Sample records for air resistance

  1. Monitoring air sparging using resistivity tomography

    Air sparging is a relatively new technique for the remediation of ground water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. In this technique, air is injected below the water table, beneath the contaminated soil. Remediation occurs by a combination of contaminant partitioning into the vapor phase and enhanced biodegradation. The air is usually removed by vacuum extraction in the vadose zone. The efficiency of remediation from air sparging is a function of the air flow pattern, although the distribution of the injected air is still poorly understood. Cross-borehole resistivity surveys were performed at a former service station in Florence, Oregon, to address this unknown. The resistivity measurements were made using six wells, one of which was the sparge well. Data were collected over a two-week period during and after several air injections, or sparge events. Resistivity images were calculated between wells using an algorithm that assumes axially symmetric structures. The movement of the injected air through time was defined by regions of large increases in resistivity, greater than 100 percent from the background. During early sparge times, air moved outward and upward from the injection point as it ascended to the unsaturated zone. At later sparge times, the air flow reached a somewhat stable cone-shaped pattern radiating out and up from the injection point. Two days after sparging was discontinued, a residue of entrained air remained in the saturated zone, as indicated by a zone of 60 to 80 percent water saturation

  2. Air void structure and frost resistance

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange


    This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test are...... conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids is...... proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling). This...

  3. Modelling of air resistance during drying of wood-chips

    Karaj, S.; Barfuss, Isabel; Schalk, J.; Reisinger, G.; Pude, R.; Müller, Joachim


    The objective of this study was to investigate the parameters that affect the drying process of wood chips at low air flow conditions. This objective was determined by measuring the air pressure resistance being produced by wood chips by examining different variables such as: air flow rate, air velocity, wood chip size, bulk density, bulk height and porosity. The air flow resistance was measured inside a 3 meter high cylindrical air duct constructed at University of Hohenheim. Physical proper...

  4. The New Interpretation of the Laws of Air Resistance

    Prandtl, L


    A closer examination of Newton's formula for air resistance shows that it is well to consider the air as an ordinary fluid, and, indeed for most of the velocities considered, as a non-compressible fluid, so long as the dimensions of the moving body are large in comparison with the mean free path of the particles of air.

  5. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans


    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...... challenge and assessment of sRaw in preschool children are reviewed. Reference values are provided for sRaw and have allowed discrimination between health and respiratory disease, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable repeatability...

  6. Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials

    Tarnow, Viggo


    The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly....... Two case are treated: flow perpendicular to the cylinder axes, and flow parallel to the axes. In each case two new approximate procedures were used. In the first procedure, one solves the equation of flow in a Voronoi cell around the fiber, and averages over the distribution of the Voronoi cells.......The second procedure is an extension to oscillating air flow of the Brinkman self-consistent procedure for dc flow. The procedures are valid for volume concentrations of cylinders less than 0.1. The calculations show that for the density of fibers of interest for acoustic fibre materials the simple self...

  7. Residual resistance simulation of an air spark gap switch

    Siahlo, S E


    The numerical simulation of an air spark gap has been carried within two theoretical models. The kinetic one [1] allowed us to calculate time dependencies for the residual resistance (0.2 - 0.4 Ohm for our selection of a circuit parameters), the spark gap channel width, the electron number density, the mobility, the conductivity, the ionization degree, the magnetic field in the discharge channel, the channel inductance and the electron drift velocity. Simulating a real circuit and taking into account a spark gap residual resistance demonstrates good agreement of both models with the experimental data, while that without taking into account this resistance overestimates the maximal current in the circuit by approximately 5%.

  8. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    Jang Jinho


    Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  9. The relationship between air layers and evaporative resistance of male Chinese ethnic clothing.

    Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen


    In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing. PMID:27184328

  10. Effects of air resistance on AT-cut quartz thickness-shear resonators.

    Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jiashi


    We study theoretically the effects of air resistance on an AT-cut quartz plate thickness-shear mode resonator. Mindlin's two-dimensional equations for coupled thickness-shear and flexural motions of piezoelectric plates are employed for the crystal resonator. The equations of a Newtonian fluid and the equations of linear acoustics are used for the shear and compressive waves in the air surrounding the resonator, respectively. Solutions for free and electrically forced vibrations are obtained. The impedance of the resonator is calculated. The effects of air resistance are examined. It is found that air viscosity causes a relative frequency shift of the order of ppm. When the material quality factor of quartz Q = 10(5), the air viscosity and compressibility both have significant effects on resonator impedance. For resonators with larger aspect ratios the effects of air resistance are weaker, and the effect of air compressibility is weaker than air viscosity. PMID:23357914

  11. The incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in industrial and residential air / Jahne de Wet

    De Wet, Jahne


    Few studies have been undertaken to assess microbial air quality in South Africa. At present not enough is known about the state of microbial air quality in the North-West Province. Past efforts to collect information on provincial air quality have been scattered, random and incomplete. However, the activities in the province provide a good indication of the potential pollutants and air quality. An international study noted a possible link between air pollution and bacterial resistance ...

  12. Sulfate Attack Resistance of Air-entrained Silica Fume Concrete under Dry-Wet Cycle Condition

    YANG Jiansen; WANG Peiming; LI Haoxin; YANG Xu


    Based on the erosion resistant coefficient, the effects of water-cement ratio, air-entrained, silica fume content and sand ratio on the sulfate attack resistance of air-entrained silica fume concrete were studied by orthogonal experiments in order to explore its sulfate attack resistance under dry-wet condition. A more signiifcant model of concrete resistance to sulfate attack was also established, thus this work provided a strategy reference for quantitative design of sulfate attack resistant concrete. The experimental results show that dry-wet cycle deteriorates the concrete resistance to the sulfate attack, and leads to the remarkable declines of concrete strength and sulfate resistance. Air bubbles in the air-entrained silica fume concrete lower and delay the damage resulted from the crystallization sulfate salt. However this delay gradually disappears when most of the close bubbles are breached by the alternative running of the sulfate salt crystallization and the permeating pressure, and then the air bubbles are iflled with sulfate salt crystallization. The concrete is provided with the strongest sulfate resistance when it is prepared with the 0.47 water-binder ratio, 6.0% air-entrained, 5% silica fume and 30% sand ratio. The erosion resistant coefifcientsK80 andK150 of this concrete are increased by 9%, 7%, 9%, and 5% respectively as compared with those of concretes without silica fume and air entraining.


    Vladimir Rendulić


    Full Text Available The basic linear resistance is often applied to the resistance systematization as the specific resistance of a 100 meter length of an underground ventilation airway. In standard environment the characteristics of such specific resistance are influenced by the room dimensions and relative roughness value that includes hydraulic friction factor of the airway. To determine the specific resistance value, the calculation results obtained after measurements in situ in the mine in question are herewith analysed. For approximate determination the nomogram in Fig. 4 of this paper can be used (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Tussilago farfara L. - a plant relatively resistant to industrial air pollution

    Maria Świeboda


    Full Text Available Tussilago farfara L. is a species highly resistant to the fumes emitted by the factory of silicophosphate fertilizers and to other kinds of industrial air pollution. The resistance of this species results from the wide ecological amplitude and characteristic anatomical structure of the leaves of this plant.

  15. Tussilago farfara L. - a plant relatively resistant to industrial air pollution

    Maria Świeboda; Zofia Brunarska


    Tussilago farfara L. is a species highly resistant to the fumes emitted by the factory of silicophosphate fertilizers and to other kinds of industrial air pollution. The resistance of this species results from the wide ecological amplitude and characteristic anatomical structure of the leaves of this plant.

  16. Coefficients of resistance to cold-air-drainage winds on a grass-covered slope

    The cold-air-drainage (CAD) wind is one of the most familiar local winds in Japan. It is driven by the surplus of density, or the deficit of potential temperature produced by radiative cooling in the surface air layer on a slope, and is resisted by the ground surface and the surrounding atmosphere. The coefficients of resistance of the ground surface and the surrounding atmosphere change with the CAD wind speed. The observations made on a grass-covered slope of Mt. Kuju showed that the resistance exerted by the surrounding atmosphere was much larger than that by the ground surface, and the sum of two coefficients of resistance decreased by one order of magnitude when the CAD wind speed exceeded some critical value

  17. An error-resistant linguistic protocol for air traffic control

    Cushing, Steven


    The research results described here are intended to enhance the effectiveness of the DATALINK interface that is scheduled by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to be deployed during the 1990's to improve the safety of various aspects of aviation. While voice has a natural appeal as the preferred means of communication both among humans themselves and between humans and machines as the form of communication that people find most convenient, the complexity and flexibility of natural language are problematic, because of the confusions and misunderstandings that can arise as a result of ambiguity, unclear reference, intonation peculiarities, implicit inference, and presupposition. The DATALINK interface will avoid many of these problems by replacing voice with vision and speech with written instructions. This report describes results achieved to date on an on-going research effort to refine the protocol of the DATALINK system so as to avoid many of the linguistic problems that still remain in the visual mode. In particular, a working prototype DATALINK simulator system has been developed consisting of an unambiguous, context-free grammar and parser, based on the current air-traffic-control language and incorporated into a visual display involving simulated touch-screen buttons and three levels of menu screens. The system is written in the C programming language and runs on the Macintosh II computer. After reviewing work already done on the project, new tasks for further development are described.

