Sample records for aids family planning

  1. Determinants of foreign aid in family planning: How relevant is the Mexico City Policy?

    Asiedu, Elizabeth; Nanivazo, Malokele; Nkusu, Mwanza


    The Mexico City Policy (MCP) prohibits the United States Agency for International Development from providing aid to international non-governmental organizations that provide abortion-related services. This paper employs a panel data of 151 developing countries over the period of 1988 - 2010, to examine the effect of the MCP on the allocation of family planning aid to developing countries. We find that the MCP has a negative and robust effect on family planning aid. We also find that family pl...

  2. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa


    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  3. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa


    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  4. Family Planning and AIDS/HIV Intervention from a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Enhancing the Pharmacist's Role.

    Day, Randal D.; And Others


    A study compared perceptions of pharmacy students in three different cultures (Malaysia, Thailand, United States) concerning pharmacist counseling about contraceptive use for family planning and AIDS prevention. Results indicate students in each culture, by gender, had different comfort levels with such counseling, implying need for different…

  5. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    Haour-Knipe, Mary


    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  6. A family planning paradigm.

    Meldrum, A


    800 government-employed family planning community-based distributors distributed the pill throughout Zimbabwe's rural areas. The door-to-door service is one of the main factors that make Zimbabwe's family planning program successful. Zimbabwe boasts a contraceptive prevalence rate of 43% of adult women, considerably higher than Africa's average of 14%. This has caused Zimbabwe's total fertility rate to decline from 6.7 at Zimbabwe's independence (1980) to 5.3 in 1994. The total fertility rate for sub-Saharan Africa is 6.5. At independence, Zimbabwe's annual population growth rate was more than 3% and now it is down to 2.3%. Through the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council, the government pays the salaries of the roving rural distributors. It is estimated that the government bears more than half the cost of the family planning council's budget of $2.5 million. During the war to end white minority rule in the 1970s, President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union was adamantly opposed to the population control efforts. However, in 1985, the shift toward encouraging smaller families was endorsed at the national convention of Mugabe's party. In 1981, about 14% of women were using modern contraceptive methods. By 1988, up to 36%, and a new survey shows that 45% are currently using contraceptives. The family planning council has also launched a Male Motivation Campaign enlisting endorsements from Zimbabwe's popular national soccer team. Zimbabwe has seen a dramatic increase in condom use as a protective measure against AIDS. Currently more than 800,000 Zimbabweans are HIV positive. There are some opponents to Zimbabwe's encouragement of family planning, chiefly the Roman Catholic Church, which claims about 1 million adherents in Zimbabwe. A full range of birth control methods is offered by the family planning council, including diaphragms, IUDs, injectables, implants, and surgical tubal ligations. The pill is used by more than 70% of Zimbabwean women

  7. Family planning/contraception


    It is the position of the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) that family planning advice and assistance should be readily available to all residents of Canada. This is viewed as a responsibility of practising physicians that is to be shared with other health and educational agencies. CMA has recommended the establishment of facilities in addition to physicians' offices for the dissemination of advice on family planning. These facilities should be developed in consultation with and under the s...

  8. Family planning in China.

    Wadia, A B


    The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575

  9. [Family planning in China].

    Suyin, H


    Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly

  10. Family Planning in China



    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  11. Family Financial Planning

    Němcová, Marta


    This Master's thesis focuses on family financial planning and emphasizes its importance in our lives. It's divided into several chapters that are logically linked to each other and form a complex whole. The main part consists of an overview of basic financial products, which everyone should have at least basic awareness of. Description of financial products is mainly focused on its functioning, specifics, advantages and disadvantages. In the next chapter is shown a few examples of how to crea...

  12. Family Planning Services



    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  13. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    ... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male ... for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...

  14. Law and family planning.

    Gerber, P


    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  15. FAmily planning in Taiwan.

    Trewinnard, K


    At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982

  16. Family planning for women with learning disabilities.

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner. PMID:9866586

  17. Natural Family Planning: An Update

    Derzko, Christine M.


    Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of int...

  18. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Sidley, P


    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  19. [Natural family planning].

    Odeblad, E


    Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension

  20. Computer aided planning for orthognatic surgery

    Chabanas, M; Payan, Y; Boutault, F; Chabanas, Matthieu; Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck


    A computer aided maxillofacial sequence is presented, applied to orthognatic surgery. It consists of 5 main stages: data acquisition and integration, surgical planning, surgical simulation, and per operative assistance. The planning and simulation steps are then addressed in a way that is clinically relevant. First concepts toward a 3D cephalometry are presented for a morphological analysis, surgical planning, and bone and soft tissue simulation. The aesthetic surgical outcomes of bone repositioning are studied with a biomechanical Finite Element soft tissue model.

  1. Planning Styles in Single-Parent Families.

    Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice

    Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…

  2. Parenting in Planned Lesbian Families

    Bos, Henny


    This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive for in child rearing? How do they experience the relationship with their partner, and do they feel supported by others? What is the quality of the parent-child relationship in lesbian families? Do le...

