Sample records for air movements

  1. Human preference for air movement

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  2. Air movement - good or bad?

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in...... general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...

  3. Air movement and perceived air quality

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.


    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  4. Air movement - good or bad?

    Toftum, Jørn

    general terms when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation...

  5. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona;


    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... desk fan (2.5 W) powered by laptop computer – USBF and upward movement by a personalized ventilation supplying air from desk front edge - PV. The exposed subject had control over the rotation speed of the fans as well as the personalized airflow rate and its direction to be against the chest, upward...

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem on the......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation of...

  7. A study of occupant cooling by personally controlled air movement

    Arens, Edward A.; Xu, T.; Miura, K; Zhang, H.; Fountain, M.; Bauman, Fred


    This study addresses the effectiveness of air movement cooling, an alternative to compressor-based cooling of the air itself. Subjects in an environmental chamber were exposed to a range of warm temperatures and allowed to adjust air movement to suit their individual preferences, while answering a series of questions about their comfort. Air movement was from the subject's side, in two modes of turbulent flow. The air speeds chosen by the subjects, and their subjective responses, are evaluate...

  8. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;


    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and...... local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... room air temperature of 26 degrees C and relative humidity of 70%....

  9. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)


    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  10. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;


    high velocity values. Most dissatisfaction with air movement is caused by thermal sensation, with air movement perception accounting for a smaller proportion. The subjects preferred air movement to be between "just right" and "slightly breezy" and preferred their thermal sensation to be between......The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations...... for 15 minutes, during which the subjects responded to computer-administered questionnaires on their thermal and draft sensations using visual-analogue scales. The results showed that the subjects preferred air movement within a certain range, i.e., a higher percentage was dissatisfied at both low and...

  11. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y


    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:22444826

  12. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz;


    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement...... of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF....... At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness....

  13. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan


    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement...... of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF. At...... temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness....

  14. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  15. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria;


    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  16. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    Carvalho, D.R.A.; Torre, S.; Kraniotis, D.; Almeida, D.P.F.; Heuvelink, E.; Carvalho, S.M.P.


    High relative air humidity (RH = 85%) during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV) 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf develo

  17. Energy saving and improved comfort by increasing air movement

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    In this study, the potential saving of cooling energy by elevated air speed which can offset the impact of increased room air temperature on occupants' comfort, as recommended in the present standards (ASHRAE 55 2004, ISO 7730 2005 and EN 15251 2007), was quantified by means of simulations with...... EnergyPlus software. Fifty-four cases covering six cities (Helsinki, Berlin, Bordeaux, Rome, Jerusalem and Athens), three indoor environment categories I, II and III (according to standard EN 152512007) and three air velocities (...

  18. Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movement

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen


    In this study, the potential saving of cooling energy by elevated air speed which can offset the impact of increased room air temperature on occupants’ comfort, as recommended in the present standards (ASHRAE 55 2004, ISO 7730 2005 and EN 15251 2007), was quantified by means of simulations with EnergyPlus software. Fifty-four cases covering six cities (Helsinki, Berlin, Bordeaux, Rome, Jerusalem, Athens), three indoor environment categories - I, II and III (according to standard EN 15251 2007...

  19. Investigating the Possibility of Using BART for Air Freight Movement

    Lu, Xiao-Yun; Hanson, Matt; Graham, Michael; Nishinaga, Eugene; Lu, Richard


    The San Francisco Bay Area has one of the most congested metropolitan corridors in both California and nationwide, with very high demand for both passenger and air-freight transport. It is also a main entrance to the United States for the huge Asia market, and thus critical for the United States to play a leading role in the global economy. On one hand, traffic congestion in the main corridors through the Bay Area is severe and is becoming worse with the rapid increase of population and the d...

  20. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Genhong Zhou


    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  1. Numerical modelling of air movement in road tunnels

    The objective of the Mechanical Ventilation Systems (MVS) in highway tunnels is to provide tunnel patrons with a reasonable degree of comfort during normal operation and to assist in keeping tunnels safe during emergencies. Temperature, humidity, and air velocity are among the parameters that determine the tunnel environment and indicate the level of MVS performance. To investigate the performance of the current emergency ventilation strategies for an existing tunnel system in the event of a fire, a research project is being conducted at the National Research Council of Canada. The primary objectives of the study are: a) to assess and validate the ability of in-place emergency ventilation strategies to control smoke spread and minimize the impact of smoke on tunnel users; and b) to recommend guidelines for improving ventilation operation to maximize intervention effectiveness. This will allow future development of an intelligent ventilation system based on a pre-established scenario of ventilation activated using automatic fire detection. The research study includes two phases, numerical and experimental phases. The numerical phase will use a CFD model (Solvent) to study smoke ventilation in the tunnel. The experimental phase will be used to calibrate and validate the CFD model and to establish the boundary conditions for the numerical model. Solvent was used to model a ventilation scenario using existing data. The current paper presents the initial efforts to validate the CFD model against onsite flow measurements conducted in the tunnel. The CFD model included aerodynamically significant physical features of the tunnel. (author)

  2. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality in high-rise apartment buildings

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.; Foley, G.J.


    A summary is presented of five independent field investigation surveys conducted across Canada for the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The intent of the investigations were to determine air exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite and inter-floor room leakage rates, and indoor air quality in a representative number of residential high rise apartment buildings. Air exfiltration, inter-suite and inter-floor air leakage rates were determined by conducting suite, floor and whole building fan depressurization tests. Indoor air quality was established by means of a survey of the tenants of the buildings, and by testing and monitoring for specific pollutants. Air leakage rates were found to be in excess of proposed guidelines of 0.05-0.14 l/s/m[sup 2] at 75 Pascals. The overall air leakage rates per unit of exterior wall during suite fan depressurization testing was in the range 2.10-3.15 l/s/m[sup 2] at a pressure differential of 50 Pascals across the exterior wall. When the corridor wall was not isolated leakage rates increased to 4.54-8.33 l/s/m[sup 2]. Air movement within a building with a high exterior wall leakage rate is predominately influenced by stack effect, combined with exterior wind direction and speed, while within a building with low leakage rates the predominant influences are stack effect and internal building activities such as elevators moving, doors opening, and movement of people. Ventilation supply air rates were generally inadequate to satisfy occupant requirements. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Evidence for air movement signals in the agonistic behaviour of a nocturnal arachnid (order Amblypygi.

    Roger D Santer

    Full Text Available Many arthropods possess filiform hair sensilla (termed trichobothria in arachnids, which are extremely sensitive detectors of medium particle displacement. Electrophysiological evidence in some taxa suggests that these sensilla can detect air particle displacements resulting from intraspecific communication signals. However, it has not yet been shown for any species that the air particle displacements detected by the filiform hairs are themselves perceived as a 'signal' (i.e. that individuals make behavioural decisions based upon the responses of these organs to the displays of conspecifics. We investigate the agonistic behaviour of the whip spider Phrynus marginemaculatus and the role of its trichobothria in receiving agonistic signals. Whip spiders have extremely elongated 'antenniform' first legs, which they vibrate close to their opponents during agonistic interactions, inducing air movements that excite their opponents' trichobothria. We find that ablation of the trichobothria causes significant increases in: (I contest duration, and (II the probability of contest escalation past aggressive displays to physical fighting. Therefore, in the absence of air movement-sensitive sensilla, contest assessment is impaired. This suggests that whip spiders exploit true air movement signals during agonistic interactions, and that these are received by the trichobothria. Furthermore, these results indicate that, in whip spiders, such signals help mitigate the cost of agonistic interaction.

  4. Human Response to Air Movement - Evaluation of ASHRAE´s Draft Criteria

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.; Bruzda, M.; Fanger, Povl Ole


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the present ASHRAE Standard 55-92 draft criteria and to describe how air movement is perceived at thermal sensations slightly cooler and slightly warmer than neutral. At temperatures 18oC, 20oC, 23oC, 26oC, and 28oC (64.4oF, 68oF, 73.4oF, 78.8oF, and 82.4o...... cooler than neutral or occupants who are occupied mostly with sedentary work. To accommodate all occupants in a given indoor environment, it is therefore recommended that air movement generated by the HVAC system be designed according to the criteria in the current Standard 55 to minimize complaints of...

  5. Definition of water droplets "strain cycles" in air times dependences on their sizes and movement velocities

    Volkov, Roman; Zhdanova, Alena; Zabelin, Maxim; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Strizhak, Pavel


    Experimental investigation of water droplets deformation regularities during their motion in the air by the action of gravitational forces was executed. Characteristic sizes of droplets were varied in the range from 3 mm to 6 mm. Velocities of droplets movement attained to 5 m/s. The cross-correlation system of video registration was used. More than ten characteristic "strain cycles" of droplets during the 1 m distance motion by them thought the air were established. Characteristic of droplets forms, periods, dimensions and ranges were determined for all "strain cycles". "Strain cycle" times dependences on velocity and sizes of droplets were established.