  18. Stomatal resistance of rice leaves as influenced by radiation intensity and air humidity

    This paper describes results of field experiments of relationships between meteorological conditions and stomatal resistance of rice leaves. The magnitude of stomatal resistance of rice leaves was measured by a porometer at important three developmental stages of rice plants. Stomatal resistance (rs) changed very clearly throughout sunny days in relation to diurnal variation in solar radiation intensity (St) and leaf air vapor concentration deficit (HD). Stomatal resistance of the adaxial surface of rice leaves was found to be the same to that of the abaxial surface in the magnitude, indicating that the water vapor fluxes at the both surfaces of rice leaves are equal with each other. The dependence of non-dimensional stomatal resistance [rs/rm·k(HD)2] on solar radiation intensity (St) was well approximated by a hyperbolic function. The relationship between HD and [rs/rm(1+St, m/St)] was expressed by a quadratic function of HD

  19. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

    L. Nuñez


    Full Text Available Large quantities of disinfectants are used in hospitals, externally on human skin or to eliminate microorganisms from inanimate objects. After use, residual quantities of these products reach the wastewater, exposing the bacteria that survive in hospital wastewaters to a wide range of biocides that could act as a selective pressure for the development of resistance. Increasing attention has been directed recently to the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants. The aim of this paper was to determine the disinfectant bacterial resistance pattern of the microflora released to the urban sewer system by hospital effluents. The characterization of the waste water microflora was performed by determination of the CFU of heterotrophic bacteria, fecal indicator bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp., in a Buenos Aires hospital effluent. The bacterial resistance to the disinfectants more frequently used in the hospital practice, glutaraldehyde, chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine, was then evaluated. Disinfectant resistant bacterial strains were isolated and typified. Between 10³ and 10(6 chlorexidine resistant bacteria/100 mL were isolated from the samples. Bacteria resistant to other disinfectants ranged between 10³ and 10(4 /100 mL. The bacterial population resistant to desinfectants to was mainly composed by Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp, and Bacillus spp, which are highly associated to nosocomial infections. The results obtained show that the hospital effluents are of importance in the bacterial resistance selection process, particularly in the case of disinfectants.Os hospitais utilizam uma grande quantidade de desinfetantes para eliminar microorganismos tanto da pele humana como de superfícies inanimadas. Após sua utilização, esses produtos podem chegar ao esgoto em quantidades residuais. A pressão seletiva exercida pelos antimicrobianos nos efluentes hospitalares propicia a disseminação de linhagens resistentes. Além dos

  20. A comparison study on the deck house shape of high speed planing crafts for air resistance reduction

    Park Chung-Hwan


    Full Text Available Planing crafts were specifically designed to achieve relatively high speeds on the water. When a planing craft is running at high speed, dynamic pressure on the bottom makes the boat rise on the surface of the water. This reduces the area of the sinking surface of the boat to increase air resistance. Air resistance means the resistance that occurs when the hull and deck house over the surface of the water come in contact with the air current. In this paper, we carried out a CFD numerical analysis to find optimal deck houses that decreased air-resistance on the water when planing crafts are running at high speed. We finally developed the deck house shape of high-speed planing crafts that optimally decreased air resistance.

  1. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan


    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance. PMID:26393523

  2. Microbiological air quality in some kindergartens and antibiotic resistance of bacteria of the Staphylococcus spp. genus

    Łukasz Kubera


    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of the air and the acquisition of the antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a growing phenomenon that has a substantial impact on the quality of our health. This problem applies mainly to public areas where we spend a large part of our lives. This study was focused on the microbiological analysis of the air in some kindergartens and antibiotic resistance of bacteria of the Stephylococcus spp. genus. The identification of the isolated mould fungi has been also made. Material and Methods: Air samples were collected from classrooms in the seasonal cycle in the mornings and afternoons using 2 methods, sedimentation and impact. Air samples collected outside the kindergartens served as controls. Air quality assessments were based on the groups of indicator microorganisms, according to Polish standards. The susceptibility of isolated staphylococci was assessed with the disc-diffusion method, using 8 different classes of antibiotics, in line with the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST. Results: The analyses show that, regardless of the method, the total number of heterothropic bacteria and staphylococci in the air of the analyzed kindergartens exceeded the allowable limits. There was no air pollution with the fungal infection. Based on the antibiogram, it was found that Staphylococcus spp. strains showed the highest sensitivity to chloramphenicol and the lowest to penicillin and gentamicin. Among the fungi moulds of the genus Cladosporium predominated. Conclusions: The results of the analyses highlight the need for regular health checks and further research to help identify biological factors that may significantly affect the quality of health of people living in public spaces. Med Pr 2015;66(1:49–56

  3. Measured anisotropic air flow resistivity and sound attenuation of glass wool

    Tarnow, Viggo

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygning 358, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark The air flow resistivity of glass wool has been measured in different directions. The glass wool was delivered from the manufacturer as slabs measuring 100×600×900 mm3, where the surface 600...... found that the resistivities in the Y and Z directions were equal in all cases. For density 14 kg/m3 the mean resistivity in the X direction was 5.88 kPa s m**2 and in the Y direction 2.94 kPa s m**2. For density 30 kg/m3 the mean resistivity in the X direction was 15.5 kPa s m**2 and in the Y direction...... 7.75 kPa s m**2. A formula for prediction of resistivity for other densities is given. By comparing measured values of sound attenuation with results calculated from resistivity data, it is demonstrated that the measured attenuation can be predicted in a simple manner. ©2002 Acoustical Society of...

  4. Resistance of HEPA filter separator materials to humid air--hydrogen fluoride--fluorine environments

    The U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is interested in the development of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter that is resistant to such corrosive reagents as hydrogen fluoride (HF) and fluorine (F2) in air environments of normal relative humidity (about 50% RH). Several types of separator materials are used in the fabrication of commercial filters. The basic types of separator materials are asbestos, Kraft paper, plastic, and aluminum. At the request of the ERDA Division of Operational Safety, the different types of separator materials have been evaluated for their resistance to corrosive attack by HF and F2. The separator materials were dynamically tested in the 4-stage multiunit tester located in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant laboratories. This is the system previously used in the evaluation of the Herty Foundation filter paper samples. Concurrent with the testing of filter media for its resistance to HF and F2, another component of the completed filter, the separator, was tested. All samples were exposed to a constant air flow (50% RH) of 32 liters/min, at 1000F, containing 900 ppM HF and 300 ppM F2. Exposure periods varied from 2 to 1000 h; however, the longer exposures were made only on the stronger candidates. Test results show the plastic and aluminum separator materials to be superior to the other types in resistance to HF and F2. The asbestos separators disintegrated after a relatively short exposure time; the Kraft paper types were the next weakest. The Clear Plastic S was the best performer of the plastics tested

  5. The Mathematics and Physics of Diderot. I. On Pendulums and Air Resistance

    Dahmen, Silvio R


    In this article Denis Diderot's Fifth Memoir of 1748 on the problem of a pendulum damped by air resistance is discussed. Diderot wrote the Memoir in order to clarify an assumption Newton made without further justification in the first pages of the Principia in connection with an experiment to verify the Third Law of Motion using colliding pendulums. To explain the differences between experimental and theoretical values of momentum in the collision experiments he conducted Newton assumed that the bob was retarded by an air resistance $F_R$ proportional to the velocity $v$. By giving Newton's arguments a mathematical scaffolding and recasting his geometrical reasoning in the language of differential calculus, Diderot provides a step-by-step solution guide to the problem and proposes experiments to settle the question about the appropriate form of $F_R$, which for Diderot quadratic in $v$, that is $F_R \\sim v^2$. The solution of Diderot is presented in full detail and his results are compared to those obtained f...

  6. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria. PMID:27260528

  7. The effect of additional resistance of air flow on the functioning parameters of the highly qualified rowers' outer respiration

    Grechuha S.V.


    Full Text Available Influence of additional resistance the current of air is rotined on the feature of functioning of the system of the external breathing of sportsmen. In experiment 12 sportsmen took part 17-25 years. All sportsmen are candidates or sport masters. Experience of employments of sportsmen made 4-12 years. Tests were conducted in a preparatory period of annual cycle of training. The dynamics of changes speed of current of air is presented, ventilations of lights at peace and at the dosed physical loading. More effective for development of functional possibilities of respiratory muscles for sportsmen it is possible to count application of additional resistance on exhalation.

  8. Development and calibration of a resistivity probe for measurement of air concentration and bubble count in high-speed air water flows

    In this paper, the development of a resistivity probe for measurement of air concentration and bubble count in high-speed air-water flow is described. One advantage of this probe is in its ability for real time measurement. The sampling frequency of the new probe is increased up to 250 khz with 72 seconds sampling time. Polarization of the probe tip was noticed in this research work and the probe circuit was designed to avoid it. Sensitive microampere meters were installed on the probe to detect possible weak leakage currents. Electronic tests were performed to check the probe circuit, as well as more than 30 laboratory tests in air-water flow to set the threshold voltage of the probe circuit and to test its accuracy

  9. Oxidation resistance in LBE and air and tensile properties of ODS ferritic steels containing Al/Zr elements

    Gao, R. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xia, L.L. [Armor Forces Department, Army Officer Academy of PLA, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang, Q.F., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, C.S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)


    The effects of Al and Zr addition on improvement of oxidation resistance in lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in air as well as the tensile properties were investigated for the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. The 16Cr–4Al–0.8Zr–ODS steel samples were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with spark plasma sintering technique. The tests in LBE at 600 °C for 1000 h indicate the good oxidation resistance comparing with the specimens without Zr/Al elements. The samples also exhibit superior oxidation resistance in air due to formation of dense and continuous aluminum oxide film. Minor Zr addition prevents the Al element induced coarsening of the oxide particles in ODS steels and significantly improves the ultimate tensile stress and total elongation of the samples.

