#### Sample records for airplane passenger boarding

I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty

Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

2008-08-01

I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

3. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

2008-02-01

Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

4. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

Steffen, Jason H

2011-01-01

We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies.

5. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

2016-01-01

Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

6. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air...

7. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

2013-04-01

An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance. PMID:23679383

8. Secure vital indicators of air on board for passengers and crew

О.І. Запорожець

2009-02-01

Full Text Available  The analysis of harmful physical and chemical factors, which can negatively affect vital body indices of passengers and crew of airplane in the different conditions of flight is outlined in the article. On the basis of analysis the sanitary hygienically requirements conditions aboard an airplane are defined which do not contradict norms  of flightworthiness of civil airplanes and guarantee safety of vital functions of crew and passengers.

9. Obstacle detection using thermal imaging sensors for large passenger airplane

Shi, Jie

2012-01-01

This thesis addresses the issue of ground collision in poor weather conditions. As bad weather is an adverse factor when airplanes are taxiing, an obstacle detection system based on thermal vision is proposed to enhance the awareness of pilots during taxiing in poor weather conditions. Two infrared cameras are employed to detect the objects and estimate the distance of the obstacle. The distance is computed by stereo vision technology. A warning will be given if the distance is less than the ...

10. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers.

Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

2011-11-01

The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. PMID:21723309

11. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

12. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

Liyasova, Mariya, E-mail: mliyasov@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Nachon, Florian, E-mail: fnachon@nachon.net [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Masson, Patrick, E-mail: pmasson@unmc.edu [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Furlong, Clement E., E-mail: clem@uw.edu [Department of Medicine (Div. Medical Genetics) and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

2011-11-15

The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such 'fume events'. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible cause is exposure to

13. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: ► Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. ► A possible cause is exposure to tricresyl phosphate in engine lubricating oil. ► A blood

14. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 125.333 Section 125.333 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

15. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 121.577 Section 121.577 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

16. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

17. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

18. Exposures on-board airplanes by cosmic radiations

Brief explanation of cosmic radiation around the earth, their components and energy, their origins, are given: Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) including solar flare events. On receiving ICRP recommendation in 1990, the Japanese governmental working group is now examining the regularization on occupational exposure for aircraft crews. Model calculations on exposure rate (μSv/h) are given as function of altitude (km) with some observation data. Cut-off rigidity at 11,887 m are given. Exposure for passengers on-board aircraft flying from Narita airport to main cities in the world are given in μSv unit with flight hours. The effect of solar flares (Ground level event: GLE) is given with integrated fluence (cm-2) for each observed particles as function of particle energy (MeV). (S. Ohno)

19. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-01

Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2011-05-01

Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

1. Analysis of airplane boarding via space-time geometry and random matrix theory

Bachmat, E; Skiena, S S; Stolyarov, N; Berend, D; Bachmat, Eitan; Sapir, Luba; Skiena, Steven; Stolyarov, Natan; berend, Daniel

2005-01-01

We show that airplane boarding can be asymptotically modeled by 2-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. Boarding time is given by the maximal proper time among curves in the model. Discrepancies between the model and simulation results are closely related to random matrix theory. We then show how such models can be used to explain why some commonly practiced airline boarding policies are ineffective and even detrimental.

2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

3. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

Measurements of cosmic radiation dose rates (from the neutron and the non-neutron components) on board passenger aircraft were performed using environmental packages with thermoluminescent TL and CR-39 etched track detectors. The packages were calibrated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field Facility and evaluated at the Inst. of Nuclear Physics in Krakow (TL + CR-39) and at the German Aerospace Centre in Cologne (CR-39). Detector packages were exposed on board passenger aircraft operated by LOT Polish Airlines, flown between February and May 2001. The values of effective dose rate determined, averaged over the measuring period, ranged between 2.9 and 4.4 μSv h-1. The results of environmental measurements agreed to within 10% with values calculated from the CARI-6 code. (authors)

4. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

Baek, Yongjoo; Jeong, Hawoong

2013-01-01

Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

5. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

2011-01-01

The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. ...

6. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

Hatzoglou Chrissi

2008-03-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

7. Mathematical adventures in performance analysis from storage systems, through airplane boarding, to express line queues

Bachmat, Eitan

2014-01-01

This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...

8. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

9. Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane

Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

2009-05-01

The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

10. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft

Measurements were performed with various LiF-based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the 7LiF detectors used (various types of 7LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. (author)

11. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

De Vlieger, I.

Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

12. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

2010-01-01

... hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the carrier provides to..., including mobility aids and other assistive devices stowed in the cabin (see also 382.91(c)). To...

13. Design of Hydraulic System for the LTQ-2000Y Passenger Boarding Bridge%LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥液压系统设计

郭会歌; 薛鹏; 杨军宁; 王永利

2012-01-01

阐述了旅客登机桥的作用及对液压系统的要求.介绍了LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥的液压系统的设计实践,包括油源系统、升降回路、行走回路、转向回路、调平回路、回转回路和应急回路的设计.归纳了该液压系统的主要特点:控制、操作方式多样；油源高效、节能；行走、制动可靠；升降同步、可控；调平自动、及时.这些特点在设备使用中得到了良好的体现.%The passenger boarding bridge's function and its requirement to the hydraulic system were expatiated. The design practices of the LTQ-2000Y passenger boarding bridge's hydraulic system were described, including the design of the oil source system, lifting loop, walking loop, steering loop, leveling loop, rotating loop and emergency loop. The main features of the hydraulic system were generalized; the control and operation modes were varied; oil source was efficient and energy-saving; walking and braking was reliable; up & down lifting was synchronized and controllable; leveling was automatically and timely. These features are well reflected when using the device.

