis- related proteins as early as 6 h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of the proteins were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of BLCO. PMID:24106129

Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; D'Cruz, Cynthia S; Jubendradass, R; Amala Rani, Judith S; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2015-02-01

70

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

O.J. Olorunfemi

2012-04-01

71

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA.LINN AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including liver diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the hapatoprotective activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn (SHE against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 inducd hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the determination of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin. Histopathological studies were carried out.The serum biochemical analysis results suggest that the use of Ethanolic extract of Spermacoce hispida.Linn exhibited significant protective effect from hepatic damage in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model. Histopathological studies revealed that concurrent administration of the extract with CCl4 exhibited protective effect on the liver, which further evidenced its hepatoprotective activity.

M.Karthikeyan

2011-01-01

72

Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is normally thrown by many while eating pomegranate fruit is having anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and Antioxidant activity. Furthermore high therapeutic index is safe for chronic use.

Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

2015-01-01

73

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvastatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control. Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group, A2 (0.5-mg group and A3 (1-mg group group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control. Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg, A2 (0,5 mg y A3 (1 mg fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal.

Ayfer Aktas

2011-03-01

74

Atorvastatin Has no Effects on Kidney Tissues of Wistar Albino Rats in the Long-Term Intake: An Electron Microscopic Study / Atorvastatina no Tiene Efectos sobre los Tejidos Renales de Ratas Wistar Albinas en el Consumo a Largo Plazo: Un Estudio de Microscopia Electrónica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En un modelo de rata, se evaluaron los hallazgos ultraestructurales del riñón provocados por la administración sistémica de diferentes dosis de atorvastatina. Las estatinas pueden tener efectos anti-inflamatorios que desempeñan un importante rol en la prevención del daño celular. El objetivo de este [...] estudio fue investigar cómo la atorvastatina podría desempeñar un papel en los tejidos del riñón. 40 Ratas Wistar albinas Adultas (200-250 g) machos fueron divididas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos de 10 ejemplares cada uno (A1, A2, A3 y Control). Tres diferentes dosis de atorvastatina se utilizaron para determinar los efectos sobre los tejidos del riñón durante un período de 90 días. Los riñones de los grupos A1 (0,1 mg), A2 (0,5 mg) y A3 (1 mg) fueron extirpados a los 90 días y los tejidos examinados por microscopía electrónica de transmisión. A pesar de haberse aumentado la dosis de ingesta de atorvastatina, las estructuras histológicas se asemejaron al grupo normal del mismo período. En conclusión, el uso de atorvastatina en un plazo prolongado, no produce efecto negativo sobre el tejido renal. Abstract in english In this study, we evaluated the ultrastructural findings of kidney with systemic administration of different doses of atorvastatin in a rat model. Statins may have anti-inflammatory effects that would play a role in preventing the cellular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate how atorvas [...] tatin could play a role in kidney tissues. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats (200­250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups of ten rats each (A1, A2, A3 and Control). Three different doses of atorvastatin were used to determine the effects on kidney tissues during 90 day period. The kidneys of A1 (0.1-mg group), A2 (0.5-mg group) and A3 (1-mg group) group were excised and the tissues were examined after the 90 days by transmission electron microscopy. Despite increasing the dose of atorvastatin intake, the histological structures of atorvastatin groups were appeared normal in the same period. In conclusion, long-term use of atorvastatin was not found to have an adverse effect on kidney tissue.

Ayfer, Aktas; M, Serhan Tasdemir; M, Cudi Tuncer; Yusuf, Nergiz; Murat, Akkus; Hüsnü Alper, Bagriyanik.

2011-03-01

75

Circadian Rhythm of Outside-Nest Activity in Wild (WWCPS), Albino and Pigmented Laboratory Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups. PMID:23762462

Stryjek, Rafa?; Modli?ska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

2013-01-01

76

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

OpenAIRE

Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled a...

Marisa Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Mary Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo Martins de Oliveira-Filho; Silvia Espiridião; Luiz Kulay Júnior

2003-01-01

77

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

OpenAIRE

Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally r...

Sengupta Parama; Bagchi Chiranjib; Sharma Abhishek; Majumdar G; Dutta C; Tripathi Santanu

2010-01-01

78

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L) ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

OpenAIRE

: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene) or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g) was divided randomly into four groups (n=6) and received the following medications orally ...

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

79

The Nephrotoxic Impact of Oseltamivir in Male Albino Rats after Repeated Exposure  

OpenAIRE

The effects of oseltamivir administration, effectively against influenza viruses A and B, on some selected parameters of rat kidney function were investigated to evaluate its possible nephrotoxic effects. Eighteen (18) albino male Wistar rats with body weights ranging from 150 - 190 g were divided into three groups, the first group (T1) was treated orally with 1 mg/kg BW as a therapeutic dose of oseltamivir for 7 consecutive days. The second group (T2) was treated with ...

Falah Muosa Kadhim Al-Rekabi

2014-01-01

80

Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24) albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8) weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4) experimental groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Gro...

Nwangwa, E. K.

2012-01-01

81

Histological and biochemical markers of the liver of Wistar rats on subchronic oral administration of green tea  

OpenAIRE

Background: Few articles have linked the consumption of green tea to certain liver diseases but several articles have disputed these assertions and the consumption of green tea has been on the increase. Aims: The effects of oral administration of green tea on the liver of Wistar rats were studied in order to compare biochemical findings with histological findings. Materials and Methods: 36 male and female Wistar albino rats were grouped into 6, consisting of 6 rats in each group. They were gi...

Godwin Avwioro; Sina Iyiola; Benjamin Aghoghovwia

2010-01-01

82

Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induce [...] d heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

T.G.G., Zotz; J.B. de, Paula; A.D.L., Moser.

2012-06-01

83

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

2006-01-01

84

PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

OpenAIRE

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

2006-01-01

85

Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in ...

Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

2010-01-01

86

Immunotoxicity of clonazepam in adult albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clonazepam as an addictive drug is studied to elucidate its destructive effects on rats' immune system. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic changes induced by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam for three weeks followed by a withdrawal period in adult male albino rats. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups. The first group was used as control; the second and third groups were treated with clonazepam. Six rats from each group were sacrificed weekly. Data showed that clonazepam induced a significant suppression in the level of IFN-gamma cortisol production, total splenocytes count and lymphocytes transformation induced by PHA mitogen along the experimental period especially in the third group. However, subchronic doses of clonazepam increased the production of IL-10 in both treated groups. Moreover, significant DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of both treated groups was observed along the duration of the study. In conclusion, the immune system responses can be adversely affected to a greater extent by sub-chronic administration of clonazepam and should be prescribed cautiously as patients may turn addict to it. PMID:24617047

Rabei, Hanan Mostafa

2013-01-01

87

ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

88

Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Objectives : To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods : The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other bioch...

Srivastava Vivek; Viswanathaswamy A.H.M; Mohan Govind

2010-01-01

89

Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

2014-09-01

90

Wound healing activities of Bark Extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in albino rats.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To investigate the wound-healing properties of crude bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in Wistar albino rats. METHODS This work was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India, in the year 2005. We divided the animals into 3 groups of 12 each. Group I was saline control without wound, group II was animals treated with JC extract in the dose of 2 ml/kg body weight with wound and g...

Somashekar Shetty; Udupa, Saraswati L.; Udupa, Alaya L.; Vollala, Venkata R.

2006-01-01

91

Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory animals, including rats, play an important role in biomedical research and advances. The human care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. Since, Trichosomoides infections in rat colonies can interfere with research protocols it is important to know rate of infection and pathology of the infection in the animals used in experimental studies. 275 rats were eviscerated and urinary bladders were collected. The numbers of collected nematodes from each of the urinary bladders were counted under a stereomicroscope and identified on the basis of morphological criteria. Tissue sections were collected and processed routinely for histopathological studies. Out of 275 urinary bladder of adult laboratory Wistar rats examined, 156 (56.72% were infected with the nematode, Trichosomoides crassicauda. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in infection in female and male rats, with rate of 47.73% and 80.26%, respectively. The number of nematodes collected from each infected rats ranged from one to fourteen with an average of three nematodes per animal. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple parasites with variable degree of lesions in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Parasites were lying upon the epithelium or located in chambers between epithelial cells. Also immature and embryonated eggs were seen in female worms. Other lesions were as follow: Hyperplasia of epithelium, erosions, ulcers and eosinophilic cystitis. This study reports the data on the presence of helminth parasites in laboratory rat colonies, and suggests paying attention on controlling the sanitary conditions of animal houses.

Bahrami?, S.,

2014-05-01

92

Cytogenetic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Wistar rat bone marrow.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was investigated in Wistar rat bone-marrow cells, using the structural chromosomal aberration (SCA) and micronucleus (MN) test systems. LCT was administrated to adult female albino rats as repeated i.p. doses of 6.12, 3.06, 0.8 mg/kg BW for 13 days at 48 h intervals. Mitomycin C (MMC) was used as a positive control (2 mg/kg BW). All the doses of LCT increased the number of structural chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, compared with the control group. It was also observed that LCT caused a significant decrease in the number of polychromatic erythrocytes. Our results demonstrate that LCT has a clastogenic/genotoxic potential as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Wistar rats. PMID:12948817

Celik, Ayla; Mazmanci, Birgül; Camlica, Yusuf; A?kin, Ali; Cömelekoglu, Ulkü

2003-08-01

93

Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy  

OpenAIRE

We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

2011-01-01

94

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

OpenAIRE

The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of sper...

Sakr S.A.; Azab A.E.

2001-01-01

95

Testicular Antifertility Action of Cassia angustifolia in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study describes the reproductive effect of leaves aqueous extract of Cassia angustifolia on male albino rats. The adult male rat received 1 ml of C. angustifolia extract at a dose level 50 mg/rat /day and 100 mg /rat/day for 45 days orally. The result showed that the body weight of all days exhibit did not any significance loss but in treatment I and II, the weights of reproductive organ like testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased significantly whe...

Dhanapal. R; Babitha. J; Kandeepan. S; Murugaian. P

2013-01-01

96

Gamma radiation effect on the adrenaloctomized albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats of 3 months old was carried out. Whole body irradiation (800, 600, 400, 200, and 0 rad) were performed after adrenalectomy, and the grade of corticosteroid in the blood plasma was then measured (Group A, B). Other groups of rats (group C, D) were injected with corticosteron and its effect on their survival was observed. The difference between its effect on the normal and that on the treated rats was not significant. It also showed that the neuro-endocrin reaction did not give beneficial effect on the irradiated rats. (author)

97

Effects of Garcinia kola on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Garcinia kola on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied. A total of twenty four (24 albino rats of wistar strain weighing between 100-150 g were made diabetic by single freshly prepared intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/dL of alloxan monohydrate. Eight (8 weeks after confirmation of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four (4 experimental groups (n = 6. Group I (Control rats were treated with 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group II ( diabetic rats received 1ml of 5% ethanol, Group III (Diabetic rats treated with 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola and 1mL of 5% ethanol and Group IV, (Diabetic rats received 400 mg/kg of extract of Garcinia kola, 1 mL of 5% ethanol and 1 mL of honey.The extracts were administered twice daily for four (4 weeks. The blood glucose level and Lipid profile was analysed. The results shows that Garcinia kola has a significant (p<0.05 hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic rats and significantly (p<0.05 decreased the level of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Triglyceride (TG and significantly (p<0.05 increase in the level of High density lipoprotein compared with the diabetic non-treated group. These findings if applied can be of help in the management of diabetic patients.

E.K. Nwangwa

2012-04-01

98

Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

C. N. Santhosh Kumar

2013-10-01

99

Effect of Pyrethroid Inhalation on the Testis of Albino Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of the pyrethroid tetramethrin on the testicular tissue of the albino rats was studied. Rats inhaled tetramethrin for 6 weeks showed significant loss in the testes weight and reduction in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, histological examination of the testis revealed destruction of the seminiferous tubules, reduction of spermatogenic cells and degeneration of Leydig cells. It is speculated that tetramethrin may be responsible for inhibition of spermatogenesis in the rats through suppression of testicular androgenic activity.

Sakr S.A.

2001-01-01

100

TO INVESTIGATE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM. SEED EXTRACT ON PARACETAMOL AND D-GALACTOSAMINE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.  

OpenAIRE

Hepatoprotective activity of 95% methanolic extract was investigated against D-Galactosamine  and paracetamol  induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. Silymarin was used as the reference standard at 50mg/kg orally and it showed effect in both the hepatotoxicity models. Rats were divided in 5 groups each group contains 6 animals. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Bilirubin (Direct & Total). In histopathologi...

HITESHKUMAR BHOGILAL PARMAR

2012-01-01

101

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this...

Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

2010-01-01

102

Pharmacological evaluation of some bioactive plant products on albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study comprises the pharmacological trials with essential oils of Caesulia axillaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Mentha arvensis which have shown strong antifungal property. The biochemical analysis of blood and serum of albino rats fed with the oil treated diet for sixty days exhibited nonanimal toxic nature of the oils. The study reveals the possibility of further exploitation of the oils as safe antifungal agents of plant origin. PMID:16961204

Tiwari, T N; Varma, J; Dubey, N K; Chansouria, J P; Ali, Z

1998-01-01

103

Immunomodulatory activity of Vachadhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study is carried out to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha was prepared by classical method and evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-medicated immunity in established experimental models. Test formulation was administered at the dose of 900 mg/kg and parameters like hemagglutination titer, ponderal changes, histopathology of immunological organs and immunological paw edema were recorded. Vacha Dha...

Rajagopala, S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

2011-01-01

104

Toxicity of Sumithion in Albino Rats: Hematological and Biochemical Studies  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to investigate the hematological and biochemical effects of the organophosphate insecticide, sumithion, in albino rats. Animals were treated with sumathion at a dose level of 60 mg kg-1 body weight (1/4 LD50 ) daily for 12 days. It was found that erythrocytes (RBCs) count, haemoglobin contents, Mean Corpuscle Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscle Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were almost similar in control and treated animals. On the other hand, the results showed that...

Al Sahhaf, Zuhair Y.

2006-01-01

105

Daily and seasonal rythms in radiosensitivity of albino mongrel rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From experiments in albino mongrel rats it is shown that the radiosensitivity of ?-irradiated (60Co) animals follows a daily rhythm. A synchronization of the daily rhythms in radiosensitivity was noted in winter and during the first spring month which was impaired in April. Established wepe the rhythms of radiosensitivity for three seasons, i. e. winter, spring and summer, with the extremes in the dependence upon mean annual values varying significantly

106

Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-...

Anastasia, Utoh-nedosa U.; Stanislaus, Nedosa K.; Kenneth, Onyedibe I.

2011-01-01

107

ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF BLUMEA LACERA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves (BLE on albino rats. Acute toxicity study of BLE was performed by limit test as per OECD guideline. Antipyretic activity was studied by inducing pyrexia with Brewer's yeast. Acute oral LD50 of BLE in female rats was more than 2000 mg/kg. Three ascending doses of 100 (1/20 LD50, 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the antipyretic activity of BLE in rats. BLE at dose rates of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats suggesting antipyretic effect of BLE.

Lokesh K. Verma

2012-07-01

108

Reduced hippocampal GABAergic function in Wistar audiogenic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Epilepsy is a neurological disorder associated with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance within the underlying neural network. This study evaluated inhibitory ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic modulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of male Wistar rats and Wistar audiogenic rats (aged 90 ± 3 d [...] ays), a strain of inbred animals susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spike complexes in response to Schaffer collateral fiber stimulation were recorded in hippocampal slices before and during application of picrotoxin (50 µM, 60 min), a GABA A antagonist, and the size of the population spike was quantified by measuring its amplitude and slope. In control audiogenic-resistant Wistar rats (N = 9), picrotoxin significantly increased both the amplitude of the population spike by 51 ± 19% and its maximum slope by 73 ± 21%. In contrast, in slices from Wistar audiogenic rats (N = 6), picrotoxin caused no statistically significant change in population spike amplitude (33 ± 46%) or slope (11 ± 29%). Data are reported as means ± SEM. This result indicates a functional reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal slices from Wistar audiogenic rats.

L.E., Drumond; C., Kushmerick; P.A.M., Guidine; M.C., Doretto; M.F.D., Moraes; A.R., Massensini.

1054-10-01

109

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total of 24 adult male albino rats were randomly assigned as treated and untreated control groups. Treated group supplemented with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for 5 and 9 weeks. The results revealed that rats supplemented with water hyacinth (as a source of heavy metals) for 5 weeks induced significantly increase in RBCs, WBCs counts, hemoglobin content, Heinz bodies percentage and cell number/size ratio. At the same time liver cell size had a significant decrease under the same treatment. The ninth weeks of the experimental period showed a significant rise of Heinz bodies, globulin level, ALT level, liver cellular aspects (DNA, cell number and cell number/size ratio). A significant decrease of WBCs counts, A/G ratio and cell size were illustrated.The histological examination of treated rats liver showed chronic venous congestion with infiltration of the portal tract by chronic inflammatory cells and necrosis of hepatocyte cells consequently after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment

110

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs is 84,706±1,249 in albino and 90,440±2,236 in pigmented, out of which 2,383 and 2,428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs, respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively, ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented than oRGCs (2.6% express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 µm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 µm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an ontogenic mistake.

Marta Agudo-Barriuso

2014-10-01

111

The effects of cyfluthrin on some biomarkers in the liver and kidney of Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides can cause oxidative stress resulting to deleterious effects in animal metabolisms. Cyfluthrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used worldwide to protect crops and to eliminate pests. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cyfluthrin on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the liver and kidney of Wistar Albino Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) following intraperitoneal treatment of cyfluthrin (1.2, 12, and 120 mg/kg b.w./day) for 21 days. Comparisons were made with two control solutions named as serum physiologic and solvent in which cyfluthrin was dissolved. CAT activity in the liver and kidney of rats did not change after the lowest cyfluthrin treatment, while its activity significantly decreased at the higher doses. In general, cyfluthrin significantly decreased the activity of GPx in the liver and kidney at all doses, while MDA levels in the liver increased at all doses. Cyfluthrin significantly decreased AChE activity in the liver of rats at all doses, while this was true at the highest dose for the kidney. This study showed that the studied biomarkers were effective in determining the toxic effects of cyfluthrin. Thus, they should be used to monitor pesticide-affected areas before untargeted animals, including humans who suffer from the use of pesticides. PMID:25339534

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Canli, Mustafa

2015-03-01

112

Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats  

OpenAIRE

We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/o...

Marta Agudo-Barriuso

2014-01-01

113

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO??7H?O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO? and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO??7H?O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO? with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD. PMID:23657865

Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

2013-06-01

114

Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

2013-01-01

115

Khaya senegalensis inhibits piroxicam mediated gastro-toxicity in wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of piroxicam co-administration with ethanolic stem-bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on biomarkers of oxidative stress and gastro-toxicity in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male and female Albino Wistar rats (190-220 g were grouped into six (n = 5 with designated treatments including: Normal saline, piroxicam (20 mg/kg, extract (200 and 400 mg/kg alone and both doses of the extract co-administered with piroxicam. The drugs were administered orally to all the rats for fourteen consecutive days and on the fifteenth day, they were euthanized with chloroform inhalation. Blood samples and the stomachs were isolated for evaluation of the oxidative stress biomarkers and gastro integrity, respectively. Results: The results of the study revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers didn’t differ significantly between the groups receiving the extract alone, the extract in combination or piroxicam alone. Gross and histological observations of the stomach showed gastric mucosal changes and mild atrophic lesions in the piroxicam group only. Conclusion: This study illustrates the interaction of Khaya senegalensis and piroxicam results in the gastro-protective beneficial effects. The extract’s outcome on various prostaglandin levels and synthesis is being considered towards possible elucidation regarding the exact mechanism of cytoprotection.  

Fatima Nnawodu Ishaq

2014-11-01

116

The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

2001-09-01

117

Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.

Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian

2010-01-01

118

Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sectionhological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

119

Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

2001-11-01

120

Effect of cholesterol diet on reproductive function in male albino rats.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of cholesterol diet (400 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days on gonadal function in albino rats. METHODS The study was conducted in the Animal House Unit at Jordan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine, Irbid, Jordan between October 2003 and February 2004. Adult male and female albino rats of Sprague Dawley strain were raised under controlled temperature and light. Male rats were divided into: a) con...

Bataineh, Hameed N.; Nusier, Mohamad K.

2005-01-01

121

EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTACT OF GLYCOSMIS PENTAPHYLLA IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to perform preliminary phytochemical screening, acute oral toxicity and to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of whole plant of Glycosmis pentaphylla ethanolic extract. .Glycosmis pentaphylla,whole plant was extracted using ethanol as solvent by soxhlet apparatus. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine test dose . The evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity was done using Triton X 100 and High Fat Diet induced hyperlipidemia models in Wistar albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids. Doses up to 2000mg/kg were found to be safe after acute toxicity tests. Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, SGPT, Total protein and glucose were measured. The results suggested that EGP (ethanolic extract.Glycosmis pentaphylla possess antihyperlipidemic activity against hyperlipidemia induced by Triton X 100 and also High Fat Diet induced experimental models.

Syed Safiullah Ghori

2015-02-01

122

Histomorphometric Changes in the Testes and Epididymis of Wistar Strain Albino Rats Following Fourteen Days Oral Administration of Therapeutic Doses of Some Antibiotics / Cambios Histomorfométricos en los Testículos y el Epidídimo de Ratas Cepa Wistar Albinas Después de Catorce Días de Administración Oral de Dosis Terapéuticas de Algunos Antiobióticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios referentes a testículos y tejido epididimario en ratas tratadas por vía oral durante catorce días, con dosis terapéuticas de cloxacilina (6mg/100g/día), ampicilina (4mg/100/día) y tetraciclina (12mg/100g/día) por separado muestran una reducción significativa en el peso testicular y epidídim [...] ario. Los estudios microscópicos de los órganos reproductores masculinos revelan además una alteración significativa en el epidídimo como se observa en la reducción del diámetro (p Abstract in english Studies on testes and epididymis tissue of rats treated orally for fourteen days with therapeutic doses of cloxacillin (6mg/100g/day), ampicillin (4mg/100/day) and tetracycline (12mg/100g/day) separately showed a significant reduction in testicular and epididimis architecture. Microscopic studies of [...] these male reproductive organs further revealed a significant alteration in the epididymis as revealed by a significant reduction (p

F. O, Awobajo; Y, Raji; A. K, Akinloye.

1281-12-01

123

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

OpenAIRE

A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

Anbalagan, T.