  10. Oxidation resistance in LBE and air and tensile properties of ODS ferritic steels containing Al/Zr elements

    The effects of Al and Zr addition on improvement of oxidation resistance in lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) and in air as well as the tensile properties were investigated for the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. The 16Cr–4Al–0.8Zr–ODS steel samples were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with spark plasma sintering technique. The tests in LBE at 600 °C for 1000 h indicate the good oxidation resistance comparing with the specimens without Zr/Al elements. The samples also exhibit superior oxidation resistance in air due to formation of dense and continuous aluminum oxide film. Minor Zr addition prevents the Al element induced coarsening of the oxide particles in ODS steels and significantly improves the ultimate tensile stress and total elongation of the samples

  11. Disinfectant-resistant bacteria in Buenos Aires city hospital wastewater Resistência bacteriana a desinfetantes em efluentes de um hospital em Buenos Aires, Argentina

    L. Nuñez; J. Moretton


    Large quantities of disinfectants are used in hospitals, externally on human skin or to eliminate microorganisms from inanimate objects. After use, residual quantities of these products reach the wastewater, exposing the bacteria that survive in hospital wastewaters to a wide range of biocides that could act as a selective pressure for the development of resistance. Increasing attention has been directed recently to the resistance of bacteria to disinfectants. The aim of this paper was to det...

  12. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  13. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.


    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

  14. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air-water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor

    Olerni, Claudio; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi


    Measurements on an upwards air-water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air-water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air-water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed.

  15. Temperature-modulated graphene oxide resistive humidity sensor for indoor air quality monitoring

    de Luca, A.; Santra, S.; Ghosh, R.; Ali, S. Z.; Gardner, J. W.; Guha, P. K.; Udrea, F.


    In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) micro-hotplate technology for the monitoring and control of indoor air quality (IAQ). GO powder is obtained by chemical exfoliation, dispersed in water and deposited via ink-jet printing onto a low power micro-hotplate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show the typical layered and wrinkled morphology of the GO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the GO flakes possess a significant number of oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, carbonyl, hydroxyl) extremely attractive for humidity detection. Electro-thermal characterisation of the micro-hotplates shows a thermal efficiency of 0.11 mW per °C, resulting in a sensor DC power consumption of only 2.75 mW at 50 °C. When operated in an isothermal mode, the sensor response is detrimentally affected by significant drift, hysteretic behaviour, slow response/recovery times and hence poor RH level discrimination. Conversely, a temperature modulation technique coupled with a differential readout methodology results in a significant reduction of the sensor drift, improved linear response with a sensitivity of 0.14 mV per %, resolution below 5%, and a maximum hysteresis of +/-5% response and recovery times equal to 189 +/- 49 s and 89 +/- 5 s, respectively. These performance parameters satisfy current IAQ monitoring requirements. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating GO on a micro-hotplate CMOS-compatible platform enabling temperature modulation schemes to be easily applied in order to achieve compact, low power, low cost humidity IAQ monitoring.In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary

  16. Air

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  17. Air

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  18. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping


    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  19. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia


    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781. PMID:27045768

  20. Radiation-resistance of micro-organisms from air in clean premises

    A total of more than 20.000 colonies of bacteria and fungi collected by means of slit-sampler in controlled environments for aseptic microbiological work were included in a screening test of the occurence of micro-organisms with high radiation-resistance. A D-6 value, the dose necessary to reduce the initial population of micro-organisms with a factor of one million, of 1.8 megarads or more, was used as criterion. A total of 117 strains were isolated. No differences in the proportion of radiation-resistant strains could be demonstrated between different laboratories or at various seasons of the year. In the lower half of the resistance spectrum for the 117 isolates with unusually high radiation-resistance, half of the strains were spore-forming. In the uppermost part of the spectrum, spores were not observed. Rods dominated the lower part of the resistance spectrum, cocci the upper part. A large proportion of the strains were pigment-producing. 50 strains with D-6 values of 3.2 megarads or higher, and 15 strains with D-6 values of 4.5 megarads or higher, were found. In the upper part of the resistance spectrum the dose-response curves for the organisms were all upward convex, when the organisms were irradiated in a dry state and glued together with small amounts of organic compounds. On the basis of the proportion of radiation-resistant bacteria demonstrated and the assumptions that a medical device with an average total count of 20 contaminating organisms per product unit prior to irradiation should comply with an established norm (1:106), or a suggested norm (1:103), respectively, for radiation sterilized devices, the minimum dose necessary for routine sterilization was estimated as about 3.8 megarads and about 2.0 megarads. In parallel screening tests for heat-resistant organisms, only one resistant, thermophilic strain was found among organisms equivalent to about 7.000 colony-forming units as total counts on slit-sampler plates, and no resistant mesophilic

  1. Air-adapted Methanosarcina acetivorans shows high methane production and develops resistance against oxygen stress.

    Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    Full Text Available Methanosarcina acetivorans, considered a strict anaerobic archaeon, was cultured in the presence of 0.4-1% O2 (atmospheric for at least 6 months to generate air-adapted cells; further, the biochemical mechanisms developed to deal with O2 were characterized. Methane production and protein content, as indicators of cell growth, did not change in air-adapted cells respect to cells cultured under anoxia (control cells. In contrast, growth and methane production significantly decreased in control cells exposed for the first time to O2. Production of reactive oxygen species was 50 times lower in air-adapted cells versus control cells, suggesting enhanced anti-oxidant mechanisms that attenuated the O2 toxicity. In this regard, (i the transcripts and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase significantly increased; and (ii the thiol-molecules (cysteine + coenzyme M-SH + sulfide and polyphosphate contents were respectively 2 and 5 times higher in air-adapted cells versus anaerobic-control cells. Long-term cultures (18 days of air-adapted cells exposed to 2% O2 exhibited the ability to form biofilms. These data indicate that M. acetivorans develops multiple mechanisms to contend with O2 and the associated oxidative stress, as also suggested by genome analyses for some methanogens.

  2. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto


    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique "atmospheric resistive switching mechanism" (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  3. Resistance modulation in VO2 nanowires induced by an electric field via air-gap gates

    Kanki, Teruo; Chikanari, Masashi; Wei, Tingting; Tanaka, Hidekazu; The Institute of Scientific; Industrial Research Team

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows huge resistance change with metal-insulator transition (MIT) at around room temperature. Controlling of the MIT by applying an electric field is a topical ongoing research toward the realization of Mott transistor. In this study, we have successfully switched channel resistance of VO2 nano-wire channels by a pure electrostatic field effect using a side-gate-type field-effect transistor (SG-FET) viaair gap and found that single crystalline VO2 nanowires and the channels with narrower width enhance transport modulation rate. The rate of change in resistance ((R0-R)/R, where R0 and R is the resistance of VO2 channel with off state and on state gate voltage (VG) , respectively) was 0.42 % at VG = 30 V in in-plane poly-crystalline VO2 channels on Al2O3(0001) substrates, while the rate in single crystalline channels on TiO2 (001) substrates was 3.84 %, which was 9 times higher than that using the poly-crystalline channels. With reducing wire width from 3000 nm to 400 nm of VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrate, furthermore, resistance modulation ratio enhanced from 0.67 % to 3.84 %. This change can not be explained by a simple free-electron model. In this presentation, we will compare the electronic properties between in-plane polycrystalline VO2 on Al2O3 (0001) and single crystalline VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrates, and show experimental data in detail..

  4. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Diego Cecchini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs is particularly important in pregnant population, in which infection by drug-resistant HIV has not only implications for maternal treatment, but could also jeopardize the efficacy of neonatal prophylaxis. We aim to describe the prevalence of resistance associated mutations (RAMs in pregnant women with intrapartum HIV diagnosis in a public hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Materials and Methods: Prospective pilot study (period from 2008 to October 2013. Plasma samples were tested for viral load by Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA and sequenced using HIV-1 TRUGENE™Genotyping Kit (Siemens. The prevalence of RAMs was analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Of 231 HIV-infected pregnant women assisted, 6% (n=14 had intrapartum diagnosis of HIV infection. 12 patients (85.7% had previous pregnancies, 10 (71.4% had inadequate prenatal care and 3 (23.1% seroconverted during pregnancy. Maternal characteristics (expressed medians and ranges were: age 25.5 (16–35 years; gestational age at birth: 39 (30–42 weeks; CD4 count: 500 (132–925 cells/µL; viral load: 9418 (1800–55299 copies/mL. No one had hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection; four (33.3% had syphilis. Eight patients (57.1% had vaginal delivery and six emergency C-section (42.9%. In six cases (46.2%, membrane rupture was spontaneous; four patients (28.6% failed to receive intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV infusion. In 12 patients a genotypic resistance test was performed: two (16.7% had WHO RAMs corresponding to K103N mutation in both cases, conferring high-level resistance to nevirapine (NVP and efavirenz. Two newborns (14.3% were preterm. All received neonatal prophylaxis: ZDV in 1 case and combined prophylaxis (ZDV/3TC/NVP in the remaining 13 (92.9%. All newborns were formula-fed. Two (14.3% had congenital syphilis, one of whom died. One newborn was HIV

  5. Enhancement of corrosion resistance for plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel by plain air plasma post-oxidizing

    Highlights: • Plain air was primarily used for plasma post-oxidation for AISI 4140 steel. • A thin iron oxide layer composed of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3 was formed on top of the compound layer. • The ratio of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3 was closely related to the post-oxidizing conditions. • Post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min brought out highest ratio of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3 and optimum corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma post-oxidizing was conducted immediately after plasma nitriding in the same equipment for AISI 4140 steel, and plain air was used as the oxygen bearing gas. The cross-sectional microstructures of the treated samples were observed by optical metallography and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and the thickness of compound layer was measured accordingly. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization, and the surface morphology before and after polarization test was also observed by SEM. Meanwhile, standard Gibbs free energy of the oxidation reactions existed in Fe–O system was calculated. The results show that a thin iron oxide layer composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) is formed on top of the compound layer during plasma post-oxidizing process, and the ratio of magnetite (Fe3O4) to hematite (Fe2O3) is depended on plasma post-oxidizing temperature and time. Highest ratio of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3 is obtained while post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min due to lower standard Gibbs free energy and appropriate forming rate for the formation of Fe3O4 at this temperature. The thin oxide layer brings out significant enhancement of corrosion resistance, especially at higher ratios of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3, due to the dense and adherent characteristic of Fe3O4 oxide. Surface images of the post-oxidizing specimen show that a dense oxide layer was formed when post-oxidized at 673 K for 60 min, and those after polarization test show that there exists no corrosion pit for the specimen post-oxidized at

  6. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya


    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  7. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)


    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  8. Core temperatures during major abdominal surgery in patients warmed with new circulating-water garment, forced-air warming, or carbon-fiber resistive-heating system

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Negishi, Chiharu; Nakagawa, Fumitoshi; Ozaki, Makoto


    Purpose It has been reported that recently developed circulating-water garments transfer more heat than a forced-air warming system. The authors evaluated the hypothesis that circulating-water leg wraps combined with a water mattress better maintain intraoperative core temperature ≥36°C than either forced-air warming or carbon-fiber resistive heating during major abdominal surgery. Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing open abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to warming with: (1) circul...

