... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...
Full Text Available Wayfinding aids are of great benefit because users do not have to rely on their learned geographic knowledge or orientation skills alone for successful navigation. Additionally, cognitive resources usually captured by this activity can be spent elsewhere. A challenge, however, remains for wayfinding aid developers. Due to the automation of wayfinding aids, navigator independence may be decreasing via the use of these aids. In order to address this, wayfinding aids might be improved additionally to perform a training role. Since the most versatile wayfinders appear to deploy a dual strategy for geographic orientation, it is proposed that wayfinding aids be improved to foster such an approach. This paper presents the results of an experimental study testing a portion of the suggested enhancement.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of aids to navigation. 100.45 Section 100.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to navigation. 66.01-50 Section 66.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State §...
... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on Services for Individuals With Disabilities For information... SECURITY Coast Guard St. Croix River Aids to Navigation AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public... the aids to navigation in the St. Croix River. DATES: A public meeting will be held on Tuesday,...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...
... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment... lighting and navigation aid equipment. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP... navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice...
Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo
This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system. PMID:26225977
Davide O. Nitti
Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.
... United States vessels in one or on the navigable waters of the United States, see 33 CFR 164.33. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... navigation. (a) Officers are required to acquaint themselves with the latest information published by...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The term Aids to Navigation (ATONS or AIDS) refers to a device outside of a vessel used to assist mariners in determining their position or safe course, or to warn...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...
Thomsen, Stine Skoett
This dissertation sets out to explore how two Ugandan NGOs, the Straight Talk Foundation and the Family Planning Association of Uganda have responded to and negotiated with the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Ascertaining a conflictual relation between the rights-based approach to HIV prevention for young people of the two NGO and the value-based approach by PEPFAR, it is demonstrated that this contradiction can to some degree be prevailed over through negotiation, assimi...
Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.
... necessary, the Department of Homeland Security will complete an analysis of potential backups to GPS. The... FR 4047), the U.S. Coast Guard began a public review process for its Draft Programmatic Environmental... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard,...
Department of Homeland Security — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...
Fang Tae Hyun
Full Text Available In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN, we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA. Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.
Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry
Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.
... greater (ENG Form 4020-R). (ii) For channels 100 to 400 feet wide (ENG Form 4021-R). Name of channel Date... Channel 3-78 300 1.14 26 24 23 26 Whitehall Channel 3-78 200 1.81 26 27 26 25 ENG FORM 4021-R (Jul...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...
Stephen L Hicks
Full Text Available Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.
solely as an aid to spatial navigation during exploration.
Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Morea, Alberto; Rana, Fabio M.; Guerriero, Luciano; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo
This study is aimed at exploring the potentials of SAR Interferometry (InSAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) navigation. The basic idea is to infer both position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting the InSAR phase derived by a real time SAR interferometer mounted onboard the platform. Thanks to the expected favorable conditions in terms of geometrical sensitivity as well as signal coherence, the InSAR phase field can be used to derive the terrain elevation. By using both approximated position and attitude values of the platform as well as a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from a mission database available onboard, it is possible to generate a synthetic InSAR phase model to be compared w.r.t. that derived by SAR observations. The geometrical transformation needed to match these two terrain models depends on the difference between position and attitude values derived by the instruments available on board and their actual values. Hence, this matching provides a feedback to be used for adjusting position and attitude. In order to assess the reliability of the proposed approach, we evaluated the interferometric sensitivity to changes in position and attitude. This analysis defines the limits of applicability of the InSAR-based approach and provides indications and requirements on geometric and radiometric parameters.
José, João; MORENO, M; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.
Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.
A navigation system that has been developed in neurosurgery has recently been applied in the maxillofacial region. We introduced a navigation system (Stealth Station, Medtronic) in the maxillofacial region. As preoperative preparation, CT scanning was performed with a slice of 1 mm. Navigation aided surgery was performed in 11 patients with facial fractures between April 2005 and July 2006. Navigation aided reduction of the bone segment was performed by comparing with the sound site on the screen. Facial symmetry was recovered in 10 of 11 cases. Facial asymmetry in 1 case (midfacial multiple fractures) remained, because the system did not work after the surgeon contacted the reference frame during the operation. The navigation system is useful for repairing facial fractures, especially for verifying facial symmetry. (author)
Full Text Available The article is about a problem of air navigation communication and the positive influence of interpersonal communication for air navigation specialists. The ability of organizing a dialogue with subject – subject relationship substantially increase professional interaction efficiency. As scientific surveys show a dialogue is not just the form of communication, but an organizing phenomenon that directly influences the quality of air navigation communication, but there is still a gap in the aviation English teaching technics, mainly due to lack of psycho – pedagogical knowledge concerning human factor peculiarities within dialogical relationship framework. The article highlights the possible ways of the problem solution.
Morrison, Jamie R.
Navigation through a three-dimensional indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. A main obstacle to indoor navigation is maintaining a robust navigation solution (i.e. air vehicle position and attitude estimates) given the inadequate access to satellite positioning information. A MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) based inertial navigation system provides a small, power efficient means of maintaining a vehicle navigation solution; however, unmitigated error propagation from relatively noisy MEMS sensors results in the loss of a usable navigation solution over a short period of time. Several navigation systems use camera imagery to diminish error propagation by measuring the direction to features in the environment. Changes in feature direction provide information regarding direction for vehicle movement, but not the scale of movement. Movement scale information is contained in the depth to the features. Depth-from-defocus is a classic technique proposed to derive depth from a single image that involves analysis of the blur inherent in a scene with a narrow depth of field. A challenge to this method is distinguishing blurriness caused by the focal blur from blurriness inherent to the observed scene. In 2007, MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory demonstrated replacing the traditional rounded aperture with a coded aperture to produce a complex blur pattern that is more easily distinguished from the scene. A key to measuring depth using a coded aperture then is to correctly match the blur pattern in a region of the scene with a previously determined set of blur patterns for known depths. As the depth increases from the focal plane of the camera, the observable change in the blur pattern for small changes in depth is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured using a depth-from-defocus technique increases, the measurement performance decreases. However, a Fresnel zone
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 22... Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become a hazard to air navigation. In general, antenna structure owners...
Waniek, Jacqueline; Ewald, Karolin
This study examines the cognitive costs of navigation aids in a hypermedia learning task. In a 2(navigable vs. non-navigable) x 2(map vs. content list) experimental design cognitive requirements were measured by users' eye movement data. Additionally, data from users' navigation operations, knowledge acquisition, and subjective evaluation of the…
With the adoption of Global Navigation Satellite Systems in smart phones, soldier equipment, and emergency responder navigation systems users have realized the usefulness of low cost Personal Navigation Systems. The state-of-the-art Personal Navigation System is a unit that fuses information based on external references with a low cost IMU. Due to the size, weight, power, and cost constraints imposed on a pedestrian navigation systems as well as current IMU performance limitations, the gyroscopes used to determine heading exhibit significant drift limiting the performance of the navigation system. In this thesis biomechanical signals are used to predict the onset of pedestrian turning motion. Experimental data from eight subjects captured in a gait laboratory using a Vicon motion tracking unit is used for validation. The analysis of experimental data shows the heading computed by turn prediction augmented integration is more accurate than open loop gyro integration alone.
Full Text Available Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35-84 years old. Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18-84 months. Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7% exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19-30. Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill.
... announced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on June 12, 2009 (74 FR 28046). DATES: The Final PEIS... ``USCG Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Program'' Web site at http://loranpeis.uscg.e2m-inc.com... 24 monitoring sites. On January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4047), the USCG made available the Draft PEIS....
This article shows how poor people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania navigate a myriad of actors, agencies and organizations to obtain the aid they need to survive. It focuses on community-based organizations which establish networks of care through which people obtain care, treatment and financial support. A case study of a roadside town in Tanzania illustrates that these community-based networks of care — essential to the survival of many — are partly the product of the AIDS industry, which encourages the establishment of community-based organizations and voluntary service delivery rather than more formalized systems of care. Community-based organizations, however, are so poorly supported that they often deploy self-destructive strategies. The need to strategically navigate the AIDS industry creates tension and even conflict among HIV-positive activists, the people they represent and the wider community, which undermines rather than strengthens community-based interventions. Whilst the AIDS industry promises inclusion of HIV-positive people in the response to HIV/AIDS, it succeeds only partially, with the result that it may potentially do more harm than good. PMID:22069802
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...
Munguía, Rodrigo; Nuño, Emmanuel; Aldana, Carlos I.; Urzua, Sarquis
State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a position sensor (GPS). The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivati...
Kuzu, Abdullah; Firat, Mehmet
The Internet users who fail to cope with navigation may generally face various problems such as disorientation, distraction, low motivation and abandonment of information retrieval. Therefore, navigational aids are frequently used in today's Web browsers and Web sites to help users navigate on the Internet. However, it is asserted that…
Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck
This paper suggests a full protocol of Computer Aided Surgery as previously recommended in literature addressing the challenging task of primary or secondary reconstruction of orbito-zygomatic dislocation. First, on a specifically developed planning software, the best zygoma reduction and orbital boundaries reconstruction to achieve skeletal symmetry are determined. This treatment plan is then transferred to the 3D Navigation Systems within the operating room. After patient's anatomy registration to his preoperative CT scan data, the navigation system allows zygomatic guiding to its planned reduced location and bone orbital volume restoration control. The feasibility of this technique was checked in 3 patients with major orbito-zygomatic deformities. Preliminary clinical results are presented.
Full Text Available The Internet users who fail to cope with navigation may generally face various problems such as disorientation, distraction, low motivation and abondenment of information retrieval. Therefore, navigational aids are frequently used in today’s Web browsers and Web sites to help users navigate on the Internet. However, it is asserted that navigational aids are still not thoroughly understood and effectively used by Information Technologies Teacher candidates. The purpose of this research is, therefore, to determine the navigational aids use by Information Technologies Candidate Teachers during information retrieval process on the Internet. A three-section survey was developed for this purpose. In this survey research, Information Technologies Teacher Candidates’ use of navigational aids in Web sites and Web browsers, and the reasons for low use of navigational aids were investigated. The findings of the study revealed that the teacher candidates did not use bookmarks, Web maps, RSS and atom feeds sufficiently. Moreover, it was found out that the use of navigational aids by teacher candidates show variations according to the average Internet use.
Full Text Available Abstract. In the research of Air Navigation System as a complex socio-technical system the methodologyof analysis of human-operator's decision-making has been developed. The significance of individualpsychologicalfactors as well as the impact of socio-psychological factors on the professional activities of ahuman-operator during the flight situation development from normal to catastrophic were analyzed. On thebasis of the reflexive theory of bipolar choice the expected risks of decision-making by the Air NavigationSystem's operator influenced by external environment, previous experience and intentions were identified.The methods for analysis of decision-making by the human-operator of Air Navigation System usingstochastic networks have been developed.Keywords: Air Navigation System, bipolar choice, human operator, decision-making, expected risk, individualpsychologicalfactors, methodology of analysis, reflexive model, socio-psychological factors, stochastic network.
Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan
A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.