2009-01-01

124

Effect of Splenectomy on PTZ Induced Epilepsy in Wistar Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction:. With regard to the interactions between brain and spleen, in this research, the effect of splenectomy on PTZ-induced epilepsy in Wistar rats was studied Methods:. In this study, 48 male and female wistar rats were used in 3 groups. Experimental groups for each of the two sexes included the negative control, positive control and splenectomy. Negative controls did not undergo surgery. The incision was created in the positive control group, but the spleen was not removed. The spleen was removed in splenectomy group. After seven days, PTZ was injected and the ?initiation time of different convulsive stages in terms of seconds and score of seizures in the three groups with the same gender were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results:. Second stage of convulsive seizures in the splenectomy group of male rats in comparison with control groups decreased significantly. Fourth stage of seizure in female splenectomized rats in comparison with negative control group decreased significantly. Also score terms of seizures in both male and female rats were not significantly different in the three groups.. Conclusion: Splenectomy intensifies PTZ-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

Keivan Keramati

2012-01-01

125

Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

2010-07-01

126

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities along with the phytochemical screening of hot methanolic extract of A. scholaris stem bark (ASE in albino rats was undertaken. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phystosterols, phenolic compounds, glycoside and flavonoids. Oral LD50 of ASE by limit test was found to be above 2000 mg/kg. Two dose level of 200 (1/10 LD50 and 400 mg/kg (1/5 LD50 were selected for studying the anti -inflammatory activity of ASE using the carrageenan - induced acute paw oedema model in rats. The extract showed significant (p < 0.01 dose dependent reduction in rat paw oedema. The percentages of inhibition of oedema were 42.55 and 53.19 with 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. doses of ASE, respectively, as compared to control. The anti-inflammatory action of ASE can be attributed to its flavonoid contents, which are known to act through inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Aruna K. Singh

2014-04-01

127

HYPOCHOLESTEROLAEMIC EFFECT OF SPIRULINA AND LIV-52 IN LEAD INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P

Jeyaprakash, K.; Chinnaswamy, P.

2004-01-01

128

PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal grbiochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

129

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to ...

Purushottam Pramanik, Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

130

Effect of acrylamide on testis of albino rats. Ultrastructure and DNA cytometry study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To explore the harmful effects of acrylamide on the structure of testis in albino rats, in an attempt to clarify its potential risks on human health. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2010 to December 2011. Forty-eight adult male albino rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 6 groups. Electron microscopy and histochemical techniques using...

Mustafa, Hesham N.

2012-01-01

131

Efficacy of sesamol on plasma and tissue lipids in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death all over the world. Sesamol is a potent phenolic antioxidant contained only in processed sesame oil and possesses potent chemopreventive, antimutagenic, antihepatotoxic and antioxidation properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesamol on plasma and tissue lipid profiles in isoproterenol (ISO) - induced rats. Myocardial infarction was induced in adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 180-200 g, by administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg of body weight), subcutaneously for 2 consecutive days. Sesamol dissolved in saline (0.9% NaCl) was administered intraperitoneally once in a day in the morning for 7 days. Increased levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in the plasma and the decreased levels of phospholipids in tissues were observed in ISO-induced rats. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the plasma of ISO-induced rats. Administration of sesamol (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight) improved the above changes and brought towards normal level. The protective role of sesamol against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction was further confirmed by histopathological examination. These results suggest that sesamol has antihyperlipidaemic effect against cardiotoxicity. PMID:22941490

Vennila, Lakshmanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

2012-08-01

132

Histological and biochemical markers of the liver of Wistar rats on subchronic oral administration of green tea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Few articles have linked the consumption of green tea to certain liver diseases but several articles have disputed these assertions and the consumption of green tea has been on the increase. Aims: The effects of oral administration of green tea on the liver of Wistar rats were studied in order to compare biochemical findings with histological findings. Materials and Methods: 36 male and female Wistar albino rats were grouped into 6, consisting of 6 rats in each group. They were given 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentration of green tea in tap water for 42 days. The 6th group was on normal diet and received 0% of the tea. Their blood samples were analyzed for total and conjugated bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The liver tissues were also processed for histological examination. Results: The liver tissues were essentially normal and similar to the control tissues. The biochemical parameters studied were also normal and similar to the results obtained from the control animals. Conclusion: Sub chronic consumption of green tea has no injurious effects on the liver of Wistar rats.

Godwin Avwioro

2010-08-01

133

Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

Sengupta Parama

2010-01-01

134

DNA damage in Wistar rats exposed to dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are used in large amounts in agriculture and the evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public and environmental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of a commercial formulation of the fungicide mancozeb by the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the comet assay in total blood of Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a solution of mancozeb at a concentration of 40 mg/kg/day, administered intraperitoneally for 18 consecutive days, and compared to a control group. The results indicate that mancozeb induced significantly higher DNA damage as detected by the comet assay and increased the frequency of micronuclei. The results show that mancozeb is genotoxic and may adversely affect the DNA integrity of exposed organisms. PMID:25152054

Goldoni, A; Klauck, C R; Da Silva, S T; Da Silva, M D; Ardenghi, P G; Da Silva, L B

2014-01-01

135

GABA-immunoreactive starburst amacrine cells in pigmented and albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we tested whether the critical anatomical substrate for retinal direction selectivity is altered in albino mammals. We used dual immunostaining for GABA and choline acetyltransferase and quantitatively analyzed the number of double-labelled starburst amacrine cells in wild-type and albino rats. In albino rats, the percentage of ON-amacrine cells with high GABA content was significantly lower than in pigmented animals. OFF-amacrines did not significantly differ between the two rat strains. Thus, the decreased GABA content in ON-amacrine cells could reflect an altered neuronal substrate for retinal direction selectivity. These results are discussed in relation to the optokinetic deficits described in albino mammals. PMID:15579175

Blaszczyk, W M; Telkes, I; Distler, C

2004-12-01

136

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

OpenAIRE

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g) kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg), a precu...

Fatemeh Hassani; Manizheh Karami; Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan; Poopak Eftekhari Yazdi

2012-01-01

137

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day fo...

Sandra Maria Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Erick Prado de Oliveira; Márcio Emilio Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Náyra Coelho Leite; Renata Maeda Deus; Vivianne Sasaki; Lucas Silva Braganti; Marie Oshiiwa

2009-01-01

138

Hepatoprotective Activity of Cassia fistula root against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in rats (Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The protective effects of the alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula root; against CCl4 induced hepatic failure in male albino rats (wistar strain was investigated. For acute and massive invasion of hepatopathy, CCl4 (s.c injection of CCl4+Olive Oil in 1:1 ratio; 2ml/kg was used and the insidious intoxication was evidenced bysignificant turmoil of various biochemical parameters followed by significant (p<0.001 weight loss in toxic control group. The administration of alcoholic root extract (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg of body weight for 7 days, elicited protective action since the elevated levels of marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP of liver functionswere found to be decreasing progressively in a dose dependent manner. The final body weight was also significantly (p<0.001 increased when compared with the toxic control group. The serum total protein and theserum albumin were also approaching normal values. The results found in alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat were quite promising and were comparable with a standard drug Silymarin. In the alcoholic extract 200mg/kg treated rat group all the marker enzymes were analyzed to be decreasing significantly. The statistically processed results support the conclusion, that the alcoholic root extract of Cassia fistula root (200mg/kg and 100mg/kg possesses dose dependent, significant protective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

SAGAR DAWADA

2012-04-01

139

STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band wiGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

140

Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal transfer, as well as between transferred and non-transferred Wistar rats. The impact of both external and internal transfer on body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotor activity was studied in both male and female Wistar rats, taking into account the sex differences in stress responsivity. External transfer was found to decrease body weight, increase plasma corticosterone, increase activity, increase heart rate in female rats, but decrease heart rate in male rats. Parameters showed differences between the sexes and light phases. This study shows that acclimatization after transfer is sex-specific and researchers should take the sex into consideration when determining the acclimatization period. It is recommended to allow for acclimatization of at least 8 days in males and two weeks in females after external transfer and timely (2 days before starting experiments transfer the animals internally to the testing room.

Johanna W. M. Arts

2014-10-01

141

Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats / Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por [...] seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%); Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 08, 10, 12 e 14 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram coradas por HE e submetidas a análise morfométrica para descrição das alterações teciduais. RESULTADOS: em todos os grupos observou-se a presença de alterações inflamatórias difusas, porém na análise do tecido pulmonar dos grupos experimentais, observou-se alterações hiperplásicas (hiperplasia de BALT), e em um dos animais do grupo experimental 20mg/kg (12 semanas) notou-se a presença de pleomorfismo celular epitelial traqueal, sugerindo a formação de adenocarcinoma in situ. CONCLUSÃO: as principais alterações secundárias à instilação intra-pulmonar de B[a]P em ratos Wistar foram: proliferação celular, alterações inflamatórias de diversos graus e hiperplasias nodulares linfóides. A associação de um agente ativador da resposta metabólica pulmonar pode ser necessária para estabelecimento da dose-resposta ideal ao desenvolvimento do câncer de pulmão. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by [...] its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%); B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia), and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks), it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.

Baldomero Antonio Kato da, Silva; Iandara Schettert, Silva; Daniel Martins, Pereira; Ricardo Dutra, Aydos; Paulo de Tarso Camillo de, Carvalho; Gilberto Gonçalves, Facco.

142

Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities. PMID:24199486

Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

2013-01-01

143

Effect of Soaked Moringa oleifera Seeds on Growth Rates and the Levels of Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its anti-nutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06±3.54 to 100.98±5.37, 66.70±7.54 to 55.23±7.47 and 52.99±4.15 to 35.47±2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00±16.80 (AST, 41.00±7.05 (ALT, 66.50±8.80 (ALP and 12.45±1.18 (Total Bilirubin. The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (pMoringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed’s nutritional capabilities.

E. Obi

2013-01-01

144

Histopathological Effect of Piper guineese Extract on Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity of Piper guineese extract, known as a spice and seasoning and also used in treatment of different ailment such as malaria was investigated in rats. Twenty four wistar rats were obtained, weighed and divided into four groups of six per group. They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad- libitum for two weeks period of acclimatization. Different concentrations of Piper guineese extract were administered to three of the experimental groups. 25, 50 and 75 mg/100 g, while the fourth group received 100% tap water and served as control. The study lasted 21 days. The results obtained showed slightly reduced agility, loss of appetite in animals treated with higher concentration of extract. Sections through the kidneys and livers of the sacrificed animals showed alteration of their normal cyto-architecture, some of which were pathological. The result of the present study suggests that Piper guineese could be toxic at certain dosage and over prolonged periods.

O.A. Ebeye

2007-01-01

145

Protective effect of sesamol against myocardial infarction caused by isoproterenol in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of sesamol on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in adult male albino Wistar rats. The heart damage induced by ISO was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and the levels of troponin T and I in the plasma. In addition, lipid peroxidative markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and lipid hydroperoxides (LHP) significantly increased in the plasma and heart. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) significantly decreased in the heart and (non-enzymic antioxidants) vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH)) levels significantly decreased in the plasma and heart in ISO-rats. Histopathological observations correlated with the biochemical parameters. Administration of sesamol at different doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 7 days prevented the above changes and improved towards normality; the 50 mg dose was more effective than the other two doses. PMID:20196927

Vennila, Lakshmanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

2010-01-01

146

Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Wistar rat bone marrow by gavage administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), was administered to adult female albino rats (Wistar rats) by gavage dose of 6.12, 3.06, 0.8 mg/kg b.w. repeated for 13 days at 48 h intervals. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of LCT were investigated in bone marrow cells, using the structural chromosomal aberration (SCA) and micronucleus (MN) test systems. Mitomycin C (MMC) was also used as positive control (2mg/kg b.w.). All the doses of LCT increased the number of SCAs and the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, with respect to the control group. Only the highest dose of LCT significantly increased the MN frequency compared with control (P < 0.01). It was also observed that LCT caused a significant decrease in the number of polychromatic erythrocytes compared with controls (p < 0.001). These observations indicate the in vivo suspectibility of mammals to the genetic toxicity and cytotoxicity potential of LCT. PMID:15814319

Celik, Ayla; Mazmanci, Birgül; Camlica, Yusuf; Cömeleko?lu, Ulkü; A?kin, Ali

2005-05-01

147

Toxicity, distribution, and accumulation of silver nanoparticles in Wistar rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles (SNP) has lead to their application in several products mainly in the medicine field. This study analyzed the distribution, accumulation, and toxicity in principal organs of Wistar rats exposed to SNP suspensions by oral administration. Two sizes of washed SNP (14 and 36 nm) were prepared, characterized, and redispersed in deionized water. Each suspension was administrated to Wistar rats by oral way for 55 days; after finishing this treatment time, rats were sacrificed by anesthesia overdose. Organs were collected, processed, and prepared; then, accumulation and concentrations of SNP were obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Toxicity was determined by clinical chemistry and hematology from blood samples in three different periods; light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to evaluate histopathology in tissues. Silver concentrations were higher in small intestine, followed by kidney, liver, and brain. Clinical chemistry and hematology showed altered values in blood urea nitrogen, total proteins, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration values had statistical difference in both groups (14 and 36 nm) (p < 0.05). LM, SEM, ICP-MS, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests suggest that the administration way, concentration, shape, size, presentation, administration time of SNP used in this study, do not change significantly these values.

Espinosa-Cristobal, L. F.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.mx; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Patino-Marin, N. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F. [Facultad de Estomatologia de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Maestria y Doctorado en Ciencias Odontologicas en el Area de Odontologia Integral Avanzada (Mexico); Vargas-Morales, J. M. [Av. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

2013-06-15

148

Safety of Moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC, blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00. All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05 from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 449-452

K.A. Sadariya

149

Pharmacological investigation of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of Polyherbal formulation on Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver damage in wistar rats. Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-230 g either sex were used. The selected animals were divided in to four groups where each group consisted of six animals. Experimentally liver damage was produced by intra-peritoneal administration of CCl4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 v/v (1 mL/kg, once daily, i.p. for 7 days. Test Drug, Polyherbal formulation was administered orally for 7 consecutive days at 3 mL/kg, once daily. On 8th day, Blood samples were collected to evaluate different serum biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Total bilirubin and Total protein. Liver from animals of each group was dissected out for histopathological examination. Statistical analysis: Statistical calculation were done by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett’s test, with significant level of p<0.05. Results and dDiscussion: Polyherbal formulation showed significant effect on activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin level while comparing test group to disease control group. It also showed significant elevation in decreased level of serum total protein. Pre-treatment of Polyherbal formulation restored the hepatic architecture and protected the liver tissue from fatty degenerative changes by preventing the toxic chemical reaction induced by CCl4. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Polyherbal formulation (Vasuliv Syrup has promising hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver damage. It can be employed as safe and effective treatment for hepato-toxicity or liver damage.

Hardik Soni

2014-09-01

150

Effect of Vitamin A on Weight-Loss and Haematotoxicity Associated with Gasoline Vapours Exposure in Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of vitamin A on weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity associated with gasoline vapours exposure was assessed in male and female Wistar albino rats. The rats were exposed to ungraded concentrations of gasoline vapours (6 h daily for 20 weeks. Vitamin A (retinol at prophylactic dosage (400 IU kg-1 day-1 was orally administered to the rats in the last two weeks of exposure. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit or Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Red Blood Cells (RBC, weight gain and growth rate in the male and female rats exposed to the vapours were significantly lower (p<0.05 compared respectively to the levels obtained for male and female control rats. On the other hand, the levels of White Blood Cells (WBC in the male and female test rats were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared respectively with the level obtained for male and female control rats. These observations indicated that exposure to gasoline vapours produced haematotoxicity, weight loss and growth depression in rats. However, administration of vitamin A was observed to produce a significant regain (p<0.05 in weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity observed to be associated with exposure to gasoline vapours, although the females were noted to respond more favourably than the males. This suggests that vitamin A may be used to reverse or prevent weight-loss, growth-depression and haematotoxicity in subjects exposed to gasoline vapours.

F.E. Uboh

2008-01-01

151

EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

Prathibhakumari P.V.

2013-06-01

152

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals) or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals) for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes [...] of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P

R.R., De Souza; E.F., Gama; R.D.A., Silva; J.C., Heimann; L.B.M., Maifrino; E.A., Liberti.

2000-07-01

153

Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

T. Anbalagan

2009-10-01

154

Dietary sodium intake induced myenteric neuron hypertrophy in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effect of salt intake on myenteric neuron size of the colon of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were placed on either a high-salt (HS; 8%; 12 animals or a low-salt diet (LS; 0.15%; 12 animals for 15 or 52 weeks and blood pressure was measured. The sizes of myenteric neurons of the distal colon from both groups were measured. No difference in neuron size was observed between the HS and LS groups after 15 weeks. After 52 weeks on HS, neuron size was increased (P<0.005 when compared with the LS group. The rats also presented hypertension, which was significantly different at 52 weeks (142 ± 11 vs 119 ± 7 mmHg. These results suggest that a long time on an HS diet can significantly increase myenteric nerve cell size.

R.R. De Souza

2000-07-01

155

Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g) were random...

Eman G E Helal And Shadia, A. Radwan

2007-01-01

156

Spatial memory perfomance of wistar rats exposed to mobile phone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the tremendous increase in number of mobile phone users world wide, the possible risks of this technology have become a serious concern. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effects of mobile phone exposure on spatial memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks ol [...] d) were exposed to 50 missed calls/day for 4 weeks from a GSM (900/1800MHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone). After the experimental period, the animals were tested for spatial memory performance using the Morris water maze test. RESULTS: Both phone exposed and control animals showed a significant decrease in escape time with training. Phone exposed animals had significantly (~3 times) higher mean latency to reach the target quadrant and spent significantly (~2 times) less time in the target quadrant than age- and sex-matched controls. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals.

Sareesh Naduvil, Narayanan; Raju Suresh, Kumar; Bhagath Kumar, Potu; Satheesha, Nayak; Maneesh, Mailankot.

2009-03-01

157

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. ...

Amaechina, O. S.; Ibiang, Y. B.; Ikpeme, E. V.; Ekaluo, U. B.

2013-01-01

158

Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of Xylooligosaccharide (XO) enriched yogurt in addition to basal diet on serum biochemical profile of albino rats assigned to 5 dietary treatments for a period of 21 days were studied. In all groups of rats (n = 5) serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were observed. The weight gain in rats receiving yogurt was higher than those in control group. XO enriched yogurt showed significant improvement in minerals absorption. There was no significant change in serum cholesterol lev...

Semee Mumtaz; Salim-ur- Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil

2009-01-01

159

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

Eman G E Helal, Ashraf M. Mostafa

2005-01-01

160

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

OpenAIRE

Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day), Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day), Group III: rats...

Anitha Uthandi; Karuppasamy Ramasamy

2011-01-01

161

Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da carência nutricional de zinco na gestação e prole de ratas Wistar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Submetemos ratas Wistar adultas (90 dias) com peso entre 180 e 220 gramas a diferentes tipos de carência nutricional de zinco (Zn; grave: 2,6 ppm; moderada: 9,0 ppm e sem carência 8 [...] 1,6 ppm) durante 6 semanas. Após esse período foram acasaladas com machos normais e não observamos diferenças quanto fertilidade e esterilidade entre os animais carentes. Durante a gestação, parte dos animais continuaram recebendo o mesmo tipo de ração e parte recebeu ração sem carência. Com relação ao grupo sem carência três outros grupos foram formados: um que passou a receber dieta com carência grave, outro moderada e o terceiro continuou sem carência. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Observamos entre os animais submetidos à carência aguda ou crônica tendência a menor ganho ponderal durante a gestação, menor peso da ninhada, níveis séricos de Zn materno e de "pool" de RN mais baixos. Observamos de modo significante, menor número de RN vivos entre os animais submetidos à carência grave reforçando o papel do Zn durante a gestação. Abstract in english Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and s [...] terility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals from the group receiving normal diet, were divided into other 3: the first received severe, the second mild Zn deficient diet and the third normal diet. During the study we observed that animals submitted to a Zn deficient diet (acute or chronic) had tendency to lower weight gain, lower weight of the offspring, lower serum levels of Zn in maternal and newborn (pool) blood. A significant reduction in the number of alive newborns was observed in the group of animals submitted to severe Zn deficiency. These data reinforces that Zn is a very important trace element overall during pregnancy.

Dirceu, Solé; Brigitte, Rieckmann; Raquel Mattos Costa, Lippelt; Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci, Lippelt; Olga Maria Silverio, Amâncio; Suzana de Souza, Queiroz; Charles Kirov, Naspitz.

1995-02-01

162

Impact of Lead Sub-Chronic Toxicity on Recognition Memory and Motor Activity of Wistar Rat  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of lead nitrate administered in drinking water during 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity), on body weight gain, motor activity, brain lead accumulation and especially on recognition memory of Wistar rats. Two groups of young female Wistar rats were used. Treated rats received 20 mg L-1 of lead nitrate diluted in drinking water, while control rats received drinking water only, for 3 months. An evolution of body weight, motor activity, ob...

Azzaoui, F. Z.; Ahami, A. O. T.; Khadmaoui, A.

2009-01-01

163

Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

2012-05-01

164

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of albino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C, animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water; experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy. Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w., however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20 con 3 dosis de pyrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino

Marisa Pascale Quintino

2003-01-01

165

Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. MET [...] HODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats (16 weeks old) were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (?HR/?MAP) in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v.) and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.). Rats were divided into four groups: 1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB), baroreflex gain (BG) between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), BG

Vitor E., Valenti; Luiz Carlos de, Abreu; Caio, Imaizumi; Márcio, Petenusso; Celso, Ferreira.