  9. Long term high temperature oxidation resistance of a nanoceria coated 316 SS under dry air conditions

    In this work, nanoceria dip coated and uncoated 316 stainless steels were exposed to dry air at 1073–1273 K for times of up to 250 h. From this work, measured activation energies, Q = 256 kJ mol−1 and Q = 240 kJ mol−1 were found for coated and uncoated 316 SS, respectively. In the coated steel, the activation energy for oxidation cannot be attributed to a single mass transport mechanism. In addition, the scale morphologies, as well as the dominant oxide phases were determined by X-ray diffraction means. It was found that in the nanoceria dip coated steels, the scale was fine grained and highly adherent. Oxidation at increasing temperatures in the coated steels favored the development of the spinel ((Mn, Cr)3O4 structure and at 1273 K with the presence of Fe2O3 was severely hindered. In contrast, in the uncoated steel, a relatively thick scale, predominantly Fe2O3 developed and it exhibited severe damage through spallation and detachment from the steel substrate. Also, the resultant grain structure was rather coarse and it consisted of faceted grains with continuous nucleation/growth at grain ledges. - Highlights: • A 316 SS was dip coated with 3.45 nm nanoceria particles and oxidized in hot dry air. • Activation energies were determined by exposure to 1073–1273 K for up to 250 h. • The coated 316 SS exhibited a reduction in oxidation rates of 1–2 orders of magnitude. • At 1273 K the scale developed in the coated steel was a fine grained spinel MnCr2O4

  10. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  11. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina;


    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency...... conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  12. Enhancement of corrosion resistance for plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel by plain air plasma post-oxidizing

    Wu, Jiqiang; Liu, Han; Ye, Xuemei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Chai, Yating [Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Hu, Jing, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)


    Highlights: • Plain air was primarily used for plasma post-oxidation for AISI 4140 steel. • A thin iron oxide layer composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on top of the compound layer. • The ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was closely related to the post-oxidizing conditions. • Post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min brought out highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and optimum corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma post-oxidizing was conducted immediately after plasma nitriding in the same equipment for AISI 4140 steel, and plain air was used as the oxygen bearing gas. The cross-sectional microstructures of the treated samples were observed by optical metallography and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and the thickness of compound layer was measured accordingly. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization, and the surface morphology before and after polarization test was also observed by SEM. Meanwhile, standard Gibbs free energy of the oxidation reactions existed in Fe–O system was calculated. The results show that a thin iron oxide layer composed of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is formed on top of the compound layer during plasma post-oxidizing process, and the ratio of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is depended on plasma post-oxidizing temperature and time. Highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained while post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min due to lower standard Gibbs free energy and appropriate forming rate for the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at this temperature. The thin oxide layer brings out significant enhancement of corrosion resistance, especially at higher ratios of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to the dense and adherent characteristic of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide. Surface images of the post-oxidizing specimen

  13. Subsurface evaluation of the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, using two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiling

    Braun, Christopher L.; Jones, Sonya A.


    During September 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey made 10 two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profile surveys in the west parking lot and landfill 3 areas of Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, to identify subsurface areas of anomalously high or low resistivity that could indicate potential contamination, contaminant pathways, or anthropogenic structures. Six of the 10 surveys (transects) were in the west parking lot. Each of the inverted sections of these transects had anomalously high resistivities in the terrace alluvium/fill (the surficial subsurface layer) that probably were caused by highly resistive fill material. In addition, each of these transects had anomalously low resistivities in the Walnut Formation (a bedrock layer immediately beneath the alluvium/fill) that could have been caused by saturation of fractures within the Walnut Formation. A high-resistivity anomaly in the central part of the study area probably is associated with pea gravel fill used in construction of a French drain. Another high resistivity anomaly in the west parking lot, slightly southeast of the French drain, could be caused by dense nonaqueous-phase liquid in the Walnut Formation. The inverted sections of the four transects in the landfill 3 area tended to have slightly higher resistivities in both the alluvium/fill and the Walnut Formation than the transects in the west parking lot. The higher resistivities in the alluvium/fill could have been caused by drier conditions in grassy areas relative to conditions in the west parking lot. Higher resistivities in parts of the Walnut Formation also could be a function of drier conditions or variations in the lithology of the Walnut Formation. In addition to the 10 vertical sections, four horizontal sections at 2-meteraltitude intervals show generally increasing resistivity with decreasing altitude that most likely results from the increased influence of the Walnut Formation, which has a higher resistivity than the terrace

  14. Overestimation of thoracic gas volume during the airway resistance maneuver. A potential error in the diagnosis of air trapping.

    Nigro, Carlos A; Dibur, Eduardo; Lima, Sandra; Giavedoni, Santiago; Prieto, Ernesto J; Rhodius, Edgardo E


    There are no data published about the agreement between the measurement of thoracic gas volume (TGV) during the airway resistance (TGV-Raw) and the conventional technique described by Dubois. The aim of this study was to establish the agreement between both methods to measure TGV. We studied eighty consecutive subjects. Only sixty-six performed acceptable plethysmography maneuvers. The patients were measured with a constant volume plethysmograph (Medical Graphics 1085 DL). TGV was performed in the same patient with two techniques: 1) during the airway resistance (Raw) measurement (TGV-Raw) and 2) during quiet breathing at the end of expiration (TGV). The panting frequency was 1 to 2 Hz with both maneuvers. The differences between both techniques were expressed in percentage (deltaTGV %) and absolute values (deltaTGV). The TGV-Raw of the whole group was higher than TGV (3.69 +/- 1.08 l vs 3.28 +/- 1.05 l, p TGV-Raw than TGV (Normal: 3.44 +/- 0.77 l vs 2.98 +/- 0.72 l , p TGV-Raw and TGV, with discrepancies of up to +0.95 l or +34%. The deltaTGV % was similar between the patients' subgroups and between the subjects with different degree of airflow obstruction (Normal: 16.5 +/- 10%, Obstructive: 10.8 +/- 9.4%, Restrictive: 18 +/- 14.3%, p NS; mild obstruction: 10.7 +/- 11%, moderate obstruction: 12.3 +/- 5.7, severe obstruction: 10.1+/- 6.6, p NS). In conclusion, TGV-Raw was larger than TGV. This was because the patients generally panted at a volume above FRC when performing the TGV-Raw maneuver. TGV-Raw should not be used to estimate FRC because FRC would be overestimated and the diagnosis of air trapping may be erroneous. PMID:15830790

  15. Influence of Surface Resistivity and Temperature on Variation with Time of Current Pulses in Air at Optimum Pressure

    S.G. Pimpale


    Full Text Available The variation of discharge current pulses with the surface nature of electrodes has been investigated by producing discharge in the intense ionizing zone of two ozonizers (A&B containing pure, dry air at a pressure of 4 & 10mm of mercury respectively. The course of reaction in the tube A showed that the periodic rise and fall of discharge counts through a series of recurrences whose amplitude varied randomly. During this reaction, steady potential, temperature of the electrolytic bath, counting time and pulse height were kept fixed. The phenomenon obtained for both the tubes is produced within a critical range of conditions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of activated adsorption at a temperature of 90 degree and 100 degree Centigrade and discussed on the theoretical grounds of change of surface resistivity upon the glass walls. Use of different coatings on annular surface in the same system with appropriate levels of electrolytic solution for a definite value of height-pulses and temperature, etc. shows significant variations in the discharge counts.

  16. Effect of sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing on resistance to sliding during tooth alignment and leveling: An in vitro study

    Jorge C. B. L. Filho


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the Resistance to Sliding (RS provided by metallic brackets and 3 types of orthodontic wires (TMA, SS and NiTi, before and after the use of sodium bicarbonate airborne particle abrasion, in an experimental model with 3 non leveled brackets. Materials and Methods: The bicarbonate airborne abrasion was applied perpendicularly to the bracket slots at a distance of 2 mm, for 5 seconds (T2 and 10 seconds (T3 on each bracket slot. In a universal testing machine, the wires were pulled through a set of 3 non leveled brackets at a cross head speed of 50 mm/min for a distance of 10 mm, and static and kinetic friction readings were registered at T1 (no airborne abrasion, T2 and T3. Results: For all tested wires, a significant RS increase between T1 and T3 (P<0.001 was seen. For SS and TMA wires, there was a statistically significant RS increase between T1 and T2 (P<0.001. Between T2 and T3, RS increase was significant for TMA (P<0.001 and NiTiwires (P<0.05. Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing during orthodontic treatment is not recommended, once this procedure promoted a significant RS increase between the metallic brackets and all the three types of wires tested.

  17. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Brewer, Denise


    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  18. Oxidation Resistance of Materials Based on Ti3AlC2 Nanolaminate at 600 °C in Air.