  6. Estimating the malaria risk of African mosquito movement by air travel

    Rogers David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of global travel has resulted in the importation of African Anopheles mosquitoes, giving rise to cases of local malaria transmission. Here, cases of 'airport malaria' are used to quantify, using a combination of global climate and air traffic volume, where and when are the greatest risks of a Plasmodium falciparum-carrying mosquito being importated by air. This prioritises areas at risk of further airport malaria and possible importation or reemergence of the disease. Methods Monthly data on climate at the World's major airports were combined with air traffic information and African malaria seasonality maps to identify, month-by-month, those existing and future air routes at greatest risk of African malaria-carrying mosquito importation and temporary establishment. Results The location and timing of recorded airport malaria cases proved predictable using a combination of climate and air traffic data. Extending the analysis beyond the current air network architecture enabled identification of the airports and months with greatest climatic similarity to P. falciparum endemic regions of Africa within their principal transmission seasons, and therefore at risk should new aviation routes become operational. Conclusion With the growth of long haul air travel from Africa, the identification of the seasonality and routes of mosquito importation is important in guiding effective aircraft disinsection and vector control. The recent and continued addition of air routes from Africa to more climatically similar regions than Europe will increase movement risks. The approach outlined here is capable of identifying when and where these risks are greatest.

  7. Writing in the Air: Contributions of Finger Movement to Cognitive Processing.

    Yoshihiro Itaguchi

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the interactions between motor action and cognitive processing with particular reference to kanji-culture individuals. Kanji-culture individuals often move their finger as if they are writing when they are solving cognitive tasks, for example, when they try to recall the spelling of English words. This behavior is called kusho, meaning air-writing in Japanese. However, its functional role is still unknown. To reveal the role of kusho behavior in cognitive processing, we conducted a series of experiments, employing two different cognitive tasks, a construction task and a stroke count task. To distinguish the effects of the kinetic aspects of kusho behavior, we set three hand conditions in the tasks; participants were instructed to use either kusho, unrelated finger movements or do nothing during the response time. To isolate possible visual effects, two visual conditions in which participants saw their hand and the other in which they did not, were introduced. We used the number of correct responses and response time as measures of the task performance. The results showed that kusho behavior has different functional roles in the two types of cognitive tasks. In the construction task, the visual feedback from finger movement facilitated identifying a character, whereas the kinetic feedback or motor commands for the behavior did not help to solve the task. In the stroke count task, by contrast, the kinetic aspects of the finger movements influenced counting performance depending on the type of the finger movement. Regardless of the visual condition, kusho behavior improved task performance and unrelated finger movements degraded it. These results indicated that motor behavior contributes to cognitive processes. We discussed possible mechanisms of the modality dependent contribution. These findings might lead to better understanding of the complex interaction between action and cognition in daily life.

  8. The Influence of Office Furniture on the Air Movement in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    Nielsen, June Richther

    Isothermal and thermal experiments and simulations form the basis of the investigations in this thesis. It is mainly the isothermal case that is studied. The examinations concern how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Especially, the jet under the...... whereas the two last-mentioned inlets are simulated 3-dimensional. In the isothermal simulations a furniture volume is used to represent the physical furniture and in the thermal case a furniture volume together with a volume source is used. The investigations of the isothermal experiments and simulations...... show that the jet under the ceiling is insignificantly influenced by the normal office furniture. The maximum velocity in the occupied zone is reduced by the furniture and this reduction is dependent on the total length of the furniture in the main flow direction. When the total length of the furniture...

  9. Business Leadership in the Movement to Regulate Industrial Air Pollution in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century America

    Rosen Christine Meisner


    This article concerns an important but currently still poorly understood aspect of the history of environmental reform: the leadership role played by reform minded businessmen in movements to regulate industrial air pollution in American cities between 1860 and 1920. For the most part, the task of writing the history of air pollution regulation in this period has fallen to historians who been predisposed to play up the leadership of public health and women reformers, while playing down the ro...

  10. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien


    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  11. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality of high rise apartment buildings, prairie region

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.


    A field investigation survey was conducted to determine exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite air leakage, and indoor air quality in two 13-storey high-rise apartment buildings located in Winnipeg. The survey also established the effect the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system has on the pressure differential across the building envelope. Building residents were surveyed to establish the general environmental conditions, and five specific pollutants were identified and quantified. The applicability of procedures used was documented for use in future investigations and as candidate procedures for a standardized testing protocol.

  12. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee


    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  13. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink rate and tear film quality. In a test room with DV and six workstations 30 human subjects were exposed for four hours to each of the following 5 experimental conditions: 23 °C and DV only, 23 °C and DP...

  14. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    Objectives of this task included design, modeling, selection of drilling and surface processing equipment, and development of test procedures and cost estimates for conducting a cold test demonstration of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB) process. The demonstration configuration is scaled to a prototype CAB system designed specifically for the C Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. The CAB system is designed to function as a containment barrier to prevent contamination of the water table located approximately 200 feet below the base of the C-Tank-Farm underground storage tanks. The CAB system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the migration of liquid contaminants toward the ground water by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow through that zone. The CAB system offers several important advantages, including the fact that it is a non-physical confinement technology, it has an active monitoring and leak detection capability, it is based on proven, commercially available equipment and oil and gas technologies; it has excellent potential for emergency response and rapid deployment; and offers high potential for integration with other remediation technologies. Demonstration- and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site as part of this task

  15. The effect of air-bubble barriers in containing oil-slick movement

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of an air-bubble barrier and to determine the oil volume passage rate through such a barrier under various oil sample, wind, wave and current conditions. Two empirical equations were derived based on the laboratory data. The first equation determines the relationship between current velocity and the minimum airflow rate required to avoid oil flow through the barrier from the surface. The second equation predicts the dimensionless oil volume passage rate through the barrier under the surface per unit width when the required minimum airflow rate is given in order to prevent oil flow through the barrier from the surface. If the current and wind speed are given, both the minimum required airflow rate for avoiding oil flow through the barrier from the surface, and the dimensionless oil volume passage rate through the barrier under the surface per unit width can be determined. (author)

  16. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz


    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  17. Air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) based ship to shore movement simulation: A decision aid for the amphibious commander. A (SMMAT) application

    Kearns, Edward P., III


    Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.

  18. Measurement of uniform flame movement in carbon monoxide - air mixtures containing either added D2O or H2O

    Mcdonald, Glen E


    Relative velocities of the flame in a carbon monoxide - air mixture containing either added heavy water or light water were measured in a glass tube. Throughout the range of carbon monoxide - air composition, the flame containing added light water had a faster speed than the flame containing heavy water.

  19. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Spletsteser, Joanna


    convection boundary layer enveloping the body and caused scattering in the measured values of air speed and temperature excess in the plume. In comparison with the case without airflow, the integral characteristics including volume flux, momentum flux, buoyancy force density and enthalpy flux were greater......In the future the implementation of low power office equipment in practice will make thermal plumes generated by occupants one of the dominant flows affecting the air distribution in spaces. Advanced air distribution methods, such as personalized ventilation, are expected to become widely...... implemented in practice. In this study the impact of locally applied airflow on the thermal plume generated by a sitting human body was investigated. The experiment was performed in a climate chamber with upward piston flow. A thermal manikin was sitting on a computer chair behind a table. The air speed and...

  20. Air Pollution and Urban Morphology: A Complex Relation or How to Optimize the Pedestrian Movement in Town :

    Maignant, Gilles; Dutozia, Jérôme


    International audience Urban air pollution is traditionally estimated by using techniques based on geostatistical methods, such as interpolation, applied to a set of data stemming from measures of stations of pollution. Now very often, these stations are in insufficient number or do not measure the same pollutants to allow mapping finely dispersion of air pollution through urban spaces. Numerous studies work then from land registries of broadcasts. Although interesting in a regional scale,...




    Full Text Available In this study, heat loss from various parts of human body, generated sweat mass and skin wetness depends on this are determined and their effect on thermal comfort are investigated. In the model human body is examined as divided into 16 parts and heat and mass transfer from each parts is simulated, as air flow velocity over the surface and thermal and evaporation resistance of clothing are accounted for the model. After checking the validity of the model (in comparison with results as an experimental study heat transfer coefficients, sensible and latent heat loss, skin wetness and variations of predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD are investigated for various air velocities, air temperatures and clothing groups. It is included that, average skin wetness decreases with increasing air velocity and sensible and latent heat losses increase due to the increase in heat transfer coefficient with increasing air velocity. However increase in sensible heat loss is more than latent heat loss. The most sensitive parameter to the air velocity is PPD.