166

Protective effect of Livactine against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed widely by the human population and it is also a potential liver hazard. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino rats of Wistar strain were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Livactine against carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol induced toxicity. Liver damage was assessed by estimating various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, total bilirubin, and total protein. The results of the rats treated with Livactine were compared with that of Liv-52.Results: Livactine showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect by reducing elevated serum enzyme levels when compared to that of Liv-52.Conclusion: Our findings confirm that the formulation was found to be effective pharmacologically at higher dose against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxic models and were comparable to that of Liv-52.The resultant hepatoprotective activity of Livactine could be due to its free radical scavenging property of the ingredients.

Candasamy Mayuren

2010-10-01

167

The Role of Bee Venom in Controlling Albino Rats Fetal Morphometric and Morphological Changes by Carbimazole Induced Hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the work. The present study was planned to investigate the role played by Bee venom in improving the morphometric and morphological changes induced by carbimazole in pregnant albino rats and their embryos. Materials and method .A total number of 60 mature virgin female and 30 male Wistar wistar albino rats (for fertilization were used in this study.Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal smears.The experimental animals were divided into the following groups:?- (Normal group: in this group the pregnant rats were injected intraperitonealy by distilled water (The solvent of both carbimazole and bee venom by dose 1ml/200g.body weight, from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.II-The group of treated animals: this group was divided into 3 subgroups:1-The carbimazole group: this group was divided into2 subgroups, the pregnant rats were orally injected at a dose 2 and 3mg /200g.body weight, daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation.2-The Bee venom group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight on days 2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,15 and 16 of gestation.3-The treatment group: the pregnant rats were intraperitonealy injected with Bee venom at a dose 0.6 mg/200g. body weight 1 hour after the intraperitonealy injection by the 2 doses of carbimazole (2 and 3mg /200g. body weight.The days of injection for both treatments (Bee venom and carbimazole were as mentioned before. Results. The results of the present study showed that carbimazole treatment with its 2 doses induced highly significant increase in the body weights of pregnant rats, highly significant reduction of the uterus weight with shortness of the horns as well as unequal distribution of the embryos between them, increased number of the resorbed fetuses when comparing with the control group, Bee venom injection revealed improvement of these changes .The orally injection of the 2 doses of carbimazole resulted in very highly decrease in fetuses body weights and lengths; however Bee venom induced obvious improvement as compared with the carbimazole effects. Orally injection of carbimazole at the dose 3mg /200g body weight showed increased fetal mortality rate as compared with the control group; however, intraperitonealy injection of Bee venom resulted in improvement in the rate of live fetuses and never of dead ones was observed after Bee venom treatment. The 2 doses of carbimazole induced lots of malformations of embryos such as variations in the size of embryos of the same mother, the embryos exhibited fragile skin, sub dermal blood coagulation beside edema in different regions of the fetal body ,as well as malformations of the regions of the eye resembled in exophthalmos and rostrum region such as cleft lips, beside clubbed fore and hind limbs , kyphosis of the body of the embryos, exencephaly.Bee venom treatment resulted in control of the changes induced by carbimazole injection. The fetuses were resembled to those of the control group.Conclusion: It is clear that bee venom plays an important role in controlling the morphometric and morphological changes in fetuses of albino rats suffering from hypothyroidism induced by carbimazole

Abu Gabal H*, Moamena M** and Al Moalla H

2013-04-01

168

Urantide alleviates monocrotaline induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious disorder with poor prognosis. Urotensin II (UII) has been confirmed to be powerful vasoconstrictor than endothelin-1, which may play an important role in PAH development. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of urantide, a UII receptor antagonist, on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. 60 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. For early treatment experiment, rats were divided into normal control group, MCT(4w) model group (MCT + saline × 3 wks from the 8th day of MCT injection) and urantide early treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 ?g/kg/d × 3 wks, 1 week after MCT injection once). For late treatment experiment, rats were divided as controls, MCT(6w) model group (MCT + saline × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once) and urantide late treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 ?g/kg/d × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once). At the end of experiments, mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) of rats in each group were measured by catheterization. Right ventricular weight ratio was also weighed. Relaxation effects of urantide on intralobar pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats were investigated. Pulmonary artery remodeling was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in all six groups were assayed by ELISA kits. Urantide markedly reduced the mPAP levels of MCT induced PAH in both early and late treatment groups. It didn't change the MBP. Urantide dose-dependently relaxed the pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats. Moreover, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) blocked the dilation response induced by urantide. In addition, urantide inhibited the pulmonary vascular remodeling remarkably. Serum NO level elevated in both early and late treatment rats with urantide infusion. These results suggest that urantide effectively alleviated MCT induced rats PAH may through relaxing pulmonary arteries and inhibiting pulmonary vascular remodeling. NO pathway might be one of the mechanisms in urantide induced pulmonary artery dilation. Thus, it is expected that urantide may be a novel therapy for PAH. PMID:21396478

Mei, Yifang; Jin, Hong; Tian, Wei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Han; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Zhiyi; Meng, Fanchao

2011-08-01

169

Infestation of Wistar rats with Tunga penetrans in different microenvironments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a zoonotic ectoparasitosis that causes considerable morbidity in affected populations. The type of microenvironment that facilitates infestation of hosts by Tunga penetrans has not been investigated. In this study, we exposed 30 laboratory-raised Wistar rats, a suitable model for the infestation, at six different places characterized by different microenvironments in a hyperendemic fishing village in northeastern Brazil. During a period of two weeks, the animals were monitored and the number of embedded fleas was documented. The number of lesions varied considerably according to the microenvironment and was highest in a cage placed at the far end of a compound of a household affected by tungiasis. No penetration was observed inside houses. Results indicate that in this endemic area transmission of T. penetrans seems to occur mainly outdoors. PMID:17426167

Witt, Lars; Heukelbach, Jörg; Schwalfenberg, Stefan; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Harms, Gundel; Feldmeier, Hermann

2007-04-01

170

Cytotoxic Effect of Aspartame (Diet Sweet) on the Histological and Genetic Structures of Female Albino Rats and Their Offspring  

OpenAIRE

The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and ...

Ghaly, Inas S.; Abd Elfatah, Azza A. M.; Hanafy, Safaa M.

2012-01-01

171

Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

D.T. Furuya

2003-01-01

172

Acute phase response in Wistar rats after controlled hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After injury the acute-phase response of the organism activates mechanisms which imply the release of cytokines, stress hormones, and mediators of pain and inflammation. The main function of the acutephase response is to hinder further damage of the injured tissue by activating reparative processes. The increase in the concentration of acute phase proteins and the concurrent decrease in albumins and prealbumins indicate that there is a strong link between the liver and the traumatized site. Considering bleeding to be a major injury it can be supposed that it can result in changes in acute phase proteins concentrations despite the fact that it is not directly related to inflammatory reactions. In order to confirm this presumption the concentration changes in negative and positive acute phase proteins in Wistar rats' blood plasma were measured during a 10 day period after controlled bleeding. The result of the therapeutic effects of transfusion on acute phase proteins was estimated in a group of rats in the so called "hospital stage" at which the blood loss was recovered by citrate blood transfusions. At the end of the 10th day the rats were monitored for an additional 10 day period. The obtained results confirm that bleeding is an impressive trauma and the acute phase response results in a significant change in acute phase proteins. These changes arise quickly, the highest concentrations were achieved within the first 24 to 72h and thereon they slowly declined.

Stepanovi? Predrag

2011-01-01

173

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of varianc...

Amit Kumar Jha; Rafat Ali Shakur; Asish Kumar Ram

2012-01-01

174

Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

2002-01-01

175

Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera) in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laborat...

Vikrama Chakravarthi, P.; Gopakumar, N.

2010-01-01

176

Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic profile of the aqueous root extracts of Leptadenia hastata in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg(-1) body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G) were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin) group (B) and normal saline group (G) serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 hpost extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg(-1) b.wt have significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose in diabetic albino rats. On the other hand the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous root extract on normal rats at dose of 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt have significantly (p < 0.05) decreases blood glucose level in normal albino rats. The results of the current study have demonstrated the antidiabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of L. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days. PMID:24171268

Sanda, K A; Sandabe, U K; Auwal, M S; Bulama, I; Bashir, T M; Sanda, F A; Mairiga, A

2013-02-15

177

Attenuation of Experimental Gastric Ulceration by Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the therapeutic dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Rats were given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.5 mg kg-1) intramuscularly for 24 h after formation of ulcers induced by indomethacin or by acidified ethanol. Upon sacrifice, colorimetric assays were applied to determine the concentration of protein and mucus, activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxid...

Olaleye, S. B.; Ajeigbe, K. O.

2009-01-01

178

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L.) as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP) on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control), the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholes...

Elbahnasawy, Amir S. M.; Osfor, Mahmoud M. H.; Afify, Abd El-moneim M. R.; Romeilah, Ramy R. M.

2013-01-01

179

Effect of Oilseed Diets on Plasma Lipid Profile in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The effect of fermented melon seed oil (Citrullus lanatus) (Ogiri) and palm kernel oil on the plasma lipid profile of female albino rats were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups and fed diet composed with fermented melon seed oil, palm kernel oil and control diet for seven weeks. After the feeding trial, plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control in palm kernel oil diet while there was no significant...

Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajayi, David Dais

2009-01-01

180

Exploring Hepatotoxicity of Benomyl: Histological and Histochemical Study on Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Benomyl, a fungicide of the benzimidazole group applied against a wide range of fungal diseases of crops and vegetables. The effects of benomyl on the hepatic tissue of albino rats were investigated. Treating rats with benomyl at a dose level of 1/10 LD50 three times/week for three weeks induced various histopathological changes in the liver, such as hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and fatty degener...

Sakr, Saber A.; Abdel Samei, Hany A.; Soliman, Maha E.

2004-01-01

181

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

Natarajan, A.; Syed Zameer Ahmed, K.; Sundaresan, S.; Sivaraj, A.; Devi, K.; Senthil Kumar, B.

2012-01-01

182

Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf in Goto-Kakizaki rats and counterpart control Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Postprandial hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) was compared in two animal models: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous non-obese animal model for type II diabetes, and their counterpart control Wistar rats. First, the effect of a single oral administration of mulberry leaf aqueous extract (MLE) on postprandial glucose responses was determined using maltose or glucose as substrate. With maltose-loading, MLE reduced peak responses of blood glucose significantly in both GK a...

Park, Ji Min; Bong, Ha Yoon; Jeong, Hye In; Kim, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

2009-01-01

183

Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compare...

Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-butt, Shanaz

2008-01-01

184

EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BLACK CUMIN SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA L ON EXPERIMENTAL ALBINO RATS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available : Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Rananculacene or Black cumin seed is widely used in the Indian subcontinent in treatment of gastric ulcer as a traditional medicine. Aim: To investigate gastro-protective activity of aqueous extract of black cumin seeds in aspirin induced ulcer models in albino rats taking ranitidine as positive control. Settings and Design: Albino rats of Wistar strain, (150-200 g was divided randomly into four groups (n=6 and received the following medications orally for five days. Group A -1% gum acacia 5 ml/kg, Group B and Group C– aqueous extract of Black Cumin 250 mg/kg and 500 mg / kg body wt respectively and Group D - Ranitidine 20 mg / kg body wt; followed by aspirin 200mg/kg body wt administered orally on 6th day to all groups after 24 hours of fasting. Methods and Materials: Animals were sacrificed after 4 hours of pyloric ligation. The stomachs were removed. The gastric contents were evaluated by biochemical parameters and gastric ulceration was studied by comparing the volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index and by histopathological study. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and Tukey Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Aqueous extract of N. Sativa in doses 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg reduced volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity and ulcer index in a highly significant manner when compared to control (p0.05 to positive control (ranitidine 20 mg/kg, while N. sativa 250mg/kg proved to be less effective than its higher dose and ranitidine (pThe results were expressed as mean ± SEM Conclusion: Aqueous extract of NS (500mg/kg has potent gastroprotective properties comparable to Ranitidine 20mg/kg. Key Words; Black cumin, Nigella sativa (Ns, antiulcer.

Mohua* Sengupta*

2013-01-01

185

ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC STALK EXTRACT OF PIPER BETEL LINN ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the antifertility effect of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn (PBL in female albino rats.Three months young female albino rats were administered with graded doses of methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn for 30 consecutive days and the effect of the extract on the estrus cycle was assessed by observing the changes produced in the vaginal smear, over the 30 days observation period, in comparison to the control. The rats treated with PBL showed highly significant (p<0.05, dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of estrus phase, in comparison to control rats. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase and number of cornified cells per field decreased. There was no significant change in the number of proestrus, Metestrus or diestrus phases of the estrus cycle, in the PBL treated group in comparison to control. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with PBL extract, which was not observed in the control group. The methanolic extract of Piper betel Linn possesses antifertility activity in female albino rats.

Pradhan Manas Ranjan

2013-01-01

186

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Nitric oxide (NO) involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a cause of infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as an inflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatory agent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg), a precursor of NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/ once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phase of Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solely received saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effect of NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessed for histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOS) in the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique. Results The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics in contrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis. A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to the groups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups. Conclusion Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. PMID:25493168

Hassani, Fatemeh; 1, Ph.D. 1; Jalali Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

2012-01-01

187

Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a causeof infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as aninflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatoryagent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats(weighing 200-250 g kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg, a precursorof NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p. through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phaseof Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solelyreceived saline (1 ml/kg, i.p. throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effectof NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg,i.p., prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessedfor histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOSin the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique.Results: The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics incontrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis.A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to thegroups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups.Conclusion: Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in thepathophysiology of PCOS.

Fatemeh Hassani

2012-01-01

188

Protective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on alcohol and heated sunflower oil induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and various hepatic lesions are grouped under the term alcoholic liver disease. This is an extremely common disease with a high mortality. Alcoholics, along with alcohol, consume high fat diet and are susceptible to permanent liver damage. The current treatment modalities are inadequate and the need for effective treatment without side-effects is increasing. The present work tested the protective role of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous leaf extract on alcohol and heated sunflower oil-induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were used for this study. This study analyzed the variation in lipid profiles; cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and free fatty acids in liver, histopathological changes, and the activities of liver marker enzymes in the plasma. The liver damage was apparent with the increase in the activities of AST and ALT in the rats treated with alcohol + heated sunflower oil (?PUFA). Treatment with P.niruri protected the liver from damage, and prevented the release of the liver markers enzymes. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were increased significantly in the alcohol + ?PUFA group. Administration of P.niruri extract effectively reduced their levels. The phospholipid levels, which were decreased in the liver of the alcohol + ?PUFA group, were positively modulated by treatment with P.niruri. The histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, one could conclude that the P.niruri leaf extract effectively protects the system against alcohol and ?PUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and has a definite anti-hyperlipidemic potential. PMID:20843268

Latha, P; Chaitanya, D; Rukkumani, R

2010-10-01

189

Copaiba oil effect on experimental jaw defect in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil on jaw defects repair in Wistar rats treated with bioglass or adipose tissue. METHODS: A jaw defect was randomly created in forty-two rats and filled with bioglass or adipose tissue. The two groups (Gbio and Gcell) were subdivided in three subgroups w [...] ith seven animals each according to gavage administration: control (distillated water), oil (copaiba oil) and melox (meloxicam). Euthanasia was performed after forty post-operative days. The bone formation was analyzed regarding the histological aspects. RESULTS: The osteoclasts activity was observed only in four subgroups (p=0.78). Regarding the osteoblasts presence, it was very similar between the subgroups, the difference was due to Gcell-melox (p=0.009) that presented less osteoblastic activity. The inflammatory cells were more evident in Gcell-melox subgroup, however, there was no difference in comparison with the other subgroups (p=0.52). Bone formation was observed in all subgroups, just two animals showed no bone formation even after 40 days. More than 50% of bone matrix mineralization was observed in 56% (23 animals) of the analyzed areas. The bone matrix mineralization was not different between subgroups (p=0.60). CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups that received copaiba oil showed bone repair, although not statistically significant in comparison to subgroups treated whit meloxicam or controls. Copaiba oil administered by gavage had no effect on bone repair in this experimental model.

Priscilla Flores, Silva; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Flávia Sirotheau Correa, Pontes; Suzana Rodrigues, Ramos; Laís Cordeiro, Mendes; Louize Caroline Marques, Oliveira.

2015-02-01

190

Melatonin modulates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the anterior pituitary of the female Wistar rat.  

OpenAIRE

We studied the anti-tumorigenic effect of melatonin in diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated anterior pituitaries in rats. Twenty-one female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: vehicle control rats, DES-treated rats, and DES-treated rats co-administrated with melatonin beginning at week 13. At the end of 16 weeks, rats were weighed and decapitated for morphological studies, including an H+E staining-based score evaluation in regard to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immunostai...

Yazhuo Zhang; Yilin Sun; Guilin Li; Fang Yuan; Zhongfang Shi; Weijiang Zhao; Zhongcheng Wang

2010-01-01

191

Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

192

To study the effect of monosodium glutamate on histomorphometry of cortex of kidney in adult albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thousands of chemicals are being used recently in our new high tech foods like ready to eat Japanese, Chinese, packaged and tinned foods. Most food additives act as either preservatives or flavor enhancers like monosodium glutamate (MSG), a sodium salt of glutamic acid. The present study investigated the effect of intraperitoneally administered MSG on cortex of the kidneys of adult albino Wistar rats and compared with control group. The histomorphometry done by calibrating with ocular micrometer on kidney tissue of control and experimental group revealed a significant difference in glomeruli with increase in length, size of bowman's capsule with an increase in bowman's space. The size of renal tubules could not be compared as the cells of these tubules in experimental group were disintegrated and distorted. In the experimental group (rats treated with 4?mg MSG/g body weight), the cortex of the kidneys developed variable pathological changes, which were patchy in distribution with intervening normal areas. There was distortion of renal cytoarchitecture. Many glomeruli (66.4%) showed hypercellularity, i.e., cellular proliferation of mesangial or endothelial cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The capillary membrane showed thickening as was evident on PAS stain. Since MSG, as a food additive, was found to be toxic on various organs of the body by various researchers, it should perhaps be stopped from being used as a food additive. This may be a suggestion which needs validation in human studies. PMID:24188378

Dixit, Shilpi Gupta; Rani, Puja; Anand, Akansha; Khatri, Kamlesh; Chauhan, Renu; Bharihoke, Veena

2014-03-01

193

Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50?mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress. PMID:25617810

Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

2015-04-01

194

Teratogenic vulnerability of Wistar rats to diphenyl ditelluride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of single maternal subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 0.12 mg/kg diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2, diluted in canola oil at days 6, 10 or 17 of gestation were evaluated in Wistar rats. The reduction of body weight gain was statistically significant at GD9, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD6; at GD13, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD10, and at GD20, for the dams that received (PhTe)2, at GD17, when compared to respective control groups. External and internal fetal soft tissues examination was performed on day 20 of gestation. Single maternal injection at day 10 of gestation resulted in appearance of malformation in fore- and hind-limbs, absent or short tail, subcutaneous blood clots, exophthalmia, hydrocephalus and absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue in fetuses on day 20 of gestation. Besides (PhTe)2 reduced fetal body and cerebral weight, kidney length, measurements of body dimension and provoked 73% of fetal mortality. Subcutaneous administration of (PhTe)2 on day 17 of gestation was associated with 94% mortality, hydrocephalus and edema. Histological evaluations of fetal brain demonstrated displaced brain tissue with absence of the cranial bone and cutaneous tissue when diphenyl ditelluride was administered in GD10. Histological evaluation of fetal head exposed at GD17 revealed a decrease of the brain volume with consequent dilation of the lateral ventricles and the ilation of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent tissues were thinner than that of control group tissues. No fetal changes were observed after administration of (PhTe)2 at day 6 of gestation. Thus (PhTe)2 can be teratogenic to rat fetuses and toxic for dams. The late fetal stages of rat prenatal development appeared uniquely sensitive to organic tellurium exposure

195

Toxicity of Ruta graveolens Seeds’ Extracts on Male Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The multipurpose medicinal plant, Ruta graveolens used widly as a traditional treatment for many diseases. The present study was carried out on Wistar rats to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of R. graveolens seeds at two different doses 50 and 200 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. The rats were allotted to five groups, each of six rats. One group served as control. Two groups were given aqueous extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day and other two groups were given methanolic extract at 50 and 200 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. The mortality and weight gain, serobiochemical and hematological parameters were recorded in addition to pathological changes. Study showed that, it has a toxic effects reflected in depression on body weight and alterations in some serum parameters which accompanied with fatty changes and beginning of hemorrhage in liver and kidneys, also alterations in globulins and urea concentration in groups 3 and 5 were observed. Animals that received the lowest concentration treatment suffered no significant hematological alteration. From the current experiment we concluded that toxicity from oral administration of 200 mg/kg/day of R. graveolens seeds extracts for 4 weeks was sever as evidenced by consistent extensive damage to liver and kidney exemplified by necrosis, fatty changes, heomorrhage, congestion and depression in growth. No significant changes were observed for all the measured parameters at concentrations 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks administered orally. Consumption ofR. graveolens seeds extract at 50 mg/kg/day was not toxic and safe for use.

Shama

2014-06-01

196

HEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALBINO RATS FED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus CULTIVATED ON TWO TROPICAL TREES’ SAWDUST (Pycnanthus angolensis AND Spondias mombin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There was a significant decrease (P > 0.05 in the Packed Cell Volume (34.0%, Red Blood Cell (3.2 x 1012/L, White Blood Cell (3.5 x 103/L, Mean Corpuscular Volume (8.0 g/fL and Hemoglobin (11.33 g/dL of the rats fed with protein free diet compared to the rats fed with the mushroom composed diet (PCV, 40.0%; RBC, 5.0 x 1012/L; WBC, 8.5 x 103/L; MCV, 90.0 g/fL and Hb, 13.33 g/dL. The values obtained from the rats fed mushroom composed diet however compared favourably with the results obtained in rats fed with the soybean composed diet (positive control which is given as (PCV, 35.0%; RBCs, 6.6 x 1012/L; WBCs, 6.5 x 103/L, MCV (93.0 g/fL and Hb, 11.67 g/dL. It was therefore concluded that the hematological parameters of the experimental animals was not in any way affected as a result of consumption of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on sawdust of these two tropical trees.