    Ivasyshyn, Andrij; Ostash, Orest; Prikhna, Tatiana; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Basyuk, Tatiana


    The oxidation behavior of Ti3AlC2-based materials had been investigated at 600 °C in static air for 1000 h. It was shown that the intense increase of weight gain per unit surface area for sintered material with porosity of 22 % attributed to oxidation of the outer surface of the specimen and surfaces of pores in the bulk material. The oxidation kinetics of the hot-pressed Ti3AlC2-based material with 1 % porosity remarkably increased for the first 15 h and then slowly decreased. The weight gain per unit surface area for this material was 1.0 mg/cm(2) after exposition for 1000 h. The intense initial oxidation of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be eliminated by pre-oxidation treatment at 1200 °C in air for 2 h. As a result, the weight gain per unit surface area for the pre-oxidized material did not exceed 0.11 mg/cm(2) after 1000 h of exposition at 600 °C in air. It was demonstrated that the oxidation resistance of Ti3AlC2-based materials can be significantly improved by niobium addition. PMID:27506531

  19. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air–water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor

    Measurements on an upwards air–water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air–water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air–water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed. (paper)

  20. Resistance of o-ring seal compounds to heat and ionizing radiation in air and in water

    Results of tests involving exposure of o-ring compounds to various levels of temperature and ionizing radiation in air and in water are presented and discussed. The results indicate the levels of these variables, acting both singly, and in combination, at which functional properties such as sealing force or compression set and non-functional properties such as hardness or weight are significantly altered. Changes in sealing force were found to be well correlated with compression set. Hardness and weight changes were not well correlated with compression set. Significant temperature - media and temperature - radiation dose interaction effects were present for certain compounds. (author)

  1. Refractory metallic material resistant against corrosion in air and against hot corrosion up to temperatures of 10000C to 16000C

    The report summarizes results on development and applicability of a refractory metallic material which is resistant against oxidation in air and against hot corrosion in burnergas with additions of NaCl, V2O5 and H2S up to temperatures between 10000C and 15000C. This material consists of niobium, tantalum or their alloys, coated with a sintered 200-300 μ protective layer of MoSi2. It is also shown by test results that this material can be considered for application as turbine blade. In preliminary tests with centrifugal acceleration of 100 000 g at 12000C no measurable damage of this material has been observed. (orig.)

  2. Prospective multicenter study of community-associated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    María José López Furst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI in several world regions. In Argentina prospective, multicenter clinical studies have only been conducted in pediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: PRIMARY: describe the prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with community acquired SSSI due to MRSA; secondary: molecular evaluation of CA-MRSA strains. Patients with MRSA were compared to those without MRSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective, observational, multicenter, epidemiologic study, with molecular analysis, conducted at 19 sites in Argentina (18 in Buenos Aires between March 2010 and October 2011. Patients were included if they were ≥ 14 years, were diagnosed with SSSI, a culture was obtained, and there had no significant healthcare contact identified. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA. Pulse field types, SCCmec, and PVL status were also determined. RESULTS: A total of 311 patients were included. CA-MRSA was isolated in 70% (218/311 of patients. Clinical variables independently associated with CA-MRSA were: presence of purulent lesion (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.67, 6.49 and age <50 years (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22, 4.70. The vast majority of CA-MRSA strains causing SSSI carried PVL genes (95% and were SCCmec type IV. The sequence type CA-MRSA ST30 spa t019 was the predominant clone. CONCLUSIONS: CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of SSSI in our adult patients without healthcare contact. ST30, SCCmec IV, PVL+, spa t019 is the predominant clone in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  3. 水泥砂孔隙特征对抗冻性影响的研究%Research of cement mortar air content on the effects of pore characterstics and frost resistance

    陈松; 李建新; 王起才; 李伟龙


    Through the frost resistance test,mercury intrusion test,hole spacing coefficient test to determine the cement mortar pore structure characteristics and the frost resistance under different air content,study the relationship between frost resistance and cement mortar pore structure characteristics,in addition,also analyzed the compressive strength of cement mortar under different air content. Ex-perimental results show that the as increase of air content the pore porosity of cement mortar,total pore volume,total hole area,average pore diameter are all increased,hole spacing coefficient decreases,and improved pore structure internal of cement mortar ,and pore size distribution more uniform and reasonable,although the strength decreases a bit,but the frost resistance was improved greatly.%通过抗冻性试验、压汞试验、孔间距系数试验测定了不同含气量下水泥砂的浆孔结构特征及其抗冻性,研究了抗冻性与孔结构之间的关系,此外,还分析了不同含气量水泥砂浆的抗压强度。试验结果表明:含气量的增加使水泥砂浆孔隙率、总孔体积、总孔面积、平均孔径均增加,孔间距系数减小,改善了其内部孔结构,孔径分布也比较均匀合理,虽然其强度有所降低,但大大提高了抗冻性。

  4. Effect of a disinfectant powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs, bedding and air samples under simulated farm conditions

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;


    applications of the disinfectant. MRSA load was measured in samples from pigs, bedding material and air and analysed statistically. While pigs remained positive with variable MRSA counts, the amount of MRSA in the air and bedding material increased significantly during the first week and then was gradually...

  5. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe3B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  6. Air Pollution

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  7. Air Pollution

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  8. The air permeability of gypsum insulating structures

    Krikunenko, V.K.; Denisova, G.F.; Omelchenko, A.S.


    The air permeability of materials made from gypsum binders used to build insulation and blast-resistant crosspieces is studied, and it is established that the materials tested provided reliable insulation due to the low air permeability factor.

  9. La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Alberto G. Gentile


    Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature

  10. Air Abrasion

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  11. Experimental relationship between the specific resistance of a HEPA [High Efficiency Particulate Air] filter and particle diameters of different aerosol materials

    The increase in pressure drop across a HEPA filter has been measured as a function of the particle mass loading using two materials with different particle morphologies. The HEPA filter media chosen, is identical to the filter media used in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) on the Savannah River Reactors. The velocity through the test filter media was the same as the velocity through the AACS media, under normal operating flow conditions. Sodium Chloride challenge particles were generated using an atomizer, resulting in regularly shaped crystalline forms. Ammonium chloride aerosols were formed from the gas phase reaction of HCl and NH4OH vapors resulting in irregular agglomerates. In both cases, the generation conditions were adjusted to provide several different particle size distributions. For each particle size distribution, the mass of material loaded per unit area of filter per unit pressure drop for a given filtration velocity (1/Specific resistance) was measured. Theoretical considerations in the most widely accepted filter cake model predict that the mass per unit area and per unit pressure drop should increase with the particle density times the particle diameter squared. However, these test results indicate that the increase in the mass loaded per unit area per unit pressure drop, for both materials, can be better described by plotting the specific resistance divided by the particle density as an inverse function of the particle density times the particle diameter squared. 9 refs., 7 figs

  12. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  13. High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of a Nanoceria Spray-Coated 316L Stainless Steel Under Short-Term Air Exposure

    Lopez, Hugo F.; Mendoza, Humberto; Church, Ben


    Nanoceria coatings using a spray method were implemented on a 316L stainless steel (SS). Coated and uncoated coupons were exposed to dry air at 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) for short time periods (up to 24 hours) and in situ measurements of oxidation were carried out using a highly sensitive thermogravimetric balance. From the experimental outcome, activation energies were determined in both, coated and uncoated 316 SS coupons. The estimated exhibited activation energies for oxidation in the coated and uncoated conditions were 174 and 356 kJ/mol, respectively. In addition, the developed scales were significantly different. In the coated steel, the dominant oxide was an oxide spinel (Fe, Mn)3O4 and the presence of Fe2O3 was sharply reduced, particularly at 1273 K (1000 °C). In contrast, no spinel was found in the uncoated 316L SS, and Fe2O3 was always present in the scale at all the investigated oxidation temperatures. The coated steels developed a highly adherent fine-grained scale structure. Apparently, the nanoceria particles enhanced nucleation of the newly formed scale while restricting coarsening. Coarse grain structures were found in the uncoated steels with scale growth occurring at grain ledges. Moreover, the oxidation rates for the coated 316L SS were at least an order of magnitude lower than those exhibited by the steel in the uncoated condition. The reduction in oxidation rates is attributed to a shift in the oxidation mechanism from outward cation diffusion to inward oxygen diffusion.

  14. Radon resistant new construction

    This paper consist of the awareness about the ill effects of radon gas and the methods adopted to detect the presence of radon gas and to remove the radon gas. It explains the installation of radon resistant structures during home construction. Radon is commonly found in the air and water, where it poses little risk. But radon that creeps into your home from the soil can be a much greater risk. Radon-resistant construction combines common building techniques and materials to seal entry points and route the gases outdoors, helping to prevent radon from entering the home. The benefits due to radon resistant construction is also explained in this paper. (author)

  15. Air Pollution

    Lawther, P. J.


    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  16. Drug Resistance

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  17. Air density measurement with a falling A4 sheet

    Oladyshkin, Ivan V.; Oladyshkina, Anastasia A.


    We propose a simple experiment on the air density measurement which does not require any special equipment: just an A4 sheet of paper, a stopwatch and a ruler. The discussed method uses the most basic air resistance model.

  18. Comparative Study on UNDEX Resistance of the Air-backed Stiffened Plate with Various Covering Layers%覆盖层加筋板结构水下抗爆性能对比试验研究

    肖锋; 谌勇; 黄修长; 朱大巍; 华宏星


    为提高潜艇的隐身性能,潜艇壳体表面常敷设声学覆盖层结构。声学覆盖层常设有各类空腔等特殊结构形式,在受到水下爆炸冲击波时空腔产生变形并吸收能量,对潜艇的抗冲击性能产生影响。分别对不同覆盖层及无覆盖层的加筋平板试件开展水下抗爆炸性能对比性试验研究。通过试验获取各加筋平板试件典型部位的加速度、应变响应。比较不同覆盖层对加筋平板结构的实际抗冲效果,为今后声学覆盖层的抗冲设计和研究提供参考。%In order to improve stealthy capacity of a submarine, acoustic layers with special hollow structures are usually covered on hull surfaces of the submarine. The hollow structures can deform and absorb energy when they are subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX), which can greatly raise the submarine’s anti-shock performance. In this paper, comparative study on UNDEX resistance of the air-backed stiffened plate with various covering layers was carried out. The acceleration and strain responses of the typical positions of the stiffened plate were obtained by the testing. And the anti-shock effects of the stiffened plate with various covering layers were compared. The results may provide a guideline for the design and study of the acoustic covering layers against UNDEX.