14. Investigation of Neutron Doses On board of Commercia; Passenger Aircraft Usány CR/39 and Thermoluminescence Detectors

Horwacik, P.; Bilski, P.; Olko, F.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

Delft : TUDelft, 2003. s. 71. [Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry /9./ Advances in Nuclear Particle Dosimetry for Radiation Protection and Medicine. 28.09.2003-03.10.2003, Delft] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : environmental measurements * personal dosimetry * passenger aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

15. 78 FR 42727 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

2013-07-17

... transport category airplanes related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight entertainment (IFE... cabin of various transport category airplanes, related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight... systems and other non-essential electrical systems through a switch in the flight compartment in the...

16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

17. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

18. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

19. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine or fewer passenger seats. 135.422 Section 135.422... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for...

20. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

2013-08-13

... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

1. Flatulence on airplanes

Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders;

2013-01-01

Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases......, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers....

2. Flatulence on airplanes

Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders; Thomas, William E G; Rosenberg, Jacob

2013-01-01

Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers......., due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be...

3. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

4. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

Dorpinghaus, R.

1982-01-01

A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

5. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

2013-07-02

... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth...

6. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

2005-01-01

Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

7. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

8. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input...

9. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the...

10. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

2010-01-01

... seat airplanes. 121.344a Section 121.344a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

11. Network structure of subway passenger flows

Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

2016-01-01

The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial doma...

12. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.75 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

13. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

14. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

2013-11-18

...These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes. These airplanes, as modified by the Boeing Company, will have novel or unusual design features associated with the architecture and connectivity of the passenger service computer network systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. This onboard network system will be composed of......

15. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

Background: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim was to analyse the data from...... consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... paramedical assistance and the medicine chest content were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crewmembers with chronic diseases should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

16. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

2005-01-01

BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS...... chest contents were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crew members with chronic illnesses should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

17. Airplane crash simulations

Impact loads are considered in nuclear facility design as the result of the loading effects of certain design basis accidents and design basis threats made up of natural as well as man-made hazards. Also, beyond design basis accidents and threats are considered. Typical missiles include objects caused by tornado winds, aircrafts, war or terrorist activities, dropped objects, turbine fragments and other missiles resulting from failure of rotating equipment and whipping pipes and other objects of failure of pressurized fluid systems. The aim of the work is to study the potential of tools for numerical simulations to study the local load effects of airplane missiles impacting concrete structures. Two of the leading commercial computer codes for analysis of highly dynamic events, ABAQUS/Explicit and AUTODYN, have been evaluated. Numerical simulations have been carried out for rigid as well as deformable missiles with the characteristics of airplane engines. The analysis results have been compared with test results from a test program performed in the USA at Sandia National Laboratory and in Japan at Kobori Research Complex and Central Research Institute of the Electric Power industry. Finally, numerical simulations of a large passenger airliner impacting a reactor containment has been carried out using the analysis methodology developed. (author)

18. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker;

2013-01-01

Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that error...

19. Wind-Tunnel Tests of the 1/25-Scale Powered Model of the Martin JRM-1 Airplane. IV - Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull - TED No. NACA 232. Part 4; Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull, TED No. NACA 232

Lockwood, Vernard E.; Smith, Bernard J.

1947-01-01

Wind-tunnel tests were made of a 1/25 scale model of the Martin JRM-1 airplane to determine: (1) The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the JRM-1 model near the water and lateral and directional stability characteristics with power while moving on the surface of the water, the latter being useful for the design of tip floats; (2) The stability and stalling characteristics of the wing with a modified airfoil contour; (3) Stability characteristics of a hull of larger design gross weight; The test results indicated that the elevator was powerful enough to trim the original model in a landing configuration at any lift coefficient within the specified range of centers of gravity. The ground-board tests for evaluating the aerodynamic forces and moments on an airplane in a simulated cross wind indicate a high dihedral effect in the presence of the ground board and, consequently, during low-speed taxying and take-off, large overturning moments would result which would have to be overcome by the tip floats.

20. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

1. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

2. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

3. 14 CFR 135.391 - Large nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes: En... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.391 Large nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) Except...

4. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.379 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine...

5. Airplane crash

In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

6. Divers of Passenger Demand

Wittmer, Andreas

2011-01-01

-Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

7. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

2010-01-01

... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

8. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

2008-01-01

China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

9. Amphibious Airplane

1986-01-01

The airplane pictured is the new Air Shark I, a four-place amphibian that makes extensive use of composite materials and cruises at close to 200 miles per hour under power from a 200-horsepower engine. Air Shark I is a "homebuilt" airplane, assembled from a kit of parts and components furnished by Freedom Master Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida. The airplane incorporates considerable NASA technology and its construction benefited from research assistance provided by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) In designing the Shark, company president Arthur M. Lueck was able to draw on NASA's aeronautical technology bank through KSC's computerized "recon" library. As a result of his work at KSC, the wing of the Air Shark I is a new airfoil developed by Langley Research Center for light aircraft. In addition, Lueck opted for NASA-developed "winglets," vertical extensions of the wing that reduce drag by smoothing air turbulence at the wingtips. The NASA technology bank also contributed to the hull design. Lueck is considering application of NASA laminar flow technology-means of smoothing the airflow over wing and fuselage-to later models for further improvement of the Shark's aerodynamic efficiency. A materials engineer, Lueck employed his own expertise in designing and selecting the materials for the composite segments, which include all structural members, exposed surfaces and many control components. The materials are fiber reinforced plastics, or FRP They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, with a nominal strength rating about one and a half times that of structural steel. They provide other advantages: the materials can be easily molded into finished shapes without expensive tooling or machining, and they are highly corrosion resistant. The first homebuilt to be offered by Freedom Master, Air Shark I completed air and water testing in mid-1985 and the company launched production of kits.

10. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

2015-01-01

When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking into......, especially with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This...... disutility may be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning...

11. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

Dan Păuna

2013-10-01

Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

12. 75 FR 8476 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes

2010-02-25

... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Rodriguez, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport... Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton... extinguishers, usually fitted or stowed in aircraft passenger cabins and flight decks. EASA published...

13. The Light Airplane

Driggs, Ivan H.

1925-01-01

This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

14. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

2012-10-04

..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

15. Passenger car market encountered depression

2008-01-01

<正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

16. Modeling and Simulation of Passenger Traffic in a National Airport

Enciso, Javier; Vargas, Juan; Martínez, Pablo

2016-01-01

Optimal operation of a country's air transport infrastructure plays a major role in the economic development of nations. Due to the increasing use of air transportation in today's world, flights' boarding times have become a concern for both airlines and airports, thus the importance of knowing beforehand how changes in flights demand parameters and physical airport layout will affect passengers flow and boarding times. This paper presents a pedestrian modeling study in which a national airpo...

17. The airplane: A simulated commercial air transportation study

Dauteuil, Mark; Geniesse, Pete; Hunniford, Michael; Lawler, Kathleen; Quirk, Elena; Tognarelli, Michael

1993-01-01

The 'Airplane' is a moderate-range, 70 passenger aircraft. It is designed to serve demands for flights up to 10,000 feet and it cruises at 32 ft/s. The major drivers for the design of the Airplane are economic competitiveness, takeoff performance, and weight minimization. The Airplane is propelled by a single Astro 15 electric motor and a Zinger 12-8 propeller. The wing section is a Spica airfoil which, because of its flat bottom, provides simplicity in manufacturing and thus helps to cut costs. The wing is constructed of a single load bearing mainspar and shape-holding ribs coated with Monokote skin, lending to a light weight structural makeup. The fuselage houses the motor, flight deck and passenger compartments as well as the fuel and control actuating systems. The wing will be attached to the top of the fuselage as will the fuel and control actuator systems for easy disassembly and maintenance. The aircraft is maneuvered about its pitch axis by means of an aft elevator on the flat plate horizontal tail. The twin vertical tail surfaces are also flat plates and each features a rudder for both directional and roll control. Along with wing dihedral, the rudders will be used to roll the aircraft. The Airplane is less costly to operate at its own maximum range and capacity as well as at its maximum range and the HB-40's maximum capacity than the HB-40.

18. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

Bolonkin, A

2007-01-01

Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

19. 76 FR 35324 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787 Series Airplanes; Seats With Inflatable Lapbelts

2011-06-17

... galley loading, passenger baggage, etc.); airplanes also operate where exposure to high intensity.... The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches/minute when... materials are needed. The standard normally applied to fabrics is a 12-second vertical ignition...

20. Fear of Flying in Airplanes: Effects of Minimal Therapist Guided Stress Inoculation Training.

Beckham, Jean C.; And Others

Flight phobia is an area which has received little controlled investigation, even though between 10 and 20 percent of flight passengers report a fear of flying in airplanes. A study was conducted to examine the efectiveness of a minimal therapist guided form of stress inoculation training (SIT) for flight phobia. Flight phobic volunteers (N=28)…

1. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

1995-01-01

A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

2. Child passenger safety.

Durbin, Dennis R

2011-04-01

Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

3. 77 FR 50644 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes

2012-08-22

... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Cessna Airplane Company Model 525 airplanes equipped with certain part number (P/N)...

4. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

2009-01-01

For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

5. ROCKET LAUNCH FROM THE BOARD OF AIRPLANE

Makarov, I.A.; National aviation university, Kyiv

2012-01-01

Every respectable state which obtains the space branches of science and technology must have the space launching site. But Ukraine has not yet got such constructions. Naturally it is necessary to have such space launching site for being independent in cosmic exploration. This scientific project is proposed and initiated to solve the practically important problem of absence of the space launching site in our country.

6. Radiated Emissions from a Remote-Controlled Airplane-Measured in a Reverberation Chamber

Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Mielnik, John J.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.; Strom, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

A full-vehicle, subscale all-electric model airplane was tested for radiated emissions, using a reverberation chamber. The mission of the NASA model airplane is to test in-flight airframe damage diagnosis and battery prognosis algorithms, and provide experimental data for other aviation safety research. Subscale model airplanes are economical experimental tools, but assembling their systems from hobbyist and low-cost components may lead to unforseen electromagnetic compatibility problems. This report provides a guide for accommodating the on-board radio systems, so that all model airplane systems may be operated during radiated emission testing. Radiated emission data are provided for on-board systems being operated separately and together, so that potential interferors can be isolated and mitigated. The report concludes with recommendations for EMI/EMC best practices for subscale model airplanes and airships used for research.

7. 78 FR 22432 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-04-16

...: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA... airplanes. One existing AD currently requires revising the airplane flight manual (AFM) to include... provide appropriate operational procedures to prevent the airplane flight directors (FDs), autopilot...

8. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

9. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database: Raw Data

Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

1926-01-01

The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

11. Mars Gashopper Airplane Project

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

12. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

Brouwer, E.R.