Soji Fakoya

2013-04-01

197

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar / Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia) em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC), e [...] xposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0) e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7), concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7%) nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%). Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%), no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70%) e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%). Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%), com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The a [...] nimals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos, Valença; Milena Leonarde, Kloss; Frank Silva, Bezerra; Manuella, Lanzetti; Fabiano Leichsenring, Silva; Luís Cristóvão, Porto.

2007-12-01

198

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da elevada concentração de oxigênio (hiperóxia em um curto período de tempo no pulmão de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram divididos em grupos O10', O30', O90', ou seja, ratos expostos à hiperóxia por 10', 30' e 90', respectivamente, e no grupo controle (GC, exposto ao ar ambiente. Os animais foram sacrificados 24 h após a exposição. O lavado broncoalveolar foi realizado e os pulmões foram retirados para análise histológica e estereológica. RESULTADOS: Observamos um aumento do número de macrófagos (2169,9 ± 118,0, 1560,5 ± 107,0 e 1467,6 ± 39,0 e neutrófilos (396,3 ± 35,4, 338,4 ± 17,3 e 388,7 ± 11,7, concomitante a um aumento do dano oxidativo (143,0 ± 7,8%, 180,4 ± 5,6% e 235,0 ± 13,7% nos grupos O10', O30' e O90', respectivamente, quando comparados ao GC (781,3 ± 78,3%, 61,6 ± 4,2% e 100,6 ± 1,7%. Na análise histológica e estereológica foram observados alvéolos e septos normais no GC (83,51 ± 1,20% e 15 ± 1,21%, no grupo O10' (81,32 ± 0,51% e 16,64 ± 0,70% e no grupo O30' (78,75 ± 0,54% e 17,73 ± 0,26%. Entretanto, no grupo O90' foi notado um influxo de células inflamatórias nos alvéolos e nos septos alveolares. Hemácias extravasaram do capilar para o alvéolo (59,06 ± 1,22%, com evidências de congestão, hemorragia e edema de septo (35,15 ± 0,69%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam que a hiperóxia induziu uma ação lesiva no grupo O90' sobre o parênquima pulmonar, com repercussões de dano oxidativo e infiltrado inflamatório.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively, together with a control group (exposed to room air. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3 and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2, concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7 vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%. The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%, in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%, and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%. However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%, with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%. CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Samuel dos Santos Valença

2007-12-01

199

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I; GII - recebeu água (controle II, GIII, GIV e GV foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional.Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I = intact rats; GII (control II = rats receiving the drug vehicle (distilled water by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do Carmo

2000-03-01

200

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso.

Sandra Maria Barbalho

2009-10-01

201

Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divid [...] idos em grupo controle (CG) e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja), sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de ganho de peso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG) and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow); TG3 and TG4 were fed wi [...] th supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil) and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage) two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.

Sandra Maria, Barbalho; Ana Paula Machado, Spada; Erick Prado de, Oliveira; Márcio Emilio, Paiva-Filho; Karla Aparecida, Martuchi; Náyra Coelho, Leite; Renata Maeda, Deus; Vivianne, Sasaki; Lucas Silva, Braganti; Marie, Oshiiwa.

1137-11-01

202

Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver of adult wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of alcoholic diseases in the liver is well documented. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant. Our aim was to investigate in vivo whether KV may attenuate oxidative stress in liver of Wistar albino rats following chronic ethanol administration. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 7.5% or 45% ethanol at 3 g/kg of body weight daily for 8 weeks. Rats were treated with KV at 200 mg/kg of body weight for the same duration. Treatment was by oral gavage. Integrity of liver was assessed by determining the levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The antioxidant status was monitored by determining the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), the end product of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Experimentally, chronic ethanol administration led to hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the increase in levels of serum ALT, AST, and ALP. Ethanol also enhanced the formation of MDA in the liver. Specifically, MDA was elevated by 70% and 98% in animals treated with 7.5% and 45% ethanol, respectively. Levels of hepatic SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH were significantly (P < .05) reduced by ethanol treatment. Co-administration of KV during ethanol treatment inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities. These findings demonstrated that KV could have a beneficial effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage in liver of Wistar rats caused by chronic ethanol administration. PMID:19627207

Adaramoye, O A; Awogbindin, I; Okusaga, J O

2009-06-01

203

Effects of Dietary Advanced Lipid Oxidation End-products on Colitis Healing in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation end products on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days. The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002 for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring. The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control, 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose, 0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose. On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control, 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose, 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose. ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.

Adeleye, G. S.

2013-04-01

204

Comparison of spatial learning in the partially baited radial-arm maze task between commonly used rat strains: Wistar, Spargue-Dawley, Long-Evans, and outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strain-related differences in animals' cognitive ability affect the outcomes of experiments and may be responsible for discrepant results obtained by different research groups. Therefore, behavioral phenotyping of laboratory animals belonging to different strains is important. The aim of the present study was to compare the variation in allothetic visuospatial learning in most commonly used laboratory rat strains: inbred Wistar (W) and Sprague-Dawley (SD), outcrossed Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (W/SD), and outbred Long Evans (LE) rats. All rats were trained to the arbitrary performance criterion of 83 % correct responses in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze allowing for simultaneous evaluation of both working and reference memory. In the present study, testing albino versus pigmented and inbred versus outcrossed rats revealed significant strain-dependent differences with the inbred SD rats manifesting lower performance on all learning measures compared to other strains. On the other hand, the outcrossed W/SD rats showed a lower frequency of reference memory errors and faster rate of task acquisition compared to both LE and W rats, with W rats showing a lower frequency of working memory errors compared to other strains. In conclusion, albinism apparently did not reduce the animals' performance in the allothetic visuospatial learning task, while outcrossing improved the spatial learning. A differential effect of strain on the contribution of each error type to the animals' overall performance was observed. The strain-dependent differences were more pronounced between subpopulations of learning-deficient individuals ("poor" learners), and generally the reference memory errors contributed more to the final behavioral output than did the working memory errors. PMID:25537841

Gökçek-Saraç, Çi?dem; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Jakubowska-Do?ru, Ewa

2015-03-01

205

EFFECTS OF PYRAZINAMIDE ON PREGNANT ALBINO RATS / EFECTOS DE LA PYRAZINAMIDA SOBRE LA RATA PREÑADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La pyrazinamida es un fármaco muy utilizado para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, pero no hay datos en la literatura respecto a sus potenciales riesgos para la preñez. Debido a esto, en este trabajo tratamos ratas preñadas durante toda la gestación (desde el día 0 hasta el día 20) con 3 dosis de p [...] yrazinamida (35, 105 o 315 mg/kg, una vez al día) para una primera observación sobre los efectos de la pyrazinamida durante la preñez. Las ratas control recibieron el vehículo de la droga (agua destilada). Los resultados mostraron que no hubo alteraciones significativas en cuanto a la evolución del peso corporal de las ratsa madres, al peso de los fetos, al número de implantaciones y reabsorciones, ni tampoco en cuanto a los pesos de placentas y fetos. Además, no se observaron malformaciones fetales mayores, muertes intrauterinas o aumento de la mortalidad materna. El único efecto significativo observado con la dosis de 315 mg/kg de pyrazinamida, fue una reducción del peso uterino Abstract in english Although being used for years in the treatment of tuberculosis, no data are available in the literature on the safety of pyrazinamide during pregnancy. Accordingly, we aimed to make a first approach to this problem by evaluating the effects of this drug administered during the entire pregnancy of al [...] bino rats. Fourty female, EPM-1 Wistar albino rats of about 250 g b.w. were used. Upon conception (day zero of pregnancy) the animals were randomly divided in 4 groups of 10 rats each and labeled as follows. Controls (C), animals treated with the drug vehicle (destilled water); experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3), animals treated with 35, 105 or 315 mg/kg b.w. pyrazinamide by gavage (oral route) once daily up to the term (20th day of pregnancy). Drug or vehicle volume was always 0.5 ml. Body weight gain was followed up every week. At term, upon sacrifice (in excess of anesthesia) and histerectomy, the following parameters have been studied: number of implantations and reabsorptions; intrauterine deaths; number of living foetuses and of placentae; weights of concepts and of placentae; major foetal malformations; maternal mortality index. No significant effects of pyrazinamide on rat pregnancy have been observed regarding the maternal body weight gain, the weights of concepts, the number of implantations and reabsorptions and the weights of placentae and foetuses. Also, no deleterious effects have been noticed regarding major foetal malformations, intrauterine deaths or maternal mortality. With the highest pyrazinamide dosis employed (315 mg/kg b.w.), however, a significant lowered uterine weight was recorded. Although otherwise safe, a high-dose regimen of pyrazinamide during rat pregnancy can induce a slight yet significant reduction of uterine weight.

Marisa, Pascale Quintino; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Mary, Uchiyama Nakamura; Ricardo, Martins Oliveira-Filho; Silvia, Espiridião; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

206

Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc...

Issy, A. C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C. E. G.; Nogueira-barbosa, M. H.; Del Bel, E.; Defino, H. L. A.

2013-01-01

207

PUNARNAVA MANDUR: TOXICITY STUDY OF CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION IN WISTAR RATS  

OpenAIRE

Punarnava Mandur is an iron containing classical Ayurvedic formulation which was studied for repeated dose oral toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. Total 48 Wistar rats (24 male and 24 female) were selected based on the body weight and were randomly distributed into four groups followed by administration of Punarnava Mandur at the dose of 0, 90, 450, 900 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Body weight, Weekly Feed and Water consumption, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Differenti...

Jamadagni, P. S.; Jamadagni, S. B.; Neogy, M.; Singh, R. K.; Upadhyay, S. N.; Hazra, J.

2013-01-01

208

Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze  

OpenAIRE

A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids) at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individu...

Contreras, Carlos M.; Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa; Rosa Isela García-Ríos; Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo; Gabriel Guillen-Ruiz; Blandina Bernal-Morales

2014-01-01

209

Cytogenetic and hormonal investigations of gamma irradiated Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cytogenetic data from bone marrow cells and hormonal changes in the gonadial axis were investigated in male Wistar rats, severely gamma irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy. The structural chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells were recorded quantitatively, while luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TS) were determined in blood plasma by radioimmunological methods. A strictly defined dose dependence in yield of cells with aberrations, chromatide and chromosome fragments and total amount of breaks was found in the bone marrow cells analyzed. Statistical models were used for data processing. A correlation was estimated between irradiation dose and the levels of LH and FSH in the blood plasma as well as of TS content produced by Leidig's testis cells. LH and FSH levels were reduced considerably below the norm by almost all irradiation doses and were maintained low from the day 1 to 40 post irradiation, while TS content decreased at high irradiation doses (2.0 and 4.0 Gy), but was above the norm at low doses. 4 tabs.; 5 figs.; 24 refs

210

Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

2014-11-01

211

Effect of polytrin and gamma-Rays on nucleic acids in placenta of albino-Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experiment 4 groups of pregnant female albino albino rats were used. The first group served as a control. The second group was irradiated with gamma rays (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. The third group was treated orally with polytrin on day 7 of gestation (1/100 LD 50). The last group was treated with polytrin as third group, then irradiated with (2 Gy) on day 12 of gestation. In group 2, severe degeneration in maternal and foetal rat placenta and marked loss of DNA in different layers were observed. The placenta of group 3 showed decrease in the content of RNA without loss in DNA content, in group 4 vacillation in different layers accompanied by decrease in DNA and RNA contents was noticed. 4 figs

212

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ±  SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P silymarin. PMID:25347929

Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

2014-10-28

213

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

SHAMSHUN NEHAR

2013-01-01

214

EFFECT OF STRESS - INDUCED MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVEL IN DIFFERENT BRAIN TISSUES IN SELECTIVE SUBCORTICAL LESIONED WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain is the target for different stressors because of its high sensitivity to stress induced degenerative conditions. A number of pathological conditions of the brain have been implicated due to free radical formation. Subcortcial structures are known to influence stress responses. Among them, the amygdala nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus has been linked in the regulation of stress responses. The present study was aimed to elucidate the comparative analysis of amygdala and paraventricular nucleus in regulating the acute and chronic stress-induced malondialdehyde level in different brain tissues. Wistar albino rats were divided into amygdala lesioned and PVN lesioned groups. Each group was further subdivided into lesioned control group and lesioned stress group. The lesioned stress group animals were subjected to acute and chronic types of swimming and immobilization stress with bilateral lesions of nucleus of amygdala and PVN. Each subgroup contained ten animals. MDA levels of cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and cerebellum were estimated. Exposure to acute and chronic swimming stress in amygdala lesioned groups showed a significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 increase in the hypothalamus lipid peroxidation level when compared to the PVN lesioned swimming stress groups. Exposure to acute stressors significantly increased (p < 0.001 the cerebellar lipid peroxidation level in the amygdala lesioned groups when compared to the PVN lesioned groups. Based on the present study, it appears that the amygdala nucleus has a prominent role in decreasing the stress induced free radical formation in brain tissues. It is our attempt to put forth the evidence for greater involvement of the amygdala in the prevention of stress- induced free radicals formation

Sheila R Pai

2013-06-01

215

The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat  

OpenAIRE

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradally transported HRP and Nissl itaining in whole mounted retinas, it \\vas found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are nut smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cel...

Rijn, C. M.; Marani, E.; Rietveld, W. J.

1986-01-01

216

Evaluation of wound healing effect of Jasminum grandiflorum in albino rats by histopathological studies  

OpenAIRE

Background: Wound healing is an important process in regeneration of the lost tissue, it involves various steps. Varieties of substances are known to interact in the healing process, some of the plant products are found to be beneficial. Jasmine leaves are mentioned to have healing effect in ancient literature. Hence the study was carried out to evaluate the wound healing effect by assessing the histopathological parameters. Methods: The study was done in the albino rats which were divided...

Ravishankar M; Revankar, Shreenivas P.; Jagadeesh K

2014-01-01

217

ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

OpenAIRE

Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of th...

Suresh, B.; Dhanasekaran, S.; Elango, K.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.

1995-01-01

218

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats  

OpenAIRE

The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Me...

Roop, J. K.; Dhaliwal, P. K.; Guraya, S. S.

2005-01-01

219

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

OpenAIRE

Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL) on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (...

Saikia, H.; Lama, A.

2011-01-01

220

Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

221

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt) were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase ...

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B. Chougule Jaywant T. Jadhav And Aruna A. Kanase

2014-01-01

222

Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet  

OpenAIRE

The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari) on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cell count (WBC)(Total and differential) were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and P...

Braid, S. A.; Awopeju, T. A.; George-opuda, M. I.; Bamigbowu, E. O.; Adegoke, A. O.

2012-01-01

223

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral) And Ddb (Hepato Protective) Drugs In Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG) , total protein (TP) albumin (ALB) , Iron (Fe) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cor...

Soliman S Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby And Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-01-01

224

Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

225

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE SMALL INTESTINE OF ADULT WISTAR RATS  

OpenAIRE

The effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) used as food additive on the small intestine of adult wistar rat was investigated. Both adult male and female Wistar rats (n=24) of average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16) and control (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with grower's mash daily for fourteen days. The control rats received equal amounts of grower's mash without MSG added daily. The grower's mash was ...

Eweka, A. O.; Om Iniabohs, F. A. E.

2007-01-01

226

A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

2011-10-01

227

A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

2012-07-01

228

Attenuating Role of Vitamin C on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The toxicity of monosodium glutamate has been on the increase due to increased patronage of fast foods; with its attendant effects. There have also been attempts to attenuate these effects. Hence, the attenuating role of vitamin C on sperm toxicity induced by monosodium glutamate was accessed on the weight of testes and epididymes, epididymal count, motility, viability, semen pH and sperm head abnormality in albino rat as a model. The male rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. The rats were administered with MSG and vitamin C treatments for 65 days. Vitamin C attenuated the MSG induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, count and sperm head abnormality. Vitamin C can actually attenuate the effect of MSG induced toxicity in rats as a model.

O.S. Amaechina

2013-01-01

229

Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

230

SEQUESTRATION PROPERTY OF SPIRULINA AGAINST LEAD INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE ALBINO WISTER RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS  

OpenAIRE

Lead acetate induces the histological changes in liver and kidney tissues of the male albino Wister rat were observed by light microscopy. The rats were exposed to sublethal concentration of lead acetate 1.896 mg/kg body wt for seven days with parallel untreated control, lead acetate along with spirulina 2mg/Kgbody wt and spirulina 2mg/Kg body wt groups were maintained. Liver and kidney tissue used for histological studies. No pathological changes were observed in the untreated control and sp...

Hemalatha, K.; Pugazhendy, K.; Meenambal, M.; Jayanthi, C.

2013-01-01

231

Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri)[SC6H4N:C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC︹(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sper...

Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

2006-01-01

232

22Na+ and 86Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR anvascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined

233

/sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

1988-06-01

234

Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 ?m, GSD = 2.4 ?m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with ry to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

235

Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Profile of the Aqueous Root Extracts of Leptadenia hastata in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic profile and the hypoglycaemic activity of aqueous root extracts of L. hastata in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats model. Eighty five albino rats were used for this study out of this thirty five were used subjected to experimental diabetes by the use of alloxan at a dose of 160 mg kg-1 body weight. Seven experimental groups of five rats per group (A-G were used for this study. A standard antidiabetic drug (insulin group (B and normal saline group (G serves as positive control. The blood glucose lowering activity of the extract, insulin and normal saline groups were monitored at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post extract administration. On the other hand the remaining fifty albino rats were used to determine the acute toxicity and the hypoglycemic activity of the extract. The blood glucose levels of the rats were monitored at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post extract administration. Oral administration of aqueous root extract at 600 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt have significantly (p-1 b.wt have significantly (pL. hastata aqueous root extracts and underscore its potentials in the management of diabetes mellitus especially following prolonged use in days.

I.A. Mairiga

2013-01-01

236

Efeitos da semicarbazida no esqueleto de ratos Wistar em crescimento / Effects of semicarbazide on skeleton of growing Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The effects of semicarbazide hydrochloride on skeletal tissues were evaluated using Wistar rats. In the animals submitted to the administration of semicarbazide, radiological examination showed bone and articular alterations with growth plates enlargement. Histological exams showed irregular pattern [...] s and proliferation of chondrocytes and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical exams showed PCNA positive reaction in pre- and hypertrofic chondrocytes. These results confirm that semicarbazide induces important changes in skeletal tissues and that has potential utility in experimental osteolathryrism

A., Ramos; A., Pereira; A.S., Cabrita; F., Capela e Silva.

2012-04-01

237

Age-related changes in the dorsal skin histology in Mini and Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Mini rats (Jcl: WistarTGN(ARGHGEN)1Nts (MRs) are Wistar rat (WR)-derived transgenic rats in which the expression of growth hormone (GH) gene is suppressed by the presence of antisense transgene. The plasma GH level of MRs is reduced to 40 to 60% of that of WRs. In this study, to evaluate the influence of GH deficiency on the skin nature, age-related changes in the dorsal skin histology were compared between male MRs and WRs. Although there were no essential dif...

Ikawa, A.; Ishii, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Yasoshima, A.; Suzuki, N.; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, S.; Doi, K.

2002-01-01

238

Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

Almoeiz Y. Hammad

2013-08-01

239

4. Cisplatin and carboplatin induced changes in oxidative enzyme activity levels in albino rat’s liver  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible interference of cisplatin or carboplatin on oxidative enzymes in liver of albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups each consisting of eight animals. Group 1 (Control received 0.9% of normal saline. Group 2 (Treatment received cisplatin of 3 mg/kg body weight and Group 3 (Treatment received carboplatin of 10 mg/kg body weight. Injections were given intra-peritoneally to rats on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of experimentation. On 45th day of experiment, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Succinate dehydrogenases (SDH, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH activities in the cytosol fraction were assayed in liver of albino rats. Cisplatin or carboplatin treatment caused significant changes in activity levels of SDH, LDH & G-6-PDH in liver of experimental rats, when compared to control rats. From the study it may be concluded that, hepatic tissue is meeting its energy requirements through alternative pathways. In other words this can be viewed as functional or physiological adaptation of the liver in treated rats, may be due to stress caused by platinum-based anticancer drugs.

Y.V. Kishore Reddy

2010-08-01

240

Impact of ?-tocopherol on Metronidazole and Tetracycline-induced Alterations in Reproductive Activities of Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Antimicrobial drugs have been reported to have adverse effects on male fertility. The present study reports the role of ?- tocopherol on metronidazole and tetracycline induced reproductive alterations in albino rats. Male albino rats (5/group) were treated with 20 mg kg-1 bw day-1 metronidazole or 60 mg kg-1 day-1 tetracycline with or without 15 mg kg-1 bw ?-tocopherol for 8 weeks. The reversibility of effects after 4 weeks recovery period was determined in separate groups of 5 rats. The co...

Raji, Y.; Kunle-alabi, Olufadekemi T.; Olaleye, S. B.; Gbadegesin, M. A.; Awobajo, F. O.; Osonuga, O. A.; Odukanmi, A. O.; Salami, S. A.; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F.

2007-01-01

241

Effect of Low Protein Diet on the Acute Doses of Actellic-20 in the Heart And Brain of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

A study on the effect of low- protein diet on the toxicity of acute doses of Actellic-20 in the heart and brain of albino rats was carried out. Three weeks old weaning albino rats Rattus norvegicus were grouped into two and fed low and normal protein diet for four weeks after which they were given Actellic-20 at low dose levels (100ppm and 150ppm) by oral intubation. The rats were sacrificed at 24h, 72h, and 120h after dosing and the activities of Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotra...

Ajayi; Olubunmi Bolanle; Ajimoko; Yemisi Rufina

2005-01-01

242

Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's mi...