  19. Air Pollution.

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Thin air

    Jasanoff, Sheila


    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  1. Air Pollution

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  2. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.


    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  3. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    W. Windes; R. Smith


    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  4. Air surveillance

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  6. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz


    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  7. Healthy Air Outdoors

    ... > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  8. Air quality

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  9. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish the......Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition of...

  10. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

    Benedito Rocha Vital


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity

  11. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  12. Air pollution

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  13. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Burdick, A.


    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  14. Resistivity Problems in Electrostatic Precipitation

    White, Harry J.


    The process of electrostatic precipitation has ever-increasing application in more efficient collection of fine particles from industrial air emissions. This article details a large number of new developments in the field. The emphasis is on high resistivity particles which are a common cause of poor precipitator performance. (LS)

  15. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    Bekö, Gabriel


    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  16. Resistant Hypertension.

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz


    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension. PMID:26935512

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance

    ... others. For example, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance, including resistance to ACTs in the Greater Mekong subregion is an urgent public health concern that is threatening global efforts to reduce the burden of malaria. Although MDR-TB is a growing concern, it is still ...

  18. Anticoagulant Resistance

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    specific PCR to verify this genetic form of resistance, but in contrast to animals tested from various surface populations, we could not confirm the Y139C mutation in any of the sewer rats. Our findings could indicate that resistance in surface and sewer population may be caused by different mechanism or...

  19. Camptothecin resistance

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M; Nishiyama, K; Kohlhagen, G; Takimoto, C; Robey, R; Pommier, Y; Fojo, T; Bates, S E


    after camptothecin treatment. In addition to topotecan and SN-38, MXR-overexpressing cells are highly resistant to mitoxantrone and epirubicin. Because these compounds are susceptible to glucuronidation, we examined UDP-glucurono-syltransferase (UGT) activity in parental and resistant cells by TLC...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources of...... antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug...

  1. R9 Air Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  2. AirData

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  3. California Air Basins

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  5. Scratch-Resistant Lenses


    Lewis Research Center developed a process for achieving diamond- hard coatings for aerospace systems. The technique involves coating the material with a film of diamond-like carbon (DLC) using direct ion deposition. An ion generator creates a stream of ions from a hydrocarbon gas source; the carbon ions impinge directly on the target substrate and 'grow' into a thin DLC film. In 1988, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. received a license to the NASA patent. Diamonex, an Air Products spinoff company, further developed the NASA process to create the DiamondHard technology used on the Bausch & Lomb Ray- Ban Survivors sunglasses. The sunglasses are scratch-resistant and shed water more easily, thus reducing spotting.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J


    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow...

  8. Pressurized air supply device

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  9. Air movement and perceived air quality

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  11. 40 CFR 63.5350 - How do I distinguish between the water-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product...


    ...-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product process operations? 63.5350 Section 63.5350... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations Compliance Requirements § 63.5350 How do I distinguish between the water-resistant/specialty and nonwater-resistant leather product process...

  12. 信息时代广场舞对2型糖尿病患者氧化应激和胰岛素抵抗的研究%The Effect of Open-air Fitness Dancing on Blood Control, Insulin Resistance and Oxidative stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    佘玉清; 龚卫娟; 余江毅; 朱峰; 朱子寒


    Objective:To explore the effect of open-air iftness dancing on blood glucose control, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Age-sex matched 60 outpatient patients with T2DM were randomly divided into intervention group (group A) and control group (group B), then interfered for 12 weeks. Level of FBG, 2 h BG and HbAlc before and after interfere, as well as the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the level of serum 8-iso PGF2 was calculated. Results: 1, The level of FBG, 2 h BG and HbAlc in group A was lower than that in group B (7.622.10 vs. 8.313.38, 9.861.67 vs. 11.912.19, 8.420.97vs. 9.331.80, P 0.05). 2, Open-air iftness dancing were signiifcantly improved the insulin resistance in T2DM (8.931.50 vs. 9.872.87, P 0.05). 3, The level of 8-iso PGF2 in group A was lower than that of group B (2.770.67 vs. 45.100.44, P 0.05). Conclusion: Our data suggested that open-air iftness dancing might improve the blood glucose, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM.%目的:探讨广场舞对2型糖尿病(type 2 Diabetes mellitus,T2DM)患者血糖、氧化应激和胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)影响.方法:年龄、性别匹配的60例门诊T2DM患者随机分为干预组(A组)和对照组(B组)各30例,干预12周.干预前后分别行空腹血糖(fasting blood glucose,FBG)、餐后2小时血糖(2h blood glucose,2h BG)和HbAlc检测评价血糖水平;胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)评估患者胰岛素抵抗;血8-异前列腺素F2(8-iso PGF2)水平评价患者氧化应激水平.结果:1.与对照组相比,广场舞组患者空腹/餐后血糖、HbAlc显著降低(7.622.10vs.8.313.38,9.861.67vs.11.912.19, 8.420.97vs.9.331.80,P 0.05);2.广场舞组患者血清8-iso PGF2水平较对照组显著降低(8.931.50 vs.9.872.87,P 0.05);3.广场舞能明显改善T2DM胰岛素抵抗(2.770.67vs.45.100.44, P 0.05).结论:本研究结果提示跳广场舞可改善T2DM患者血糖、氧化应激和胰岛素抵抗.

  13. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Siska, F.


    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  14. Indoor Air Quality

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  15. HEPA air filter (image)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  16. Bad Air Day

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  17. [Resistant fungi].

    Vehreschild, M J G T; Cornely, O A


    Particularly in the area of hematology/oncology and intensive care medicine, infections due to resistant fungi are to be expected. Emergence of resistance in fungi is a less dynamic process than in bacteria; it can, however, have an equally important impact on treatment strategies. In the following article, the most important resistance patterns of yeasts and molds (Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus, the order Mucorales and the genus Fusarium) will be presented and discussed. Their diagnosis mostly being based on blood cultures, resistance testing for yeasts is usually readily available. Culture-based therapeutic adjustments in mold infections are, however, only rarely possible, as most antifungal therapies for these infections are initiated on an empirical basis after identification of typical infiltrates on a CT scan. Response to therapy is then evaluated on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms in combination with follow-up CT scans. In case of therapeutic failure or appearance of suspicious infiltrates under antifungal prophylaxis, an open or CT-guided biopsy is recommended to allow efficient adaptation of antifungal treatment. In individual cases, particularly in patients diagnosed with mucormycosis, resection of the focus of infection may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory treatment response. PMID:26432089

  18. Resisting "Reason"

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech;


    Social differences in health and illness are well documented in Denmark. However, little is known about how health practices are manifested in the everyday lives of different social classes. We propose acts of resistance and formation of health subjectivities as helpful concepts to develop our un...

  19. Superhydrophobic condenser surfaces for air gap membrane distillation

    Swaminathan, Jaichander; Maswadeh, Laith A.; Warsinger, David Elan Martin; Lienhard, John H.


    Superhydrophobic surfaces for enhanced condensation in air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) may provide significantly improved distillate production rates and increased thermal efficiency. While AGMD is one of the most thermally efficient membrane distillation desalination configurations, large transport resistances in the air gap limit distillate production rates. AGMD experiments were performed with combinations of untreated, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic condensation surfaces. A nanost...

  20. Pumping toxic and radioactive fluids with air lifts

    Air lifts provide a simple, reliable method of pumping radioactive or highly toxic liquids because they require remarkably little maintenance. To date these pumps have been used for mine dewatering, ocean mining, dredging, effluent aeration and for flotation of coal. Having no moving parts, an air lift is resistant to damage by solids or particles in the liquid, unlike centrifugal pumps which suffer impeller erosion, so that air lifts can be used to raise difficult slurries or to desludge effluent ponds

  1. Air climate health

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  2. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  3. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.


    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  5. Indoor Air Quality

    Korlakunta Divya #1, M.Anil Kumar


    The main aim of our project is to maintain the indoor air quality.The analysis is done on different parameters like temperature,relativehumidity,CO2,lights,sens ors and air conditioners to maintain the indoor environment.This report provides overview on importance of indoor air quality in an office or any other closed structure. It also discusses about the effects of poor indoor air quality, the various factors that affect the indoor air quality and various methods to assess indoor air qualit...

  6. Effects of diameter and air inlet on flooding

    The effects of diameter and air inlet on flooding and flow reverse have been studied by experiment. Experimental results indicated that when resistance reduced at the air inlet, air flow rate at the onset of flooding will rise in some conditions. On right angle, the inlet conditions do not effect flooding points. When air inlet is well-rounded, the tube diameters have effects on the points. Air inlet has effects on complete carry up, but tube diameter no effects on that, the smaller of diameter, the larger of Jg* in complete carry up. Diameter and air inlet have no effects on flow reverse. Air inlet does not effect flooding but the tube diameter does

  7. Coordination of energy and air quality management


    The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

  8. Resistance welding

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.;


    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has...... changed this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical...