Computer Aided Design Systems with 3D Graphic capability can offer substantial benefits for the simulation and navigation of remote manipulators. The CEGB has been experimenting with its own Corporate INTERGRAPH CAD Network using as an example a remote links manipulator working within the above gas baffle dome area of an Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. A report of this work is presented together with graphic simulations of the manipulator within the above dome area and reconstructions of images anticipated from the on board cameras. Future improvements in the speed of graphic processing will enable these techniques to be used for the on-line navigation of manipulators, as an aid to the interpretation of video images and for the training of operators without the need for full size test and training facilities. (author)
Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.
Bayoud, Fadi Atef; Merminod, Bertrand
Vision-based inertial-aided navigation is gaining ground due to its many potential applications. In previous decades, the integration of vision and inertial sensors was monopolised by the defence industry due to its complexity and unrealistic economic burden. After the technology advancement, high-quality hardware and computing power became reachable for the investigation and realisation of various applications. In this thesis, a mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was develope...
Vadlamani, Ananth Kalyan
A dead-reckoning terrain referenced navigation (TRN) system that uses airborne laser ranging sensors to aid an aircraft inertial navigation system (INS) is presented. Improved navigation performance is achieved through estimation of vehicle velocity and position using terrain measurements. The system only uses aircraft sensors and simultaneously performs the dual functions of mapping and navigation in unknown environments. The theory, algorithms and results of the system performance are presented using simulations and flight test data. This dissertation focuses primarily on the use of dual airborne laser scanners (ALS) for aiding an INS. Dual ALS measurements are used to generate overlapping terrain models, which are then used to estimate the INS velocity and position errors and constrain its drift. By keeping track of its errors, a navigation-grade INS is aided in a feed-forward manner. This dead-reckoning navigation algorithm is generic enough to be easily extendable to use other optical sensors. Data integrity, sensor alignment and the effects of vegetation noise, attitude and heading accuracy are analyzed. Furthermore, a feedback coupled aiding scheme is presented in which a tactical-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU) is aided with dual ALS measurements by feeding the estimated velocity back into the IMU computations. The proposed system can potentially serve as a backup during temporary Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outages, or it can be used to coast for extended periods of time. Although it has elements of conventional TRN, this system does not require a terrain database since its in-flight mapping capability generates the terrain data for navigation. Hence, the system can be used in both non-GPS as well as unknown terrain environments. The navigation system is dead-reckoning in nature and errors accumulate over time, unless the system can be reset periodically by geo-referenced terrain data or a position estimate from another navigation aid.
Air Training Command, Randolph AFB, TX.
This manual provides information on all phases of air navigation for navigators and student navigators in training. It develops the art of navigation from the simplest concepts to the most advanced procedures and techniques. The text contains explanations on how to measure, map, and chart the earth; how to use basic instruments to obtain…
Griessbach, D. G.; Baumbach, D. B.; Boerner, A. B.; Zuev, S. Z.
Accurate knowledge of position and orientation is a prerequisite for many applications regarding unmanned navigation, mapping, or environmental modelling. GPS-aided inertial navigation is the preferred solution for outdoor applications. Nevertheless a similar solution for navigation tasks in difficult environments with erroneous or no GPS-data is needed. Therefore a stereo vision aided inertial navigation system is presented which is capable of providing real-time local navigation for indoor applications. A method is described to reconstruct the ego motion of a stereo camera system aided by inertial data. This, in turn, is used to constrain the inertial sensor drift. The optical information is derived from natural landmarks, extracted and tracked over consequent stereo image pairs. Using inertial data for feature tracking effectively reduces computational costs and at the same time increases the reliability due to constrained search areas. Mismatched features, e.g. at repetitive structures typical for indoor environments are avoided. An Integrated Positioning System (IPS) was deployed and tested on an indoor navigation task. IPS was evaluated for accuracy, robustness, and repeatability in a common office environment. In combination with a dense disparity map, derived from the navigation cameras, a high density point cloud is generated to show the capability of the navigation algorithm.
Full Text Available In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU. Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m.
Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang
In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m. PMID:26828496
Günther, Judith; Schindler, Birgit; Suter, Katja
We live in the modern information society. "To be informed" has a crucial impact on the personal, professional, economic and social development. The knowledge of things and their relationships is essential for acute decisions as well as for long-term planning. And at no time it was easier to get the information required within shorter time periods--no matter to whatsoever. The offer of information of the World Wide Web is inexhaustible. This also applies to information about all possible therapeutic and pharmaceutical issues. But is the information found reliable, too? And are easily accessible sources credible? Can we deal with the information overload at these days or do we actually risk paddling only on the surface of the "information-sea", without ever perceiving the actual information depth and width, less to use it? How can we protect being taken in by marketing strategies? The present article describes a structured proceed when seeking literature to find useful medical and pharmaceutical information in a time saving manner. PMID:25632609
Full Text Available Modern AUV designs must handle submerged autonomous operation for long periods of time. The state of the art solution embedded in the HUGIN AUVs is a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided Inertial Navigation System (INS that can integrate various forms of position measurement updates. In autonomous operations, position updates are only available in limited periods of time or space, thus the core velocity aided inertial navigation system must exhibit high accuracy However, position uncertainty of a DVL aided inertial navigation system will eventually drift off, compromising either mission operation or requirements for accurate positioning of payload data. To meet the requirements for a range of military and civilian AUV applications, the HUGIN vehicles come with a flexible and powerful set of navigation techniques. Methods for position updates include GPS surface fix, DGPS-USBL, Underwater Transponder Positioning (UTP and bathymetric terrain navigation. Based on synthetic aperture sonar technology, a potentially revolutionary accurate velocity measurement is under development. HUGIN also comes with a navigation post-processing system (NavLab, which can be applied to increase navigational integrity and maximize position accuracy.
Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy to improve the navigation solution of the HRC-AUV by deploying a model-aided inertial navigation system (MA-INS. Based on a simpler three-DOF linear dynamic model (DM of the vehicle, and implemented through a Kalman filter (KF, the performance of the proposed MA-INS is compared to state-of-the-art solutions based on non-linear models. The model allows the online estimation of the sea current parameters before and during the navigation mission. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations as well as a statistical significance test are performed using both simulated and real data, demonstrating the usefulness of the proposed model-aided navigation.
Fischer, C.; Muthukrishnan, K.; Hazas, M.; Gellersen, H.
Ad hoc solutions for tracking and providing navigation support to emergency response teams is an important and safety-critical challenge. We propose a navigation system based on a combination of foot-mounted inertial sensors and ultrasound beacons. We evaluate experimentally the performance of our
Jian Tang; Yuwei Chen; Xiaoji Niu; Li Wang; Liang Chen; Jingbin Liu; Chuang Shi; Juha Hyyppä
A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...
Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian
Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10–50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains.
Alain Martinez; Luis Hernandez; Hichem Sahli; Yunier Valeriano-Medina; Maykel Orozco-Monteagudo; Delvis Garcia-Garcia
This paper presents a strategy to improve the navigation solution of the HRC-AUV by deploying a model-aided inertial navigation system (MA-INS). Based on a simpler three-DOF linear dynamic model (DM) of the vehicle, and implemented through a Kalman filter (KF), the performance of the proposed MA-INS is compared to state-of-the-art solutions based on non-linear models. The model allows the online estimation of the sea current parameters before and during the navigation mission. Qualitative and...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....
Kharchenko, Volodymyr; Shmelova, Tetyana; Sikirda, Yuliya
Abstract. In the research of Air Navigation System as a complex socio-technical system the methodologyof analysis of human-operator's decision-making has been developed. The significance of individualpsychologicalfactors as well as the impact of socio-psychological factors on the professional activities of ahuman-operator during the flight situation development from normal to catastrophic were analyzed. On thebasis of the reflexive theory of bipolar choice the expected risks of decision-makin...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...
Full Text Available The Inertial Navigation System (INS is now widely applied in many navigation and mobile mapping applications due to its high sampling rates, high accuracy in short-term cases, and no limitations caused by interference or signal obstructions. In addition, the INS can continuously provide the position, velocity and attitude of a vehicle. Conversely, the disadvantage of the stand-alone INS is that its accuracy degrades rapidly with time because of the accumulations of systematic errors and noises from accelerometers and gyroscopes. Therefore, this research aims to implement an integrated system with specific 3D position updates using non-GPS derived references to aid a tactical inertial navigator to provide seamless navigation solutions in the specific area without Global Positioning System (GPS signals. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is applied as the core estimator to provide superior performance and output the navigation solutions in real-time. The INS is updated by position from references such as the digital map, land mark, Digital Terrain Model (DTM as well as waypoint to improve navigation accuracy in the long-term. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, field tests including land scenario in freeway and airborne scenario with an unmanned aerial test platform have been conducted. The preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm with non-GPS derived references aiding from digital map and waypoint for onboard aerial camera trigger to provide uninterrupted navigation solutions and better performance which can achieve the meter-level accuracy without GPS aiding for land and aerial scenarios, respectively.
Full Text Available The FMBWCN Aid is a portable and wearable multi-purpose system for the partially disabled. The Aid is a glove-based system in which different trained finger movements leads to different modes of operation of the system such as APR Voice Module and Wheelchair Controller Module. The finger movements (bending movement leads to the flexion of the flex sensor attached to the glove. Flexion leads to change in resistance of the flex sensors, which will be recorded via a microcontroller (Arduino Uno and different sets of movement of the fingers will lead to different modules of operation as specified in the default settings of the FMBWCN Aid.
Nilsson, Caroline C. A.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona
A GPS auto-navigation system is designed for Unmanned Air Vehicles. The objective is to enable the air vehicle to be used as a test-bed for novel flow control concepts. The navigation system uses pre-programmed GPS waypoints. The actual GPS position, heading, and velocity are collected by the flight computer, a PC104 system running in Real-Time Linux, and compared with the desired waypoint. The navigator then determines the necessity of a heading correction and outputs the correction in the form of a commanded bank angle, for a level coordinated turn, to the controller system. This controller system consists of 5 controller! (pitch rate PID, yaw damper, bank angle PID, velocity hold, and altitude hold) designed for a closed loop non-linear aircraft model with linear aerodynamic coefficients. The ability and accuracy of using GPS data, is validated by a GPS flight. The autopilots are also validated in flight. The autopilot unit flight validations show that the designed autopilots function as designed. The aircraft model, generated on Matlab SIMULINK is also enhanced by the flight data to accurately represent the actual aircraft.
Till, James E
Cancer-related electronic support groups (ESGs) may be regarded as a complement to face-to-face groups when the latter are available, and as an alternative when they are not. Advantages over face-to-face groups include an absence of barriers imposed by geographic location, opportunities for anonymity that permit sensitive issues to be discussed, and opportunities to find peers online. ESGs can be especially valuable as navigation aids for those trying to find a way through the healthcare syst...
Inchan Paek; Jonghun Jang; Joohwan Chun; Jinbae Suh
Conventional terrain-aided navigation (TAN) technique uses an altimeter to locate the position of an aerial vehicle. However, a major problem with a radar altimeter is that its beam (or pulse) footprint on the ground could be large, and therefore the nadir altitude cannot be estimated accurately. To overcome this difficulty, one may use the nadir-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique to reduce the along-track beam width, while the cross-track ambiguity is resolved wi...