2009-01-01

The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger dat

13. Subjective response to combined noise and vibration during flight of a large twin-jet airplane

Clevenson, S. A.

1976-01-01

A NASA twin-jet airplane was used to obtain controlled noise and vibration environments during flight while obtaining subjective responses from 13 passenger-subjects (6 females and 7 males). Subjective ratings of overall comfort, comfort when considering only vibration, and comfort when considering only noise were obtained during times of different vibration and noise environments. Passenger-subjects were able to distinguish and rate noise better than vibration. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ratings of ride comfort due to both sex type and flight experience. Males rated flying discomfort much more severely than females when rating the overall ride and the ride when considering only the noise environment. Experienced passengers also rated the overall ride to be more uncomfortable than inexperienced passengers.

14. Comparative Analysis of Interference Pathloss Coupling Patterns on B-737 VS. B757 Airplanes

Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

2005-01-01

Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes. In the Spring of 2004, extensive IPL measurements were also taken on several Boeing 757 airplanes under a cooperative agreement between NASA Langley Research Center and Delta Airlines. The objective of this paper is to analyze IPL measurement data, to better understand the impact on coupling levels based on the different locations of the aircraft radio antennas on B-757 and B-737 airplanes, and to provide a basis for future fuzzy logic modeling of airplane IPL. This effort will build upon previous fuzzy modeling of IPL data for B-737 airplane data.

15. 75 FR 76647 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security-Isolation or...

2010-12-09

... passenger domain computer systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. The applicable...: Digital systems architecture composed of several connected networks. The proposed network architecture... Domain), and 4. The capability to allow access to or by external network sources. Discussion The...

16. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph;

2016-01-01

BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships and...... passenger ferries for possible improvements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for seafarers from 1997, 2002 and 2007 and for passengers on Swedish ferries for the years 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012 from the Swedish Radio Medical were studied. Symptoms and diseases were classified according to the International...

17. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

2015-09-01

Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

18. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

2010-04-01

... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from...

19. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

2010-01-01

... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

20. Traian Vuia – the Romanian inventor who first flew a powered airplane in 1906

Liviu FILIMON

2011-09-01

Full Text Available As observed the beginning of heavier than air devices started with Wright Brothers who flew in 1903 the first catapulted airplane equipped with an engine, similar to present motor gliders. In March 1906 took place the first flight of Vuia’s monoplane using on board installations. Since then a real competition between manufacturers has started to improve their airplanes as they become more efficient. Traian Vuia’s first flights and his beginnings are explained below.

1. The evolution of airplanes

Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

2014-07-01

The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

2. Unmanned Airplane Autopilot Tuning

Petar Getsov

2014-07-01

Full Text Available This article considers different approaches for autopilot controller gain values adjustment. The correct autopilot performance is tested using modeling methods. A variant of land-based autopilot is considered. Examined are scenarios of UAV airplanes in level flight. The latter are applicable to tasks such as remote sensing, controlled area surveillance, etc.

3. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

Cooper, D. A.

Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

4. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

Rong-Chang Jou

2015-03-01

Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

5. Passenger flows prediction in major transportation hubs

Ozerova, O. O.

2013-01-01

Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linea...

6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

7. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

8. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

Jørgensen, Kaj

1998-01-01

Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use for...

9. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zone of limited suspension for domestic... and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This... except upon a clear showing of abuse of market power that the Board does not expect to be...

10. A simulation study regarding different aircraft boarding strategies

Mas, Sílvia; Juan Pérez, Angel Alejandro; Arias, Pol; Fonseca Casas, Pau

2013-01-01

The airline industry is constantly subject to the search of new methods in order to increase efficiency, profitability, and customer satisfaction. Since airlines only generate revenue when their airplanes are on the air, the time they spend at the airports should be the shortest possible. Hence, the airplane turnaround time becomes a process which airlines pay special attention on. The boarding process has a very important role, since it is one of the significant elements of...

11. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

12. Vibration issues in passenger car

Rafał BURDZIK; Konieczny, Łukasz

2014-01-01

Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

13. Vibration issues in passenger car

Rafał BURDZIK

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

14. Physical and situational inequality on airplanes predicts air rage.

DeCelles, Katherine A; Norton, Michael I

2016-05-17

We posit that the modern airplane is a social microcosm of class-based society, and that the increasing incidence of "air rage" can be understood through the lens of inequality. Research on inequality typically examines the effects of relatively fixed, macrostructural forms of inequality, such as socioeconomic status; we examine how temporary exposure to both physical and situational inequality, induced by the design of environments, can foster antisocial behavior. We use a complete set of all onboard air rage incidents over several years from a large, international airline to test our predictions. Physical inequality on airplanes-that is, the presence of a first class cabin-is associated with more frequent air rage incidents in economy class. Situational inequality-boarding from the front (requiring walking through the first class cabin) versus the middle of the plane-also significantly increases the odds of air rage in both economy and first class. We show that physical design that highlights inequality can trigger antisocial behavior on airplanes. More broadly, these results point to the importance of considering the design of environments-from airplanes to office layouts to stadium seating-in understanding both the form and emergence of antisocial behavior. PMID:27140642

15. A shared " passengers & goods " city logistics system

Trentini, Anna; Masson, Renaud; Lehuédé, Fabien; Malhéné, Nicolas; Péton, Olivier; Tlahig, Houda

2012-01-01

Many strategic planning models have been developed to help decision making in city logistics. Such models do not take into account, or very few, the flow of passengers because the considered unit does not have the same nature (a person is active and a good is passive). However, it seems fundamental to gather the goods and the passengers in one model when their respective transports interact with each other. In this context, we suggest assessing a shared passengers & goods city logistics syste...