  9. Air Quality Facilities

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  11. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  12. Nuclear air cleaning

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  13. Air Quality System (AQS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  14. Laser heat treatment of air plasma sprayed NiCrAlY overlay coatings

    The paper presents the effect of laser treatment upon structure, phase composition, thermophysical and operational properties of air plasma sprayed NiCrAlY overlay coatings on heat resistant nickel base alloy. Microstructural changes and changes in phase composition of laser remelted coatings reduce the effectiveness as thermal barriers and lower corrosion resistance but higher the resistance to thermal cycling. (author)

  15. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  16. Production of diffusion heat-resistant coatings on niobium

    A possibility of producing diffusion heat-resistant coatings on the 5VMTs niobium alloy has been investigated. Coating heat-resistance was investigated in the air at 800-1100 deg C. Given are brief characteristics of diffusion coatings produced. It is shown, that the Re and V coatings have satisfactory protective properties

  17. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  18. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  19. Indoor air quality

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  1. Air Travel Health Tips

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  2. We Pollute the Air


    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  3. Proton microbeam analysis in air

    A technique has been developed to permit proton induced X-ray analysis (PIXA) to be carried out on biological materials in air, rather than in vacuum. Air convection can then dissipate some of the heat generated in the specimen by the proton beam. A microbeam system of magnetic quadrupoles developed for a 3MeV accelerator was used in the production of a proton beam focused to a spot of diameter less than 4μm. The beam then emerged into air through a 7.5μm kapton foil (a DuPont polyamide film, highly resistant to radiation damage) and in order to preserve positional resolution the specimens were mounted directly on the outside of the beam exit foil. The test specimen consisted of Chinese hamster lung cells washed in isotonic sucrose and plated onto the kapton. The beam was scanned in a line at comparatively high frequency (500 Hz) across the target and the X-rays emitted from the specimen detected in a 10 mm2 Si-Li detector with a resolution of 158 eV at 5.89 keV. P, S, Cl, K and Ca were found with differing positional distributions, together with Ar from the air and Si of unknown origin, by a scan across a single cell. Although the method has important intrinsic advantages, further investigations are required to show that the technique gives reasonable estimates of elemental distributions without too much perturbation of the concentration by the analytical procedure. (U.K.)

  4. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Healy, Bud


    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  5. Advanced air distribution

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  6. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada


    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  7. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted

  8. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)


    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  9. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS Bacteria (NARMS) NARMS at Work Reports ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  12. HIV Resistance Testing

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  14. Development of emanometer of normal atomosphere air mesh grid pulse lonization chamber

    Aiming at harmfulness of radon in the air, normal atmosphere air mesh grid pulse ionization chamber Emanometer has been developed, which can measure radon content in the air effectively. Emanometer is composed of normal atmosphere air mesh grid pulse ionization chamber, signal magnify and screen unit and MCU system. At signal magnify part, choosing high resistance and low noise field-effect tube amplified IC instead of field-effect transistor increases its interference immunity and stability significantly. (authors)

  15. The changing technology of air filtration

    Air cleaning in nuclear power plants is undergoing some of the most significant evolutionary changes since the late 1950s, when HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter media were in transition from cellulosic to more heat and combustion-resistant glass fibre-based materials. HEPA filters are now widely specified for nuclear reactor, fuel and waste storage containment ventilators, radwaste and fuel processing off-gas treatment, and they are essential to operator and environmental safety in any process where air-borne contaminant particles may be generated. The limitations of these filters and problems encountered in their use are discussed. New regulations for filtration equipment are stimulating interest in new filter technology capable of meeting the more stringent standards required. Metal filters offer a promising alternative to glass fibre filters. (author)

  16. Theoretical analysis of efficiency and resistance of fiberglass filter media in helium gas

    In the air and helium gas, based on MPPS and Sodium flame methods, this paper calculates the filtration efficiency and resistance of three levels of HEPA filter media. The results show that comparing with the air, in helium gas, filter media have lower resistance and higher efficiency, and secondly, at the same filtration rate and particle diameter, with the rise of environment temperature, the filter media have higher resistance and efficiency. (authors)

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...



    The applied problems of SINS/GPS integration navigation system existing in midcourse guidance of air-to-air missiles have been investigated recently. In comparison with those investigations existing in current publications, a new tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration navigation system for air-to-air missiles, based on the decorrelated pseudo-range approach, is presented in this paper. Because of high jamming and dynamic of air-to-air missiles, inertial velocity aiding GPS receiver is used to provide a more accurate, jam-resistant measurement for midcourse guidance systems. A tracking error estimator is designed to distinguish the correlation that existed between pseudo-range measurements and inertial information. It is found better to regard inertial velocity aiding errors as the noise of which statistical properties are unknown. So using mixed Kalman/minimax filtering theory, one can obtain the new tracking error estimator with simple and robust algorithm through constructing a composite filter consisting of two parts: Kalman filter for the noise of known statistics and minimax filter for the unknown. In order to ensure this simple estimator stability, a new method is proposed to choose its parameters, based on Khargonekars work. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the given method also ensures the proposed estimator optimality. All the work mentioned above is involved in the tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration midcourse system design in which a set of low-accuracy inertial components is shared by SINS and autopilot. Simulation results of a certain type of air-to-air missile are presented. Due to decorrelation by the tracking error estimator, only small white noise of pseudo-range measurements remains. So it is shown that application of the new midcourse guidance system results in better guidance accuracy, higher jam-resistance.

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary home Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko


    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. Influence of the ambient air temperature on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay

    YAO Fang; ZHENG Jian-rong; HUANG Zhang-wu


    The dynamic contact resistances of HH52P electromagnetic relays are measured under different ambient air temperature. Their diagnostic parameters are extracted and determined. It is found that the ambient air temperature obviously influences some parameters. In order to research its influence on the electrical contact reliability of electromagnetic relay, the statistic analysis is applied to study the static contact resistance, the max of the dynamic contact resistance and the bounce time. It is found that the ambient air temperature regularly influences the three parameters. Thoroughly, the phenomenon is studied and analyzed in the point of material science so as to probe into the essential matter of it.

  2. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)


    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  3. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    Budy P. Resosudarmo


    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  4. Bad traffic, bad air

    Duca, Edward


    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  5. Emergency air supply

    An air supply safety device is described which can operate in an hostile environment. The system ensures that should the ring mains supply or the operator's individual hose fail an emergency air supply is obtained from a compressed air bottle fed to the operator's face mask via a valve. The valve switches from mains/mask to emergency supply/mask when the mains pressure falls below the emergency supply pressure. (U.K.)

  6. Radioactive material air transportation

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  7. Electric air filtration movie

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  8. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.


    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  9. Air pollution meteorology

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  10. Characterization of Micrococcus strains isolated from indoor air

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin


    The characterization of microbes, such as of opportunists and pathogens (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), in indoor air is important for understanding disease transmission from person-to-person. Common genera found in the human skin microbiome include Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, but there only a limited number of tests to differentiate these genera and/or species. Both genera are believed to be released into indoor air from the shedding of human skin and are morph...

  11. Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock resistance(Air Quenching)

    LIYong-gang; ZHANGYong-fang; 等


    On the basis of the theory of thermal shock resistance in the science of materials and the test method of air quenching which is generally rec-ognized internationally,especially in Europe,the present test methods for determination of thermal shock resistance in China have been analysed,Experiment study on thermal shock resis-tance of silica and basic refractory products has been conducted,and a new test method of thermal shock resistance-air quenching method has been put forward.

  12. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires


    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  13. Air pollution and society

    Brimblecombe P.


    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  15. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  17. Transportation and air quality

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  18. International Air Services

    Productivity Commission


    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  19. Energy and air quality

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  20. Air Pollution Primer.

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  1. Over the air test


    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  2. System Based on the Platinum Resistance Sensor Metrological Verification

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available The national weather metering station temperature laboratory to maintain the air temperature professional standards of measurement is the highest standard of Meteorological Department in China, And transferring to the provincial meteorological station. The temperature measurement standard in the Provincial Meteorological Station contains the second standard mercury thermometer, Temperature test tank and Freezing point tank. Carry out the work on Verification and calibration which are on the thermometer and Platinum resistance thermometer in the meteorological field. Introduce the principle of the PT100 platinum thermal resistance. Based on the temperature metrological verification code requirements, tests on 80 platinum resistances, Judge platinum resistance sensor qualified or not.

  3. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina


    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  4. AIRE-Linux

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi


    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  5. Clearing the Air.

    Ryan, Ellen


    The importance of communication between college advancement professionals and fund raisers is emphasized, and some techniques are offered for resolving specific communication issues, including time constraints during travel, timely filing of reports, resistance to computers, completeness of information recorded, resistance to information sharing,…

  6. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Limei Ran


    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  7. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.;


    mounted inside the mold. The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidences about the......Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...

  8. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Nafees Ahmad; Arshad Javaid; Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman; Long Chiau Ming; Izaz Ahmad; Amer Hayat Khan


    Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones are the backbone of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Despite the high burden of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in the country, little is known about drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients from Pakistan. Objective To evaluate drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosi...

  9. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Tammeorg, Teele


    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  10. What does airway resistance tell us about lung function?

    Kaminsky, David A


    Spirometry is considered the primary method to detect the air flow limitation associated with obstructive lung disease. However, air flow limitation is the end-result of many factors that contribute to obstructive lung disease. One of these factors is increased airway resistance. Airway resistance is traditionally measured by relating air flow and driving pressure using body plethysmography, thus deriving airway resistance (R(aw)), specific airway resistance (sR(aw)), and specific airway conductance (sG(aw)). Other methods to measure airway resistance include the forced oscillation technique (FOT), which allows calculation of respiratory system resistance (R(RS)) and reactance (X(RS)), and the interrupter technique, which allows calculation of interrupter resistance (R(int)). An advantage of these other methods is that they may be easier to perform than spirometry, making them particularly suited to patients who cannot perform spirometry, such as young children, patients with neuromuscular disorders, or patients on mechanical ventilation. Since spirometry also requires a deep inhalation, which can alter airway resistance, these alternative methods may provide more sensitive measures of airway resistance. Furthermore, the FOT provides unique information about lung mechanics that is not available from analysis using spirometry, body plethysmography, or the interrupter technique. However, it is unclear whether any of these measures of airway resistance contribute clinically important information to the traditional measures derived from spirometry (FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC). The purpose of this paper is to review the physiology and methodology of these measures of airway resistance, and then focus on their clinical utility in relation to each other and to spirometry. PMID:22222128

  11. Air Cleaning Technologies


    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  12. Clean Air and Water


    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.