Accomplishing many of the every-day activities present a significant challenge to visually impaired people. One of such challenges is navigation in an unsupervised environment, which might be well addressed with technological solutions. The recent technological advances have made computational devices with significant processing power a widely affordable commodity. In parallel, the advances in computer-vision-based systems allow scene reconstruction in real time paving the way for realistic s...
Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli
In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645
He, Yanping; Liu, Xinxue; Cai, Yanping; Zhu, Yu
The matching function of terrain-aided navigation is not only related to the algorithm, also associated with the terrain characteristics of matching area. Aiming at terrain matching area selection and matching algorithm of the terrain height matching system, the method of terrain information entropy is put forward on the basis of statistical characteristics of the terrain roughness, signal-to-noise ratio, and then COR algorithm, MAD algorithm, MSD algorithm is adopted for real-time map and reference map matching, finally shows the simulation comparison of three kinds of matching algorithm. Result of simulation shows that among the index of matching accuracy and speed of three kinds of algorithm, COR algorithm possess fastest calculation speed and lowest precision, matching accuracy of MSD is slightly higher than MAD algorithm and calculation speed of MSD is placed in the middle, and the simulation results provide selection basis for terrain-aided inertial navigation.
Full Text Available A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF. Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level and attitude (half-degree-level-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.
Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha
A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206
This paper presents a dilution of precision (DOP) analysis of a clock-aided global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Firstly, the analysis shows that a best linear unbiased estimator should be used in the clock-aided GNSS to get the best improvements in accuracy. Secondly, the influence of the clock on vertical DOP (VDOP) and horizontal DOP (HDOP) is analysed by using the clock characteristics as a weighting matrix. The analysis highlights quantitative improvements in the VDOP and HDOP and explains why improvements in the VDOP are superior to those of the HDOP in the clock-aided GNSS. Finally, the paper analyses how incorrectly known a priori clock variances degrade the level of accuracy and offers guidelines for determining a weighting matrix in the cases where the clock characteristics are not clearly known
Couto, Javier; Minel, Jean-Luc
We present an approach to text navigation conceived as a cognitive process exploiting linguistic information present in texts. We claim that the navigational knowledge in-volved in this process can be modeled in a declarative way with the Sextant language. Since Sextant refers exhaustively to specific linguistic phenomena, we have defined a customized text representation. These dif-ferent components are implemented in the text navigation system NaviTexte. Two ap-plications of NaviTexte are de...
Sineglazov, V. M.; National Aviation University,; Zakharin, F. M.; National Aviation University
Using an inertial navigation system and Global Positioning System together is preferable to using any of them separately. Derived benefits depend on the level of combining information. Inertial navigation systems/Global Positioning System integration architectures are defined as separate, loosely and tightly coupled, deeply integrated configurations.
Song, Ziqi; Bian, Hongyu; Zielinski, Adam
Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which it employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.
Ziqi Song; Hongyu Bian; Adam Zielinski
Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement the traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.
Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.
You Li; Yuan Zhuang; Haiyu Lan; Peng Zhang; Xiaoji Niu; Naser El-Sheimy
This paper presents a WiFi-aided magnetic matching (MM) algorithm for indoor pedestrian navigation with consumer portable devices. This algorithm reduces both the mismatching rate (i.e., the rate of matching to an incorrect point that is more than 20 m away from the true value) and computational load of MM by using WiFi positioning solutions to limit the MM search space. Walking tests with Samsung Galaxy S3 and S4 smartphones in two different indoor environments (i.e., Environment #1 with abu...
Feng Wenquan; Zhao Hongbo; Zhao Qi; Li Jingwen
In outdoor environments, GPS is often used for pedestrian navigation by utilizing its sig-nals for position computation, but in indoor or semi-obstructed environments, GPS signals are often unavailable. Therefore, pedestrian navigation for these environments should be realized by the integration of GPS and inertial navigation system (INS). However, the lowcost INS could induce errors that may result in a large position drift. The problem can be minimized by mounting the sensors on the pedestrian’s foot, using zero velocity update (ZUPT) method with the standard navigation algorithm to restrict the error growth. However, heading drift still remains despite using ZUPT measurements since the heading error is unobservable. Also, foot mounted INS suffers from the initialization ambiguity of position and heading from GPS. In this paper, a novel algorithm is developed to mitigate the heading drift problem when using ZUPT. The method uses building lay-out to aid the heading measurement in Kalman filter, and it could also be combined for the initial-ization. The algorithm has been investigated with real field trials using the low cost Microstrain 3DM-GX3-25 inertial sensor, a Leica GS10 GPS receiver and a uBlox EVK-6T GPS receiver. It could be concluded that the proposed method offers a significant improvement in position accuracy for the long period, allowing pedestrian navigation for nearly40 min with mean position error less than 2.8 m. This method also has a considerable effect on the accuracy of the initialization.
This study contributes to research investigating the effects of individual differences and online instructional design on learning. Learning performance was compared across three hypertext formats incorporating different navigational aids. The hierarchical map represented the physical structure of the hypertext in one condition, while the network…
This thesis focuses on the theory and implementation of visual navigation techniques for Autonomous Air Vehicles in outdoor environments. The target of this study is to fuse and cooperatively develop an incremental map for multiple air vehicles under the application of Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM). Without loss of generality, two unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are investigated for the generation of ground maps from current and a priori data. Each individual UAV is equipped with i...
... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...
Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella
At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…
Lee, Sang Hoon
We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to m...
... ] Consent Agreement, Air Products is required, among other things, to divest 15 air separation units (``ASUs... liquid nitrogen. Pursuant to the Consent Agreement, Air Products will divest all of the Airgas business... transaction takes place after February 15, 2011. Any acquirer of the divested assets must receive the...
Chabane Khentout; Mahieddine Djoudi; Lamri Douidi
We Navigation through the Web has problems of positioning and space-temporal reference marks. Therefore, its necessary to design some computer-aided tools to help the user to position himself in space and time during a navigation session. The user is provided with a map of visited sites, thus giving an explicit representation of virtual space. Various levels of visualization are set up to make the map more visible and less overloaded. A permanently displayed time indicator enables users to ke...
Full Text Available We Navigation through the Web has problems of positioning and space-temporal reference marks. Therefore, its necessary to design some computer-aided tools to help the user to position himself in space and time during a navigation session. The user is provided with a map of visited sites, thus giving an explicit representation of virtual space. Various levels of visualization are set up to make the map more visible and less overloaded. A permanently displayed time indicator enables users to keep an eye on themselves and thus to optimize navigation time.
Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R
This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines. PMID:18573753
Full Text Available This paper presents a WiFi-aided magnetic matching (MM algorithm for indoor pedestrian navigation with consumer portable devices. This algorithm reduces both the mismatching rate (i.e., the rate of matching to an incorrect point that is more than 20 m away from the true value and computational load of MM by using WiFi positioning solutions to limit the MM search space. Walking tests with Samsung Galaxy S3 and S4 smartphones in two different indoor environments (i.e., Environment #1 with abundant WiFi APs and significant magnetic features, and Environment #2 with less WiFi and magnetic information were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. It was found that WiFi fingerprinting accuracy is related to the signal distributions. MM provided results with small fluctuations but had a significant mismatch rate; when aided by WiFi, MM’s robustness was significantly improved. The outcome of this research indicates that WiFi and MM have complementary characteristics as the former is a point-by-point matching approach and the latter is based on profile-matching. Furthermore, performance improvement through integrating WiFi and MM depends on the environment (e.g., the signal distributions of magnetic intensity and WiFi RSS: In Environment #1 tests, WiFi-aided MM and WiFi provided similar results; in Environment #2 tests, the former was approximately 41.6% better. Our results supported that the WiFi-aided MM algorithm provided more reliable solutions than both WiFi and MM in the areas that have poor WiFi signal distribution or indistinctive magnetic-gradient features.
Watzinger, F; Wanschitz, F; Wagner, A; Enislidis, G; Millesi, W; Baumann, A; Ewers, R
Augmented reality technology was used in 5 patients for secondary reconstruction of post-traumatic unilateral deformities of the zygomaticomaxillary complex. Three electromagnetic sensors interfaced to a computer-aided navigation system (ARTMA Biomedical Inc.) were utilized. The computer navigation procedure was planned by drawing graphic lines on the CT scan at the level of the zygomatic arch, representing the outer surface of the zygoma. The desired position of the displaced zygoma was planned by mirroring from the healthy side, using a virtual mid-sagittal plane. These virtual graphics were presented intraoperatively on a TV monitor and also on the surgeon's see-through head-mounted display. Correct reduction was assumed when the virtual line representing the position of the zygoma before the osteotomy reached the virtual line defined preoperatively as the desired position. The advantages of the technique presented are that a complete exposure of the zygomatic bone is no longer necessary, and coronal and subciliary incisions may be avoided unless enophthalmos correction has to be carried out, which was in fact necessary in 2 patients. The results of zygomatic reconstruction have been satisfactory in all 5 patients. PMID:9268898
In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.
Full Text Available The predicted residual vectors should be zero-mean Gaussian white noise, which is the precondition for multiple fading factors adaptive filtering algorithm based on statistical information in GPS/INS integration system. However the abnormalities in observations will affect the distribution of the residual vectors. In this paper, a neural network aided adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors based on singular value decomposition(SVD is proposed. The algorithm uses the neural network algorithm to weaken the influence of the observed abnormalities on the residual vectors. Singular value decomposition instead of unscented transformation is adopted to suppress negative definite variation in priori covariance matrix of UKF. Since single fading factor in poor tracking of multiple variables has the limitation, multiple fading factors to adjust the predicted-state covariance matrix are constructed with better robustness so that each filter channel has different adjustability. Finally, vehicle measurement data are collected to validate the proposed algorithm. It shows that the neural network algorithm can prevent the observed abnormalities from affecting the distribution of the residual vectors, expanding the applied range of the adaptive algorithm. The neural network algorithm aided SVD-UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors is able to remove influences of state anomalies on condition of the observed abnormalities. The accuracy and reliability of the navigation solution can be improved by this algorithm.
Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…
Goodman, J.; Gray, P.D.G.; Khammampad, K.; Brewster, S.
Although landmarks are an integral aspect of navigation, they have rarely been used within electronic navigation aids. This paper describes the design of a pedestrian navigation aid for a handheld computer, which guides the user along a route using photographs of landmarks, together with audio and text instructions that reference these landmarks. This aid was designed with older users in mind who often find their mobility hampered by declines in sensory, cognitive and motor abilities. It was ...
Martinelli, Agostino; Troiani, Chiara
In this paper we consider an aerial vehicle equipped with a monocular camera and inertial sensors. Additionally, a laser pointer is mounted on the vehicle and it produces a laser spot. The laser spot is observed by the monocular camera and it is the unique point feature used in the proposed approach. We focus our attention to the case when the vehicle moves in proximity of a planar surface and in particular when the laser spot belongs to this surface. The paper provides two main contributions...