Fahaid Al-Hashem

2009-01-01

243

Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

244

Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

A. Natarajan

2012-04-01

245

Effects of radiation and maze performance on brain contents of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in male albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the present study are dealing with the normal patterns of the occurrence of norepinephrine (N E) and 5 - hydroxytryptamine (5-H T) in different brain regions of albino rat and to determine the changes in brain levels of both substances when the rat was subjected to various effects

246

The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

247

The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

248

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar / Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade varian [...] do entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 a [...] nd 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei, Rodrigues; Olavo Biraghi, Letaif; Alexandre Fogaça, Cristante; Raphael Martus, Marcon; Reginaldo Perilo, Oliveira; Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de, Barros Filho.

249

Padronização da lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar Standardization of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Padronizar um modelo experimental de lesão de medula espinal em ratos Wistar, utilizaram-se um equipamento computadorizado para impacto por queda de peso e os parâmetros determinados pelo Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study - MASCIS. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 30 ratos, com idade variando entre 20 e 25 semanas de vida. O peso variou de 200 a 300 g, para as fêmeas, e de 232 a 430 g para os machos. Realizaram-se impactos com pesos de 10 g de 12,5; 25 e 50 mm de altura, controlando-se a velocidade de impacto e o coeficiente de compressão. O impacto ocorreu sobre a superfície da medula espinal na altura da décima vértebra torácica, após laminectomia. Monitoraram-se os sinais vitais e realizaram-se gasometrias previamente e posteriormente à lesão da medula. O volume de lesão foi avaliado pela análise quantitativa dos íons de sódio e potássio. RESULTADOS: Verificaram-se correlações estatisticamente significantes entre o volume de lesão e os parâmetros mecânicos. O volume de lesão provocado por queda de 50 mm de altura foi superior aos de 12,5 e 25 mm, que não diferiram entre si. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo demonstrou-se eficaz e capaz de gerar lesões medulares padronizadas em ratos Wistar.OBJECTIVE: To standardize an experimental model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats, computerized weight fall impact equipment were used and the parameters were used determined by the multicenter animal spinal cord injury study - MASCIS. METHODS: Thirty rats were used, with age varying between 20 and 25 weeks, and weight ranging from 200 to 300g for females, and from 232 to 430g for males. The impacts were done with weights of 10g starting from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm of height, and the impact speed and compression coefficient were obtained. The impact occurred on the surface of the spinal cord at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra after laminectomy. Vital signs were monitored and gas analysis was made before and after the spinal cord injury. The lesion volume was evaluated by the quantitative analysis of sodium and potassium ions. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were verified among the lesion volume and the mechanical parameters. The lesion volume caused by the fall from 50mm height was superior to that of the 12.5 and 25mm, which didn't differ from each other. CONCLUSION: The model demonstrated itself to be effective and capable of generating standard spinal cord injuries on Wistar rats.

Nilson Rodnei Rodrigues

2010-01-01

250

Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls), group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and lico...

Mohamed U; Bstawi M; Abd, El Mgeed A.; Abdel, Gabbar M.

2009-01-01

251

Características ultraestruturais do segmento abdominal da aorta de rato albino = Mural features of the abdominal aortic segment of albino rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar as peculiaridades ultraestruturais da parede da aorta de rato. Foram utilizados sete ratos albinos, adultos jovens, dos quais foram coletados fragmentos da aorta abdominal infra-renal. Após a coleta, os segmentosvasculares foram fixados e encaminhados para a rotina de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura. As lamelas elásticas aparecem interpostas às fibras musculares lisas, sendo essa disposição principalmente notada na túnica média da parede vascular. Entre asfibras musculares lisas e as lamelas elásticas, observa-se um inter-relacionamento aparentemente estreito, feito por conexão e ancoramento entre ambos os elementos murais por meio de lamelas de colágeno. A túnica íntima da aorta abdominal do rato mostraalgumas peculiaridades ultraestruturais marcantes, tais como a interrupção, em certos locais da parede, de continuidade da lâmina elástica interna, interrupção acompanhada por poros endoteliais, de certa extensão, suprajacentes à falha na estrutura elástica intimal. Este padrão de constituição mural, com destaque aos ancoramentos elástico-musculares, via o colágeno, parece garantir propriedades fundamentais da parede vascular, concernentes à hemodinâmica, tal como o cisalhamento, normalmente notado entre os estratos superpostosda parede vascular, bem como a contratilidade e a visco-elasticidade da parede arterial.The objective of the present research was to investigate the ultrastructural peculiarities of the aortic wall of the rat. Seven young adult rats were used, from which fragments of theinfrarenal abdominal aorta were collected. After collection, the vascular segments were fixed and sent for analysis by scanning electron microscope. The elastic lamellae appear interposed with smooth muscular fibers; this pattern was verified mainly at the medial layer structure. Among the mural elements a well defined interrelationship was established through connective lamellae of the arterial wall. The collagen lamellae mainly provided anchoring among the elastic and smooth muscular constituents. The intimal layer showedspecial ultrastructural features, such as a non-continuous inner elastic lamina presented in certain sites of the vascular wall, followed by endothelial pores. This mural pattern of the abdominal aorta provided support to vascular functions such as shrinkage among the laminar composition of the arterial layers, also acting in mechanical properties of the vascular wall, such as viscoelasticity and contractility – essential actions to blood vessel hemodynamics.

2007-10-01

252

Effect of Carica papaya bark extract on oxidative stress parameters in testes of male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Summary: Carica papaya bark has contraceptive benefits when given at a high dose in male rats the mechanism at which it achieves this is yet to be fully understood. Forty male Wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomized into 8 groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, Ib, IIb, IIIb, IV and V respectively (n=5). Groups Ia-IIIa and Ib-IIIb were treated for 4 and 8 weeks with Carica papaya bark extract at doses 50 and 100 mg ml-1day-1 comparing to 2-5 ml distilled water baseline control. Group IV rats...

Yama, O. E.; Okanlawon, A. O.; Kusemiju, T. O.

2011-01-01

253

Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no ecount, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

254

Wistar-Kyoto rats as an animal model of anxiety vulnerability: Support for a hypervigilance hypothesis  

OpenAIRE

Inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats have been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability as they display behavioral inhibition and a constellation of learning and reactivity abnormalities relative to outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Together, the behaviors of the WKY rat suggest a hypervigilant state may contribute to its anxiety vulnerability. To test this hypothesis, open-field behavior, acoustic startle, pre-pulse inhibition and timing behavior were assessed in WKY and Sprague Dawley (SD) ra...

Mcauley, J. D.; Stewart, A. L.; Webber, E. S.; Cromwell, H. C.; Servatius, R. J.; Pang, K. C. H.

2009-01-01

255

Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat  

OpenAIRE

Background: Phyllanthus amarus is commonly used for treatment such as in gastro, urogenital diseases and infection. However, it is speculated to have some toxic effects such as renal tubular damage. Aims: This study was to investigate the histological effects of chronic administration of the herb on kidney of adult Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Rats of both sexes (n = 24), with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (A and B) and control (C) groups of 8 rats ea...

Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene; Ezekiel Uba Nwose

2010-01-01

256

Effect of Thymoquinone on Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The rats were pretreated orally (using rats feeding needle) with different doses (5, 10 and 20 mg kg?1 body weight) of TQ for 7 days and then ethanol (7.5 g kg?1) was injected. Silymarin was used as standard hepato-protective agent for comparison. The activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Acid Phosphatase (ACP) an...

Alsaif, Mohammed A.

2007-01-01

257

Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20?mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for ...

Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

2014-01-01

258

Effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Flunarizine is commonly used for migraine prophylaxis. It is a calcium channel blocker which blocks the L-type, T-type and N-type of calcium channels of pancreatic beta cells and other cells. It is believed to cause alterations in blood glucose levels secondary to its effect on calcium channel dependent insulin secretion.Objective: To evaluate the effect of flunarizine on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTTMaterials and Methods: Flunarizine and distilled water were given orally for 5 days to the test (T and control (C groups of 6 normal albino rats respectively (N = 6. OGTT was conducted on both the groups on the 5th day and blood glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 60 and 150 minutes. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent samples t -test.Results: Flunarizine caused hyperglycemia at all durations of the OGTT with a maximum difference of 26% at 0 hour. The extent of worsening was maximum at 60 - 0 minute interval in both the instances i.e. test group value compared with control (T-C and control values compared with itself (C-C. The comparison of extent of hyperglycemia revealed that T-C showed 17% (47mg/dl more hyperglycemia than the C-C (40 mg/dl.Conclusion: Flunarizine has hyperglycemic effects in normal albino rats when given for 5 consecutive days orally even at the dose used for prophylaxis of migraine in human beings. A word of caution is thus advised when using flunarizine in impaired glucose tolerance or diabetic subjects.

Suresha RN

2013-03-01

259

Microchemical analysis of retina layers in pigmented and albino rats by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to collect infrared spectra from microscopic regions of tissue sections. The infrared spectra are evaluated to chemically characterize the absorbing molecules. This technique can be applied to normal or diseased tissues. In the latter case, FT-IR microspectroscopy can reveal chemical changes that are associated with discrete regions of lesion sites, which can provide insights into the chemical mechanisms of disease processes. In the present study, FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to analyze sections of retina from normal (pigmented) and albino rats. The outer segments of retinas from pigmented animals were found to have unusually strong absorption values for C&z.dbnd6;C-H unsaturation and carbonyl functional groups. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major constituent of lipids in the outer segments, also had particularly high absorption values for these functional groups, which suggests that it is responsible for those enhanced absorption values. Absorbance values for the unsaturation and carbonyl functional groups were substantially reduced in the outer segments of retinas from albino animals. This finding, together with data from other studies on light-induced oxidative events in the retina, indicates a loss of DHA by a light-induced mechanism in albino animals. The outer nuclear layer had strong absorbance values for H-C-OH and P&z. dbnd6;O functional groups, which is likely due to the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. The outer and inner plexiform layers were found to contain greater concentrations of CH(2) and C&z.dbnd6;O functional groups than the outer and inner nuclear layers, which is due to the high concentration of synaptic connections in the former layers. In summary, FT-IR microspectroscopy revealed a unique chemical profile in the outer segments compared to other retinal layers, and this profile was altered in albino animals. PMID:10594378

LeVine, S M; Radel, J D; Sweat, J A; Wetzel, D L

1999-12-27

260

Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

2002-04-01

261

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ENDOSULFAN IN KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. An effective dose (1/3rd , 1/6th of 0.28 ppm/kg-1 LD50 of endosulfan was injected to 4, 5 and 6 week of albino rats and its exposure was studied on histopathology of kidney after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. The histopathological changes in renal tissue of rats exposed to endosulfan by interdermal injection showed pronounced changes in the structure of renal corpuscles and caused renal necrosis. The examination revealed nephrotoxic effects on endosulfan treated rats. The effect of this pesticide on oxidative stress and its biodegradation were also explained. This review will be useful for the researchers working in the field of pesticides and will create an awareness regarding its hazardous effect.

Sabiha Khan

2014-05-01

262

Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

263

CURATIVE EFFECT OF ABHRAK BHASMA ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INTOXICATED ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Ayurveda, many drugs are mentioned to treat liver and kidney diseases. Abhrak bhasma is commonly used Ayurvedic medicine against many diseases including hepatitis. This study was planned to investigate the curative effect of abhrak bhasma in liver and kidney functions in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ kg body wt were given in curative experimental schedule in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 increased serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activities reflected intoxication that produced cellular degeneration or destruction. With increasing doses of abhrak bhasma given to CCl4 treated rats in 7 days hepatocure schedule normalized the elevated activities of AST, ALT and ALP. Similarly CCl4 mediated increased contents of conjugated, unconjugated and total bilirubin level was reduced with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent bilirubin clearance efficiency. Abhrak bhasma also mediated urea and creatinine clearance indicating renal curative potency. It was found that abhrak bhasma has more curative effects than SiO2 doses. The present findings concluded that abhrak bhasma possess dose dependent curative effects against CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidneys functions in albino rat.

Parashuram B Teli, Priti B Chougule Jaywant T Jadhav and Aruna A Kanase

2014-01-01

264

Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats  

Science.gov (United States)

High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

265

Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

266

Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against ?- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to ?-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT ias the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

267

Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

2012-01-01

268

Effect of Neem oil on the structure and function of the mature female albino rat ovaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to observe the effect of Neem oil treatment on the fertility, microscopic structure of ovary and the associated changes in the serum levels of female reproductive hormones in mature female albino rats. Methods:   The animals were divided in different groups as A1 = treated females at low dose (0.6 ml of Neem oil/animal, A2 = treated females at high dose (1.2 ml of Neem oil/animal, A3 = controls for group A1 (corresponding dose of peanut oil and A4 = controls for A2 (corresponding dose of peanut oil. Animals were kept under observation for a period of six weeks. At the end of this period animals were anesthetized, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and sacrificed. Ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for microscopy and methanol for high-performance liquid chromatography purpose. Rresults: Microscopic sections of the ovaries have revealed decrease in the number of mature ovarian follicles. Significant changes in the levels of associated reproductive hormones and presence of higher concentrations of active Neem components in the gonads amongst the treated female rats have also been shown in this study. Cconclusions: From these findings it can be concluded that Neem oil has a dose depended anti-fertility potential in the female albino rats.

Masood Ahmed Shaikh

2009-03-01

269

Hepatoprotective effects of curcumin against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin is widely used as a traditional medicine. This work was aimed to investigate its possible protective effect against chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. Fifty male albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10, each). The control group received a single dose of normal saline, the diethylnitrosamine (DENA) group received a single intra-peritoneal dose at 200mg/kg body weight, and the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups were given DENA and daily administrated curcunine (CUR) via intra-gastric intubation in doses of 300,200 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. respectively for 20 weeks. Serum, and liver samples were used for determination of alpha feto-protein (AFP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukine-6 (IL-6), serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) levels as well the activities and gene expression of glutathione peroxidise (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Curcumin significantly lowered the serum levels of AFP, IL-2 and IL-6, ALT, ALT, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well gene expression of IL-2 and IL-6. In contrast it increased the gene expression and activities of Gpx, GRD, CAT and SOD. The protective effect of CUR against DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in albino rats was proven. PMID:25640336

Kadasa, Naif Mohammed; Abdallah, Haytham; Afifi, Mohamed; Gowayed, Salah

2015-01-01

270

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats / Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto n [...] ormal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição). Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle) durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05) obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on [...] the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group). Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls) were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05) obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.

Cassio Eduardo, Raposo-Amaral; Ana Beatriz, Almeida; Cesar Augusto, Raposo-Amaral; Luiz Carlos, Vulcano; Maria Rita, Passos-Bueno; Nivaldo, Alonso.

2010-12-01

271

Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis ratos sobreviveram ao parto (grupo A com restrição. Dois ratos nascidos de outra mãe e com a mesma idade foram utilizados como controle (grupo B sem restrição controle durante o seu crescimento. Os oito animais foram sacrificados após 1,2 ano. Medidas lineares, histologia e tomografia computadorizada foram utilizadas para a aferição de assimetrias cranianas através da mensuração de pontos anatômicos do esqueleto craniofacial dos ratos dos dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas obtidas nos ratos dos dois grupos (p>0,05 obtidas através de métodos morfológicos e radiológicos. As análises histológicas não revelaram sinais de fusão prematura da suturas do crânio. Diminuição do segmento corpóreo, bem como do tamanho dos membros foi evidenciado em todos os animais do grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: A restrição do cérvix uterino levou ao sofrimento fetal, morte de alguns animais e diminuição do tamanho do corpo de todos os animais, mas não craniossinostose.

Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

2010-12-01

272

EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES (MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND SODIUM NITRITE) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

Food additives are substances used in food industry in order to improve the food’s taste and appearance by preserving its flavor and preventing it from souring. We study the adverse effect of some food additives on the biochemical parameters in adult  male albino rats by daily oral exposure of (15mg/kg body weight),(5mg/kg body weight) of Monosodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite respectively, for 4 weeks and show the alteration of the results of these biochemical parameters  in serum of ad...

Eman Salah Abdel-reheim, Hanan Abdel-hameid Abdel-hafeez

2014-01-01

273

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

274

Effects of Origanum majorana L. on cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of Origanum majorana L. (OM) against cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. METHODS This study was performed at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2010. Thirty-six male albino rats were divided into 6 groups: control, Cd, OM, OM+Cd, OM pre-treated (received OM extract for 14 days followed by Cd for 14 days), OM post-treated (received Cd for 14 days followed by OM extract for 14 days). All...

Shati, Ali A.

2011-01-01

275

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim) is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duratio...

Muthuviveganandavel, V.; Muthuraman, P.; Muthu, S.; Srikumar, K.

2011-01-01

276

Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of 3H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of 3H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls. (auth.)

277

Improved model for the establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective To improve the model for establishment and evaluation of detrusor overactivity in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods We ligated the perineal urethra of female Wistar rats and then performed filling cystometry. The probability of detrusor overactivity, bladder capacity, peak voi [...] ding pressure and histological changes were investigated. Results Detrusor overactivity ratio of the obstruction group was 32.4%. Bladder capacity increased from 0.273 ± 0.036mL in control group to 0.89 ± 0.19mL in detrusor overactivity group (P

Nian-zhao, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian-bo, Zhang; Jun, Chen.

2014-06-01

278

EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF KIGELIA PINNATA LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR RATS  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic activity of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata on wistar rats. Analgesic activity of the leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata at a dose of 200 mg/kg & 400 mg/kg was evaluated against the standard drug pentazocine at a dose of 10mg/kg. Wistar rats of either sex of five numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated by hot plate and tail flick method. The both doses of leaf extract of Kigelia pinnata was found to produce signi...

Parmar Namita; Rawat Mukesh; Kumar Tirath

2011-01-01

279

The Pharmacological Evaluation of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Against Diabetic Neuropathy in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study was design to evaluate the Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (active constituent ofGreen tea) 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg/ p.o dose against Diabetic neuropathy in wistar rats. For theEvaluation of Anti-nociceptive activity of EGCG in diabetic neuropathy, Streptozotocin induceddiabetes neuropahty model was used in wistar rats and it was evaluated by Physical parameters: Bodyweight, Grip strength (Rota-rod), pain-threshold level by Tail Flick Method, Hot plate Method,Formalin Induced Pai...

Faisal Mohd

2013-01-01

280

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.  

OpenAIRE

Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG) commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC) of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24), average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16) and control (n=8) groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with...

Eweka, A. O.; Om Iniabohs, F. A. E.

2008-01-01

281

Antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), an active principle of the traditional antidiabetic plant, Bougainvillea spectabilis, is claimed to exert insulin-like effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of D-pinitol on lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Rats were made type II diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p pinitol to STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (p pinitol also lowered significantly (p pinitol in STZ-induced type II diabetic rats. PMID:18752266

Geethan, P K M Anu; Prince, P Stanely Mainzen

2008-01-01

282

Effects of Fetal Programming in the Inflammatory Response in Wistar Rats: A Systematic Review / Efectos de la Programación Fetal en la Respuesta Inflamatoria en Ratas Wistar: una Revisión Sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la literatura sobre los efectos de la programación fetal en la respuesta inflamatoria en ratas Wistar. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Science Direct, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. Los términos principales de la búsqueda [...] fueron la malnutrición y la inflamación y se buscaron en portugués e inglés. Se incluyeron artículos originales de ratas albinas y se excluyeron los artículos de revisión, las relacionadas con los seres humanos o animales, y de ratas en los artículos relacionados a la desnutrición, que no era el intrauterina y que no se referían al concepto de la programación fetal. Los artículos encontrados en más de una base de datos se contaron una sola vez. Encontramos 16 artículos en PUBMED, 16 en SCOPUS, 4 en MEDLINE, 341 en Science Direct, 8 SciELO, LILACS y 1 de cada 77 en SpringerLink, dando un total de 463 artículos. Después de la aplicación de la inclusión y exclusión de criterios fueron seleccionados 4 artículos para el análisis. La programación fetal parece interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria en los descendientes adultos de ratas Wistar, pero sus mecanismos siguen siendo inciertos. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effects of fetal programming in the inflammatory response in Wistar rats. A search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCOPUS, LILACS, SpringerLink. The main search terms were malnutrition and in [...] flammation in Portuguese and in English. Original articles were included involving albino rats and review articles were excluded involving humans or animals other than rats. Articles that were related to malnutrition which was not intrauterine and did not involve the concept of fetal programming were also excluded.Those items found in more than one database were counted only once. Sixteen articles were found in PUBMED, 16 in SCOPUS, 4 in MEDLINE, 341 in SCIENCE DIRECT, 8 in SciELO, 1 in LILACS and 77 in SPRINGERLINK totalling 463 articles from which 4 were selected for analysis after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fetal programming seems to interfere with the inflammatory response in the adult offspring of Wistar rats, but its mechanisms remain uncertain.

Thiago de Oliveira, Assis; José Candido de, Araújo Filho; Maria Bernadete de Sousa, Maia.

1289-12-01

283

THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

284

Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

Khaja Zeeyauddin

2011-01-01

285

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

OpenAIRE

The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW), NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW) and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytok...

Mohamed Mohamed Soliman; Hossam Fouad Attia; Mohamed Mahmoud Hussein; Esssam Hassan Mohamed; Tamer Ahmed Ismail

2013-01-01

286

Genotoxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in female Wistar rats after acute oral exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs; nanoceria) have demonstrated excellent potential for commercial use in various arenas, such as in biomedical industry in cosmetics and as a fuel additive. However, limited knowledge exists regarding their potential toxicity. In this study, acute oral toxicity of CeO2 NPs and their microparticles (MPs; bulk) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats. The CeO2 NPs and CeO2 MPs were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for the size, distribution and surface charge respectively. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus test (MNT), comet and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. Results revealed that at high dose (1000mg/kg bw) CeO2 NPs induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and blood cells and total cytogenetic changes in bone marrow. However, significant genotoxicity was not observed at 500 and 100mg/kg bw of CeO2 NPs. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in ALP and LDH activity in serum and GSH content in liver, kidneys and brain only at the high dose of CeO2 NPs. Tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Bioaccumulation of nanoceria in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, CeO2 NPs exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance in large fractions through urine and feces than CeO2 bulk, whereas, maximum amount of micro-sized CeO2 got excreted in feces. The histopathological examination documented alterations in the liver due to exposure with CeO2 NPs only. Hence, the results suggest that bioaccumulation of CeO2 NPs may induce genotoxic effects. However, further research on long term fate and adverse effects of CeO2 NPs is warranted. PMID:25435351

Kumari, Monika; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Grover, Paramjit

2014-12-01

287

Grape Seed Extract (Vitisvinifera) Alleviate Neurotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Lead Acetate in Male Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Grape seed extracts (GSE) are very potent antioxidant and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities, including an antioxidant property, and has been suggested to be of use in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of GSE against lead-induced neuro and hepatotoxicity in rat. Male albino rats were divided into six groups: the 1st group, rats were injected daily with saline vehicle and served as negati...