    W.H. Rice


    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.

  14. Mid-air Acrobatics



    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  15. Air/liquid collectors

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken


    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle this...... kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  16. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  17. Air/Water Purification


    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  18. Olefin metathesis in air

    Lorenzo Piola


    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  19. Air issues update



    A government sponsored poll revealed that the primary environmental concern for Ontarians in 2000 was air pollution. While scientists tend to focus on smog episodes, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain or emissions of toxic pollutants, the public shows concern in more practical terms such as the overall impact of poor air quality on people and the ecosystem, and how this will affect future life on earth. It was emphasized that policy makers should try to apply this holistic approach to the complex issues associated with air quality. Climate change, acid rain and ultraviolet radiation are some examples of how air emissions impact on ecosystems. Other examples include elevated levels of mercury in otters in Ontario. Climate change has also been linked with the re-acidification of lakes, as droughts typically occur in years following an El Nino cycle which has been pronounced as a possible consequence of greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Commissioner of Ontario (ECO) has reviewed the efforts of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) regarding the regulation of air quality. The MOE has proposed several initiatives, including newer air dispersion models into legislation, establishing a new consultation process for applying new air quality standards to emission sources, an expansion of the Drive Clean Program, and a discussion paper on a proposed emission cap and trade system. This paper presents ECO's review of these initiatives and provides updates on other air quality issues such as control of emissions from Ontario's transportation, industrial and electricity sectors. It also described policy proposals related to standard-setting for air pollutants, as well as the newly adopted Canada-wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. A progress report on Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan (ASAP) confirms that major reductions in NO{sub x} expected from Ontario's coal-fired power plants never materialized. Emissions of nitrogen oxide

  20. Study on Air-Aided Transport Means of Cutter-Suction Dredger

    Ting Xiong; Yunnan Yao; Shandong Fan; Hanhua Zhu


    This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm), transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively) and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data...

  1. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  2. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  3. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  4. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  5. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Williams, L. J.


    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  7. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  8. Indoor air quality

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  9. Transportation and Air Quality

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  10. Air conditioning system

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael


    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  11. Indoor air pollution

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Indoor air quality

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  13. Radioactive air sampling methods

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  14. Regional Air Quality Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  15. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...


    Fomenko, E.; Sedov, A


    The features of roadbed compaction under negative air temperatures are considered. With the soil temperature decrease, the soil system"s structural resistance to compaction is growing. Attainment of the necessary soil density depends here on an ambient temperature, value and mode of the compaction loading.

  17. Propagation of density disturbances in air-water flow

    Nassos, G. P.


    Study investigated the behavior of density waves propagating vertically in an atmospheric pressure air-water system using a technique based on the correlation between density change and electric resistivity. This information is of interest to industries working with heat transfer systems and fluid power and control systems.

  18. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald


    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…


    Wang, Xin


    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Kirk R Smith


    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...


    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral


    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  3. Hot Air Engines

    P. Stouffs


    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  4. Air gun test facility

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS Bacteria (NARMS) NARMS at Work Reports ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  6. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    ... of the disease progression and to minimize viral replication and mutation. However, a person may be initially infected with a drug-resistant HIV strain or drug resistance may develop during treatment, ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  8. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Phillips, W. M.


    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  9. Canada's Clean Air Act

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  10. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    Klugman, K P


    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumo...

  11. Resisting Mind Control.

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.


    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  12. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro


    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed with a broad spectrum resistance to Striga species and ecotypes, at least to one resident Striga population in Sudan was clearly indicated. PMID:27242837

  13. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  14. Structurization of dust precipitations and aerodynamical resistance in granulated mediums

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in the granulated mediums formed by glass spheres in diameter of 2 and 3 mm are studied. Distinction in the distribution of dust masses and air resistance is found after comparison with the filters filled with cylindrical granules. Going from the obtained research results, the conclusions on the possibility of use of the various adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions in the granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  15. Clean air Hamilton

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)


    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  16. Hydraulic resistance of carper of cylindrical shape mineral wool

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich; Ivanov Kazbek Kazbekovich; Aristov Denis Ivanovich; Skiba Aleksey Andreevich; Sazonova Yuliya Vladimirovna


    The properties of the mineral wool mat are determined by the mode of heat treatment and properties of the products. The main parameter to assess the properties of highly porous fibrous material is its resistance to the air flow, which can be estimated by the value of the hydraulic resistance. This parameter includes both the characteristics of the mineral fiber (diameter, length, density) characteristics of the system as a whole (total porosity, average density, the content of fibrous inclusi...

  17. Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged MBR (membrane bio-reactor) with enhanced air sparging.

    Chang, I S; Judd, S J


    The air sparging technique has been recognised as an effective way to control membrane fouling. However, its application to a submerged MBR (Membrane Bio-Reactor) has not yet been reported. This paper deals with the performances of air sparging on a submerged MBR for wastewater treatment. Two kinds of air sparging techniques were used respectively. First, air is injected into the membrane tube channels so that mixed liquor can circulate in the bioreactor (air-lift mode). Second, a periodic air-jet into the membrane tube is introduced (air-jet mode). Their applicability was evaluated with a series of lab-scale experiments using domestic wastewater. The flux increased from 23 to 33 l m(-2) h(-1) (43% enhancement) when air was injected for the air-lift module. But further increase of flux was not observed as the gas flow increased. The Rc/(Rc+Rf), ratio of cake resistance (Rc) to sum of Rc and Rf (internal fouling resistance), was 23%, indicating that the Rc is not the predominant resistance unlike other MBR studies. It showed that the cake layer was removed sufficiently due to the air injection. Thus, an increase of airflow could not affect the flux performance. The air-jet module suffered from a clogging problem with accumulated sludge inside the lumen. Because the air-jet module has characteristics of dead end filtration, a periodic air-jet was not enough to blast all the accumulated sludge out. But flux was greater than in the air-lift module if the clogging was prevented by an appropriate cleaning regime such as periodical backwashing. PMID:12926682

  18. Resisting Organizational Change

    Gunnar Andersson


    Full Text Available We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an organization. The findings invite technologies, people, actions, practices and materiality to the discussions on support and resistance.

  19. Electrochemical performance of solid-state lithium-air batteries using carbon nanotube catalyst in the air electrode

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Solid-state lithium-air cells using lithium anode, a polymer electrolyte, Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}(Ti, Ge){sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} inorganic solid electrolyte, and an air electrode composed of carbon nanotubes and an inorganic solid electrolyte are constructed and their electrochemical properties investigated. The cells show a reversible capacity of about 400 mA h g{sup -1} during the first few cycles. The rate performance and impedance measurements are also examined. The large cell resistance, which mainly comes from the interfacial resistance between Li and the polymer electrolyte, limits the rate performance. The results indicate that such all-solid-state lithium-air batteries without polymer electrolytes have good potential for development. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. [Rodenticide resistance and consequences].

    Esther, A; Endepols, S; Freise, J; Klemann, N; Runge, M; Pelz, H-J


    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, such as warfarin was first described in 1958. Polymorphisms in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene and respective substitutions of amino acids in the VKOR enzyme are the major cause for rodenticide resistance. Resistant Norway rats in Germany are characterized by the Tyr139Cys genotype, which is spread throughout the northwest of the country. Resistant house mice with the VKOR variants Tyr139Cys, Leu128Ser and Arg12Trp/Ala26Ser/Ala48Thr/Arg61Leu (spretus type) are distributed over a number of locations in Germany. Resistance can reduce management attempts with consequences for stored product protection, hygiene and animal health. Anticoagulants of the first generation (warfarin, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl) as well as bromadiolone and difenacoum are not an option for the control of resistant Norway rats. The same applies for house mice whereby the tolerance to compounds can be different between local incidences. Due to the higher toxicity and tendency to persist, the most potent anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone should be applied but only where resistance is known. In other cases less toxic anticoagulants should be preferred for rodent management in order to mitigate environmental risks. Resistance effects of further VKOR polymorphisms and their combinations, the spread of resistant rats and conditions supporting and reducing resistance should be investigated in order to improve resistance management strategies. PMID:24781908

  1. Spectacles of resistance and resistance of spectacles

    Gabriel, Yiannis


    This paper explores organizational controls in an era dominated by spectacles, images and pictures and seeks to identify some forms of resistance that subvert and undermine these controls. It develops the metaphor of today’s organizations a ‘glass cages’ in juxtaposition to the Weberian ‘iron cages’ that summed up some of the qualities of organizations of yesteryear. The paper analyses new forms of resistance, such as whistleblowing and subvertizing, that are particularly aimed at besmirching...

  2. Computers in Air Defence

    P. V.S. Rao


    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  3. Indoor air pollution

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  4. Genetics of metabolic resistance.

    Richter, Otto; Langemann, Dirk; Beffa, Roland


    Herbicide resistance has become a major issue for many weeds. Metabolic resistance refers to the biochemical processes within organisms that degrade herbicides to less toxic compounds, resulting in a shift of the dose response curve. This type of resistance involves polygenic inheritance. A model is presented linking the biochemical pathway of amino acid synthesis and the detoxifying pathway of an inhibitor of the key enzyme ALS. From this model, resistance factors for each biotype are derived, which are then applied to a polygenic population genetic model for an annual weed plant. Polygenic inheritance is described by a new approach based on tensor products of heredity matrices. Important results from the model are that low dose regimes favour fast emergence of resistant biotypes and that the emergence of resistant biotypes occurs as abrupt outbreaks. The model is used to evaluate strategies for the management of metabolic resistance. PMID:27424952

  5. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Ward, Alan


    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  6. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  7. The Clean Air Act

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  8. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.


    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  9. Liquid air cycle engines

    Rosevear, Jerry


    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  10. Unit for air decontamination

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)