  2. Air

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  3. Air

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  4. Protest movements

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.)

  5. Model Experiments in 1990 and On-Site Validation in 1992 of the Air Movement in the Danish Pavilion in Seville

    Fox, F. G.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The purpose of this paper is to present the ventilation design concept, the model experiment · results and the final measured values from the Danish Pavilion project. The reason for presenting these values is that the Danish Pavilion's indoor air climate was excellent and the architecture...... outstanding, despite the facts that the indoor pollution load was high (smoking, perfumes, tightly packed people) and the ventilation system was cheap and simple. It is suggested that the combination of higher air temperatures and higher air velocities, "summer breeze design", as used in the Danish Pavilion...

  6. Mixed Movements

    Brabrand, Helle


    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  7. Striking movements

    Dahl, Sofia


    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact......Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  8. Movement disorders

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  9. Psychodynamic Movement

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  10. Gracious Movement

    Lev Kreft


    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  11. Computational movement analysis

    Laube, Patrick


    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  12. Movement in Architecture: A Spacial Movement Theory

    Mitchell, Lauren Coleen


    As the body moves through space ephemeral lines of movement are created. These lines of movement are influenced by body tendencies. We learn from the body by watching the path and patterning of movement. From the study of the movement of the body, theories of spacial movement were developed. The goal of my project is to draw from spacial movement theory to create an architectural expression that motivates movement of the body on my site and through my building. The focus of my thesis is ...

  13. Movement disorders.

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J


    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  14. Movement and Space

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  15. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Landalf, Helen


    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  16. Eye Movement Disorders

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  17. Social movements and science

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  18. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi


    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126




    Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.

  20. The mathematics of movement

    Johnson, D.H.


    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  1. The Circular Camera Movement

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg


    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  2. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  3. Dynamics of human movement

    Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. The Development of Coordinated Movement.

    Montanaro, Silvana Quattrocchi


    Discusses stages of movement in the first 3 years of life with a philosophical dimension regarding evolutionary aspects of movement as first manifestation of "will." Describes how the early childhood environment is prepared to allow for movement and the connection between movement and brain development. Discusses the contribution of movement to…

  6. Music and movement

    Nasev, Lence


    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  7. The Irish Women's Movement

    Cullen, Pauline


    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...




    Several of the new religious movements (NRMs) of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural co...

  9. The French ecological movement

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation

  10. Stereotypic movement disorder

    ... with normal activity or have the potential to cause bodily harm. ... Stereotypic movement disorder is more common among boys than ... occur with other conditions, is unknown. Stimulant drugs such ...

  11. Movement and Coordination

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your child will seem to be continually on the go— ...

  12. Rooted in Movement

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  13. Organizations, coalitions, and movements

    Diani, Mario; Bison, Ivano


    This article uses empirical evidence on networks of voluntary organizations mobilizing on ethnic minority, environmental, and social exclusion issues in two British cities, to differentiate between social movement processes and other, cognate collective action dynamics. Social movement processes are identified as the building and reproducing of dense informal networks between a multiplicity of actors, sharing a collective identity, and engaged in social and/or political conflict. They are con...

  14. Behavioral evaluation of movement cancellation.

    Walton, Mark M G; Gandhi, Neeraj J


    The countermanding saccade task has been used in many studies to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the decision to execute or restrain rapid eye movements. In this task, the presentation of a saccade target is sometimes followed by the appearance of a stop cue that indicates that the subject should cancel the planned movement. Performance has been modeled as a race between motor preparation and cancellation processes. The signal that reaches its activation threshold first determines whether a saccade is generated or cancelled. In these studies, an important parameter is the time required to process the stop cue, referred to as the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). The SSRT is estimated using statistical approaches, the validity of which has not been unequivocally established. A more direct measure of this parameter might be obtainable if a method was available to "unmask" the developing motor command. This can be accomplished by air-puff-evoked blinks, which inhibit pontine omnipause neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for the saccadic system. In the present study, brief puffs of air were used to elicit blinks at various times while rhesus monkeys performed a countermanding saccade task. If the developing motor command has not yet been cancelled, this should trigger a saccade. When blinks occurred between approximately 50 and 200 ms after target onset, saccades were often evoked. Saccades were rarely evoked more than approximately 70 ms after stop cue onset; this value represents a behavioral evaluation of SSRT and was comparable to the estimates obtained using standard statistical approaches. When saccades occurred near the SSRT on blink trials, they were often hypometric. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the effects of blink time on the race model. Overall, the study supports the validity of the statistical methods currently in use. PMID:16760340




    Full Text Available Several of the new religious movements (NRMs of modern times have become global movements. Among these are the Soka Gakkai of Japan; the Brahma Kumaris, Sathya Sai Baba, and Hare Krishna of India; the Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion and Relief Society of Taiwan; and Scientology, which began in the United States in the early 1950s. In order to become global movements, NRMs must often depend heavily on one particular ethnic group as they expand beyond their home base. On arrival in new cultural contexts, movements are most likely to appeal to first- or second-generation economic migrants from the same ethnic background as the missionaries who brought the movement to the region in the first place. While being themselves part of the process of ever-increasing globalization, NRMs also throw light on the dynamics and mechanics of this process, on how it plays itself out. This article discusses the globalization and “glocalization” of NRMs, as well as NRMs as vehicles of a new spirituality.

  16. Numerical model for the calculation of spherical pressure wave propagation in elastoplastic and viscoelastic materials, and calculation of the air-blast induced ground movements in the subseismic case

    The results of two works on the topic 'propagation and effect of nuclear pressure waves in the ground and in rocks' are given in this report. The first part deals with fundamentals and preliminary results of a numerical computer programme to calculate the spherically symmetrical pressure wave propagation in viscoelastic and elastoplastic media. The second part deals with the application of existing programmes to calculate the building stress in the subseismic region of air-blast induced ground pressure waves. (orig./LH)

  17. Movement as utopia.

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián


    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. PMID:20027697

  18. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E


    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.). PMID:19060196

  19. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    Rasmussen, Jacob


    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  20. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini


    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  1. Posture and Movement


    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  2. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  3. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Todde, V.


    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  4. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Kazem Dalaie


    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  5. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.


    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discip...

  6. Air Pollution

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  7. Air Pollution

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...


    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.


    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...

  9. Anti-nuclear movements

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  10. Monitoring underground movements

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  11. Creativity and Embodied Fluid Movements

    Broadhead, Alastair


    There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the embodiment of certain movements can stimulate creative idea formation. Embodied Creativity suggests that embodying particular movements, often fluid, free movements can improve creative thinking over the embodiment of nonfluid movements. In the first of two experiments participants were required to navigate a character through a bespoke virtual environment while (a) following a fluid, free flowing pathway, (b) a nonfluid pathway, or ...

  12. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner


    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  13. How Social Movements Do Culture

    Roy, William G.


    While much social science literature has analyzed the cultural bases of social movement, activity, and the content of cultural production by social movements, relatively little has been written about the concrete social relations within which social movements do culture. This paper addresses the issue of what social movements are doing when they produce culture. Four dimensions of social relations within which culture is enacted are identified: the division of labor, the relations of power, t...

  14. Energy and movement


    Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabular

  15. Energy and Movement

    90, Sol


    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  16. Knowledge through movement

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.


    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...... the bodily aspect to the educational system in a highly effective and useful way. Abstract: Children and adolescents are raised to passivity. Lack of motion in kindergartens and schools promote obesity and life style-related diseases, but another and just as dire consequence is the impact on learning...

  17. The Evidence Movement

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf


    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established. This...... article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....


    Petris Sorina


    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  19. Air Abrasion

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. Material and Affective Movements

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén


    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways....... The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich...... demonstrates how the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  1. Optimal orientation in flows: providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies

    McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Dokter, A.M.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Bouten, W.


    Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal) orientation. We then define optimal orientation for movement in steady flow patterns and, using dynamic wind data, for short-distance mass movements of thrushes (Turdus sp.) and 6000 km non-stop migra...

  2. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, Grant; Blackwell, Paul; Goodall, Victoria; King, Ruth; Niu, Mu; Patterson, Toby; Pedersen, Martin; Skarin, Anna; Schick, Robert Schilling


    1). Group dynamics are a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognized, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However, to date, practical statistical methods, which can include group dynamics in animal movement models, have been lacking. 2). We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level ...