Waggas, Abeer M.

2012-01-01

288

A novel immunohistochemical marker of normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In albino rats, spontaneous occurrence of melanocytic tumors is rare, with diagnosis difficult. This study evaluated immunoreactivity for PNL2 in normal and neoplastic melanocytes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues of albino rats. The samples consisted of 11 (1.57%) amelanotic melanomas in 700 rats (2 studies), 23 non-melanocytic tumors, and a wide variety of normal tissues. In normal albino rats, PNL2 stained the melanocytes in the iris and choroid of the eyeball and the hair bulb and basal cell layers of the epidermis of the whole body. In amelanotic melanoma, the tumor cells consisted of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm without melanin granules. PNL2 consistently stained cytoplasm in all amelanotic melanoma cells. In contrast, the nonmelanocytic tumor cells were not labeled. Electron microscopically, neoplastic, and normal melanocytes showed numerous cytoplasmic premelanosomes (stage II melanosome). In conclusion, PNL2 is direct against a fixative- and decalcific-resistant melanocyte-associated antigen, and has high specificity against normal and neoplastic melanocytes of albino rats. PMID:18487499

Kurotaki, T; Tomonari, Y; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Tsuchitani, M

2008-05-01

289

HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

Bhaiji Amrita

2012-05-01

290

Stable Cesium Toxicity and Effect of Prussian Blue in Growing Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride (CsCl) on growing male albino rats and to evaluate the therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) administration for modification of the chemical toxicity. The experiments were performed on 32 growing male albino rats, (Rattus Rattus), divided into control group and three groups administered a daily dose of CsCl or PB or both. The results revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the Hb concentration, Ht %, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, potassium levels and body weight gain, with significant increase in WBC's count, serum urea and creatinine. No effect was observed on the other studied parameters including: RBCs count, liver functions, blood glucose, phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand, PB caused a significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that it can be one of the therapeutic agents that might provide a protection against toxicological effects

291

Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

292

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE SMALL INTESTINE OF ADULT WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG used as food additive on the small intestine of adult wistar rat was investigated. Both adult male and female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with grower's mash daily for fourteen days. The control rats received equal amounts of grower's mash without MSG added daily. The grower's mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water ad libitum. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The small intestine was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological procedures.The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of increased basophilia and cellular hypertrophy in animals given 3g of MSG, while degenerative and atrophic changes in the group with 6g of MSG was more pronounced. These findings indicate that Monosodium glutamate may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the small intestine of adult Wistar rats at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out

A.O.Eweka

2007-01-01

293

Ação da domperidona sobre a prenhez da rata albina / Effects of Domperidone on Pregnant Albino Rats Pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos: estudar os efeitos do uso crônico do fármaco anti-emético domperidona durante toda a prenhez da rata albina. Métodos: foram utilizadas 50 ratas albinas prenhes distribuídas ao acaso em cinco grupos: GI - sem nenhum tratamento (controle I); GII - recebeu água (controle II), GIII, GIV e GV [...] foram tratadas, respectivamente, com 2, 6 e 12 mg/kg de peso corporal por dia de domperidona, com doses fracionadas de 4 em 4 horas, por gavagem, sempre em 1 ml de água destilada, desde o dia zero até o 20º dia de prenhez. O ganho de peso das matrizes foi avaliado no dia zero e no 7º, 14º e 20º dia de prenhez, sendo que no 20º dia todos os animais foram sacrificados. A seguir foram anotados os seguintes parâmetros: número de sítios de implantação, de placentas e de fetos, pesos das placentas e dos fetos, malformações e mortalidade materna e fetal. Resultados: considerando as variáveis apreciadas, o fármaco influiu somente sobre a mortalidade fetal, sendo respectivamente de 14, 26 e 32 óbitos intra-uterinos entre 74, 60 e 57 crias, considerando os grupos III, IV e V. Conclusões: embora os resultados da experimentação animal não possam ser diretamente levados para a clínica humana, este trabalho alerta para os cuidados na prescrição de domperidona durante o período gestacional. Abstract in english Purpose: the aim of the present work was to study the chronic action of the antiemetic domperidone on the pregnancy of albino rats. Methods: fifty albino, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups: GI (control I) = intact rats; GII (control II) = rats receiving the drug vehicle (di [...] stilled water) by gavage at the same schedule of the experimental groups; rats in groups GIII, GIV and GV were treated with domperidone by gavage, 2, 6 and 12 mg/kg per day, respectively, divided into 4 daily doses, always in 1 ml of distilled water, from time zero up to the 20th day of pregnancy. The evolution of body weight gain was followed throughout and the animals were sacrificed at term (20th day) by deep ether anesthesia. Number of fetuses, placenta and implantation sites, placenta and fetus weight, fetal malformations and maternal and fetal mortality were evaluated. Results: we observed only intrauterine fetal mortality with 14, 26 and 32 in 74, 60 and 57 newborns of the groups III, IV and V, respectively. Conclusion: though the results of animal experimentation cannot directly be transposed to human conditions, this paper calls attention to the need for a safe judgement when prescribing domperidone to a first-trimester pregnant patient in order to reduce her emetic crises.

Arykerne Chamon do, Carmo; Danilo Nagib Salomão, Paulo; Ricardo Martins, Oliveira-Filho; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Luiz, Kulay Júnior.

2000-03-01

294

HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SESAME MEAL ON HIGH FAT FED WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sesamum indicum have been widely used in tradition medicine for thousand of year, it improves liver functions and provides protection against high fat fed metabolic rats. Present investigations were carried out on the hepatoprotective role of sesame meal treatment to high fat fed wistar rat. Healthy adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I: rats were fed a standard laboratory diet (20g/rat/day, Group II: rats were fed a high-fat diet alone (20mg/rat/day, Group III: rats were fed with combined mixture of 70% of high-fat diet with 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day, Group IV: rats were fed a high fat diet was administered with pioglitazone (25mg/kg of body weight via intravenous in each day, Group V: rats were fed combined mixture of 70% standard laboratory pellet and 30% sesame meal (20mg/rat/day. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (thirteen week period. High fat fed rat registered significantly increase in body weight and liver weight at the end of experimental period. The high fat fed rat substantially elevated its serum and liver tissue AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin with decreased in total protein levels. Whereas the levels of all parameterssignificantly restored towards normalization by the sesame meal treatment. The results obtained suggest that the sesame meal have potent hepatoprotective action on high fat fed rats. A comparison of the performance in both sesame meal and pioglitazone treatment on high fat fed rat in respect of hepato-protective role is clearly indicate that the sesame meal treatment was more or less very equal to the result of pioglitazone as well as to the normal level.

Anitha Uthandi

2011-12-01

295

Comparative study of Lansoprazole and Rabeprazole on ulcer healing property on albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for gastroesophageal disorders. The present work was carried out to compare effect of lansoprazole & rabeprozole for gastric ulcer healing. Methods: The study was carried out on gastric ulcer induced by aspirin in albino rats. The rats were divided into control group lansoprazole group and rabeprazole group and the effects of the two drugs, with regards to mean ulcer index was compared with the control and with each other. Analysis of variance and Student’s t-tests were applied to compare the results. Results: It was found that the mean ulcer index varied significantly across the three groups (p = .000. Compared to the control group, the ulcer index was significantly less in both lansoprazole and rabeprazole groups (p = .000. But the ulcer index with rabeprazole was significantly less than that with lansoprazole (p = .001. Conclusion: Rabeprazole is more efficacious than lansoprazole as far as ulcer healing effect is concerned.

Amit Kumar Jha

2012-11-01

296

Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

2010-09-01

297

Distribution and excretion of ?-naphthylthio-[14C]urea in Albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-naphthylthio-(14C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium (14C)thiocyanate to react with ?-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in ?-naphthylathiourea-treated rats. (author)

298

Protective role of desferrioxamine against gamma-irradiation induced histopathological damage in albino rats' liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible role of desferrioxamine (Dfx) against histopathological damages induced by ?-rays is evaluated.Male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. 1st group control animals, 2nd group: animals were exposed to whole body ?-irradiation (6 Gy), 3rd group: animals received intra peritoneal (I.P.) injections of Dfx for one week (250 mg/kg body wt) and 4th group: animals received Dfx one week before irradiation. The animals were investigated after 1, 7 and 21 days from irradiation.The results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing-radiation caused histopathological disorders in liver tissues manifested as degeneration and vaculation of hepatocytes, pyknosis of nuclei, hepatocytes and congestion and dilation of blood sinusoids after 1, 7 and 21 days of irradiation.On the other hand, Dfx protected rats showed reduction in the histopathological changes produced by ?-irradiation.Thus, it could be concluded that Dfx might provide protection against radiation that induced histopathological damage in liver.

299

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Feronia Limonia Fruit against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feronia limonia Swingle, though mentioned as a high utility medicinal plant in Ayurveda for the treat-ment of liver disorders, but has no scientific investigations. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of extracts of Feronia limonia fruit on albino rat liver, damage induced by single dose of carbon-tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg, p.o.. The oral administration of extracts (500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days has shown significant hepatoprotective action. There is reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes such SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Serum bilirubin and elevation in level of GSH, GPX,GLY and total protein in Feronia limonia protected rats.

Bahar Ahmed

2010-06-01

300

The influence of whole-body gamma-irradiation on tests in epidiolymis of albino rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The testes weights as well as the histopathological changes of testes and epididymes of albino rats exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation in doses 100, 200 and 400 rad for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days were investigated. Testes weights were reduced in rats exposed to 200 and 400 rad for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological changes of testes and epididymes varied according to the degree of irradiation. The degree and intensity of damage to the organs was in proportion to the intensity of irradiation. With the small dose (100 rad) there was degeneration of the primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm cells. With higher doses (200 and 400 rad) there were degeneration and necrosis of the spermatogenic cells and spermatogonia, hyalinization of the interstitial tissue, as well as connective tissue proliferation around the epididymal tubules

301

Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

V.O. Ogugbuaja

2004-12-01

302

Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

Mathew Joe

2003-01-01

303

The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 week...

Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

2011-01-01

304

ATRAZINE STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF ACTH AND ADRENAL STEROIDS IN MALE WISTAR RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in increased serum corticosterone (C), progesterone (P), androgens and estrogens. The observation of increased C following single or multiple doses of ATR (up to 21 days of dosing) su...

305

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA PROTECTS AGAINST CARDIAC DAMAGE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important world health problems, especially in developing countries where prevalence and incidence rates are highest. Diabetic patients are particularly prone to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. The present study investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia on histological changes of the left ventricle of the heart in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Forty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly assigned into five groups A, B, C, D and E of eight rats each. Group A were the control (normal rats; B were the experimentally-induced diabetic rats; C were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for two weeks (withdrawal group; D were diabetic rats treated with methanolic extracts of M. charantia for four weeks. E was diabetic rats treated with glimepiride for four weeks. Tissues were harvested, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine and special stains. Histological studies revealed disorganization of myofibril in the left ventricle of diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis also revealed abnormal deposition of glycogen in left ventricle of diabetic rats. M. charantia and glimperide attenuated the morphological alterations and reduced the glycogen deposits.

O. A Komolafe

2012-06-01

306

Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxi...

Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

2011-01-01

307

Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L.  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) on the liver of adult male Wistar rats as measured by light microscopy and biochemical parameters. The rats received the extract in water bottles at doses of 10 or 20 g/L daily for 40 days. There were no significant changes in the plasma levels of albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, total cholesterol, urea, uric acid, triacylglycerol,...

Fabrícia Souza Predes; Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta; Juliana Castro Monteiro; Tânia Toledo de Oliveira

2009-01-01

308

Endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Endurance exercise is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance in rats and humans. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms for the appetite-suppressive effects of endurance exercise. We hypothesized that endurance training might activate signaling cascades in the hypothalamus known to be involved in leptin signaling. Methods 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (n = 8) and exercise groups (n = 8). Animals in the...

Zhao Jiexiu; Tian Ye; Xu Jincheng; Liu Dongsen; Wang Xiaofang; Zhao Binxiu

2011-01-01

309

Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats  

OpenAIRE

  • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
  • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

310

The effect of hyperthyroidism on the levels of liver enzymes in adult male Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

Thyrotoxicosis is a condition in which tissues are stimulated by increased secretion of thyroid hormone. The most common cause is diffuse toxic goiter and toxic multi-nodular goiter. For more reviews on this disease, the effects of hyperthyroidism on liver enzyme levels were studied. A total of 30 adult male Wistar rats weighing about 190 g were purchased from the Pasteur Institute of Iran. In this study, rats were divided into control group, the group receiving vitamin E, the group receiving...

Alireza Azizi Saraji; Mohammad Doroudian; Mahdieh Soezi; Barzegar Amiri Olia; Hamedeh Bagheri

2012-01-01

311

Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) total extract in Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total e...

Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari; Leila Hosseinzadeh; Yalda Shokoohinia; Majid Aslany; Mohammad Kamali-Nejad

2012-01-01

312

Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat  

OpenAIRE

The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We f...

Hyungwoo Nam

2014-01-01

313

Histological Observations of the Testis of Wistar Rats Following the Oral Administration of Cotecxin (dihyroartemisinin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cotecxin has been reportedly used in the treatment of malaria with high clinical effect and low toxicity. This study therefore, tried to examine the effects of cotecxin on the histology of the testis of wistar rats. A total of twenty four (24 male wistar rats were the subjects used in this experiment. The wistar rats were divided into three groups with each group containing eight (8 rats. Different concentrations of cotecxin were administered orally to the wistar rats which had an average weight of 150 g. Group I is the control group, Group II received 3.42 mg/kg and Group III were given 17.10 mg/Kg. The duration of administration was seven days. After which four (4 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day. The remaining twelve rats were equally sacrificed on the 15th day and immediately fixed in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed and stained in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The changes observed on the eighth day in the testis were disarray of the spermatogenic cells and disorientation of the testis. These changes were observed to have been disappearing and normal histological features being restored in those rats sacrificed at the 15th day. It was therefore concluded that cotecxin has negative effect on the histology of the testis during administrations and these effects were reversible some days after stoppage of the administration. This suggests that cotexcin could be safe but It’s prolong usage may be discouraged.

T. Murdakai

2011-10-01

314

Transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en ratas Wistar de segunda generación / Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la transmisión congénita de Trypanosoma cruzi en crías de ratas albinas (Rattus norvegicus), cepa Wistar de segunda generación. El curso de la infección chagásica fue evaluado en las ratas infectadas inicialmente (RII) inyectadas con las f [...] ormas metacíclicas del parásito, en las crías de la primera (C1ªG) y segunda generación (C2ªG), mediante pruebas de diagnóstico seroparasitológicas y molecular (PCR). En las RII se demostró infección aguda caracterizada por parasitemias patentes entre los 12 y 45 días post-inoculación (pi), e incremento en la respuesta inmune humoral con títulos desde 1:64 y 1:2048; en la fase crónica se evidencio ausencia de parasitemias y mantenimiento de una moderada respuesta humoral en el 100% de las madres. Las C1ªG no presentaron tripomastigotes en la sangre circulante, la prueba de IFI, reveló seropositividad apreciable en el 75% de los sueros. En las C2ªG, los exámenes directos de sangre y el hemocultivo, resultaron negativos; los xenodiagnósticos mostraron un 18,2% de positividad. Las pruebas serológicas empleadas (IFI y ELISA) detectaron un 31,8% y 34,1% anticuerpos circulantes anti-T. cruzi. La PCR aplicada a los sueros, presentó un bajo porcentaje de muestras positivas (6,8%) y en los tejidos (corazón y músculo esquelético) se observó una alta positividad de 54,5% y 45,4%, respectivamente. La presencia de formas flageladas en la sangre, la persistencia de la serología positiva por anticuerpos humorales transferidos vía materna y la permanencia de restos de ADN de T. cruzi en sueros y tejidos en un número importante de crías, confirma la infección congénita a su progenie, en segunda generación. Estos resultados son de gran importancia para una mejor comprensión de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita. Abstract in english The results of the experimental study concerning the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in second generation strain Wistar albino rats are presented. The course of the Chagas infection was evaluated in rats initially infected with the metacyclic forms of the parasite (RII) in first (C1stG) [...] and second (C2ndG) generation offspring using parasitological, serological and molecular (PCR) diagnostic tests. In the RII, an acute infection characterized by patent parasitemias between 12 and 45 days post-inoculation and an increase in the humoral immune response with titers of 1:64 and 1:2048 in the chronic phase demonstrated the absence of parasitemia and maintenance of a moderate humoral response in 100% of the mothers. The C1stG did not show tripomastigotes in the blood circulation and the IIF test showed considerable seropositive in 75% of the sera. In C2ndG, direct blood and hemoculture exams performed were negative, while 18.2% of the xenodiagnosis were positive. The serological tests used (IIF and ELISA) detected 31.8% and 34.1% anti-T. cruzi circulating antibodies. The PCR applied to the serum presented a low percentage of positive (6.8%) samples and in tissues (heart and skeletal muscle) high positives of 54.5% and 45.4% respectively were observed. The presence of flagellated forms in the blood, the persistence of serological positive for humoral antibodies transferred by the mother and the permanence of remaining DNA of the T. cruzi in serum and tissues in a significant number of offspring confirm the congenital infection to their offspring in the second generation. These results are of great importance for the better understanding of the epidemiology of Chagas disease.

Elio A, Moreno; Martha, Ramírez A; Maritza E, Alarcón; Ana, Lugo de Yarbuh; Juana, Villarreal; Sonia, Araujo; Nora, Mogollón; Anajulia, González; Gloria, Premoli.

2010-07-01

315

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

316

Hepatic effects of aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata in male Wistar albino rats.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ThehepaticeffectsofaqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodorata,aplantcommonlyusedfortraditionalmedications,wasevaluatedusingmaleWistaralbinorats.Acuteandsubchronictoxicitywasevaluatedafter90daysofexposure.TheLD50was2154mg/kg.Serumlevelsofglucose,lactatedehydrogenase,aspartateaminotransferasetransaminase,andtotalbilirubinincreasedsignificantlyinthe538.5and1077mg/kgdosegroups.Thesetwogroupsalsohadsignificantlyreducedserumlevelsalbuminandtotalserumproteinwhencomparedwiththecontrolgroup.Histopathologicalassessmentshoweddegenerativechangesintheliver.AqueousleafextractofChromolaenaodoratausedintraditionalmedicalpracticemaybesafewhereashighdosesmayhavedeleterioushepaticeffects

Asomugha R. N.

2014-04-01

317

Prenatal and developmental toxicity study of meclizine and caffeine combination in female albino Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10t day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully. PMID:25651609

Sandeep, M; Alvin, Jose M

2014-12-01

318

Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period then were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. It was noticed that B.C.B treatment led to a significant improve in the decreased body weight, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, decreased liver glycogen caused by alloxan. And this improvement was also seen after the recovery period. B.C.B treatment led also to marked improvement in the histopathological degenerative changes in the cells of islets of Langerhans caused by alloxan after both the treated and recovery periods.

Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

2005-09-01

319

Amikacin Induces Renal Morphohistological Alterations in Wistar Rats / Alterações Morfohistológicas Renais Induzidas pela Amicacina em Ratos Wistar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi investigar as alterações morfohistológicas da amicacina em ratos. Ratos Wistar machos com idade de 8-12 meses e peso 200-250 g foram mantidos em temperatura (23±2°C) ambiente controlada com ciclos claro/escuro 12/12h. 25 ratos foram distribuídos em 5 grupos e [...] xperimentais, cada grupo com 5 animais. 4 grupos receberam uma dose diária de amicacina de 15 mg/Kg pela via intraperitoneal. O grupo-controle foi tratado com 0,9% solução salina por 28 dias. Aos grupos I, II, III e IV foram administrados pela via intraperitoneal amicacina por 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, respectivamente. Lâminas de tecido renal foram coradas com o reagente PAS e examinadas pela microscopia de luz. A morfologia das estruturas coradas pelo PAS do glomérulo renal foi avaliada nos diferentes grupos experimentais através de scores aplicando-se análise estatística de Kruskal-Wallis e Teste de comparação múltipla de Dunn’s com nível de signi?cância de 5%. Os resultados da microscopia mostraram que os rins dos grupos tratados com amicacina por 3 a 4 semanas apresentaram necrose celular (p Abstract in english The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the morphohistological effects of amikacin in rats. Male Wistar rats aged 8-12 weeks and weighing 200-250g were placed in a temperature (23±2°C) controlled room in which a 12/12h light: dark cycle was maintained. Twenty-?ve rats were randomly ass [...] igned to ?ve experimental groups of ?ve animals each that received daily treatment with 15 mg/kg of amikacin intraperitoneally. The control group was treated with 0.9% saline for 28 days. Groups I, II, III and IV were injected intaperitoneally with amikacin for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. Renal tissues slides were stained with PAS reagent and examined light microscopy. The morphology of the PAS stained structures of the renal glomeruli was evaluated in the different experimental groups using scores. The renal morphohistology and the morphologic analysis of PAS staining were analysed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons Test (5% statistical signi?cance). The results show microscopically that kidneys in the groups treated with amikacin for 3 and 4 weeks showed marked cellular necrosis (p

Vanessa Barboza de, Sousa; Ilana Jozi Pereira, Dutra; Hévio Freitas de, Lucena; Hilkéia Carla de Souza, Medeiros; Gerlane Coelho Bernardo, Guerra; Raimundo F. de, Araújo Júnior; Aurigena A., Araújo; Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa, Alves.