16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

17. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

18. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger briefing. 91.519 Section 91.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... be supplemented by printed cards for the use of each passenger containing— (1) A diagram of,...

19. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

2012-06-27

... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... accident scene, and from the ability of the railroad personnel to minimize health and safety risks through... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY:...

20. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

2013-06-25

.... See 69 FR 69244 and 69245, November 26, 2004. The ANPRM requested comment on whether and how to... guidelines for comment. See 71 FR 38563, July 7, 2006. We received more than 175 comments on the 2006 draft... include onboard accessible routes connecting passenger decks and passenger amenities within...

1. Young drivers and their young passengers.

2015-01-01

More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

2. Passenger and Naturalization Lists: The New Sources.

Filby, P. William

1983-01-01

Reviews information sources designed to assist the genealogical researcher with the arrival of his/her ancestors: "A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists 1538-1825"; "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index"; "Philadelphia Naturalization Records." Examples provided include name entry, source citation, annotation, and subject entries. Nineteen…

The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

4. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

Jørgensen, Kaj

1997-01-01

Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

5. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

2001-01-01

The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

6. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2006-01-01

to estimate the actual passenger delays. The combination of the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software is described, demonstrating the possibility of predicting future passenger delays. The described passenger regularity model is run daily to calculate the passenger delays of the......Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...

7. 75 FR 39804 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model...

2010-07-13

... airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 13, 2008 (73 FR 13483). That NPRM... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3) Will... Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model 777-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY:...

8. 78 FR 53640 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-08-30

... this AD, before further flight, repair using a method approved by either the Manager, International...: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA... of Compliance (AMOCs): The Manager, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane...

9. 77 FR 58785 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-09-24

..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW... fuselage, using a method approved by either the Manager, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane... door frame shells, which could result in in-flight decompression of the airplane and consequent...

10. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

11. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2011-12-22

... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes; Model A330-223F and -243F airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series...

12. 76 FR 79558 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2011-12-22

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... F4-600R series airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called A300-600...

13. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-05-14

..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010), exempted airplanes on which Airbus Modification 34804..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for Model A318-121 and -122 airplanes, and except...) of AD 2010-24-07, Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for airplanes on...

14. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2011-12-15

... series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005), The... certain ACT equipped airplanes, produced after AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14...-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus airplanes listed...

15. 77 FR 51717 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-08-27

... visual inspection of the forward fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and..., Amendment 39-16229 (75 FR cycles. 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes... inspection for cracks of the forward fitting at FR 40 without nut removal on both sides of the airplane,...

16. 77 FR 59149 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-09-26

... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called...

17. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-12-26

... fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and repair if necessary. This new AD...-time detailed visual inspection of the forward fitting at FR 40 on both sides of the airplane, in..., Amendment 39- 16229 (75 FR 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes that,...

18. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-11-14

... (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). Airbus also stated that for Model A340-541 and A340-642 airplanes.... Airbus stated that this requirement for Model A330 MRTT airplanes is equivalent to one in the NPRM (78 FR... (f) of AD 2009-04-07, Amendment 39-15813 (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). For all airplanes...

19. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

O. O. Ozerova

2013-11-01

Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

20. Designing the optimum watch keeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

Heikkilä, Mikko

2016-01-01

A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and more safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewmembers but ...

1. Designing the optimum watchkeeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

Heikkilä, Mikko

2016-01-01

A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewme...

2. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

Byrne, N J

1995-08-01

The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

3. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

2010-10-01

... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list: (1... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN...

4. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

5. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

6. Building concepts against airplane crash

In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

7. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft;

2012-01-01

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the...... autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury...

8. Airplane stroke syndrome.

Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

2016-07-01

Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, patheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. PMID:26898578

9. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2006-01-01

Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First the...... paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software....... The paper demonstrates the possibility of predicting future passenger delays by calculating the expected passenger regularity of the entire Copenhagen suburban network. The results obtained with the passenger regularity model used together with the simulation software are very similar to the daily...

10. OF THE CUSTOMER VALUE OF PASSENGERS TRANSPORTATION

Bakalinsky, O.

2013-01-01

The customer's service value is creating at interaction between service provider and client. The customer service value determinants are influent to the client’s behavior. Studies of passenger transportation customer value usually are limited to the identification of the reaction to the quality of transport services and the money expenses for the purchasing of a ticket. Passenger transportation service at the long-distance trips is characterized by considerable complexity and divergence of th...

11. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

2015-01-01

People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

12. Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation

Gilsdorf Andreas; Morgan Dilys; Leitmeyer Katrin

2012-01-01

Abstract Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marbu...

13. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

14. 49 CFR 27.72 - Boarding assistance for aircraft.

2010-10-01

...-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5) The agreement shall ensure that all lifts and other... available means to which the passenger consents, except hand-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boarding assistance for aircraft. 27.72 Section...

15. 46 CFR 77.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 77.40-1 Section 77.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND... point of access to the water's edge during each condition of loading and trim, with an adverse list...

16. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

2009-04-01

To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

17. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

2011-05-01

Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

18. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

19. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

2015-06-01

Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 135 - Additional Airworthiness Standards for 10 or More Passenger Airplanes

2010-01-01

... factor accounting for propeller control system malfunction, including quick feathering action... structure is shown by analysis, tests, or both to be able to withstand the repeated loads of variable... the approach speed established under section 7 and not less than the greater of 1.05V MC or 1.10V S...

1. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

2006-01-01

matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade the......The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...

2. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

3. Supersonic airplane study and design

Cheung, Samson

1993-01-01

A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

4. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

Yu. S. Barash

2010-05-01

Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

5. STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PASSENGER RAILWAY TRANSPORTATIONS IN UKRAINE

Tokmakova, I.

2010-01-01

In the article the analysis of the state of passenger railway transportations is conducted at the domestic transport market, strategic directions are exposed them subsequent development and way of providing of the effective functioning of railway passenger complex.

6. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

Schoenmaker, Annelie

2014-07-01

High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

7. MODERNISATION OF PASSENGERS STOCK DEPOT AT THE REGIONAL DIVISION BRASOV

Sima, Elena

2010-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines. Passenger transport organization should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations;...

8. Auto-immune concept for dealing with the problem of airplane hijacking

Tibi, Dov Y.

2003-08-01

This paper analyzes the inherent contradictions that exist in most of the conventional approaches dealing with airplane hijacking, and presents a completely different approach, employing innovative technological and operational solution. The suggested techno-operational concept is derived from the Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT) methodology which enforces the problem solver to search for a solution under a few constraining rules -- causing the solution (if found) to be very cost effective. The basic problem that arises from most existing conventional concepts is their very poor cost effectiveness. Passengers, airport operators and aviation companies are all forced to invest on a continual basis, huge amounts of resources and time in order to prevent a hijacking event. The "Auto Immune" concept, discussed here, is based upon enlisting the passengers (in a case of "Hijacking Event" only) to foil the event successfully by releasing, in real-time, a very effective "One-time Non-Lethal Apparatus" (ONLA). This new paradigm changes dramatically the balance of power in favor of the "good guys", and the few hijackers will be neutralized at low risk to the passengers and the aircraft. The detailed technological and operational concept is described, including: operation modes of ONLA, location, release method, safety issues, psychological and legal issues, etc.

9. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135... Flight Operations § 135.117 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff each pilot in... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

10. 14 CFR 125.327 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 125... § 125.327 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff, each pilot in command of an... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

11. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner.... (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a crew and passenger list by paragraph (a) of...

12. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, or... and passenger list by paragraph (a) of this section shall see that the list is prepared prior...

13. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

15. CO2 emissions from passenger transport: a comparison of international trends from 1973 to 1992

This paper provides a comparative analysis of the changes in energy use and CO2 emissions from passenger transport in nine OECD countries. Unlike most previous analyses, we base our analysis on a newly published international data set covering vehicle activity, passenger travel and fuel use by mode. We calculate how changes in activity, modal composition and the energy intensity of each mode contributed to changes in total energy use from travel in nine countries between 1973 and 1992. Increased travel activity and modal shifts boosted energy use, while reduction in modal energy intensities reduced energy use from automobiles in the USA and in air travel throughout the sample of countries. As a result, travel related energy use increased sharply in every country except in Denmark and the USA. Using these calculations, we then show how activity, modal shift and modal energy intensities affected CO2 emissions from travel. Noting that the shifts of fuels within transport has been small, even counting shifts in the fuels used to produce the small amount of electricity used for passenger transport in every country, we find that increased activity and modal shifts also raised CO2 emissions from travel energy in every country except the USA. We discuss briefly how a change in fuel mix, lower transport energy intensities, or even reduced levels of travel might lead to restraining or reducing CO2 emissions from travel. Recalling that real prices for road fuels have fallen to near their 1973 levels while energy intensities remain level or are falling slowly, we foresee continued increases in travel, particularly in cars and airplanes, pushing emissions even higher. We ask what could restrain CO2 in the future, should stringent restraints become a clear policy goal. (Author)

16. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... noise levels. (f) The oral briefing required by paragraph (a) of this section must be supplemented...

17. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CITY PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

Aulin, V.; Golub, D.

2008-01-01

The specific process of city passenger transportation is given. The aggregate of parameters of transportation process on subsystems has been analysed. The model of one-day operation of motor transport enterprise using the system approach and process simulating by stages has been built.

18. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

Klodt, Henning

2003-01-01

National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

19. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

2010-06-25

... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

20. 77 FR 7523 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-02-13

... 12866; 2. Is not a ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-055-AD; Amendment 39-16952; AD 2012-03-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires modifying the fire extinguishing system from a...

1. 78 FR 72834 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

2013-12-04

... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; SOCATA Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for SOCATA Model TBM 700 airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory...

2. 78 FR 1723 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-01-09

... Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-227-AD; Amendment 39-17312; AD 2012-26-51] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes. This emergency AD was sent previously to all known U.S. owners and operators of these...

3. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-08-01

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracks found in the bottom...

4. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-07-03

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that...

5. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-06-21

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that a certain wire...

6. 77 FR 11793 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-02-28

... airplanes). (k) Terminating Action for AD 2007-03-18, Amendment 39-14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007..., Amendment 39-14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007), for that airplane. (l) Reporting Submit a report..., Amendment 39- 14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007)] was to mandate, for A300 and A300-600...

7. 76 FR 50706 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

2011-08-16

... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes... SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory continuing...

8. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-08-27

... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that revealed...

9. 77 FR 69391 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-11-19

... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the manufacturer...

10. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-03-30

... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...-047-AD; Amendment 39-16992; AD 2012-06-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a rotating probe inspection for cracking...

11. 77 FR 19065 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-03-30

... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not affect intrastate...-057-AD; Amendment 39-16993; AD 2012-06-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection for abnormalities of the ball...