Mogensen, Lars Valdemar; Hansen, Søren; Andersen, Jens Christian;
This paper concerns localisation of an autonomous tractor in an orchard environment, with the purpose of designing a localisation solution to be compared with GPS. The localisation is based on an estimate found by an extended Kalman filter, which fuses measurements from encoders and gyro with row...
Full Text Available The European Air Navigation Services Providers (ANSPs currently handle around 26,000 flights per day. According to forecasts, air traffic levels should probably double by 2020. Different benchmarking exercises have shown that European ATM costs, in comparison to other similar systems on the globe, additional € 2-3 billion per year. This strongly implies that European ATM needs to cut costs and improves its performance. Aeronautical organisations such as the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL or Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO perform benchmarking studies and issue reports, but they both admit that their work is based on factual analysis and not on proper normative analysis and therefore are not entirely objective. Factual analysis is a good starting point, but as already recognized generally, proper methodology should be developed for proper normative analysis. To get a bit closer to objectivity of the results, this paper challenges one of the recognized endogenous factors, the traffic variability. Equalizing the calculations by different variability factors proved that benchmarking order of individual ANSPs changed. Showing an example on how seasonal variability can influence cost-effectiveness and ATCOHour productivity is only one small stone in a mosaic of potential future methodology for normative analysis.
Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe
The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Navigation Aids dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'COE gps all NA...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a...
This Order made under the Civil Aviation Act 1949, came into operation on 12th September 1974 and replaced a similar Order of 1972. Dangerous goods (which include radioactive materials) may not be carried in any aircraft on or over the United Kingdom without the written permission of the Department of Trade. In fact most air transport operators serving the United Kingdom have been given written permission to carry goods in accordance with the International Air Transport Association Regulations relating to the Carriage of Restricted Articles, which contain provisions concerning radioactive materials. (N.E.A.)
Saeedi, S.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N., , Dr.
The ubiquity of mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablet-PCs) has encouraged the use of location-based services (LBS) that are relevant to the current location and context of a mobile user. The main challenge of LBS is to find a pervasive and accurate personal navigation system (PNS) in different situations of a mobile user. In this paper, we propose a method of personal navigation for pedestrians that allows a user to freely move in outdoor environments. This system aims at detection of the context information which is useful for improving personal navigation. The context information for a PNS consists of user activity modes (e.g. walking, stationary, driving, and etc.) and the mobile device orientation and placement with respect to the user. After detecting the context information, a low-cost integrated positioning algorithm has been employed to estimate pedestrian navigation parameters. The method is based on the integration of the relative user's motion (changes of velocity and heading angle) estimation based on the video image matching and absolute position information provided by GPS. A Kalman filter (KF) has been used to improve the navigation solution when the user is walking and the phone is in his/her hand. The Experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of this method for outdoor personal navigation systems.
Dagher, Roudy; Mitton, Nathalie; Amadou, Ibrahim
With the emergence of Smart City concept, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) become one of the key technologies for instrumenting the city, and thus providing its inhabitants with various services meant to improve their daily life. One of the identified applications is Smart Street Lightning, where the lamps are in a mesh network for remote control and maintenance purposes. This paper proposes Ubiquitous Navigation System (UNS), a WSN-based navigation system, which takes benefit from the Smart S...
Gustafson-Pearce, O; Billett, EH; Cecelja, F
Many of the current GPS (Global Positioning Systems) navigation aids use an audio method to deliver navigation information to the user. For the visually impaired person this method can be problematic. The visually impaired pedestrian relies heavily on information contained within the ambient sound environment; for location and orientation information, navigation information, and importantly, safety information. In this paper we present the design of an innovative tactile interface and verific...
Full Text Available A large body of evidence has shown that anosmic pigeons are impaired in their navigation. However, the role of odours in navigation is still subject to debate. While according to the olfactory navigation hypothesis homing pigeons possess a navigational map based on the distribution of environmental odours, the olfactory activation hypothesis proposes that odour perception is only needed to activate a navigational mechanism based on cues of another nature. Here we tested experimentally whether the perception of artificial odours is sufficient to allow pigeons to navigate, as expected from the olfactory activation hypothesis. We transported three groups of pigeons in air-tight containers to release sites 53 and 61 km from home in three different olfactory conditions. The Control group received natural environmental air; both the Pure Air and the Artificial Odour groups received pure air filtered through an active charcoal filter. Only the Artificial Odour group received additional puffs of artificial odours until release. We then released pigeons while recording their tracks with 1 Hz GPS data loggers. We also followed non-homing pigeons using an aerial data readout to a Cessna plane, allowing, for the first time, the tracking of non-homing homing pigeons. Within the first hour after release, the pigeons in both the Artificial Odour and the Pure Air group (receiving no environmental odours showed impaired navigational performances at each release site. Our data provide evidence against an activation role of odours in navigation, and document that pigeons only navigate well when they perceive environmental odours.
Full Text Available This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm, transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data from laboratory experiments, thus proving the evident advantages from air-aided transport. The total energy consumption in air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump, especially within its resistance reducing scope, where slurry flow ranges from 65m3/h to 90 m3/h. It also exists within resistance reducing scope where slurry flow of air-aided transport is less than that of relay pump transport and may reach its limited effective distance. Thus, the findings of this study can provide valuable insight for the optimization design of air-aided transport of cutter-suction dredger.
Su-Hua Wang; Che-Hung Lin
Due to increasing popularity of the World Wide Web, web-based systems are widely used. Most corporate web sites try to enhance their usability by providing artistic web presentations. However, the design of web sites is not judged solely on an artistic basis. Two of the most important design criteria for web sites are access to web content and navigation architecture. This research proposes a platform for automatically evaluating the quality of web navigation architecture. Because of the hier...
The applied problems of SINS/GPS integration navigation system existing in midcourse guidance of air-to-air missiles have been investigated recently. In comparison with those investigations existing in current publications, a new tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration navigation system for air-to-air missiles, based on the decorrelated pseudo-range approach, is presented in this paper. Because of high jamming and dynamic of air-to-air missiles, inertial velocity aiding GPS receiver is used to provide a more accurate, jam-resistant measurement for midcourse guidance systems. A tracking error estimator is designed to distinguish the correlation that existed between pseudo-range measurements and inertial information. It is found better to regard inertial velocity aiding errors as the noise of which statistical properties are unknown. So using mixed Kalman/minimax filtering theory, one can obtain the new tracking error estimator with simple and robust algorithm through constructing a composite filter consisting of two parts: Kalman filter for the noise of known statistics and minimax filter for the unknown. In order to ensure this simple estimator stability, a new method is proposed to choose its parameters, based on Khargonekars work. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the given method also ensures the proposed estimator optimality. All the work mentioned above is involved in the tightly coupled SINS/GPS integration midcourse system design in which a set of low-accuracy inertial components is shared by SINS and autopilot. Simulation results of a certain type of air-to-air missile are presented. Due to decorrelation by the tracking error estimator, only small white noise of pseudo-range measurements remains. So it is shown that application of the new midcourse guidance system results in better guidance accuracy, higher jam-resistance.
The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128
Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto
'Manual navigation' by the operator is the standard method used to obtain information from two-dimensional and volumetric sonography. Two-dimensional sonography is highly operator dependent and requires extensive training and expertise to assess fetal anatomy properly. Most of the sonographic examination time is devoted to acquisition of images, while 'retrieval' and display of diagnostic planes occurs rapidly (essentially instantaneously). In contrast, volumetric sonography has a rapid acquisition phase, but the retrieval and display of relevant diagnostic planes is often time-consuming, tedious and challenging. We propose the term 'intelligent navigation' to refer to a new method of interrogation of a volume dataset whereby identification and selection of key anatomical landmarks allow the system to: 1) generate a geometrical reconstruction of the organ of interest; and 2) automatically navigate, find, extract and display specific diagnostic planes. This is accomplished using operator-independent algorithms that are both predictable and adaptive. Virtual Intelligent Sonographer Assistance (VIS-Assistance®) is a tool that allows operator-independent sonographic navigation and exploration of the surrounding structures in previously identified diagnostic planes. The advantage of intelligent (over manual) navigation in volumetric sonography is the short time required for both acquisition and retrieval and display of diagnostic planes. Intelligent navigation technology automatically realigns the volume, and reorients and standardizes the anatomical position, so that the fetus and the diagnostic planes are consistently displayed in the same manner each time, regardless of the fetal position or the initial orientation. Automatic labeling of anatomical structures, subject orientation and each of the diagnostic planes is also possible. Intelligent navigation technology can operate on conventional computers, and is not dependent on specific ultrasound platforms or on the
... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.670 Section 334.670 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE...
Livonen, Mirja; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
We propose a model of the search term selection process based on our empirical study of professional searchers during the pre-online stage of the search process. The model characterizes the selection of search terms as the navigation of different discourses. Discourse refers to the ways of talking...... and thinking about a certain topic; there often exists multiple, diverse discourses on the same topic. When selecting search terms, searchers appear to navigate a variety of discourses, i.e., they view the topic of a client's search request from the perspective of multiple discourse communities, and...... the searchers' own search experience. Data further suggest that searchers navigate these discourses dynamically and have preferences for certain discourses. Conceptualizing the selection of search terms as a meeting place of different discourses provides new insights into the complex nature of the...
Gentry, E M; Jorgensen, C M
The "America Responds to AIDS" campaign is the focal point of an integrated mass communications system for AIDS education and information dissemination developed by the National AIDS Information and Education Program of the Centers for Disease Control. Television and radio public service announcements are an integral part of the campaign. One measure of their success is the extent to which they are aired on both national and local levels. Since 1987, the total dollar value for air time donate...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to navigation... Coast Guard district to jointly determine whether the obstruction poses a hazard to navigation....
Busnardo, David M.; Aitken, Matthew L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin
In support of NASA s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project, an extended Kalman filter routine has been developed for estimating the position, velocity, and attitude of a spacecraft during the landing phase of a planetary mission. The proposed filter combines measurements of acceleration and angular velocity from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with range and Doppler velocity observations from an onboard light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. These high-precision LIDAR measurements of distance to the ground and approach velocity will enable both robotic and manned vehicles to land safely and precisely at scientifically interesting sites. The filter has been extensively tested using a lunar landing simulation and shown to improve navigation over flat surfaces or rough terrain. Experimental results from a helicopter flight test performed at NASA Dryden in August 2008 demonstrate that LIDAR can be employed to significantly improve navigation based exclusively on IMU integration.
Borràs Sillero, José
[ANGLÈS] Some applications such as industrial automation, cargo handling, warehouse managing, monitoring of autonomous robot or personnel localization, require reliable indoor positioning. In particular, the requirement is to accurately localize a mobile wireless node in real-time. In outdoor scenarios, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) are commonly used for positioning. Nevertheless, they present notable shortcomings for being used in indoor applications. The principal disadvantage...
Xu Wenqing, national project officer of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), recently issued a warning that the men/women ratio of HIV infection in China now stands at 5:5. This indicates that AiDS now threatens other than intravenous drug users, sex workers and hemophiliacs.