2009-11-01

320

Effect of Tribulus terrestris Extract on Ovarian Activity in Immature Wistar Rat: A Histological Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly...

Esmaeil Vesali; Bardia Najafi; Siavash Sharifi; Asghar Dehghan; Arash Esfandiari

2011-01-01

321

Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

H. Saikia

2011-04-01

322

Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide ?-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group. PMID:21240335

Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

2011-01-01

323

Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

A. Chambô-Filho

2005-04-01

324

Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with [14C(U)]glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N2 followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism

325

The Side Effects Of The Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Ketoprofen On Histological And Ultrastructural Aspects Of The Kidneys Of Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present work deals with the effect of the therapeutic dose of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen on the microscopic structure of the kidney of the albino rat. The present study also sheds light on the risk of using over-dosage either by mistake or in an unwise attempt at quick relieving the body pain. The intramuscular therapeutic dose of ketoprofen to albino rat was calculated and was found to equal 13.5 mg /kg body weight. Fifty adult male albino rats, Rattus norvegicus...

Farag Allah, Amina M.

2001-01-01

326

Aerosol Infection Model of Tuberculosis in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

We explored suitability of a rat tuberculosis aerosol infection model for investigating the pharmacodynamics of new antimycobacterial agents. Infection of rats via the aerosol route led to a reproducible course of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs. The pulmonary bacterial load increased logarithmically during the first six weeks, thereafter, the infection stabilized for the next 12 weeks. We observed macroscopically visible granulomas in the lungs with demonstrable acid-fast bacilli and ...

Shandil, Radha K.; Balasubramanian, V; Sowmya Bharath; Naveen Kumar,; Sheshagiri Gaonkar

2010-01-01

327

Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

328

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA OR ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION HAZARDS IN MALE ALBINO RATS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking proteins, nucleic acids and lipids in cells. However, low dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. This study was undertaken to analyze changes in blood levels of immunoreactive aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), total antioxidant capacity, protein and albumin levels in male albino rats exposed to ultraviolet-type C (UV-C) or low dose of gamma radiation. The role of melatonin, as an antioxidant agent, in restoring the serum levels of the selected biochemical parameters after irradiation was studied in male rats exposed to the two types of radiation. Gamma irradiation as a single dose of 2 Gy resulted in significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity and serum PIIINP level in male rats as compared to control. One hour ultraviolet irradiation/day for 3 weeks resulted in significant increase in serum total protein and significant decreases in PIIINP and total antioxidant capacity as compared to control.Statistical analysis revealed that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg melatonin/kg body weight after UV or gamma irradiation restored the levels of the selected serum biochemical parameters as compared to control rats

329

Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of septilin on irradiated male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.

330

Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

2005-09-01

331

Assessment of Hypolipidaemic Effect of Leptadenia Hastata Leaves in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Leptadenia hastata leaves on serum lipid profile and glucose in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Sixteen adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of four rats each. Group 1 was the hyperlipidemic group (positive control, Group 2 was the hyperlipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group, Group 3 was the normolipidemic supplemented with L. hastata leaves group and Group 4 normal group fed on normal diet (negative control. The changes in the serum lipid profile and glucose were monitored after three weeks. The result of the serum lipid analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 reduction in the serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with concurrent significant (p<0.05 increase in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipidemic group treated with L. hastata leaves (group 2 compared with the hyperlipidemic group (group 1. Serum glucose level was also significantly higher in hyperlipidemic group (p<0.05 compared with other three groups. The result of this study suggests possible hypolipidemic effect of L. hastata leaves.

Muhammad Yalwa Gwarzo

2015-01-01

332

Severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in ageing Wistar rats. Response to intravenous meropenem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcome of severe peritonitis in rats with increasing age. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats stratified in three groups: group I - six month-old; group II - 12 month-old; and group III - 18 month-old, underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis (6 ml/kg rat), and were [...] treated with intravenous meropenem. The survival animals were followed-up for 45 days. The variables were expressed by their mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). p

Guilherme Veras, Mascena; Maria Cecília Santos Cavalcanti, Melo; Diego Nery Benevides, Gadelha; Thárcia Kiara Beserra, Oliveira; Carlos Teixeira, Brandt.

2014-09-01

333

Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol / Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Fueron estudiadas las características morfológicas y hematológicas de 15 ratas albinas Wistar, macho, entre 12 y 14 semanas y con un peso corporal de 150 - 180g. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con pellet preparado comercialmente y con agua fresca ad libitum. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos d [...] e 5 ejemplares cada uno. El Grupo A sirvió como control; Grupo B fue tratado con cloranfenicol en dosis de 25mg/kg de peso corporal durante 20 días, mientras que el Grupo C recibió este tratamiento durante 25 días. El esperma utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo desde la cauda del epidídimo, donde las aberraciones morfológicas fueron determinadas a partir del conteo de espermatozoides, después de ser teñidos con la tinción de Wells y Awa. Los resultados del espermiograma puso de manifiesto que el volumen fue disminuyendo a medida que la dosis de cloranfenicol aumentaba. El porcentaje de motilidad en el grupo A (89,0 ± 2,45%), fue diferente significativamente (p Abstract in english The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain) aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats [...] were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body weight per os for 20 days; while Group C was treated for 25 days. Semen used in this study was obtained from the caudal epididymides while morphological aberrations were determined from spermatozoa counted after stained with Wells and Awa stain. Results of the spermiogram showed that the volume was decreasing as the prolonged dosage of chloramphenicol increases. The percentage motility in Group A (89.0 + 2.45%), differed significantly (p

Matthew Olugbenga, Oyeyemi; Deborah Adejoke, Adeniji.

2009-03-01

334

Morphological Characteristics and Haematological Studies in Wistar Rats Subjected to Prolonged Treatment of Chloramphenicol Características Morfológicas y Estudios Hematológicos en Ratas Wistar Sometidas a un Tratamiento Prolongado con Cloranfenicol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and haematological studies were studied in fifteen male albino rats (Wistar Strain aged between 12 and 14 weeks and with a body weight of 150- 180g. The rats were allowed to feed on commercially prepared rat pellet and provided with fresh water ad libitum. The rats were divided into three groups; the rats were in groups A, B and C of 5 rats each. Group A served as control of the study; Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol at the dose rate of 25mg/kg body weight per os for 20 days; while Group C was treated for 25 days. Semen used in this study was obtained from the caudal epididymides while morphological aberrations were determined from spermatozoa counted after stained with Wells and Awa stain. Results of the spermiogram showed that the volume was decreasing as the prolonged dosage of chloramphenicol increases. The percentage motility in Group A (89.0 + 2.45%, differed significantly (p Fueron estudiadas las características morfológicas y hematológicas de 15 ratas albinas Wistar, macho, entre 12 y 14 semanas y con un peso corporal de 150 - 180g. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con pellet preparado comercialmente y con agua fresca ad libitum. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos de 5 ejemplares cada uno. El Grupo A sirvió como control; Grupo B fue tratado con cloranfenicol en dosis de 25mg/kg de peso corporal durante 20 días, mientras que el Grupo C recibió este tratamiento durante 25 días. El esperma utilizado en este estudio se obtuvo desde la cauda del epidídimo, donde las aberraciones morfológicas fueron determinadas a partir del conteo de espermatozoides, después de ser teñidos con la tinción de Wells y Awa. Los resultados del espermiograma puso de manifiesto que el volumen fue disminuyendo a medida que la dosis de cloranfenicol aumentaba. El porcentaje de motilidad en el grupo A (89,0 ± 2,45%, fue diferente significativamente (p <0,05 en comparación con el Grupo B (72,0 ± 3,74% y Grupo C (66,0 ± 2,45%. El mismo patrón se observó en los porcentaje de habitabilidad, aberración morfológica y la concentración de espermatozoides. Esto indica que la prolongación de la dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad en los animales machos. Por lo tanto, se concluye y recomienda que una prolongada dosis de cloranfenicol puede causar infertilidad o esterilidad, así que no debe utilizarse en animales machos destinados a la cría y en los programas de inseminación artificial.

Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi

2009-03-01

335

Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage. PMID:15185846

Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

2004-01-01

336

Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

337

Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external ?-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

338

Protective Role of Mint oil (MO) Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The whole body exposure to high doses of gamma radiation resulted in alterations in the biological functions of vital organs in the body. This study is divided in two main parts: Part I - A preliminary study designed to determine the optimal dose of mint oil (MO) which delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the irradiated group. Male albino rats were assorted into two main groups. 1-Animals of this group were exposed to whole body (8 Gy) gamma irradiation. 2-Animals of this group were subdivided into 4 subgroups that received four different concentrations of mint essential oil (100, 150, 200, 250 ?1/animal/ day) for three consecutive days before irradiation. All animals were observed during 30 days for signs of radiation sickness, body weight change and mortality. The results revealed that pretreatment of rats with different doses of the MO prior to exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the survival time up to 200 ?1/kg b. wt., where the highest number of survival (80%) was observed 30 days post irradiation, when compared with the 8 Gy irradiated control (33.5%). The optimum protection against irradiation was observed at a dose 200 ?1/kg b. wt. and was used for the further investigations. The 2nd part intended to investigate the radio-protective effects of MO on some biochemical and haematological parameters. For this purpose, Swiss albino rats were selected and assortss albino rats were selected and assorted into 4 groups. Animals in Group I control: animals without any treatment. Group II mint oil (MO): rats were administered orally MO once daily at a dose of 200 ?1for 3 consecutive days. Group III, Irradiated (IRR): animals were exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma radiations. Group IV Rats were treated with MO (as in Group-II), and exposed to 6 Gy after half an hour of the last administration of MO. Animals of each group were sacrificed 1, 7 and 28 days post-irradiation for biochemical estimation in blood , liver, kidney and testis. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in haemoglobin, hematocrite values, and erythrocytes and leucocytes counts. Significant decreases in serum EPO level, GSH content and ALP was observed in all specimens. Meanwhile, the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase were significantly higher in irradiated rats as compared to control group. In MO pretreated irradiated animals, a significant increase was observed in blood constituents, EPO (erythropoietin) level, GSH content and ALP level in testes, liver and blood accompanied with remarkable decrease in the values of MDA, serum acid phosphatase. The results show that MO could exert a radioprotective effect by antioxidant activity, and might stimulate cellular regeneration, that may be attributed to the synergistic effects of its constituents.

339

HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

A.O. Eweka.

2008-01-01

340

Baroreflex sensitivity differs among same strain Wistar rats from the same laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies evidenced that a portion of normotensive Sprague–Dawley rats spontaneously exhibit lower baroreflex sensitivity, however, it was no yet investigated in Wistar rats. We aimed to compare baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory. Male Wistar normotensive rats (300-400g were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Baroreflex was calculated as the derivative of the variation of heart rate in function of the mean arterial pressure variation (?HR/?MAP tested with a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 ?g/kg and with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8?g/kg in the right femoral venous approach through an inserted cannula. We divided the rats into four groups: i high bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -2 tested with phenylephrine; ii low bradycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -2 tested with phenylephrine; iii high tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain less than -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside; and iv low tachycardic baroreflex, baroreflex gain between -1 and -3 tested with sodium nitroprusside. Approximately 71% of the rats presented a decrease in bradycardic reflex while around half showed an increase in tachycardic reflex. No significant changes in basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, tachycardic and bradycardic peak and heart rate range were observed. There was a significant change in baroreflex sensitivity among rats from the same strain and the same laboratory.

Celso Ferreira

2011-09-01

341

Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with zinc sulphate and/or vitamin E alleviated these toxic effects. In some cases, vitamin E exerted a more potent effect, while in other cases, the more potent effect is related to zinc sulphate and the combination of both at most of the recorded data. PMID:23282999

Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

2015-03-01

342

Hypolipidemic effect of triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis on female albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia or dyslipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and / or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are extremely common in the general population and are regarded as a highly modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to the influence of cholesterol, one of the most clinically relevant lipid substances in atheroscterosis. Aim of the work: This study aimed to evaluate the possible treatment and protective effect of triphala on hyperlipidemic rats. Material and methods: Six groups (5rat/group of female albino rats (Rattus albinus were used. The 1st group used as control, in the 2nd group hyperlipidemia (25% fat & 2% cholesterol was induced for 3 weeks only then sacrified , the 3rd group was hyperlipidemic rats for 3 weeks then left for other 3 weeks without any additional treatment as a recovery period, the 4th group served as hyperlipidemic group for 3 weeks then treated with triphala for another 3 weeks (25 mg/100 gm b. wt., the 5th group was hyperlipidemic (25% fat & 2% cholesterol for 6 weeks and the 6th group served as hyperlipidemic rats for 6 weeks, and at the same time given triphala (25 mg/100 gm b. wt. by oral administration. Results: The biochemical parameters showed highly significant increase in the body weight, serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin and total lipids in liver .Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in liver tissue of the hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with triphala ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results. Conclusion: It is recommended to use triphala in diets for hyperlipidemic patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

Eman G.E. Helal,Fatma Ahmed Eid and Amira M. Salah EL-Din Ahmed El

2011-04-01

343

Role of selenium and vitamin Ein modification of radiation disorders in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was directed to study the possible radio-protective role of selenium and vitamin E on the level of serum total lipid, cholesterol, triglycerides, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dimutase, catalase and the free T3 and T4 in serum blood against damage induced by free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. Male albino rats (120-140 gm) were subjected to 5 and 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, selenium (1.5 mg/kg) and vitamin E (10 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneal y to rats daily for one week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation (5 and 7 Gy). Blood samples were collected from rats for biochemical analysis at time intervals 3, 5 and 7 days post-irradiation. Serum levels of total lipid, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed and the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also the levels of serum free T3 and free T4 concentrations were also measured using Radio-immunoassay technique (RIA). The data showed that irradiation at both dose levels of 5 and 7 Gy caused significant inhibition in the antioxidant enzymes (GSH-Px, SOD and CAT) in plasma in irradiated rats. Also, the data revealed significant elevation in total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride and 7 levels, which was associated with significant decrease in serum level of free T4 compared to non- irradiated rats during the experimental periods (3, 5, 7 days). Selenium and vitamieriods (3, 5, 7 days). Selenium and vitamin E were injected intraperitoneal y in rats (1.5 mg/kg of and 10 mg/kg, respectively) daily for one week before irradiation exerted marked amelioration of the biochemical changes induced by radiation, which is more pronounced at the dose level 5 Gy

344

EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

2012-09-01

345

The Physiological Impact on the Consumption of Albizia saman Pods by Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of using Albizia saman in a whole and supplementary feeding of laboratory rats (Sprague Dawley was investigated in a twelve week experiment. In the first trial, whole pods were presented to the animals, while in the second trial five supplementary diets were formulated using A.saman at 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% supplementation. Upon presentation of the plant materials, there was a rapid response and movement of the rats towards the pods of A.saman either as a whole feed or supplementary feed. Despite the fact that the pods were well received and consumed, it did not support the growth and development of the rats. When presented as supplement, there was a good consumption of the feed with a corresponding good growth rate with group C (25% having the highest consumption rate while Group A (0% recorded the least. There was a steady weight increase in rats given supplementary feeds; Group D had the highest weight gain while Group A had the lowest. Hematological analysis showed Group B having the highest values for PCV, Hb and RBC and low at 25 and 30%. Total protein, albumin and cholesterol values were highest in Group D and lowest in Group E. There were no significant differences in the values of serum enzymes (ASP, ALT and AP, serum electrolyte concentration and proximate analysis of the experimental rats feed with the different supplementary diets. The result of this study has shown that although the pods of A. saman either as raw or milled were well received by the albino rats, it may not be suitable as whole feed except when combined with other feed materials. The pod is best at 15-25% level of supplement, optimizing at 25%.

K.O. Ademolu

2006-01-01

346

An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

Jarrahi, Morteza

2008-03-20

347

Hypoglycaemic Activity of Globimetulla browni Extracts in Streptozotocin -induced Diabetic Wistar Rats during Dry Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globimetulla browni is a specie of African mistletoe (Lorantheceae and is hemi-parasitic in nature. It was studied for ascribed/folkloric antidiabetic properties. Stretozotocin which is well known for its selective pancreatic ?-cell cytotoxicity was used to induce type 1 diabetes in the experimental rat model. Glibenclamide was used as a standard antidiabetic drug in streptozotocin induced diabetes to compare the efficacy of variety of hypoglycaemic agents. The extracts from this specie significantly increased the body weights of the albino rats with the extracts effectively controlling the increase in the glucose levels in the diabetic group of rats which could be attributed to its antihyperglycemic effects. Further, the antihyperglycemic activities of the extracts was associated with an increase in plasma insulin level, suggesting an insulinogenic activity of the plant extract.

H.M. Inuwa

2012-02-01

348

Digestive Peritoneum in Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus) / Peritoneo del Aparato Digestivo de la Rata Wistar (Rattus norvegicus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus) ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, no existen descripciones detalladas del peritoneo digestivo de la rata wistar. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma cl [...] ara y acorde a los principios de la Nómina Anatómica Veterinaria el peritoneo en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron ochenta y ocho ratas (Rattus norvegicus albinus) de entre 250 y 450 g. Fueron disecadas en fresco luego de ser eutanasiadas por sobredosis de tiopental sódico intraperitoneal. Se realizó una incisión paramediana que se extendía desde el cartílago xifoides del esternón hasta el pubis y otra sobre cada arco costal hacia dorsal. Abstract in english The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) has been used as a model for medical, biological and molecular research, for a long time. It is an interesting fact that there are no detailed descriptions of the gross anatomy of the liver and its ways of fixation. The aim of this study is to define cl [...] early and according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria principles, the liver and its way of fixation in this species of laboratory mammal. Eighty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were used, with a weight between 250 and 450 g. They were dissected in fresh, after been euthanized by an overdose of thiopental sodium intraperitoneal. An incision from the xiphoid cartilage up to the pubic region was made and another on each costal arch toward dorsal.

Richard, Möller; Noelia, Vazquez; Diana, Teliz; Virginia, Méndez.

2013-03-01

349

Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves in male albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive leaf extract is used for centuries in treatment of various medical purposes. This investigation aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves against overdose paracetamol . 18 rats were divided into three groups, control , 0.5 gm/kg B.W. intrapereitoneally (i. p. paracetamol treated group and rats were given 2.5 gm /kg BW i. p. of olive leaf aqueous extract for three consecutive days prior to the administration of paracetamol. The results indicated that treatment with paracetamol caused a marked significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALTand alkaline phosphatase (ALP accompanied by severe congestion of central and hepatic portal veins, vacuolization and ballooning also, a lot of pyknotic nuclei were detected with many small necrotic areas of hepatocytes. Meanwhile group treated by olive leaf extract followed by paracetamol displayed significant reduction in serum (AST,(ALTand (ALPassociated with nearly normal hepatocyte architecture. In conclusion, an aqueous extract of olive leaves has antioxidant property could protect against liver damage occurred by overdose paracetamol in male albino rats.

Enas A. M. Khalil

2004-06-01

350

Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

2013-02-01

351

Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

352

A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

353

Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

354

Radioprotective role of vitamin E and urea in irradiated albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In control rats, the levels of glycogen and pyruvic acid in the forebrain were 217 ± 8 to 226 ± 8 and 17.70 ± 0.60 to l8.00 ± 0.62 ? g/g fresh tissue, respectively. Whole body gamma irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy caused a significant increase in the level of glycogen in the forebrain of albino rats. This increase was about 29%, 47%, 38% and 24% on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th and 10 th days post irradiation, respectively. As for pyruvic acid content, a temporary significant increase by about 19% on the 3 rd day post irradiation was observed, while a decrease of 32% and 28% was recorded on the 7th and 10th days after irradiation, respectively. The treatment of rats with intraperitoneal injection of either vitamin E at a concentration of 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, or with urea at 200 mg/100 g body weight pre-irradiation reduced the changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation. 1 tab

355

Enhancement of the Role of Mixed Hypo lipotropic Agents in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty adult male albino rats were used in the present study to assess the effect of using tryptophan or/and hawthorn extract with coenzyme Q 10 in ameliorating the effect of high fat diet (HFD) intake on hyperlipidaemia, hormonal imbalance and body weight. Six animals were served as a control group while the other twenty four rats were supplemented with 20 g butter/100 g standard laboratory diet (HFD) for 8 weeks prior to the experiment. These HFD rats were divided randomly into four equal groups; hyperlipidaemic group, tryptophan and hawthorn groups where animals of the latter two groups were supplemented with 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan and 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract respectively, and mixed group that was daily administrated with a mixture of 100 mg/kg B.W. tryptophan, 50 mg/100 g B.W. hawthorn extract and 50 mg/kg B.W. coenzyme Q10. Body weight was recorded twice/week, after 30 days animals were decapitated and sera were collected for determination of total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), testosterone and corticosterone hormones. The data revealed that tryptophan, hawthorn extract alone or mixed with CoQ10 improved the dreadful effects induced by HFD, but the most profit was achieved by mixing these three antioxidants on hyperlipidaemia, tested hormones and body weight.

356

Biochemical evaluation of low dose methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate fungicide on male albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (carbendazim is one of the synthetic fungicides that controlled organisms that caused plant diseases of different types. It is widely used as a preservative in leather, paint, textile, fruits and papermaking industry. It is also used as an anticancer drug in chemical medicine. In the present study low concentrations of carbendazim was administered at 5, 10, 25 and 50mM doses intradermally to male albino rats. At the end of 6 hr, 12hr and 24hr duration, blood samples were collected from the animal for the analysis of biochemical and haematological parameters. Carbendazim caused an increase of cholesterol, uric acid, glucose and creatinine while serum phosphorous content was decreased. However, mean hemoglobin, WBC, E, and platelet counts increased and total RBC, N and L counts decreased. These results indicated that low dose level carbendazim contributed to toxicological effects in the rat tissues.