12. 77 FR 15636 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-03-16

... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., A319, and A320 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of unsuccessful...

13. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2011-11-23

..., A319, A320, and A321 airplanes. Since we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April..., Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April 14, 2008), With Revised Affected Airplanes Referenced Conditions (j... proposed AD. Discussion On March 31, 2008, we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975,...

14. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-03-21

... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports that some nuts installed on the wing, including...

15. 78 FR 40074 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-07-03

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that oxygen generators installed on...

16. 77 FR 19071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2012-03-30

... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will...-056-AD; Amendment 39-16991; AD 2012-06-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A330-200, A330-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection...

17. 78 FR 39190 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

2013-07-01

... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that certain special...

18. Loudness models in the very low frequency range: application to the prediction of airplane cockpit noise comfort

Parizet, Etienne; Lermé, Fanette; Padayashi, Yogen; Collery, Olivier

2012-01-01

Aircraft interior noise is a major design stake with respect to airline requirements for passenger and crew comfort. A study dealing with airplane cockpit noise annoyance had shown that loudness computed according to ISO 532-B standard was a good gauge of qualitative evaluation. This was not true for loudness computed according to ANSI S3.4 standard. It seems that this was due to differences of the two models for very low frequency sounds, as these models were adjusted to fit to different iso...

19. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

1999-01-01

This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

20. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

1. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

2. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

3. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

1974-01-01

This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

4. Enhancing board effectiveness.

Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

2010-01-01

Like any other job, board work is associated with specific competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to perform a job or task effectively. Boards are only as strong as their weakest member. Board education should focus on improving the knowledge and skills of the board and individual members and on overall board performance. Assessment of individual board member performance is designed to evaluate the trustee's knowledge of board roles and responsibilities and the expectations of board members. Board effectiveness is built through competency-based board member recruitment and selection; board member education and development; and evaluation of board, board member, and meeting performance. PMID:21291066

5. Visual servoing of an airplane for auto-landing

Bourquardez, O.; Chaumette, François

2007-01-01

International audience In this paper, a visual servoing scheme is proposed to control an airplane during its landing. A linearized model of the airplane dynamics and decoupled visual features are used to build the control scheme. A desired trajectory which takes into account the airplane dynamic is designed. Coupling this trajectory and the control law enables the airplane to join its desired path. Then the airplane is controlled to follow the glide path, realize the flare manoeuvre and fi...

6. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

Breguet, Louis

1929-01-01

In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

7. Editorial Board

2013-01-01

2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members, representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research. They are from 47 countries, including Argentina (3), Australia (13), Austria (4), Belarus (1), Belgium (3), Brazil (10), Canada (10), China (41), Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Egypt (3), Estonia (1), Finland

8. Editorial Board

2013-01-01

2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark

9. Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers during some Czechoslovak airlines commercial flights

Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers on boards of Czechoslovak Airlines (CSA) subsonic aircraft was studied. It was found that the exposure levels depends on flights altitude, changes also with geographical position (latitude and longitude). Measurements were performed during 1991 to 1993 years; i.e. at the period of sun maximum and immediately after it. Total dose equivalent rates did not exceed 10 μSv per hour of flight. An increasing of its level with decreasing sun activity has been already registered. (orig.)

10. F-16XL Airplane Research Paint Scheme Aerials

1993-01-01

The NASA F-16XL research airplane is shown in flight over Eastern Shore of Virginia During the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP). The aircraft is shown in the research paint scheme utilized for on-surface flow visualization. During CAWAP, tufts, oil, and liquid crystals were used to document the flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings. The images were recorded by onboard video cameras and hand-held video and still cameras in a chase aircraft. The visual images are being correlated with on board measurements of surface pressures, boundary-layer velocity profiles, and skin friction. Ultimately, the in-flight data will be combined with wind-tunnel results and computational-fluid-dynamics solutions to document the aerodynamics of cranked-arrow wings. CAWAP is a cooperative venture of the Langley Research Center and the Dryden Flight Research Center.

11. Considerations for Passenger Transport by Advanced Spaceplanes

Scott-Scott, J. L.; Harrison, M.; Woodrow, A. D.

One of the strongest incentives to space industry development in the 21st century is likely to be space tourism. At present the greatest handicaps to the exploitation of this opportunity are the prohibitive cost of access to space (few tourists could afford the ticket) and safety (astronautics remains an inherently dangerous occupation). This paper addresses both of these issues. First, the characteristics required of a vehicle suitable for carrying passengers into space are discussed in the context of the SKYLON spaceplane concept. Attention is focused on the design of the cabin module. Then the needs of the passengers are considered both from the perspectives of safety (the unique environmental hazards), health, and comfort. The paper concludes with a review of the key issues.

12. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

Conner, D. W.

1980-01-01

Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

13. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

Yunqian Qu; Jinfu Zhu

2013-01-01

The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the dif...

14. Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A macroeconomic analysis

Mennel, Tim; Jokisch, Sabine

2007-01-01

Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today?s transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This working paper assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model PACE-T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European countries from the introduction of hydrogen. The magnitude of ...

15. Disruption management in passenger railway transportation.

Jespersen-Groth, J.; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, J.; Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Maróti, Gábor; Nielsen, M.N.

2007-01-01

textabstractThis paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an o...

16. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

2005-01-01

textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics such as shu...

17. Operations research in passenger railway transportation

Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

2005-01-01

textabstractIn this paper, we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics as shuntin...

18. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

2010-01-01

... pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. 121.331 Section 121.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) When operating a reciprocating...

19. Buddy Board

Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

2015-01-01

Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

20. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

2004-07-01

The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

1. Airplane impacts on reinforced concrete shells

Results of nonlinear and ultimate load finite element analyses of reinforced concrete shells subject to airplane impact loads are presented. Algorithmic difficulties and impact-release conditions are discussed. (orig.)

2. Installing paparazzi autopilot into a model airplane

Ojala, Allan

2010-01-01

This Bachelor degree study explores the open source Autopilot “Paparazzi” that was installed into a model airplane. The aim for this was to get the model airplane to fly short flight and study what difficulties there are in a project like this. The field of UAV research is innovative and number of companies selling ready UAV products is growing, also many education institutes and amateurs are making their own implementations of UAVs. Paparazzi autopilot is a complete system of hardware a...

3. EMI Standards for Wireless Voice and Data on Board Aircraft

Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.

2002-01-01

The use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) on board aircraft continues to be an increasing source of misunderstanding between passengers and flight-crews, and consequently, an issue of controversy between wireless product manufacturers and air transport regulatory authorities. This conflict arises primarily because of the vastly different regulatory objectives between commercial product and airborne equipment standards for avoiding electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper summarizes international regulatory limits and test processes for measuring spurious radiated emissions from commercially available PEDs, and compares them to international standards for airborne equipment. The goal is to provide insight for wireless product developers desiring to extend the freedom of their customers to use wireless products on-board aircraft, and to identify future product characteristics, test methods and technologies that may facilitate improved wireless freedom for airline passengers.

4. Editorial Board

2014-01-01

2012-2016 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery Editorial Board consists of 341 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in pediatrics.They are from 37 countries,including Australia(6),Austria(2),Belgium(6),Brazil(9),Bulgaria(2),Canada(8),China(29),Denmark(1),Finland(2),France(9),Germany(21),Greece(7),India(11),Ireland(3),Israel(3),Italy(50),Jamaica(1),Japan(47),Lithuania(1),Malaysia(1),Netherlands(11),Pakistan(1),Poland(1),Portugal(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(1),Serbia(2),Singapore(5),South Korea(8),Spain(5),Sweden(2),Switzerland(3),Thailand(2),Tunisia(1),Turkey(8),United Kingdom(11),and United States(59).

5. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

2012-01-01

Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation fo...

6. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

2012-01-17

... (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will not... Industries PC-6 airplanes, Fairchild Heli Porter PC-6 airplanes, or Fairchild-Hiller Corporation...

7. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Water vapour (H2O) and NOx emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

8. Editorial Board

2014-01-01

2011-2015The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark(1),Egypt(3),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(5),Germany(21),Greece(6),Hungary(4),India(18),Iran(6),Ireland(1),Israel(4),Italy(35),Japan(34),Lebanon(1),Lithuania(3),Mexico(2),Netherlands(10),New Zealand(2),Norway(2),Pakistan(2),Philippines(1),Poland(3),Portugal(2),Romania(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(2),Singapore(3),Slovenia(1),South Africa(1),South Korea(16),Spain(13),Sweden(3),Switzerland(1),Thailand(4),Turkey(7),United Kingdom(20),and United States(84).

9. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

10. 78 FR 23458 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

2013-04-19

... CONTACT: Tom Rodriguez, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington... Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 7X airplanes. This AD requires revising the aircraft flight manual...

11. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

12. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

13. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

14. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

15. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

16. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

18. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any...

19. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

20. 78 FR 42417 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

2013-07-16

... during production could reduce the structural integrity of the airplane. We are issuing this AD to... faulty rivets installed in the airframes during production could reduce the structural integrity of the airplane. We are issuing this AD to ensure the structural integrity of the airplane. (f) Actions...

1. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

2013-11-29

... all cars. Emergency lighting power sources that include batteries located under passenger cars may not... was codified as a Federal regulatory requirement for all passenger cars in 1999. See 64 FR 25540. FRA... recent accidents support NTSB's implied concern that placement of electrical conduits and battery...

2. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

2010-11-01

Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

3. 14 CFR 121.573 - Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations.

2010-01-01

... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing passengers: Extended overwater... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.573 Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations. (a) In addition to the oral briefing required by §...

4. NECESSITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND INTRODUCTION OF PASSENGER COMPLEX COMMERCIAL SERVICES

Elagin, U.; Dergousova, A.

2011-01-01

The necessity of development and introduction of complex commercial services is in-process considered for the passenger economy of railways. Expediency of their development is shown with the purpose of increase of profitableness and diminishing of losses of passenger transportations.

5. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

2012-04-27

... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline...

6. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... requested to don life jackets and go to the appropriate embarkation station during the safety...

7. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

2008-01-01

This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

8. 75 FR 739 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft

2010-01-06

..., ``Use of Certain Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft'' (70 FR 40156). SFAR 106 is the result of a notice the FAA published in July 2004 (69 FR 42324) to address the needs of passengers who... Inogen, Inc.'s Inogen One POCs. SFAR 106 was amended on September 12, 2006, (71 FR 53954) to add...

9. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation

Bo Yang

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station.

10. 49 CFR 39.29 - May PVOs limit the number of passengers with a disability on a passenger vessel?

2010-10-01

... mobility disability on your vessel. However, if in the Captain's judgment, weight or stability issues are presented by the presence of mobility devices and would conflict with legitimate safety requirements pertaining to the vessel and its passengers, then the number of passengers with mobility aids may be...