The capability of human-computer interaction reflects the intelligent degree of mobile navigation system.The navigation data and functions of mobile navigation system are divided into system commands and non-system commands in this paper.And then a group of speech commands are Abstracted.This paper applies speech recognition technology to intelligent mobile navigation system to process speech commands and does some deep research on the integration of speech recognition technology with mobile navigation system.The navigation operation can be performed by speech commands,which makes human-computer interaction easy during navigation.Speech command interface of navigation system is implemented by Dutty ++ Software,which is based on speech recognition system -Via Voice of IBM.Through navigation experiments,navigation can be done almost without keyboard,which proved that human-computer interaction is very convenient by speech commands and the reliability is also higher.
The paper considers a mathematical model of loosely-coupled inertial-satellite navigation complex which has been developed in the class of linear discrete stochastic models. A specific feature of the considered algorithms for integration of navigation data is the possibility to use parametrical optimum evaluation of the linear Kalman filters constructed on the basis of equations. Strap-down inertial reference system of routes and vertical, strap-down inertial navigation system, geomagnetic o...
Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska; air-to-air gunnery practice area, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1300 Section 334.1300... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1300 Blying Sound area, Gulf of Alaska, Alaska;...
M. M. Atia; Korenberg, M. J.; A. Noureldin
Indoor navigation is challenging due to unavailability of satellites-based signals indoors. Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs) may be used as standalone navigation indoors. However, INS suffers from growing drifts without bounds due to error accumulation. On the other side, the IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi) is widely adopted which prompted many researchers to use it to provide positioning indoors using fingerprinting. However, due to WiFi signal noise and multipath errors indoors, WiFi positioning ...
Full Text Available Most submarines carry more than one set of inertial navigation system (INS for redundancy and reliability. Apart from INS systems, the submarine carries other sensors that provide different navigation information. A major challenge is to combine these sensors and INS estimates in an optimal and robust manner for navigation. This issue has been addressed by Farrell1. The same approach is used in this paper to combine different sensor measurements along with INS system. However, since more than one INS system is available onboard, it would be better to use multiple INS systems at the same time to obtain a better estimate of states and to provide autonomy in the event of failure of one INS system. This would require us to combine the estimates obtained from local filters (one set of INS system integrated with external sensors, in some optimal way to provide a global estimate. Individual sensor and IMU measurements cannot be accessed in this scenario. Also, autonomous operation requires no sharing of information among local filters. Hence a decentralised Kalman filter approach is considered for combining the estimates of local filters to give a global estimate. This estimate would not be optimal, however. A better optimal estimate can be obtained by accessing individual measurements and augmenting the state vector in Kalman filter, but in that case, corruption of one INS system will lead to failure of the whole filter. Hence to ensure satisfactory performance of the filter even in the event of failure of some INS system, a decentralised Kalman filtering approach is considered.
Heatwole, Scott; Lanzi, Raymond J.
The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) aims to replace the human element of range safety operations, as well as reduce reliance on expensive, downrange assets for launches of expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). The system consists of multiple navigation sensors and flight computers that provide a highly reliable platform. It is designed to ensure that single-event failures in a flight computer or sensor will not bring down the whole system. The flight computer uses a rules-based structure derived from range safety requirements to make decisions whether or not to destroy the rocket.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...
Schiffner, Ingo; Wiltschko, Roswitha
Background: Tracks of pigeons homing to the Frankfurt loft revealed an odd phenomenon: whereas birds returning from the North approach their loft more or less directly in a broad front, pigeons returning from the South choose, from 25 km from home onward, either of two corridors, a direct one and one with a considerable detour to the West. This implies differences in the navigational process. Methodology/Principle Findings: Pigeons released at sites at the beginning of the westerly corrido...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
McMahon, Don; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of location-based augmented reality navigation compared to Google Maps and paper maps as navigation aids for students with disabilities. The participants in this single subject study were three college students with intellectual disability and one college student with autism spectrum disorder.…
Part I of this chapter was included in the January 1997 issue of the Journal, Vol. 50, p. 65.The Smith Brothers, 1919. Captain Ross M. Smith, of the Australian Flying Corps based in Palestine, flew a Handley Page 0/400 late in 1918 on a special flight to Baghdad and beyond, carrying as passenger Major General W. G. H. Salmond, the RAF's Middle East Commander. Flying as co-pilot was Brigadier-General Borton, Commander of the Palestine Brigade. Smith had been flying, in support of Lawrence's forces, another 0/00 which Borton had brought from England.
Taylor, K M; Shapiro, M.; Skinner, H A; Eakin, J; Kelner, M
Attempts to comprehend physicians' extreme reaction to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) have met with great difficulty since the disease brings into question traditional norms and assumptions. As the medical profession struggles to develop guidelines and policies to help it deal with this disease, it can draw on very little systematic research on the effect of AIDS on physicians' attitudes and practices. We suggest a framework developed from the literature on physicians' and society...
The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also address...
Nosal, Andrew P.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A.
How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tr...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to... Provisions § 64.31 Determination of hazard to navigation. In determining whether an obstruction is a hazard... vessel incidents involving the obstruction; and (k) Whether the obstruction is defined as a hazard...
A continuous environmental radiation monitor with navigational aid (ERMNA) for mapping natural gamma radiation background on country wide scale by deployment in railway coaches, has been designed. The system makes use of Indian railway network which is one of the widest network of railways in the world covering nearly complete length and breadth of the country. The system uses an energy compensated (within ± 30%) GN detectors for measurement of environmental dose rate due to natural background, a global positioning system (GPS) for on-line acquisition of positional co-ordinates (longitude and latitude) and an 8085 based data acquisition and processing unit. This system is deployed in guard's cabin of a train. The dose rate data tagged with positional co-ordinates and collected by the system during train journey is down loaded into a Lap Top PC for storage, analysis and graphical representation. The system has been used for background monitoring between Mumbai and Pune. The dose rates recorded over a period of three months ranging from November 1996 to February 1997 along the route show no change in the values which vary from 4 μr/h to 6 μR/h along the route. It drops down to <3 μR/h within tunnels en route. (author)
Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John
RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166
Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Puryear, Corey B; Martig, Adria K
The striatum has long been considered to be selectively important for nondeclarative, procedural types of memory. This stands in contrast with spatial context processing that is typically attributed to hippocampus. Neurophysiological evidence from studies of the neural mechanisms of adaptive navigation reveals that distinct neural systems such as the striatum and hippocampus continuously process task relevant information regardless of the current cognitive strategy. For example, both striatal and hippocampal neural representations reflect spatial location, directional heading, reward, and egocentric movement features of a test situation in an experience-dependent way, and independent of task demands. Thus, continual parallel processing across memory systems may be the norm rather than the exception. It is suggested that neuromodulators, such as dopamine, may serve to differentially regulate learning-induced neural plasticity mechanisms within these memory systems such that the most successful form of neural processing exerts the strongest control over response selection functions. In this way, dopamine may serve to optimize behavioral choices in the face of changing environmental demands during navigation. PMID:19056429
Ragosta, Arthur E.
Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Assessment of safety culture is done predominantly by questionnaire-based studies, which tend to reveal attitudes on immaterial characteristics (values, beliefs, norms). There is a need for a better understanding of the implications of the material aspects of an organization (structures, processes, etc.) for safety culture and their interactions with the immaterial characteristics. This paper presents a new agent-based organizational modelling approach for integrated and systematic evaluation of material and immaterial characteristics of socio-technical organizations in safety culture analysis. It uniquely considers both the formal organization and the value- and belief-driven behaviour of individuals in the organization. Results are presented of a model for safety occurrence reporting at an air navigation service provider. Model predictions consistent with questionnaire-based results are achieved. A sensitivity analysis provides insight in organizational factors that strongly influence safety culture indicators. The modelling approach can be used in combination with attitude-focused safety culture research, towards an integrated evaluation of material and immaterial characteristics of socio-technical organizations. By using this approach an organization is able to gain a deeper understanding of causes of diverse problems and inefficiencies both in the formal organization and in the behaviour of organizational agents, and to systematically identify and evaluate improvement options.
Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.
A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik
We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a...
Neufeldt, David E.; French, Mark W.
In this study, the effects of differing levels of obligation attached to a gift and differing levels of resources possessed by the donor on the attraction of the recipient toward the donor were studied. Using groups of between three and five college volunteers, subjects were seated in booths constructed so that they could not see each other, were…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...
Shifei Liu; Mohamed Maher Atia; Yanbin Gao; Aboelmagd Noureldin
The accurate estimation of measurements covariance is a fundamental problem in sensors fusion algorithms and is crucial for the proper operation of filtering algorithms. This paper provides an innovative solution for this problem and realizes the proposed solution on a 2D indoor navigation system for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) that fuses measurements from a MEMS-grade gyroscope, speed measurements and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor. A computationally efficient weighted line...
Kenneth Gade; Bjørn Jalving
HUGIN is an untethered underwater vehicle (UUV) intended for bathymetric data collection for detailed seabed surveying. The HUGIN sensor suite, consisting of standard commercially available navigation sensors and a multibeam echosounder, is briefly presented. A Kalman filter based post processing integration of UUV sensors and survey vessel sensors is discussed. Resulting UUV position and heading accuracy and important characteristics of the post processing filter is shown with simulation res...
Alves De Lima, Danilo
Autonomous navigation of car-like robots is a large domain with several techniques and applications working in cooperation. It ranges from low-level control to global navigation, passing by environment perception, robot localization, and many others in asensor-based approach. Although there are very advanced works, they still presenting problems and limitations related to the environment where the car is inserted and the sensors used. This work addresses the navigation problem of car-like rob...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...
Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.
In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.
Ting Xiong; Yunnan Yao; Shandong Fan; Hanhua Zhu
This study proves the effectiveness of air-aided transport in reducing pipeline resistance and lengthening transport distance. The adopted experimental apparatus is unique in its chosen pipes (120 mm), transmission mediums (including clean water and slurries concentrated at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively) and experiment comparisons between air-aided transport and traditional relay pump transport. Factors such as resistance, transport distance and energy consumption are compared through the data...
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot
Kearns, Edward P., III
Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
Sankar Kumar S, Abarna J, Lavanya G, Nithya Lakshmi S
Full Text Available This paper presents a model of ‘Embedded Glove’, a hand mounted tactile (vibration mechanism feedback Sound Navigation And Ranging (SONAR obstacle avoidance system, by warning through vibration motors for visually impaired to whom traveling in indoor/outdoor environments is really a difficult task. This system acts as an Electronic Travelling Aid (ETA providing independent mobility of the visually impaired. This model comprises of a glove strapped to the wrist, embedded with ultrasonic sensors, battery, microcontroller and vibrator motors. Along with being completely reliable, this system also provides to be a cost-effective guidance mechanism for the visually impaired. The system is designed to scan a wide area with a set of ultrasonic sensors which also provides a good range and speed in the detection of the obstacle. The detected obstacle is immediately notified to the possessor thereby the presence of obstacle along with its direction is conveyed to the visually impaired person by means of a tactile system. The energy consumption for the whole system is controlled by a Photovoltaic (PV panel, making it more efficient. The analysis described in this paper helps to estimate the distance at which the obstacle is present based on the reliability of measurement performed with ultrasonic sensors. It is also possible to detect the speed of moving objects in addition to direction with increased accuracy, with the enhanced response timings and varying intensities in the vibration mechanism.
Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João; Loza, Oralia
For nearly 30 years, Programa Compañeros Inc (Compañeros) has worked in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, to ensure that vulnerable populations can exercise their rights to receive HIV and substance abuse prevention and treatment services. Compañeros staff has worked to ameliorate the negative results that limit access to care to the most vulnerable individuals: those who are poor, homeless, sex workers, addicted, and others whose life context put them at greater risk for being infected with HIV. With support from the MAC AIDS Foundation, Compañeros has expanded its capacity to deliver services to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to HIV-vulnerable populations. This short communication describes findings from an internal evaluation conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the MAC AIDS-funded navigator-based program implemented at Compañeros. PMID:26242198
iSeries Navigator is a favorite tool of operators and administrators-who use it with great success-but many programmers have missed the great programming tools that is provides! This book introduces you to iSeries Navigator along with all the powerful tools and interfaces that will expand your programming horizons. As iSeries applications continue to move toward a graphical user interface (GUI), so does the development environment. Programs such as CODE and WDSC may fill the need for the programming environment, but iSeries Navigator fills the programmer's need for general system access as wel
唐志勇; 艾文娟; 刘岩
According to the characteristics of low precision of the inertial sensor of MEMS technology,a high precision of integrated navigation algorithm is put forward, adopt geomagnetic aided navigation with closed-loop correction, and the deviation of the magnetic and heading Angle of the observation is in order to achieve high precision of inertial navi-gation and a higher dynamic performance .Experiments show that state feedback of inertial navigation system can over-come the error accumulation of inertial navigation,greatly improve the anti-interference ability of the geomagnetic navi-gation,get better navigation accuracy.%针对MEMS技术的惯性传感器低精度的特点,提出一种高精度的组合导航算法,采用地磁辅助导航进行闭环校正,并对地磁的自差和航向角进行观测,以达到较高的惯性导航精度和更高的动态性能.实验证明,状态反馈的惯性导航系统能很好地克服惯导的误差累积,大幅度提高了地磁导航的抗干扰能力,得到较好的导航精度.
Birds are capable of true navigation, the ability to return to a known goal from a place they have never visited before. This is demonstrated most spectacularly during the vast migratory journeys made by these animals year after year, often between continents and occasionally global in nature. However, it remains one of the great unanswered questions in science, despite more than 50 years of research in this field. Nevertheless, the study of true navigation in birds has made significant advan...
Nosal, Andrew P; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A
How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities. PMID:26735492
Riehle, T H; Lichter, P; Giudice, N A
Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. A small portable personal navigation device that provides current position, useful contextual wayfinding information about the indoor environment and directions to a destination would greatly improve access and independence for people with low vision. This paper describes the construction of such a device which utilizes a commercial Ultra-Wideband (UWB) asset tracking system to support real-time location and navigation information. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by comparing target-finding performance between blindfolded subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance, and blindfolded subjects who only received speech information about their local surrounds but no route guidance information (similar to that available from a long cane or guide dog). A normal vision control condition was also run. The time and distance traveled was measured in each trial and a point-back test was performed after goal completion to assess cognitive map development. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three conditions in time and distance traveled; with the navigation system and the visual condition yielding the best results, and the navigation system dramatically outperforming the non-guided condition. PMID:19163698
VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard
Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.
Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E
In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067
The principal aim of this paper is to examine the developmental effectiveness of aid to Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). The author uses an informal analytical framework to accomplish this. The framework provides a production-type equation for determining income growth and conveys that : 1) there are many influences besides aid on country economic performance; 2) domestic policies have a pervasive influence on the whole system; and 3) aid has an important influence in raising import and investment c...
Tony Addison; George Mavrotas; Mark McGillivray
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) give aid to Africa a new emphasis. Yet aid flows to Africa have trended downward over the last decade, and as a consequence more Africans now live in poverty. This is especially true of Sub-Saharan Africa. Any progress towards the main MDG target of halving the number of people living in poverty clearly requires more aid. It also requires a better understanding of what drives aid volumes to Africa and precisely how these flows impact on African economie...
This thesis presents a novel robotic navigation strategy by using a conventional tactical monocular camera, proving the feasibility of using a monocular camera as the sole proximity sensing, object avoidance, mapping, and path-planning mechanism to fly and navigate small to medium scale unmanned rotary-wing aircraft in an autonomous manner. The range measurement strategy is scalable, self-calibrating, indoor-outdoor capable, and has been biologically inspired by the key adaptive mechanisms for depth perception and pattern recognition found in humans and intelligent animals (particularly bats), designed to assume operations in previously unknown, GPS-denied environments. It proposes novel electronics, aircraft, aircraft systems, systems, and procedures and algorithms that come together to form airborne systems which measure absolute ranges from a monocular camera via passive photometry, mimicking that of a human-pilot like judgement. The research is intended to bridge the gap between practical GPS coverage and precision localization and mapping problem in a small aircraft. In the context of this study, several robotic platforms, airborne and ground alike, have been developed, some of which have been integrated in real-life field trials, for experimental validation. Albeit the emphasis on miniature robotic aircraft this research has been tested and found compatible with tactical vests and helmets, and it can be used to augment the reliability of many other types of proximity sensors.
Gersting, John M., Jr.
A brief nontechnical description of time-sharing computer software developed at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis as an aid in disseminating class schedule information. Design criteria include maintenance of a data base on sections offered, display of sections closed, and creation of reports on in individual schedules for closed…
Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.
Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.
LUO Wei; ZHANG Fan; LIU Tie; DU Xing-li; CHEN An-ming; LI Feng
Background Minimally invasive techniques are gaining wide-spread application in lumbar fusion surgery,because they may have advantage over conventional open surgery in approach-related morbidity.This research was aimed to evaluate the safety and accuracy of the techniques of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by using a computer-assisted spinal navigation system combined with electromyography monitoring.Methods Sixteen patients underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.A computer-assisted spinal navigation system and electromyography were used for guiding pedicle screw placement.The operative duration,blood loss,complications,and fluoroscopic time were recorded.Clinical outcome was assessed by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index.Radiographic images were obtained to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement and fusion rates.Results The Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores were vastly improved postoperatively.A total of 64 pedicle screws were implanted and three were regarded as misplacement by post-operative CT scan.Three screw trajectories were adjusted according to intra-operative stimulus-evoked electromyography monitoring.The average fluoroscopy time in each patient was 31.8 seconds,which equals to 7.9 seconds per pedicle screw.No patients had instrument related neurological complications,infection,implant failure or revision.Successful fusion was found in all patients.Conclusions The combination of navigation system and real-time electromyography monitoring can make the minimally invasive operation more safe and accurate while decreasing radiation exposure time of the medical staff and patient and minimizing the chance and the degree of the pedicle screw misplacement.
Kinczkowski, Linda; Cardon, Phillip; Speelman, Pamela
This paper provides examples of Aid-to-Thought uses in urban decision making, classroom laboratory planning, and in a ship antiaircraft defense system. Aid-to-Thought modeling and simulations are tools students can use effectively in a STEM classroom while meeting Standards for Technological Literacy Benchmarks O and R. These projects prepare…
Full Text Available Flights conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR allow to perform flights below the minimums for visual meteorological conditions. Nowadays, in Poland none of the uncontrolled aerodromes have implemented any IFR procedures. The paper presents an analysis of the international and national law in terms of establishing the appropriate IFR procedures at the uncontrolled aerodromes. The exemplary solutions, based on European uncontrolled aerodromes, are presented.
Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L
Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974
YAN Lei; FENG Hao; DENG Zhongliang; GAO Zhengbing
At present, new integrated navigation, which usesthe location function of reference gravity anomaly map to control the errors of the inertial navigation system (INS), has been developed in marine navigation. It is named the gravityaided INS. Both the INS and real-time computation of gravity anomalies need a 3-D marine normal gravity model.Conventionally, a reduction method applied in geophysical survey is directly introduced to observed data processing. This reduction does not separate anomaly from normal gravity in the observed data, so errors cannot be avoided. The 3-D marine normal gravity model was derived from the J2 gravity model, and is suitable for the region whose depth is less than 1000 m.
Anna Gagliardo; Paolo Ioalè; Caterina Filannino; Martin Wikelski
A large body of evidence has shown that anosmic pigeons are impaired in their navigation. However, the role of odours in navigation is still subject to debate. While according to the olfactory navigation hypothesis homing pigeons possess a navigational map based on the distribution of environmental odours, the olfactory activation hypothesis proposes that odour perception is only needed to activate a navigational mechanism based on cues of another nature. Here we tested experimentally whether...
Indonesia has a population of more than 200 million among which less than 500 official cases of HIV/AIDS have been recorded. The number of estimated cases is far greater. High rates of male migration, widespread prostitution, high rates of sexually transmitted disease infection, the absence of sex education for youth, women's low status, and the absence of a national AIDS awareness campaign were cited in 1993 as reasons why HIV would spread quickly throughout Indonesia. Access to basic information about AIDS remains a problem for both urban and rural populations in Indonesia. A national AIDS strategy was made public in 1993 by President Suharto. Supported by the Australians, the plan comprehensively covers almost every key aspect in managing HIV/AIDS. The plan since its release, however, has been largely ignored and the government has done little aside from a handful of television public service announcements, a few pamphlets distributed by the Department of Health, a few small HIV surveillance projects which have yielded little useful information, and the training of government officials to provide AIDS education. Approximately 15 nongovernmental organizations have been actively and successfully conducting AIDS prevention work. PMID:12320962
@@ This presentation attempts a summary discourse on the real time navigator approach to suppressing motion effects in thoracic MRA, particularly in coronary MRA. Organs in the thoracic body trunk experience physiologic motion due to cardiac contraction, respiration, peristalsis and other gross displacements.
Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa
This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women. PMID:21574329
Dauphin, Yannicke; Kowalski, Casimir; Denys, Christiane
Variations in the proportions of the various groups of Rodentia collected from eight stratigraphic levels at Tighenif had previously been interpreted as representing environmental (climatic) changes. However, the processes involved in the formation of assemblages are still not well understood. Examination of fragmentation, crystallinity, and chemical composition of fossil bones and teeth, compared to recent samples, shows that a possible explanation for the variations in frequencies is the differential preservation of skeletal remains. Thus, the evaluation of postmortem effects is essential in determining the accuracy of the fossil record. The abundance and composition of remains are governed by the complex interaction of many factors. As indicated by actualistic studies, direct deductions from fauna lists must be avoided as much as possible.
Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.
Discusses the potential contribution of GPS and related Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to education. Provides resources for teachers to plan a lesson on exploring with the help of a GPS device in order to increase students' awareness of their surroundings and broaden understanding of their place in the world. (KHR)
Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu announced the government’s decision to provide Mexico with humanitarian aid on April 29 in Beijing. The Chinese Government has offered $5 million in emergency humanitar
Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy
The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.
Forbes, Nicholas Lloyd
This PhD investigates driver behavioural adaptation to in-vehicle navigation systems (IVNS). Behavioural adaptation is receiving an increasing amount of research attention in traffic psychology, but few studies have directly considered the concept in relation to IVNS. The thesis aims were addressed using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Using two online surveys, over 1300 drivers (including over 1000 IVNS users) were sampled, to identify a range of positive, neutral ...