  3. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L


    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  4. Immigration and freedom of movement

    Adam Hosein


    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on one very influential argument for open borders, the freedom of movement argument, which says that if we value freedom of movement we must demand open borders. I begin the paper the paper by discussing Joseph Carens’ well known version of the argument. I then consider, and reject, David Miller's response to that argument. Finally, I develop my own reply to Carens. Both Carens and Miller, I argue, are mistaken about the proper grounds for freedom of movement. Once we see this, it is clear how we can value freedom of movement without being committed to open borders.

  5. Co-movement in Inflation

    Hugo Gerard


    Inflation rates across countries tend to exhibit a degree of co-movement. In this paper we use a panel vector autoregression (panel VAR) model to investigate possible explanations of this co-movement for the G7 economies. Shocks to commodity prices are found to be more important than common movements in real activity as a driver of 'global inflation' dynamics. However, commodity prices and common real activity cannot explain all of the co-movement in inflation. Even when controlling for these...

  6. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    Thrane, Torben


    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  7. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  8. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin


    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  9. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;


    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...

  10. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile...... terminals mounted in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling...

  11. Method for eye movements study

    Parra Mario Alfredo


    Full Text Available Introduction: Quantitative analysis of eye movements in Digital Domain, has permitted to increase the amount of physiological information extracted form oculographic signals. In the Neuroscience field, it allows to deepen on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying oculomotor dysfunctions. Objectives: The main goal of this work is to obtain quantitative methods able to reduce subjective components introduced by researchers during visual description or qualifications of neural signals, also reducing the experience required to successfully identify normal or abnormal electrophysiological patterns. Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were evaluated in 27 normal subjects by applying quantitative analysis methods in both time and frequency domains. A set of variables was determined which acted as quantitative descriptors of oculomotor response during task performance. Results: The results clearly shown that quantitative variables could be of great value in order to increase the sensitivity of eye movements analysis, also increasing the power of eye movements exploration to assess the neurophysiological basis underlying eye movements execution in either motor and cognitive contexts. The amount of information extracted from eye movement’s signals through this method exceeds the 80% of the total information available. Conclusions: Further studies must be conducted to evaluate how these variables behave in such disorders of central nervous system where eye movement’s dysfunctions appear.

  12. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.;


    height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat......Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating the...

  13. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  14. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Kensaku eMiki


    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  15. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    Ashbee, Edward


    has also been shaped and energised by institutional arrangements. In particular, it argues that there are significant numbers of independent or ‘detached’ conservatives and that the institutional architecture draws them towards political engagement but at the same time imposes constraints. The...... political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...... structures that define the American political process, give rise to other movements and protests....

  16. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Muthukumar Karthi


    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  18. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith


    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  19. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Emily eHiggins


    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  20. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon


    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970


    Matsievsky German Olegovitch


    Purpose: to consider the main ideas of the Cossack movement which have defined a place and a role of the modern Cossacks in the Russian society. Methodology: methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: some substantial directions of development of ideology of modern Cossack movement are revealed: use of traditions of Cossack democr...

  2. Movement dynamics in office environments

    Rassia, Stamatina T.; Hay, Simon; Beresford, Alastair; Baker, Nick V.


    This research explores the relationship between the indoor environment and physical activity and sets out to highlight how motion inside buildings can be described as a dynamic system that may be prescribed by design. Our work builds on an exploratory study carried out in a cellular workplace at the Computer Laboratory of the University of Cambridge in order to identify the energy cost of movement in different office spaces. Movement has been recorded using an accurate indoor location system ...

  3. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    Alphen, Adriaan


    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection of visual surround would slip across the retina and retinal slip of more than only a few degrees per second would cause blurring of the projected image and reduce visual acuity (Westheimer and McKe...

  4. Social Movements, Protest, and Policy

    Eduardo Silva


    The capacity of Latin American social groups to mobilize has excited the imagination of students of the region since the birth of Latin American studies itself. Alongside the cultural turn, many social movement organizations continue to engage directly with politics. Aspirational goals notwithstanding, in order to improve conditions they devote much of their energy to influencing policy. Although scholars have begun to address the policy impact of Latin American social movements, we have limi...

  5. Occupy Movements in the Media

    Iranzo, Amador; Farné, Alessandra


    In this century, the year 2011 will be remembered as a historical landmark for mass demonstrations for social change. Starting with the so-called Arab Spring in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, followed by the 15M Indignant movement in Spain and Occupy movements in the USA and other countries, these rallies quickly and heterogeneously spread around the world. Despite their distinctive features, they share some common characteristics. On the one hand, there is a general feeling of indignation toward ...

  6. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young


    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  7. Air quality indicators

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO2, however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  8. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Rajesh Verma


    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  9. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H


    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations. PMID

  10. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Dav eClark


    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  11. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  12. Air Pollution

    Lawther, P. J.


    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  13. Movement in aesthetic form creation

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl


    This paper presents the good practice based experiences found when movement is used to strengthen form creation and to create flow in the process of artistic education. Faced with the design engineering students’ problems with creating forms with aesthetic statements, the experiences with movement...... lens to assess the students’ development of mind-body skills, known as ‘The Three Soma’. The Somatechne model also helps to identify the activity that gives the students the opportunity to develop their sensibility and thus aesthetic attention....... inspired the thesis that the design engineers’ training in aesthetic form creation can be improved by integrating the movement potential into their education. The paper documents the on-going work on developing a model for embodied creation of form called ‘Somatechne model’. The study also identifies a...

  14. Sustainability of natural movement activity

    Matthew Metzgar


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a focus on reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings as a means of increasing their sustainability. As part of this trend, various health clubs and fitness centers have been designed to lower consumption of resources such as electricity and water. However, energy consumption is just one part of sustainability, with human health and economic health also paramount. When all components of sustainability are analyzed, other forms of physical activity may possess higher levels of sustainability than traditional gym exercise. Natural movement activity consists of outdoor activity that replicates movements performed by ancient humans during the Paleolithic era. A full analysis of sustainability shows that natural movement activity consumes fewer resources and provides unique psychological and physical benefits compared with traditional indoor exercise.

  15. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker


    A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...

  16. Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods

    Skorpik, James R.


    Wireless communication devices and movement monitoring methods are described. In one aspect, a wireless communication device includes a housing, wireless communication circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to communicate wireless signals, movement circuitry coupled with the housing and configured to provide movement data regarding movement sensed by the movement circuitry, and event processing circuitry coupled with the housing and the movement circuitry, wherein the event processing circuitry is configured to process the movement data, and wherein at least a portion of the event processing circuitry is configured to operate in a first operational state having a different power consumption rate compared with a second operational state.

  17. Alterations of Eye Movement Control in Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders

    Martin Gorges


    Full Text Available The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades, saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades, and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks. On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention.

  18. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  19. Using eye tracker data in air traffic control

    Imants, P.; Greef, T. de


    Motivation/Research approach - An exploratory study was conducted to investigate whether eye movement metrics discriminate between different air traffic control tasks. Findings/Design - The results show the three tasks elicit different eye movement, as Yarbus (1967) also showed in static pictures, a

  20. Air Pollution.

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  1. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Loiacono, Stephanie


    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  2. Movement Opens Pathways to Learning

    Leppo, Marjorie; Davis, Diane


    This article presents a framework for movement activities upon which physical educators and early childhood teachers can build appropriate learning activities that reinforce the connection between the mind and body for children between the ages of two and seven. The authors discuss Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The authors hope that…

  3. Torsional eye movements in humans

    L.J. van Rijn


    textabstractIf one has to give a description of eye movements, what first comes to mind is the possibility of the eyes to rotate in horizontal and vertical directions. It is generally less obvious that the eyes are capable of moving in a third. namely the torsional. direction. This capability is by

  4. Social Movements in Political Science

    Císař, Ondřej

    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015 - (Della Porta, D.; Diani, M.), s. 50-67 ISBN 978-0-19-967840-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : political science * social movements * democracy Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  5. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M


    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  6. Action Research and Social Movement

    Stephen Kemmis


    Large-scale policy research on topics of concern to teachers may assist in changing educational theory, policy and practice, as may educational action research. This article discusses different traditions of action research in relation to their views about the connection of research and social movement, touching on the so-called "macro-micro" problem which bedevils conceptualizations of this relationship.

  7. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Disha Awasthi


    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.