Keywords: Methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; Fungicide; Rat tissues

V. Muthuviveganandavel

2011-04-01

357

Evaluation of the toxicity of Pradosia huberi extract during the preimplantation in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment during the embryonic preimplantation phase of Wistar rats with the Pradosia huberi extract did not interfere with the water and feed consumption, as well as upon the body-weight gain. However, it has expressed a decrease of the uterine implant number, followed by the preimplantation losses at all applied doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5?mg/kg), and the number of embryonic resorptions in the two highest doses (6.1 and 30.5?mg/kg). After the organ weighing (hypophysis, ovaries, and uterus), only the relative weight of the hypophysis was raised at the different doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5?mg/kg). It was concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Pradosia huberi compromises the reproductive ability during the embryonic preimplantation phase, suggesting a possible toxic effect upon the reproductive system of Wistar rats. PMID:23509706

Rocha, Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista; Sousa, Liliane de Queirós; Mota, Clélia de Alencar Xavier; Santos, Elane Cristina S; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Pimenta, Martina Bragante F; da Silveira e Sá, Rita de Cássia

2013-01-01

358

Triazophos-induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in ovary of female Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triazophos (TZ), a non-systemic broad spectrum organophosphate (OP), is being extensively used against a wide range of pests in agricultural practices. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of triazophos (TZ) in female Wistar rats. Three sub-chronic dose levels of TZ corresponding to 1/10th, 1/20th and 1/40th of LD50 were given for 30 days to adult female Wistar rats through oral intubation. During the treatment period estrous cycle was significantly altered. Activity levels of different oxidative stress (OS) parameters viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were differentially altered in the ovary of treated rats. Estradiol levels were significantly high while progesterone levels were significantly reduced in plasma of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Histomorphological studies of ovary revealed increased follicular atresia and increased ovarian surface epithelial height in 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Enhanced apoptosis and necrosis were also observed in ovarian granulosa cells at dose-dependent manner. Results infer that TZ exposure may lead to the number of pathophysiological conditions in female rats and severity increases at high doses. PMID:25619906

Sharma, Dharmender; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur; Khera, Kuldeep Singh

2015-01-01

359

Effect of Tribulus terrestris Extract on Ovarian Activity in Immature Wistar Rat: A Histological Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Rats in treatment group received 10 mg of the extract per rat. The period of the study divided into 7 and 14 days period. Half of the rats in each group (n = 5 were euthanized at final day of each period and the ovaries removed for preparating of histology sections. Number and diameter of corpus luteum, thickness of theca interna layer and number of all follicles were evaluated in each left and right ovaries. Results showed that number of corpus luteum and diameter of theca interna increased in treatment group as compared with control group. Number of secondry and graafian follicles after 14 days treatment were be higher than control and 7 days treatment. The present results indicated that Tribulus terrestris induces corpus luteum formation and growth and therefore beginning of puberty with its LH-like activity.

Esmaeil Vesali

2011-01-01

360

Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract (git). The extract (25, 50 and100 mg extract/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) and dose-dependently reduced ulcer index induced by ethanol (24 - 92%) and piroxicam (81.81- 98.60%). Histopathology of the rat stomach tissues from control and extract-treated groups at 25 mg/kg body weight extract showed mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the extract treated groups at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight and 200 mg misoprostol/kg body weight group showed no obvious lesions. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract (git). It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of painful inflammatory disorders. PMID:22468009

Adeola, Salawu Oluwakanyinsola; Yahaya, Tijani Adeniyi; Hafsatu, Babayi; Chinwe, Nwaeze Angela; Maryjane, Ezeonu Chidimma; Sunday, Igwe; Adanna, Ndukuba Mary

2011-01-01

361

Immunosuppressive Effect of Ochratoxin A in Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxins are potent mycotoxins elaborated by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Incidence of ochratoxin A (OT-A in feed and natural occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animals have been reported from various parts of the world, including India. In this study, we report the immunosuppressive effect of ochratoxin A in rats. The cell mediated immune responses, as assessed by 2, 4-di-nitro-chloro-benzene (DNCB induced contact hypersensitivity reaction and macrophage function test ( NO2- production assay were found to be decreased significantly in OT-A intoxicated rats as compared with those in controls. Humoral immune response, assessed by antibody titres against sheep red blood cells, was also found to be decreased in toxin fed rats. The haemato-biochemical alterations such as leucopenia, lymphopenia and hypoproteinemia associated with OT-A toxicity were also indicative of immunosuppression. These findings suggest that OT-A induces the suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and must be taken into account while dealing with cases of vaccination failure or frequent bacterial and viral infections in livestock and poultry.

R.D. Patil

2005-01-01

362

Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats  

OpenAIRE

Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A. G.; Atta, Amal H.

2011-01-01

363

Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L.  

OpenAIRE

The use of plant species is emerging as an important alternative in the treatment of injuries. Therefore, the extract of Sonchus oleraceus 10% was employed in the repair of skin lesions. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were subjected to a punch injury and divided into three groups: a negative control, receiving no treatment, a positive control, treated with Dersani, and the experimental group treated with the extract. The injury was assessed macroscopically and microscopically. Morphometric da...

Franciele Carla Prichoa; Silvane Souza Roman; Vanusa Manfredini

2011-01-01

364

Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of...

Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, D. Amp Bora C.; Ana Paula Machado Spada; Vanessa Sellis da Silva; Karla Aparecida Martuchi; Marie Oshiiwa; Farinazzi Machado, Fl Amp Via M. V.; Claudemir Gregório Mendes

2011-01-01

365

Benign and malignant mammary tumors induced by DMBA in female Wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

This study pretends to characterize 7, 12-dimetylbenz[a]anthracene-induced benign and malignant tumors. One hundred and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated to two groups: Control Group and Induction Group; IG animals were given a single dose of DMBA and killed 24 weeks after. Other tumors besides breast tumors were diagnosed, mainly tumors of the salivary glands and ovarian benign epithelial tumors. Incidence of breast disorders was about 60%. Macroscopic mammary tumors varied i...

Dias, M.; Cabrita, S.; Sousa, E.; Franc?a, B.; Patri?cio, J.; Oliveira, Cf

1999-01-01

366

Effect of Bisphenol-A on the Sertoli Cell Culture from Prepubertal Male Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of bisphenol-A on the sertoli cell culture from prepubertal Wistar rats. Sertoli cell culture was obtained by sequential collagenase and trypsin-EDTA treatment. The cell culture was incubated and maintained for 21 days. The culture was trypsinized and seeded at an appropriate density. Three days later, bisphenol-A was added to the cell culture at the concentration of 10, 100 and 1000pg ml?1, respectively. Control group was treated with ...

Awal, Mohammad A.; Masamichi Kurohmaru; Takuo Mizukami; Andriana, Bibin B.; Yoshiakira Kanai; Yoshihiro Hayashi

2002-01-01

367

Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimm...

Nuria Salazar; Xf Pez, Patricia L.; Pablo Garrido; Javier Moran; Cabello, Estefan Xed A.; Miguel Gueimonde; Ana Suárez; Celestino González; Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán; Patricia Ruas-Madiedo

2014-01-01

368

Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo  

OpenAIRE

A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes fr...

Fontes-pereira, A.; Matusin, D. P.; Rosa, P.; Schanaider, A.; Von Kru?ger, M. A.; Pereira, W. C. A.

2014-01-01

369

Effect of Various Physical Stress Models on Serum Cortisol Level in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: Stress indicates the response or reaction of an organism to the environmental circumstances and their outcomes. Acute stress is well known to trigger several hormonal alterations in animals. An increase in glucocorticoid concentration can represent intensity of discomfort or distress experienced by an animal. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of various physical stress models on serum cortisol level in Wistar male rats.

Jameel, Mohammed Khaleel; Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv; Dawane, Jayashree; Padwal, Meghana; Joshi, Ar; Pandit, V. A.; Melinkeri, Rr

2014-01-01

370

Study on Antioxidant Potential of Murraya koenigii Leaves in Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Family: Rutaceae), leaves was investigated in male wistar rats. Potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative stress. The traditional medical literature describes its potential role as a source of many vitamins, flavonoids, phenols and domestic remedy for many human disorders. The whole plant is considered to be tonic, antidiarrhoeal, febrifuge, blood purifier and as stomachic. In the present study animals were divided into f...

Naresh Singh Gill; Bhartendu Sharma

2014-01-01

371

Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exps (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum and liver samples were collected. Liver biochemical functions and histopathological examinations were done. The data of the current study showed mild non-significant alteration in the levels of liver biochemical parameters towards the level of baseline particularly when albino rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation as a single dose and left for 3 or 6 weeks for recovery. Exposure to accumulative dose of 8 Gy gamma irradiation caused worse alteration in both biochemical markers associated with obvious damage in hepatocytes causing acute liver injury in histopathological examination especially after 4 days of gamma radiation exposure but when albino rats were orally supplemented with vitamin C, there were significant amelioration and marked regression towards normal position in both biochemical parameters and histopathological pictures, so, the present data revealed that oral dose of vitamin C has trends to support the liver during the acute phase post-gamma irradiation and enhance its spontaneous recovery

372

Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in Fischer and Wistar rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

4-tert-Octylphenol is a non-ionic surfactant used as a detergent, emulsifier and wetting agent. It is generally accepted that it acts as a weak estrogenic substance when evaluated in in vitro and in vivo short-term screening assays. The sensitivity of animal species (mouse versus rat), strain (inbred versus outbred) has been a matter of concern when selecting assay type for testing of estrogenicity of chemicals. The present study was designed to investigate whether the choice of different animal strain, could affect the outcomes of studies. Fischer and Wistar adult male rats were exposed to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 mug/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol benzoate decreased the weight of all investigated reproductive organs, decreased sperm production and increased seminiferous tubular degeneration in both strains. More progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology were observed in the Fischer rats. Oral administration of octylphenol at 400 mg/kg bw to both rat strains increased prolactin levels but had no effect on LH, FSH, testosterone or inhibin. In the octylphenol-treated Fischer rats the weights of the seminal vesicles and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle were significantly decreased, whereas only the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle was affected in Wistar rats. The weights of all other reproductive organs and sperm count were unaffected. It is concluded that there might be an organ specific difference in sensitivity between the two strains with the Fischer rat being the most sensitive rat model as demonstrated mainly by the more progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology in estradiol benzoate-treated Fischer rats but also by the decrease in seminal vesicle weight in octylphenol-treated rats.

Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken

2003-01-01

373

Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

A.C. Issy

374

Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats.

Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

2015-01-01

375

Exposition to tannery wastewater did not alter behavioral and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are scarce data on the neurotoxicity in mammalian induced by tannery wastewaters. Previously, the anxiogenic effect of tannery wastewater was demonstrated in mice, while wastewater submitted to photoelectrooxidation (PEO) process treatment did not affect the anxiety state. Considering that species may response differently to xenobiotics, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of exposure to tannery wastewaters (non-PEO or PEO-treated) on behavioral and neurochemical markers in another species of laboratory animals, specifically Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were given free access to water bottles containing non-PEO or PEO-treated tannery wastewaters (0.1, 1 and 5% in drinking water). During the exposure, behavioral tests of anxiety (elevated plus-maze, neophobia, open field and light-dark box), depression (forced swimming) and memory (inhibitory avoidance, novel object and discriminative avoidance) were performed. On the 30th day, brain structures were dissected out to evaluate cellular oxidative state (hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum) and acetylcholinesterase activity (hippocampus and striatum). Exposure to tannery effluent with or without photoelectrochemical treatment did not alter any behavioral and neurochemical parameters evaluated. Our data indicate that Wistar rats may not be an adequate species for ecotoxicological studies involving tannery effluents and that POE treatment did not generate other toxic compounds. PMID:24548682

Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

2014-04-22

376

Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be u [...] sed for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30?s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

A.C., Issy; V., Castania; M., Castania; C.E.G., Salmon; M.H., Nogueira-Barbosa; E. Del, Bel; H.L.A., Defino.

2013-03-15

377

Evaluation of the Abortifacient Properties of Chloroform Extract of Carica papaya L. Seed in Female Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to investigate the impact of oral administration of chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed (CPE) on implantation and pregnancy in female albino rats. The study was divided into three experimental sections. Each section was subdivided into 4 groups treated, respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg kg 1 b.w CPE and 2.5% tween 80 in normal saline (vehicle for CPE; control). Rats in section 1 were treated with CPE for two weeks before mating (pre-coital). Rats in section 2...

Raji, Y.; Morakinyo, A. O.; Akinsomisoye, O. S.; Oloyo, A. K.; Esegbue-peters, P. R. C.; Kunle-alabi, Olufadekemi T.

2006-01-01

378

Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA) in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%), and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg) (224.82 ± 7.01) and (912.25 ± 27.22) when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17) and (506.67 ± 21.39). HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. PMID:25709965

Jawaid, Talha; Awasthi, Akanksha; Kamal, Mehnaz

2015-01-01

379

Evaluation of the changes on hemostatic parameters induced by valdecoxib in male Wistar rats Avaliação dos efeitos do valdecoxibe sobre os parâmetros hemostáticos de ratos Wistar  

OpenAIRE

The effects of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitor, valdecoxib, on blood coagulation parameters were evaluated, along with aspirin in male Wistar rats. Groups of animals were administered a daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg rat of valdecoxib, 100 mg/kg rat of aspirin and the vehicle alone during 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of administration period and the plasma concentrations of valdecoxib were determined by RP-HPLC giving mean values of 101.1...

Marcio Fronza; Micheli Wrasse; Liberato Brum Junior; Sangoi, Maximiliano S.; Dalmora, Se?rgio L.

2006-01-01

380

Studies on the antilithic effect of Rotula aquatica lour in male Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decoction of Rotula aquatica lour was screened for antilithic activity in male Wistar rats and the results were summarized based on the ionic changes in both urine and serum. Nephrolithiasis was induced in rats by feeding them 3% glycolic acid mixed feed for 45 days, which resulted in high urinary calcium, oxalate and high serum potassium. Simultaneous treatment with the decoction reduced calcium and oxalate ion concentration in urine, confirming the stone inhibitory effect. Histopathological studies of kidney tissue samples further substantiated the findings. The decoction was found to be nontoxic over the 45-day treatment period. PMID:12224442

Christina, A J M; Priya Mole, M; Moorthy, P

2002-01-01

381

Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon

JØrgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.

2010-01-01

382

Chronic morphine drinking establishes morphine tolerance, but not addiction in Wistar rats*  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Some animal models apply morphine in the drinking water to generate addiction, but related reports are not free of conflicting results. Accordingly, this study aimed to figure out if chronic consumption of morphine in the drinking water can induce morphine addiction in Wistar rats. Methods: For 3 weeks, the animals received a daily morphine dose of 35 mg/kg by offering a calculated volume of sugar water (5% sucrose) with morphine (0.1 mg/ml) to each rat; animals receiving just suga...

Binsack, Ralf; Zheng, Ming-lan; Zhang, Zhan-sai; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Yong-ping

2006-01-01

383

Effect of andiroba oil on periodontitis in Wistar rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of andiroba oil on the periodontitis in rats. METHODS: The periodontitis was induced by the placement of cotton ligatures around the cervix of the second upper molars on fifteen rats, and waiting fifty days. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups: sa [...] line group, andiroba oil group and meloxican group, differentiated by substance used in the treatment of periodontitis. The groups received the respective substance by gavage for seven days, after the periodontitis induced. It was analyzed the score of inflammatory cells and the measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest. RESULTS: The andiroba oil group (p=0.008) and meloxican group (p=0.0347) show a less score of inflammatory cells than saline group, however there weren't difference between them (p=0.2754). Regarding the analysis of measurement from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest, there was no difference between groups studied (p=0.3451). CONCLUSION: Andiroba oil decreased the quantity of inflammatory cells, however, it didn't have an effect on the measurement of alveolar bone loss, like the treatment with Meloxican®.

Glaucia Babeto, Carmona; Renan Kleber Costa, Teixeira; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Flavia Sirotheau Correa, Pontes; Eloisa Helena Aguiar, Andrade; Felipe Paiva, Fonseca; Ricardo Miranda Brito, Costa; Francideise Martins, Carvalho.

2013-06-01

384

Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

D. Sohrabi

2008-10-01

385

Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background and Objectives

The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

 

Methods

Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

 

Results

The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

 

Conclusion

Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

D Sohrabi

2012-05-01

386

Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on chemically induced tumorigenesis in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Astaxanthin (ASTA is a fat-soluble xanthophyll with powerful antioxidant functions. It is extracted from e.g. salmon, an important food source for certain human populations known to have a reduced risk of tumor development. It is possible that ASTA plays a role in cancer chemoprevention in such populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ASTA on chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis using N-methyl-N-nitroso-urea (MNU in immature Wistar rats. Methods Thirty-six 37 days old juvenile female Wistar rats were at random allocated to 4 groups of which Groups 1 and 2 received a single dose of 55 mg MNU/kg body weight. The effects of ASTA was evaluated by giving rats of Groups 2 and 4 a dose of 50 mg ASTA/kg/day for the entire duration of the study. Group 3 rats received feed added alimentary oil. Necropsy and histopathological examinations were carried out on each rat 14 months after the administration of MNU. Haematological values and antioxidative status were determined. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities in hepatic tissue. Lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins was determined in protein extracts from the liver. Results Tumor development occurred only in rats of Groups 1 and 2, i.e. MNU exposed animals. Frequency of tumor development in general and average number of tumors per animal were insignificant between these two groups. Mammary gland tumors developed in equal frequencies in Group 1 and 2 rats, respectively. Although only rather few tumors were found in the mammary glands, a substantial number of other tumors were found in Group 1 and 2 rats, but at equal rates. Biochemical analyses showed significant higher levels of GPx, malondialdehyde and dinitrophenylhydrazine in Group 1 rats that for rats in all other groups thus indicating protective effects of ASTA on MNU induced hepatic oxidative stress. Conclusions Supplementation with ASTA did not reduce tumorigenesis induced by MNU in Wistar rats. However, supplementation with ASTA seemed to have anti-inflammatory effects.

Gal Adrian F

2012-08-01

387

Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the bodimultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. (author)

388

Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter ( [...] FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

A., Fontes-Pereira; D.P., Matusin; P., Rosa; A., Schanaider; M.A., von Krüger; W.C.A., Pereira.

2014-05-02

389

Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

Gustavo A. Sosa

2004-01-01

390

Difference in Leptin Hormone Response to Nutritional Status in Normal Adult Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn’t show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD obesity and also protect the liver against free radicals.

Noorah S. AL-Sowyan

2009-01-01

391

Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.r or immune globulins.

392

Acute Effect of Sidr Leaves Extract on some Neurotransmitter Contents in Different Brain Areas of Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acute i.p. injection of Sidr ( Zizyphus spina-christi) leaves extract ( 100 mg / kg body wt ) caused a significant increase in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxiindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and a significant decrease in gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in E, NE, DA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA content in the different CNS areas of albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters, at the same time GABA inhibits the release of these neurotransmitters by increasing the permeability to Cl ions and such effect may be due to the presence of peptide and cyclopeptide alkaloids in the extract. Zizyphus spina-christi leaves may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. (author)

393

Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX?2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

2010-08-01

394

ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

Kashinath Hadimur

2013-06-01

395

Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it?s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

396

Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

397

Prophylactic Effect Of Rosemary Extract On Hormonal Disturbances In Male Albino Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic role of pre-intake of ethanolic extract of rosemary (150 mg/kg/day) against some hormonal disturbances and testis histopathological changes induced by acrylamide (50 mg/kg/day) in adult male albino rats.The animals were divided into four equal groups; the control group, the rosemary group, the acrylamide group and the rosemary + acrylamide group. At the end of the experiment (28 days), the rats were decapitated then blood sera were collected and kept frozen at -20oC until the evaluation of thyroxine (T-4), triiodothyronine (T3), total testosterone, free testosterone and estradiol. The testes tissues were also stained and examined.The results denoted that the mortality rate of acrylamide group was about 47% and toxicological symptoms with significant reduction in T3,T4 , total and free testosterone and pathological changes in testicular tissue were observed. Addition of rosemary prior and during acrylamide intake reduced the mortality rate (20%), decreased the toxicological symptoms induced by acrylamide, increased the thyroid hormones and testosterone and avoid the pathological changes in the testes tissues.It could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of rosemary when introduced prior and during acrylamide intake succeed to a great extent in ameliorating the undesirable effects on testis and male sex hormones and to a moderate extent on thyroid hormones. a moderate extent on thyroid hormones.

398

Antifertility Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Feronia elephantum Correa Leaf and Bark on Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effective concentration of ethanol extract of Feronia elephantum leaf and bark on male reproductive system of albino rats. The study was divided into four groups of five animals each. The first group (I received distilled water for a period of 14 days, served as control. The groups II, III and IV of animals were administered the ethanol leaf extract daily at 400mg/kg body weight, bark extract daily at 400 mg/kg body weight and 1:1 ratio of leaf (200mg/kg b.wt and bark (200mg/kg b.wt extract of Feronia elephantum respectively for a period of 14days. Significant decreases in the weight of testis (p<0.05, epididymis (p<0.01 and seminal vesicle (p<0.05 were observed. The results of the hormonal assay showed that, increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreases in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results showed that, Feronia elephantum has effects on male rat reproduction, affecting the sexual behavior and epididymal sperm concentration.

Muthulakshmi A

2013-01-01

399

Melatonin modulates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES on the anterior pituitary of the female Wistar rat.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the anti-tumorigenic effect of melatonin in diethylstilbestrol (DES-treated anterior pituitaries in rats. Twenty-one female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: vehicle control rats, DES-treated rats, and DES-treated rats co-administrated with melatonin beginning at week 13. At the end of 16 weeks, rats were weighed and decapitated for morphological studies, including an H+E staining-based score evaluation in regard to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immunostaining for VEGF, MMP-9, and AQP-1, and electron microscopy. Compared with vehicle, long-term treatment of DES significantly reduced rat body weight and increased H+E score, both of which were counteracted by melatonin. Administration of melatonin also reduced the expression of VEGF and MMP-9, although no changes were detected in AQP-1 expression. In rats cotreated with melatonin, the RER loosene