More than ten years of archaeological surveys of the Great Harbour of Alexandria have completely changed the conception of the ancient topography of the port area of the city. The remains of ancient port structures show the high level of port's organization and well correspond to the descriptions of ancient authors. This new archaeological data permits to consider general aspects of navigation within the Great Harbour. The most probable courses of the ships calling to the Great Harbour and le...
Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.
A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.
Harrison, Brent Andrew
High energy physics experiment software typically implements a detailed description of the geometry of the relevant detector. As modern detectors increase in complexity, modelling them becomes more challenging. Typically such models are built as a nested hierarchy of O(10000) volumes reaching a depth of 10 - 20. It is desirable to develop data structures and algorithms which allow fast and efficient navigation though a given detector geometry model. We investigate the feasibility of voxelisation techniques to this end.
Sanchez, Richard D.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.
Aerial mapping of the San Andreas Fault System can be realized more efficiently and rapidly without ground control and conventional aerotriangulation. This is achieved by the direct geopositioning of the exterior orientation of a digital imaging sensor by use of an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System (INS). A crucial issue to this particular type of aerial mapping is the accuracy, scale, consistency, and speed achievable by such a system. To address these questions, an Applanix Digital Sensor System (DSS) was used to examine its potential for near real-time mapping. Large segments of vegetation along the San Andreas and Cucamonga faults near the foothills of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains were burned to the ground in the California wildfires of October-November 2003. A 175 km corridor through what once was a thickly vegetated and hidden fault surface was chosen for this study. Both faults pose a major hazard to the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area and a near real-time mapping system could provide information vital to a post-disaster response.
Taj Mohammad Khan
Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.
van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Faber, Annemarie M. E.; Venselaar, Matthijs; van Kreveld, Marc J.; Löffler, Maarten
Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass), and hybrid. In the hybri...
Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira
A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Contro...
Melbourne, W. G.
Recent advances in spacecraft tracking, chronometry, ephemerides, and orbit and trajectory determinations are reviewed. Improvements in timekeeping are reviewed, as well as precision distance and range measurements; orbit determinations, trajectory-correction maneuvers, flight path optimization, and information provided by rotation of the tracking station with the earth's surface. Doppler and tropospheric wave propagation effects are dealt with. Nongravitational perturbations (solar radiation pressure, release of gases from the spacecraft, stochastic unmodeled accelerations and sequential estimation to cope with them), the effect of the target planet's gravitational field upon close approach, and navigation problems in the outer reaches of the solar system (TV data telemetered back for inertial navigation) are covered. By-products of the research include: refined data on the mass of planets, on planetary mass distributions, planet configurations, on physical properties of the atmospheres and ionospheres of planets, and opportunities for refined tests of gravitation and relativity theories and models.
Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not. Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (email@example.com).
Nugent, Richard O.; Tucker, Richard W.
MITRE has been developing a Knowledge-Based Battle Management Testbed for evaluating the viability of integrating independently-developed knowledge-based decision aids in the Air Force tactical domain. The primary goal for the testbed architecture is to permit a new system to be added to a testbed with little change to the system's software. Each system that connects to the testbed network declares that it can provide a number of services to other systems. When a system wants to use another system's service, it does not address the server system by name, but instead transmits a request to the testbed network asking for a particular service to be performed. A key component of the testbed architecture is a common database which uses a relational database management system (RDBMS). The RDBMS provides a database update notification service to requesting systems. Normally, each system is expected to monitor data relations of interest to it. Alternatively, a system may broadcast an announcement message to inform other systems that an event of potential interest has occurred. Current research is aimed at dealing with issues resulting from integration efforts, such as dealing with potential mismatches of each system's assumptions about the common database, decentralizing network control, and coordinating multiple agents.
Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. PMID:12349742
... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...
Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu
Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…
Hiroyuki Hino; Atsushi Iimi
This paper provides a variety of evidence that shows that in Asia, aid leveraged private investment in the long run, while in Africa the correlation between aid and domestic investment was at best ambiguous. Aid in Africa was diametrically opposite to that of Asia in terms of the amounts the countries received, the sector compositions, the size of individual projects, and the intensity of donor involvement. The sharp contrast in aid effectiveness between Asia and Africa could be attributed at...
Walton, R A; Rukeyser, J; Mastroianni, P; Doyle, S; Hunter, A; Mautner, B; Whitaker, P
Studies of health care providers' attitudes have revealed that many have misconceptions and fears about AIDS and possess negative attitudes about caring for people with the disease. Merely transmitting the basic facts about AIDS is insufficient to prepare health care workers to deal with AIDS patients. This article discusses the need for continuing education for health care professionals and educators and offers a model for the development of educational programs. The model is being developed in the School of Allied Health Professions, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Principles of "andragogy"--involvement of both the learner and the educator in identifying students' needs, planning learning experiences, and ongoing evaluation of the learning process--are discussed. PMID:10294008
... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...
Shih Chung Chen; Aaron Raymond See; Yeou Jiunn Chen; Chia Hong Yeng; Chih Kuo Liang
People suffering from paralysis caused by serious neural disorder or spinal cord injury also need to be given a means of recreation other than general living aids. Although there have been a proliferation of brain computer interface (BCI) applications, developments for recreational activities are scarcely seen. The objective of this study is to develop a BCI-based remote control integrated with commercial devices such as the remote controlled Air Swimmer. The brain is visually stimulated usin...
OECD Observer, 1978
For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)
The γ ray gauge is used to investigate the density and distribution of float mud in navigation channel area on site. The results provide important prototype information for effectively using navigable depth and studying rules of back silting. (authors)
Before nuclear power can play its full role in contributing to the development of less advanced countries, full understanding of the capital investment, fuel costs and other economic factors as well as of the place it must take in existing power programmes is essential. Some insight into the problems and prospects was gained at the symposium arranged by the Agency, and held in Istanbul in October, on 'Nuclear Energy Costs and Economic Development'. (author)
Full Text Available The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. HIV/AIDS is one of the vital problems of our century. HIV/AIDS is not merely a medical disease but also is a problem, which possesses economical, cultural, psychological and social dimensions. Women are more vulnerable to HIV than men because of biological and cultural factors. Besides women who carry HIV virus experience difficulty in taking care of their own health, they also carry the burden of possibility that their children and other members of the family might catch HIV virus. Most often, social support is insufficient and the conditions brought by treatment cannot be utilized appropriately due to external interventions. Most of the problems that women under the risk of HIV run into are largely social rather than medical. Many women infected with HIV were isolated because they didn’t get of sufficient social support or didn’t equal time for their care and it is thought that this inequality still continues. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women's empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic.
Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazards to fishing, navigation... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may present a serious obstacle to fishing or navigation may be dumped only at disposal sites and...
Magnetoreception can play a substantial role in long distance navigation by animals. I hypothesize that locomotion guided by a magnetic compass sense could also play a role in short distance navigation. Animals identify mates, prey or other short distance navigational goals using different sensory modalities (olfaction, vision, audition, etc.) to detect sensory cues associated with those goals. In conditions where these cues become unreliable for navigation (due to flow changes, obstructio...
This book is a second edition, updated and expanded to explain the technologies that help us find information on the web. Search engines and web navigation tools have become ubiquitous in our day to day use of the web as an information source, a tool for commercial transactions and a social computing tool. Moreover, through the mobile web we have access to the web's services when we are on the move. This book demystifies the tools that we use when interacting with the web, and gives the reader a detailed overview of where we are and where we are going in terms of search engine
This paper provides an historical overview of aid flows to North Africa. It assesses the aid allocation process and argues that past aid flows to the region have been heavily influenced by donor political interests. This has reduced the effectiveness of aid which, with the exception of Tunisia, has not been associated with sustained economic growth. The Arab Spring provides an opportunity to reappraise aid flows to North Africa and it is argued that future flows need to support the democratiz...
Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Jagersma, Elbrich; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A
Recent studies have shown that navigation impairment is a common complaint after brain injury. Effective training programmes aiming to improve navigation ability in neurological patients are, however, scarce. The few reported programmes are merely focused on recalling specific routes rather than encouraging brain-damaged patients to use an alternative navigation strategy, applicable to any route. Our aim was therefore to investigate the feasibility of a (virtual reality) navigation training as a tool to instruct chronic stroke patients to adopt an alternative navigation strategy. Navigation ability was systematically assessed before the training. The training approach was then determined based on the individual pattern of navigation deficits of each patient. The use of virtual reality in the navigation strategy training in six middle-aged stroke patients was found to be highly feasible. Furthermore, five patients learned to (partially) apply an alternative navigation strategy in the virtual environment, suggesting that navigation strategies are mouldable rather than static. In the evaluation of their training experiences, the patients judged the training as valuable and proposed some suggestions for further improvement. The notion that the navigation strategy people use can be influenced after a short training procedure is a novel finding and initiates a direction for future studies. PMID:26040931
This technology evaluation covers commercially available unitary heat pumps ranging from nominal capacities of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 45 tons. The nominal COP of the heat pump models, selected as representative, vary from 2.4 to 2.9. Seasonal COPs for heat pump installations and single-family dwellings are reported to vary from 2.5 to 1.1, depending on climate. For cooling performance, the nominal EER's vary from 6.5 to 8.7. Representative part-load performance curves along with cost estimating and reliability data are provided to aid: (1) the systems design engineer to select suitably sized heat pumps based on life-cycle cost analyses, and (2) the computer programmer to develop a simulation code for heat pumps operating in an Integrated Community Energy System.
李欣; 王德生; 孙立国; 李世丹
针对地磁场测量信息观测性较差的现状,为了获得较高的辅助导航定位精度和良好的滤波性能,进行了地磁辅助导航路径规划研究.以反映地磁场变化幅度的奇异指数做为地磁场信息量的度量,以点迹总信息量及信息量递增性构建辅助导航路径性能指标.采用粒子滤波算法,对不同路径进行了辅助导航性能仿真对比.仿真结果表明,该算法规划的辅助导航路径比其他路径具有更好的导航定位精度和滤波性能.%Geomagnetic navigation precisely obtains positions from geomagnetic field information. In order to obtain precise positions and filter stability, the poor observability of measured geomagnetic data was analyzed, the singularity exponent was used to measure the amount of geomagnetic information, the performance index was built using gross information and increasing factors, and flight route planning for geomagnetic aided navigation was researched using a singularity exponent. Finally, performance was compared using the flight simulation along different routes with a particle filter as the geomagnetic filter algorithm. The simulation results show that aided navigation routing planned using this algorithm has better positioning accuracy, filtering stability, and convergence.
Amid controversies surrounding aid effectiveness, an increasing number of empirical studies find support for the idea that aid can spur growth and that the aid-growth relationship is nonlinear. Lensink and White propose a model to illustrate the possible existence of what has been labeled an "aid Laffer curve." This short paper highlights the model's weaknesses and suggests that the model does not fulfill the purpose of illustrating the possible existence of negative returns to aid.