  9. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  10. Eventful places in the 2011 movements

    Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    is dialectical and mutually constitutive: the physical and symbolic characteristics of place influence the formation of the movement and its actions while the latter re-creates the place. This is a corrective to a dominant approach in social movement studies to see movements as a ‘dependent variable......Inspired by the Occupy movement, the Egyptian revolutionaries and other of the 2011 social movements, this paper investigates the relationship between social movement and place. Drawing on first-hand accounts from these movements, I argue that the relationship between movement and place......’ that is to be explained (della Porta 2008) instead of a political subject with the ability to affect itself and society; and a corrective to the growing body of literature on the geographies of social movements that often has a too static and state-centred approach. Using John Agnew’s (1987) conceptualisation of place...

  11. Thin air

    Jasanoff, Sheila


    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  12. Dynamics simulation of bottom high-sediment sea water movement under waves

    Xueyi YOU; Wei LIU; Houpeng XIAO


    The movement of bottom high-sediment sea water under water waves, especially that of the high-sediment water layer close to the sea bottom, is important to the resuspension and settlement of sediment. Supposing that the high-sediment sea water is a Newtonian fluid,based on Navier-Stokes (N-S) theory, the movement of the interfaces of air-water and water-sediment water was tracked by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The velocity field of sediment water was simulated by considering the effect of water waves. The results show that the movement of sediment water is very different from that of sea water,which provides a solid basis for understanding the resuspension and settlement of sediment and the formation of bottom stripe, and the VOF method can trace the movement of the two interfaces simultaneously; the movement of the air-water interface has a strong effect on that of the water-sediment water interface, while the effect of the water-sediment water interface movement on the air-water interface is not obvious.

  13. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Richard A. Horsley


    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  14. OrbitView: Eye movement visualization software

    Hong, Simon; Optican, Lance M.; FitzGibbon, Edmond J.; Zee, David S.; Shaikh, Aasef G.


    Measurement of eye movements often helps to diagnose ocular motor disorders in the clinic, and is also used as a research tool in ocular motor, vision and vestibular research. Eye movements, however, are usually recorded without simultaneous video recordings, making offline interpretation difficult. We developed a tool that converts the measured eye movement data into a three-dimensional (3D) movie of eye movements. Having useful functions such as slow-play, pause and exaggeration of the movements, this new software provides a research and teaching tool to aid interpretation of the recorded eye movements. PMID:21689683

  15. Air Pollution

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  16. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Wyon, David Peter; Sekhar, S.C.; Cheong, K.W.


    The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations....

  17. Trajectory Indexing Using Movement Constraints

    Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    -the-shelf database management systems typically do not offer higher-dimensional indexing, this reduction in dimensionality allows us to use existing DBMSes to store and index trajectories. Moreover, we argue that, given the right circumstances, indexing these dimensionality-reduced trajectories can be more efficient......With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space...... than using a three-dimensional index. A decisive factor here is the fractal dimension of the network.the lower, the more efficient is the proposed approach. This hypothesis is verified by an experimental study that incorporates trajectories stemming from real and synthetic road networks....

  18. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.


    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  19. International Capital Movements Under Uncertainty


    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of international movements of physical capital in a model with uncertainty and international trade in goods and securities.In our model, the world allocation of capital is governed, to some extent, by the asset preferences of risk averse consumer-investors. In a one-good variant in the spirit of the MacDougall model, we find that relative factor abundance, relative labor force size and relative production riskiness have separate but interrelated infl...

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery for movement disorders

    Frighetto, Leonardo; Bizzi, Jorge; Annes, Rafael D’Agostini; Silva, Rodrigo dos Santos; Oppitz, Paulo


    Initially designed for the treatment of functional brain targets, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has achieved an important role in the management of a wide range of neurosurgical pathologies. The interest in the application of the technique for the treatment of pain, and psychiatric and movement disorders has returned in the beginning of the 1990s, stimulated by the advances in neuroimaging, computerized dosimetry, treatment planning software systems, and the outstanding results of radiosurg...

  1. Principles of the Olympic movement


    The aim of this article is to clarify, review and reflect on the importance of the Olympic movement main principles on nowadays sporting society. For this purpose, the paper goes through the contents of the Olympic Charter, the threats to humanist thinking, the Olympic Games history and the most recent contributions to the Olympic philosophy. Similarly, this article goes deep on the figure of Pierre de Coubertin as the precursor of modern Olympic Games leading to the development of a relation...

  2. Plasticity in eye movement control

    Luo, Chongde


    textabstractThe cerebellum plays an important role in the recalibration and adaptive adjustment of movements, as well as learning new motor skills and motor related associations. In this thesis, we investigated the mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor learning. To obtain a better understanding, in how the cerebellum processes and stores information, we used specific perturbations that affected the information processing of the cerebellum. Signal transduction pathways were affected that were...

  3. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel


    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  4. Gender and Awa Dance Movements

    Nakamura, Hisako; 中村, 久子


    At around the period when Japanese women began to seek the liberation from sexual segregation, the sex diffreence in the movements of the Awa Dance gradually widened, due to obtaining more attractive performance as tourism resources. Women danced a female dance and men danced a male dance. Despite clear differences in movements,some women came to challenge the male dance.This article attempts to make clear,through interviews, who began to dance the male dance and when and...

  5. Organizational Knowledge Management Movement Strategies

    Alen Badal


    Organizational behaviour is often dependent on the strategic movement of internal knowledge for success. Organizational knowledge management methodologies require the involvement of stakeholders. In large organizations, involved stakeholders shall be selected by the entire membership. Key involvement roles and considerations should be offered to/involve the ‘least likely to participate’. Suck stakeholders often possess the most influential power to move the stakeholders; if not, they demonstr...

  6. Social Movements, Protest, and Policy

    Eduardo Silva


    Full Text Available The capacity of Latin American social groups to mobilize has excited the imagination of students of the region since the birth of Latin American studies itself. Alongside the cultural turn, many social movement organizations continue to engage directly with politics. Aspirational goals notwithstanding, in order to improve conditions they devote much of their energy to influencing policy. Although scholars have begun to address the policy impact of Latin American social movements, we have limited systematized understanding of the conditions and mechanisms by which social movement protest affects policy outcomes. This essay argues that a policy process approach offers a useful first cut into more systematic analysis of social movements, protest, and their policy consequences in Latin America. Resumen: Movimientos Sociales, Protesta y Políticas de Gobierno La capacidad de movilización social que evidencia América Latina ha captado el imaginario de investigadores desde los albores de los estudios latinoamericanos. A pesar del giro cultural sobre el tema, muchos movimientos sociales siguen entablando la política de forma directa. Amén de sus metas aspiracionales, en pos de mejorar sus condiciones dedican una cantidad apreciable de sus esfuerzos a influenciar políticas de gobierno. Si bien es cierto que una cantidad no menospreciable de investigadores consideran esos impactos aún hace falta conocimiento sistematizado sobre las condiciones y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la protesta social afecta las políticas del estado. Este ensayo argumenta que enfoques centrados en los procesos de la política pública ofrecen una buena entrada al análisis más sistemático sobre los movimientos sociales, protesta, y sus consecuencias para políticas de gobierno.

  7. Modeling Mass Movements on Mars

    Bulmer, M. H.; Glaze, L.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murphy, W.; Neumann, G.


    Slope failure and the resulting movement of material downslope on Mars has never been witnessed, making careful data analyses combined with physical modeling the only way to understand their emplacement process. Evidence exists for varying types of landsliding on Mars. They are a significant geomorphic agent in the modification of the surface of Mars and their emplacement style remains contentious. Furthermore, little is known about the slope forming materials and the processes that govern the triggering, failure, and deposition of landslides. We are examining the emplacement of a range of mass movement types in varying geologic settings on Mars by building on detailed landslide field and modeling studies we have conducted on Earth. We have identified a spectrum of different landslide types on Mars ranging from small gully failures such as those in Nirgal Vallis, lobate debris aprons, to large rock avalanches such as those in Ganges Chasma. The deposits associated with gullies and small debris aprons have characteristics analogous to alluvial fans, rock chutes, talus slopes, and debris flows on Earth. The large landslides on Mars have similar attributes to terrestrial rock avalanches and rockslides. Detailed studies on Earth have shown unique topographic and morphological differences between these mass movement types, which have been well documented and that we have examined. We are using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data to conduct new geomorphic, topographic and theoretical modeling studies on the emplacement of landslides on Mars at resolutions comparable to those on Earth.