Xu, Zhengyi; Wei, Jianming; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Weijun
This paper proposes a robust zero velocity (ZV) detector algorithm to accurately calculate stationary periods in a gait cycle. The proposed algorithm adopts an effective gait cycle segmentation method and introduces a Bayesian network (BN) model based on the measurements of inertial sensors and kinesiology knowledge to infer the ZV period. During the detected ZV period, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate the error states and calibrate the position error. The experiments reveal that the removal rate of ZV false detections by the proposed method increases 80% compared with traditional method at high walking speed. Furthermore, based on the detected ZV, the Personal Inertial Navigation System (PINS) algorithm aided by EKF performs better, especially in the altitude aspect. PMID:25831086
Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01
Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira
A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN). PMID:23705105
Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.
Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.
Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer
Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation. PMID:27093177
Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.
Sonnenberg, G J
Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur
Jung, H.; Lee, J.
According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.
Full Text Available According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.
Krementz, D.; Immel, D.; Vrettos, N.; Nance, T.; Marzolf, A.
Situations exist around the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) complex where it is advantageous to remotely navigate vertical pipe arrays. Specific examples are waste tanks in the SRS Tank Farms, which contain horizontal cooling coils at the tank bottom, vertical cooling coils throughout and a limited number of access points or ''risers''. These factors limit accessibility to many parts of these tanks by conventional means. Pipe Traveler technology has been developed to address these issues. The Pipe Traveler addresses these issues by using the vertical cooling coils as its medium of travel. The unit operates by grabbing a pipe using dual grippers located on either side of the equipment. Once securely attached to the pipe a drive wheel is extended to come in contact with the pipe. Rotation of the drive wheel causes the unit to rotate around the pipe. This action is continued until the second set of grippers is aligned with the next pipe. Extension pistons are actuated to extend the second set of grippers in contact with a second pipe. The second set of grippers is then actuated to grasp the pipe. The first set of grippers releases the original pipe and the process is repeated until the unit reaches its desired location. Once at the tool deployment location the desired tool may be used. The current design has proven the concept of pipe-to-pipe navigation. Testing of the Pipe Traveler has proven its ability to transfer itself from one pipe to another.
Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.
While considerable effort has been invested to increase FAFSA completion among high school seniors, there has been much less investment to ensure that college freshmen re-apply for financial aid. Text messaging is a promising approach to inform students of important stages in the financial aid re-application process and to connect them to…
Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…
Conrad, B.; Korsak, A. J.; Jackson, C. T., Jr.
Using data obtained in flight, three position determining algorithms for use by general aviation aircraft were evaluated representing increasing software requirements. These were a DME only, DME/air data and blended DME/air data. Although each step represented additional software with resultant increase in position accuracy, all could be performed on a programmable electronic desk calculator. Results from the computation of aircraft position using the three algorithms are presented. The algorithms employed can be extended to accept VOR, TACAN bearing, ADF, or other NAVAID Data. To obtain the flight data an experimental system was configured and flown on a general aviation aircraft. Principal hardware elements (all with low-cost potential) were a programmable calculator, a single DME receiver (multiplexed for multiple DME use) and a low-cost air speed sensor (shed-vortex principle). The flight test demonstrated satisfactory performance of these principal elements.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...
Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.
Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse
"Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…
Nisreen A Haideri, Jill A Moormeier
Full Text Available Background: Disparities between U.S. population groups in cancer incidence, treatment and outcome have been well documented. Literature evidence is scarce regarding the impact of patient navigator programs on elimination of these differences.Methods: This is a retrospective case series analysis .The pre -navigation group included patients diagnosed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1999. The post -navigation group included patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. Cancer stage, time from presentation to treatment and treatment outcome were compared by review of medical records.Results: Three hundred and thirty five women were diagnosed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2003. Thirteen patients were ineligible, 103 women in the pre- navigation group, and 219 women in the post-navigation group. 157 (72% received navigation services. The median time to first treatment was decreased by 9 days (42 days in pre -navigation group compared to 33 days in post -navigator group. Race, insurance and clinical presentation did not influence the time to treatment.Conclusions: Navigation program did not influence the stage of presentation or the overall survival of women. There was a modest decrease in the time between initial presentation and definitive therapy. The utility of navigator programs is likely to vary with each institution.
The NAVIGATOR concept is based on the negative-ion-grounded 500 keV/20 MW neutral beam injection system (NBI system), which has been proposed and studied at JAERI. The NAVIGATOR concept contains two categories; one is the NAVIGATOR machine as a tokamak reactor, and the other is the NAVIGATOR philosphy as a quiding principle in fusion research. The NAVIGATOR concept should be applied in a phased approach to and beyond the operating goal for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor, the next generation tokamak machine in Japan). The mission of the FER is to realize self-ignition and a long controlled burn of about 800 seconds and to develop and test fusion technologies, including the tritiumfuel cycle, superconducting magnet, remote maintenance and breeding blanket test modules. The NAVIGATOR concept is composed of three major elements, that is, reliable operation scenarios, reliable maintenability and suffiecient flexibility of the reactor. The NAVIGATOR concept well supports the ideas of phased operation and phased construction of the FER, which will result in the reduction technological risk. (author). 4 refs.; 3 figs
The handling of hazardous materials is becoming more and more of a major concern to everyone. As a result the laws and restrictions regulating the handling, storage, disposal, etc., of these materials are increasing in complexity. These restrictions must be presented directly to the people that actually handle the material and the manner in which this is done will affect the reliability and efficiency of the process. The use of human factors design principles and extensive user input in the design of these job performance aids will greatly contribute to the understandability and usability of the end product-safe handling of hazardous materials
Christy, Donna M.
This article describes lessons that link mathematics topics with literature, the NCTM's Navigations series, and art projects. Each lesson is designed around a theme and is laced throughout with fantasy. (Contains 13 figures.)
Full Text Available Autonomous launch vehicles, once lifted off from the launch pad, equipped with an onboard intelligence which aids in achieving the mission objectives with high accuracy. The accuracy of the mission depends basically on navigation and guidance errors caused at burnout condition, after which the vehicle follows an elliptical path upto impact. The paper describes how to handle the final impact and injection error caused by these navigation and guidance errors. In the current work the initial burnout conditions are tuned and corrected such that the terminal impact point is achieved within the desired tolerance bounds. A two point boundary value problem is solved using the gradient method, for determining the impact errors. The algorithm is validated by simulation studies for various burnout conditions.
Full Text Available The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i the place of the reward, ii the direction taken to obtain reward or iii a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.
Fine, Paul L.
This paper examines the applicability of net tuition revenue models for a highly selective, elite priced, private research university in the southern U.S. Pricing and aid strategies for this university seem to be driven by intuitive assumptions about the economy, market forces, needs-blind admissions, student satisfaction, net price…
St. John, Edward P.
This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…
Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Fugmann, Sebastian D.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key enzyme for antibody-mediated immune responses. Antibodies are encoded by the immunoglobulin genes and AID acts as a transcription-dependent DNA mutator on these genes to improve antibody affinity and effector functions. An emerging theme in field is that many transcribed genes are potential targets of AID, presenting an obvious danger to genomic integrity. Thus there are mechanisms in place to ensure that mutagenic outcomes of AID activity ...
Woods, D. R.; Davis, D; Westover, B J
During the 1987-90 period, five phases of new AIDS information materials were released to the general public in the ARTA campaign, including a national mailer. The five were "General Awareness: Humanizing AIDS" in October 1987, "Understanding AIDS," the national mailout, April 1988, "Women at Risk/Multiple Partner, Sexually Active Adults," October 1988, "Parents and Youth," May 1989, and "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS: Taking The Next Steps," July 1990. From planning to implementation to ...
Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms. PMID:12295207
Delegates from China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam to a Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) workshop in Bangkok urged their governments to give priority to the prevention of HIV and AIDS. There are already approximately 3 million people infected with HIV in Asia. Their numbers should increase by 1-2 million by the year 2000. However, devoid of any prevention measures, 2-5 million more people could instead become infected over the same period. Thailand, where many people have adopted condom use and the patronage of brothels and prostitutes has declined, was noted as a success story at the workshop in preventing the further spread of HIV. The level of risky sexual behavior in Thailand has declined to such an extent that HIV case projections made in 1991 for the year 2000 have been revised to a lower number. An estimated more than 100,000 people are infected with HIV in Indonesia, a country in which the epidemic may grow to 2.5 million cases by 2000 unless successful prevention programs are implemented. PMID:12347936
Horváth, Klaudia; Duviella, Eric; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquim; Rajaoarisoa, Lala H.; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Chuquet, Karine
In a context of global change, inland navigation transport has gained interest with economic and environmental benefits. The development of this means of conveyance requires the improvement of its management rules to deal with the increase of navigation (schedules and frequency) and the potential impact of global change. To achieve this aim, it is first necessary to have a better knowledge about the dynamics of inland navigation networks and their interaction with the environment. Second, the...
Shanklin, Teresa A.
Complex navigation (e.g. indoor and outdoor environments) can be studied as a system-of-systems problem. The model is made up of disparate systems that can aid a user in navigating from one location to another, utilizing whatever sensor system or information is available. By using intelligent navigation sensors and techniques (e.g. RFID, Wifi,…
Moon S. Chen, Jr
Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.
Chooi, Yit-Heng; Tang, Yi
The iterative type I polyketide synthases (IPKSs) are central to the biosynthesis of an enormously diverse array of natural products in fungi. These natural products, known as polyketides, exhibit a wide range of biological activities and include clinically important drugs as well as undesirable toxins. The PKSs synthesize these structurally diverse polyketides via a series of decarboxylative condensations of malonyl-CoA extender units and β-keto modifications in a highly programmed manner. Significant progress has been made over the past few years in understanding the biosynthetic mechanism and programming of fungal PKSs. The continuously expanding fungal genome sequence data have sparked genome-directed discoveries of new fungal PKSs and associated products. The increasing number of fungal PKSs that have been linked to their products along with in-depth biochemical and structural characterizations of these large enzymes have remarkably improved our knowledge on the molecular basis for polyketide structural diversity in fungi. This Perspective highlights the recent advances and examines how the newly expanded paradigm has contributed to our ability to link fungal PKS genes to chemical structures and vice versa. The knowledge will help us navigate through the logarithmically expanding seas of genomic information for polyketide compound discovery and provided opportunities to reprogram these megasynthases to generate new chemical entities. PMID:22938194
Indoor navigation could be used in many applications to enhance performance in its specific area. Anything from serious life critical tasks like aiding firefighters or coordinating military attacks to more simple every day use like finding a desired shop in a large supermarket could be considered. Smartphones of today introduce an interesting platform with capabilities like existing, more clumsy, indoor navigation systems. The iPhone 3GS is a powerful smartphone that lets the programmer use i...
Ineke eVan Der Ham
Full Text Available Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass, and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e. path, landmarks was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning.
Hosoi, H; S. Yanai; Nishimura, T; Sakaguchi, T.; T. Iwakura; Yoshino, K.
Purpose: The potential demand for hearing aids is increasing in accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries. Because certain patients cannot use air conduction hearing aids, they usually use bone conduction hearing aids. However, bone does not transmit sound as efficiently as air, and bone conduction hearing aids require surgery (bone anchored hearing aid) or great pressure to the skull. The first purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a new sound conduction ...
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