  8. Movement of global warming issues

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  9. Salt movement in disturbed soils

    A literature review is presented of information on salt movement in disturbed soils, particularly in soils that have been disturbed by pipeline construction. The review has two main objectives: to assess climatic and soil conditions under which salts will move out of the root zone in a disturbed soil and to determine the rate at which salts will move in disturbed soils. A literature base was established using computer database and library searches, and a number of studies were reviewed. Many studies, dealing specifically with salt movement over time in disturbed soils under climatic and salt conditions similar to those found in Alberta, are summarized in tabular form. Data found in the literature tend to be sparse and incomplete, making firm conclusions about rates of salt movement difficult. In the brown soil zone, 5 years may be sufficient time for sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity levels, elevated during construction, to return to pre-construction conditions in coarse to moderately coarse textured soils. In medium to moderately fine textured soils, 10-26 years may be required. In the dark brown soil zone, 5 years is marginal for return to pre-construction conditions. Data in the black soil zone are limited and results inconsistent. 37 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Will, Leslie A


    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. PMID:26599117

  11. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Newsom, Doug


    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  12. On the analysis of movement smoothness

    Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Melendez-Calderon, Alejandro; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Burdet, Etienne


    Quantitative measures of smoothness play an important role in the assessment of sensorimotor impairment and motor learning. Traditionally, movement smoothness has been computed mainly for discrete movements, in particular arm, reaching and circle drawing, using kinematic data. There are currently very few studies investigating smoothness of rhythmic movements, and there is no systematic way of analysing the smoothness of such movements. There is also very little work on the smoothness of othe...

  13. Alternative Tourism: A Social Movement Perspective

    McGehee, Nancy Gard


    This study develops and tests a theoretical model drawing on social psychological and resource-mobilization perspectives of social movement theory to explain changes in social movement participation and support for activism among Earthwatch Expedition volunteers. The social psychological perspective of social movements recognizes the role of self-efficacy and consciousness-raising for the participation in and success of social movement organizations. The resou...

  14. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  15. Monitoring air sparging using resistivity tomography

    Air sparging is a relatively new technique for the remediation of ground water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. In this technique, air is injected below the water table, beneath the contaminated soil. Remediation occurs by a combination of contaminant partitioning into the vapor phase and enhanced biodegradation. The air is usually removed by vacuum extraction in the vadose zone. The efficiency of remediation from air sparging is a function of the air flow pattern, although the distribution of the injected air is still poorly understood. Cross-borehole resistivity surveys were performed at a former service station in Florence, Oregon, to address this unknown. The resistivity measurements were made using six wells, one of which was the sparge well. Data were collected over a two-week period during and after several air injections, or sparge events. Resistivity images were calculated between wells using an algorithm that assumes axially symmetric structures. The movement of the injected air through time was defined by regions of large increases in resistivity, greater than 100 percent from the background. During early sparge times, air moved outward and upward from the injection point as it ascended to the unsaturated zone. At later sparge times, the air flow reached a somewhat stable cone-shaped pattern radiating out and up from the injection point. Two days after sparging was discontinued, a residue of entrained air remained in the saturated zone, as indicated by a zone of 60 to 80 percent water saturation

  16. Strategic Directions of the Movement Disorder Society

    Mark Hallett, M.D


    @@The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is the international not-for-profit organization representing and serving clinicians, other health professionals, researchers and policy makers interested in the area of movement disorders. The Society is represented in 68 countries by approximately 1,500 members. The Society has developed regional sections and welcomes affiliation of regional Movement Disorder groups.

  17. The flexible nature of verb movement

    Koeneman, O.N.C.J.


    This study offers a new theory of verb movement parametrization. The author proposes to look upon verb movement as an operation that the verb undertakes in order to protect one or more of its features. It is no longer a movement to a prefabricated position but a structure-creating operation. Output

  18. Coding and Interpreting Movement on the Rorschach.

    Holaday, Margot


    A survey of 26 Rorschach experts and 19 students of Rorschach use was conducted to help students using the Exner Comprehensive System determine whether to code movement for nouns with definitions that include movement. Experts and students did not reach agreement, but a literature review suggests such nouns should often be coded as movement. (SLD)

  19. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Montesorri, Maria


    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  20. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Vagovic, Julia


    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  1. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    Brabrand, Helle


    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  2. Air surveillance

    Patton, G.W.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. PMID:26513354

  4. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  5. Visually Guided Control of Movement

    Johnson, Walter W. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor)


    The papers given at an intensive, three-week workshop on visually guided control of movement are presented. The participants were researchers from academia, industry, and government, with backgrounds in visual perception, control theory, and rotorcraft operations. The papers included invited lectures and preliminary reports of research initiated during the workshop. Three major topics are addressed: extraction of environmental structure from motion; perception and control of self motion; and spatial orientation. Each topic is considered from both theoretical and applied perspectives. Implications for control and display are suggested.

  6. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    Perrin, Jean


    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  7. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  8. Movement speed is biased by prior experience

    Yousif, Nada; Greenwood, Richard; Rothwell, John C.; Diedrichsen, Jörn


    How does the motor system choose the speed for any given movement? Many current models assume a process that finds the optimal balance between the costs of moving fast and the rewards of achieving the goal. Here, we show that such models also need to take into account a prior representation of preferred movement speed, which can be changed by prolonged practice. In a time-constrained reaching task, human participants made 25-cm reaching movements within 300, 500, 700, or 900 ms. They were then trained for 3 days to execute the movement at either the slowest (900-ms) or fastest (300-ms) speed. When retested on the 4th day, movements executed under all four time constraints were biased toward the speed of the trained movement. In addition, trial-to-trial variation in speed of the trained movement was significantly reduced. These findings are indicative of a use-dependent mechanism that biases the selection of speed. Reduced speed variability was also associated with reduced errors in movement amplitude for the fast training group, which generalized nearly fully to a new movement direction. In contrast, changes in perpendicular error were specific to the trained direction. In sum, our results suggest the existence of a relatively stable but modifiable prior of preferred movement speed that influences the choice of movement speed under a range of task constraints. PMID:24133220

  9. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Air Stability on Exhaled Air Dispersion

    Xu, Chunwen; Gong, Guangcai; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm;


    studies. As the thermal stratification under displacement ventilation blocks the vertical movement of exhaled air, the exhaled contaminant may be trapped between temperature stratifications. As the dispersion of contaminant is closely related to the health of human indoors, the temperature structure......As more and more investigations have reported the influence of thermal stratification indoors on contaminant dispersion, this paper focuses on investigating this phenomenon from the perspective of air stability which is defined in accordance with atmospheric stability. One breathing thermal manikin...

  10. Healthy Air Outdoors

    ... > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  11. Air quality

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  12. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions

    Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P.; Welch, Kathleen B.


    We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, ...

  13. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun


    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  14. Mapping population and pathogen movements.

    Tatem, Andrew J


    For most of human history, populations have been relatively isolated from each other, and only recently has there been extensive contact between peoples, flora and fauna from both old and new worlds. The reach, volume and speed of modern travel are unprecedented, with human mobility increasing in high income countries by over 1000-fold since 1800. This growth is putting people at risk from the emergence of new strains of familiar diseases, and from completely new diseases, while ever more cases of the movement of both disease vectors and the diseases they carry are being seen. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Equally however, we now have access to the most detailed and comprehensive datasets on human mobility and pathogen distributions ever assembled, in order to combat these threats. This short review paper provides an overview of these datasets, with a particular focus on low income regions, and covers briefly approaches used to combine them to help us understand and control some of the negative effects of population and pathogen movements. PMID:24480992

  15. Proteomic Characterization of Stomatal Movement

    Sixue Chen


    Stomata on leaf epidermis formed by pairs of guard cells control CO2 intake and water transpiration,and respond to different environmental conditions.Stress induced stomatal closure is mediated via an intricate hormone network in guard cells.Here we report absicic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) responsive proteins and redox sensitive proteins.Both ABA and MeJA cause stomatal movement and H2O2 production.Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach,we have identified many ABA and/or MeJA responsive proteins in B.napus guard cells.Most of the genes encoding these proteins contain hormone responsive elements in the promoters,indicating that they are potentially regulated at the transcriptional level.The protein level changes were validated using Western blot analysis.We have also identified redox responsive proteins in the above signaling processes.The identification of the hormone responsive proteins and redox state changes has revealed interesting molecular mechanisms underlying guard cell functions in stomatal movement.The knowledge has great potential to be applied to crop engineering for enhanced yield and stress tolerance.

  16. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  17. Different cortical areas in man in organization of voluntary movements in extrapersonal space

    Roland, P E; Skinhøj, E; Lassen, N A;


    CBF increases, during two types of unilateral voluntary movement in extrapersonal space: a) the maze test, series of fast isolated movements in various directions in a frame, executed under verbal command; and b) the drawing of a spiral in the air. 2. Both types of movements were associated with increases of r...... flow in the auditory areas, the inferior frontal regions, and the frontal eye fields. 4. It is concluded that the supplementary motor areas, which are also active during programming and execution of movement sequences in intrapersonal space (33), elaborate programs for motor subroutines necessary...... in extrapersonal space only are associated with activation of the parietal regions. These areas are assumed to provide information to the motor programming neurons about the demanded direction of motion in extrapersonal space in relation to proprioceptive reference systems. 6. The increase of rCBF in the auditory...

  18. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J


    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution. PMID:26556065

  19. Air pollution

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  20. RNA silencing movement in plants

    Glykeria Mermigka; Frederic Verret; Kriton Kalantidis


    Multicellular organisms, like higher plants, need to coordinate their growth and development and to cope with environmental cues. To achieve this, various signal molecules are transported between neighboring cells and distant organs to control the fate of the recipient cells and organs. RNA silencing produces cell non-autonomous signal molecules that can move over short or long distances leading to the sequence specific silencing of a target gene in a well defined area of cells or throughout the entire plant, respectively. The nature of these signal molecules, the route of silencing spread, and the genes involved in their production, movement and reception are discussed in this review. Additionally, a short section on features of silencing spread in animal models is presented at the end of this review.

  1. Free Instrument for Movement Measure

    Peña, Norberto; Corrêa, Lorena Peixoto Nogueira Rodriguez Martinez Salles; França, Lucas Gabriel Souza; Cunha, Marcelo do Vale; de Sousa, Marcos Cavalcanti; Vieira, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas


    This paper presents the validation of a computational tool that serves to obtain continuous measurements of moving objects. The software uses techniques of computer vision, pattern recognition and optical flow, to enable tracking of objects in videos, generating data trajectory, velocity, acceleration and angular movement. The program was applied to track a ball around a simple pendulum. The methodology used to validate it, taking as a basis to compare the values measured by the program, as well as the theoretical values expected according to the model of a simple pendulum. The experiment is appropriate to the method because it was built within the limits of the linear harmonic oscillator and energy losses due to friction had been minimized, making it the most ideal possible. The results indicate that the tool is sensitive and accurate. Deviations of less than a millimeter to the extent of the trajectory, ensures the applicability of the software on physics, whether in research or in teaching topics.

  2. The Anti-Doping Movement.

    Willick, Stuart E; Miller, Geoffrey D; Eichner, Daniel


    Historical reports of doping in sports date as far back as the ancient Greek Olympic Games. The anti-doping community considers doping in sports to be cheating and a violation of the spirit of sport. During the past century, there has been an increasing awareness of the extent of doping in sports and the health risks of doping. In response, the anti-doping movement has endeavored to educate athletes and others about the health risks of doping and promote a level playing field. Doping control is now undertaken in most countries around the world and at most elite sports competitions. As athletes have found new ways to dope, however, the anti-doping community has endeavored to strengthen its educational and deterrence efforts. It is incumbent upon sports medicine professionals to understand the health risks of doping and all doping control processes. PMID:26972261

  3. Brainstem hypoplasia presenting with mirror movement

    Burcu Ekmekçi


    Full Text Available 20 years old female patient, who had operated from congenital syndactyly on her left hand at five age, admitted to neurology policlinic with involuntary movement on her hands. We saw mirror movement (MM when she writing, catching with her left hand. This movement is had low amplitude in the right hand than left. Cervical MRG revealed no abnormality. Brain MRG revealed right middle, inferior cerebellary peduncle, olive and pyramid hypoplasia. Mirror movement shows homolog muscle activity which simulating contralateral movement, during a spesific task. This movement is seen usually upper extremity especially in the hand. Corticospinal tract dysfunction is often considered in the pathogenesis. MM may present as part of cervico medullary junction abnormality, cerebral palsy, cerebrovasculary disease, Parkinson disease. We wanted to discuss the patogenesis of MM in our patient with syndactyly and MRG abnormality.

  4. Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan


    The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

  5. EMDR Effects on Pursuit Eye Movements

    Kapoula, Zoi; Yang, Qing; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Sandretto, Jean


    This study aimed to objectivize the quality of smooth pursuit eye movements in a standard laboratory task before and after an Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) session run on seven healthy volunteers. EMDR was applied on autobiographic worries causing moderate distress. The EMDR session was complete in 5 out of the 7 cases; distress measured by SUDS (Subjective Units of Discomfort Scale) decreased to a near zero value. Smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded by an Eyelin...

  6. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....


    Channappa Jagadevappa


    Full Text Available In this research paper author tried to highlight the great extremists in Indian National Movement. The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC, with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil.


    Channappa Jagadevappa


    In this research paper author tried to highlight the great extremists in Indian National Movement. The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress (INC), with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil.

  9. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos


    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration

  10. Pathological basal ganglia activity in movement disorders

    Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O


    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...

  11. Global Social Movement(s at the Crossroads: Some Observations on the Trajectory of the Anti-Corporate Globalization Movement

    Frederick H. Buttel


    Full Text Available This paper examines the major structural characteristics of the anti-corporate globalization movement, its key bases and antecedents, its relationship with other global social movements (GSMs and the key challenges it faces in the post-9/11 period. We suggest that despite the potential of the anti-corporate globalization movement to usher in major social changes, the movement faces a number of major crossroads in terms of ideology, discursive approach, and overall strategy. We argue that there has been coalescence of a good many GSMs, including the international environmental movement, under the banner of the anti-corporate globalization movement. We focus primarily on the interrelations of these two GSMs, noting that over the past decade there have been trends toward both the “environmentalization” and “de-environmentalization” of the anti-corporate globalization movement. While the defection of many mainstream environmental groups fromthe “Washington consensus” and the resulting environmentalization of the trade and globalization issue were critical to the “Seattle coalition,” there has been a signi?cant decline in the movement’s embrace of environmental claims and discourses, and a corresponding increase in its use of social justice discourses. One implication of our analysis is the hypothesis that while the current vitality of the anti-corporate globalization movement can be gauged by its having adopted an increasingly coherent ideological stance in which international inequality and global corporate dominance are targeted, to be successful the movement will need to coherently ideologically integrate social justice with environmental and sustainability agendas. The amenability of the environmental GSM to such ideological integration will have important rami?cations for the future trajectory of the anti-corporate globalization movement.

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    Bekö, Gabriel


    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  13. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Ramona Woitek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. METHODS: Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]. Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981: Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. RESULTS: In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%. Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03, Type Ia (p = 0.031, and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033. Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. CONCLUSIONS: In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  14. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A


    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  15. From Revolution to Devolution: A Social Movements Analysis of the Contemporary Women's Movement in Ireland

    Connolly, Linda


    This study analyses the evolution of the contemporary women's movement in the Republic of Ireland, from the foundation of the State to the present day. Drawing on a social movement's perspective, the emergence, consolidation and transformation of the Women's Movement in that period is explored. To date, there has been no systematic attempt at understanding the central processes and dynamics underlying the Irish Women's Movement. This study seeks to address that deficit by il...

  16. R9 Air Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  17. AirData

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  18. California Air Basins

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  20. Plant movements and climate warming

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An;


    •Most range shift predictions focus on the dispersal phase of the colonization process. Because moving populations experience increasingly dissimilar nonclimatic environmental conditions as they track climate warming, it is also critical to test how individuals originating from contrasting therma...... performance. •Our results suggest that abiotic and biotic soil characteristics can shape climate change-driven plant movements by affecting growth of nonlocal migrants, a mechanism which should be integrated into predictions of future range shifts.......•Most range shift predictions focus on the dispersal phase of the colonization process. Because moving populations experience increasingly dissimilar nonclimatic environmental conditions as they track climate warming, it is also critical to test how individuals originating from contrasting thermal...... environments can establish in nonlocal sites. •We assess the intraspecific variation in growth responses to nonlocal soils by planting a widespread grass of deciduous forests (Milium effusum) into an experimental common garden using combinations of seeds and soil sampled in 22 sites across its distributional...

  1. Movement Precision and Amplitude as Separate Factors in the Control of Movement.

    Kerr, Robert

    The purpose of this study was to assess Welford's dual controlling factor interpretation of Fitts' Law--describing movement time as being a linear function of movement distance (or amplitude) and the required precision of the movement (or target width). Welford's amplification of the theory postulates that two separate processes ought to be…

  2. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy


    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  3. Biomechanical analysis of jaw-closing movements.

    Koolstra, J H; van Eijden, T M


    This study concerns the complex interaction between active muscle forces and passive guiding structures during jaw-closing movements. It is generally accepted that the ligaments of the joint play a major role in condylar guidance during these movements. While these ligaments permit a wide range of motions, it was assumed that they are not primarily involved in force transmission in the joints. Therefore, it was hypothesized that muscle forces and movement constraints caused by the articular surfaces imply a necessary and sufficient condition to generate ordinary jaw-closing movements. This hypothesis was tested by biomechanical analysis. A dynamic six-degrees-of-freedom mathematical model of the human masticatory system has been developed for qualitative analysis of the contributions of the different masticatory muscles to jaw-closing movements, it was found that the normally observed movement, which includes a swing-slide condylar movement along the articular eminence, can be generated by various separate pairs of masticatory muscles, among which the different parts of the masseter as well as the medial pterygoid muscle appeared to be the most suitable to complete this action. The results seem to be in contrast to the general opinion that a muscle with a forward-directed force component may not be suitable for generating jaw movements in which the condyle moves backward. The results can be explained, however, by biomechanical analysis which includes not only muscle and joint forces as used in standard textbooks of anatomy, but also the torques generated by these forces. PMID:7560417

  4. Movement and Music Education: An Historian's Perspective.

    Lewis, Barbara


    Believes that Emile Jaques-Dalcroze is not the only person who has affected movement-based instruction. Highlights the history of movement-based instruction in elementary music education by addressing the influence of Isadora Duncan and modern dance, the efforts of Francois Delsarte and Rudolph von Laban, and the role of remedial perceptual-motor…

  5. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Nesbit, Tom


    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  6. The Movement of Composition: Dance and Writing

    Perry, Kathryn


    This piece, created at the Digital Media and Composition Institute in June 2012, is a multimodal attempt to capture and compare both the physical and conceptual movement involved in dance and writing. The project is my first step towards exploring the non-linear nature of composition as expressed in the movement of the body and of the mind.

  7. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David


    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  8. Model of Emotional Expressions in Movements

    Rozaliev, Vladimir L.; Orlova, Yulia A.


    This paper presents a new approach to automated identification of human emotions based on analysis of body movements, a recognition of gestures and poses. Methodology, models and automated system for emotion identification are considered. To characterize the person emotions in the model, body movements are described with linguistic variables and a…

  9. Towards a discursive analytics of movement

    Frello, Birgitta


    This paper takes as its point of departure the expanding scholarly interest in issues of mobility and movement. It argues that movement is not only a physical activity which is entangled in power and meaning but is fundamentally discursively constituted. Through discussions of theory and of three...

  10. Affective Body Movements (for Robots) Across Cultures

    Rehm, Matthias


    Humans are very good in expressing and interpreting emotions from a variety of different sources like voice, facial expression, or body movements. In this article, we concentrate on body movements and show that those are not only a source of affective information but might also have a different...

  11. Web Archiving: Preserving the Umbrella Movement

    Tsang, Daniel C


    At-risk web content needs to be preserved for future research.  It is especially important to preserve through web archiving social media and other web content of protest movements such as Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement of the Fall of 2014.  Libraries, researchers and data journalists have separately engaged in capturing social media. 

  12. Creative Movement Therapy Benefits Children with Autism.

    Hartshorn, Kristin; Olds, Loren; Field, Tiffany; Delage, Jessie; Cullen, Christy; Escalona, Angelica


    Thirty-eight children with autism were given movement therapy in small groups led by a trained movement therapist. After two months of biweekly sessions, the children spent less time wandering, more time showing on-task behavior, less time showing negative responses to being touched, and less time resisting the teacher than those in the control…

  13. Task Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Hyona, Jukka


    The present study examined how proofreading and reading-for-comprehension instructions influence eye movements during reading. Thirty-seven participants silently read sentences containing compound words as target words while their eye movements were being recorded. We manipulated word length and frequency to examine how task instructions influence…

  14. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B;


    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  15. Movement Sonification: Audiovisual benefits on motor learning

    Weber Andreas


    Full Text Available Processes of motor control and learning in sports as well as in motor rehabilitation are based on perceptual functions and emergent motor representations. Here a new method of movement sonification is described which is designed to tune in more comprehensively the auditory system into motor perception to enhance motor learning. Usually silent features of the cyclic movement pattern "indoor rowing" are sonified in real time to make them additionally available to the auditory system when executing the movement. Via real time sonification movement perception can be enhanced in terms of temporal precision and multi-channel integration. But beside the contribution of a single perceptual channel to motor perception and motor representation also mechanisms of multisensory integration can be addressed, if movement sonification is configured adequately: Multimodal motor representations consisting of at least visual, auditory and proprioceptive components - can be shaped subtly resulting in more precise motor control and enhanced motor learning.

  16. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva


    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  17. Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

    Hoskins, Bryan L


    The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.

  18. Reconstruction of eye movements during blinks

    Baptista, M S; Kliegl, R; Engbert, R; Kurths, J


    In eye movement research in reading, the amount of data plays a crucial role for the validation of results. A methodological problem for the analysis of the eye movement in reading are blinks, when readers close their eyes. Blinking rate increases with increasing reading time, resulting in high data losses, especially for older adults or reading impaired subjects. We present a method, based on the symbolic sequence dynamics of the eye movements, that reconstructs the horizontal position of the eyes while the reader blinks. The method makes use of an observed fact that the movements of the eyes before closing or after opening contain information about the eyes movements during blinks. Test results indicate that our reconstruction method is superior to methods that use simpler interpolation approaches. In addition, analyses of the reconstructed data show no significant deviation from the usual behavior observed in readers.

  19. Striatonigral control of movement velocity in mice.

    Bartholomew, Ryan A; Li, Haofang; Gaidis, Erin J; Stackmann, Michelle; Shoemaker, Charles T; Rossi, Mark A; Yin, Henry H


    The basal ganglia have long been implicated in action initiation. Using three-dimensional motion capture, we quantified the effects of optogenetic stimulation of the striatonigral (direct) pathway on movement kinematics. We generated transgenic mice with channelrhodopsin-2 expression in striatal neurons that express the D1-like dopamine receptor. With optic fibres placed in the sensorimotor striatum, an area known to contain movement velocity-related single units, photo-stimulation reliably produced movements that could be precisely quantified with our motion capture programme. A single light pulse was sufficient to elicit movements with short latencies (<30 ms). Increasing stimulation frequency increased movement speed, with a highly linear relationship. These findings support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor striatum is part of a velocity controller that controls rate of change in body configurations. PMID:27091436

  20. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B


    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  1. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)


    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  2. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Claire eMarcroft


    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  3. Dance recognition system using lower body movement.

    Simpson, Travis T; Wiesner, Susan L; Bennett, Bradford C


    The current means of locating specific movements in film necessitate hours of viewing, making the task of conducting research into movement characteristics and patterns tedious and difficult. This is particularly problematic for the research and analysis of complex movement systems such as sports and dance. While some systems have been developed to manually annotate film, to date no automated way of identifying complex, full body movement exists. With pattern recognition technology and knowledge of joint locations, automatically describing filmed movement using computer software is possible. This study used various forms of lower body kinematic analysis to identify codified dance movements. We created an algorithm that compares an unknown move with a specified start and stop against known dance moves. Our recognition method consists of classification and template correlation using a database of model moves. This system was optimized to include nearly 90 dance and Tai Chi Chuan movements, producing accurate name identification in over 97% of trials. In addition, the program had the capability to provide a kinematic description of either matched or unmatched moves obtained from classification recognition. PMID:23676192

  4. Does movement proficiency impact on exergaming performance?

    Reynolds, Jess E; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Lay, Brendan S; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael


    There is growing interest in the use of consumer level exergames in movement skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement proficiency and performance in virtual exergaming. Twenty seven children, aged 10-15years participated in an experiment completing the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (MABC-2) and a series of XBOX360 Kinect Sports exergaming tasks. Significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 aiming and catching percentile and exergame javelin and target kick, where the more proficient movers tended to perform better in the exergame. Statistically significant correlations were observed between MABC-2 balance percentile and exergaming sprint and target kick performance. In this study children who scored better in real life gross motor movement tasks performed better in most related exergaming activities. This suggests current exergaming technology has advanced to a point where body movement unencumbered by a physical or remote game device tether can extract movements resembling real life tasks, translate them into game play and reward proficient movers with higher in-game performance. It is possible that benefit gained in an exergaming environment by more proficient movers was a result of either their more proficient movement, or a greater ability to adapt to the exergame. PMID:24667304

  5. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Kirsti Suolinna


    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  6. Pressurized air supply device

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  7. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration.

    Ximena Omlin

    Full Text Available For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24-42 years, 12 males were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects' rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement. Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz. In addition, five subjects (25-28 years, 2 males were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects' rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it

  8. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia


    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  9. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A


    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  10. New social movements as a political subculture

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.)