  3. Young people’s perspectives on the adoption of preventive measures for HIV/AIDS, malaria and family planning in South-West Uganda: focus group study

    Graffy Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the possibility of preventing many cases of HIV, malaria and unplanned pregnancy, protective measures are often not taken by those at risk in Uganda. The study aim was to explore young people’s perspectives on the reasons why this is so. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 100 secondary school and college students in Kanungu, Uganda in 2011. Three parallel groups considered HIV, malaria and family planning, and common messages were then explored jointly in a workshop based on the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Results Participants identified various reasons why preventive action was not always taken. They worried about the effectiveness and side effects of several key interventions: condoms, antiretroviral treatment, various contraceptives and impregnated mosquito nets. Cost, rural isolation and the quality and availability of health services also limited the extent to which people were able to follow health advice. Although there was respect for policy supporting abstinence and fidelity, it was seen as hard to follow and offering inadequate protection when gender imbalance put pressure on women to have sex. Conclusions There is an opportunity to improve the uptake of preventive measures by tackling the misconceptions and fears that participants reported with clear, evidence-based messages. This should be done in a way that encourages more open communication about reproductive health between men and women, that reaches out to isolated communities, that draws on both voluntary and government services and enlists young people so that they can shape their future.

  4. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    Maureen E Lyon


    Full Text Available Maureen E Lyon1, Patricia A Garvie2, Linda Briggs3, Jianping He4, Robert Malow5, Lawrence J D’Angelo1, Robert McCarter41Children’s National Medical Center and George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia; 2St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; 3Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin; 4Children’s Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia; 5Florida International University, Miami, FloridaPurpose: To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+ adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning intervention.Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76. Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation. Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©; psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories; quality of life (PedsQL™; and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment.Results: Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001. Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018 and emotional (P = 0.029 quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls.Conclusions: Participating

  5. The medical profession and family planning.

    Karkal, M


    The medical profession has played an important role in family planning. The program includes education for family life, marriage-guidance, marriage counseling, treatment of sterility, and control of fertility. A happy family needs children, but an excess of them causes many problems and collectively becomes a national problem. In socialist countries, where abortions have been permitted more liberally, a large number of women have sought aid from doctors who have actively participated in the programs. These doctors have developed better techniques. In developed countries, churches and governments have been forced to fall in line with the prevailing trend of thought even against the Papal edict in Catholic countries and among Catholic people elsewhere. In the still underdeveloped countries, only methods that do not require repetitive and sustained motivation can achieve the desired result in fertility reduction. The Government of India was the 1st to launch a nationwide family planning program. A major handicap to the central Government has been its inability to utilize general practitioners for this purpose. However, they need to be trained in the techniques. The government should enlist their services and keep them informed of developments in this field. The whole medical profession must be included. PMID:12254323

  6. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  7. From family planning to HIV/AIDS prevention to poverty alleviation: a conversation with Mechai Viravaidya. Interview by Glenn A. Melnick.

    Viravaidya, Mechai


    In this interview, Mechai Viravaidya shares how he harnessed the media and various other distribution channels in Thailand to launch nationwide programs aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, and health behavior in very controversial and difficult areas, such as sexual behavior in the context of population control and HIV/AIDS. He provides insight into the leadership skills required to change cultural beliefs in order to achieve public health objectives. And finally, he describes how his thinking has evolved and broadened to include poverty alleviation and improved management and sustainability models for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as the most effective way to improve health status in the long run. PMID:17895259

  8. Why some family planning program fail.


    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355


    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  10. Drawing attention to family planning.


    In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080

  11. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    Butta, P


    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  12. Natural family planning: point, counterpoint.

    Hume, M


    The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862


    Oommachan, Mathew; Khan, Shaukat Saeed


    A preliminary survey was conducted during the years 1978-’79 at Bhopal and its neighbourhood to find out the medicinal plants and their utility. From among a total number of 850 angiospermic plant species of this region, about 10% of them were found having poisonous principles. One fourth of these poisonous plants can be used for safe termination of pregnancy. Certain of these plants are used by the villagers for criminal abortions and even for suicidal purpose. A good number of them can be u...

  14. Combined Edition of Family Planning Library Manual and Family Planning Classification.

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…

  15. Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Richter, Linda M; Sherr, Lorraine; Adato, Michele; Belsey, Mark; Chandan, Upjeet; Desmond, Chris; Drimie, Scott; Haour-Knipe, Mary; Hosegood, Victoria; Kimou, Jose; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Mathambo, Vuyiswa; Wakhweya, Angela


    This paper provides an overview of the arguments for the central role of families, defined very broadly, and we emphasise the importance of efforts to strengthen families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. We draw on work conducted in the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS's Learning Group 1: Strengthening Families, as well as published data and empirical literature to provide the rationale for family strengthening. We close with the following recommendations for strengthening families to ameliorate the effects of HIV and AIDS on children. Firstly, a developmental approach to poverty is an essential feature of responses to protect children affected by HIV and AIDS, necessary to safeguard their human capital. For this reason, access to essential services, such as health and education, as well as basic income security, must be at the heart of national strategic approaches. Secondly, we need to ensure that support garnered for children is directed to families. Unless we adopt a family oriented approach, we will not be in a position to interrupt the cycle of infection, provide treatment to all who need it and enable affected individuals to be cared for by those who love and feel responsible for them. Thirdly, income transfers, in a variety of forms, are desperately needed and positively indicated by available research. Basic economic security will relieve the worst distress experienced by families and enable them to continue to invest in the health care and education of their children. Lastly, interventions are needed to support distressed families and prevent knock-on negative outcomes through programmes such as home visiting, and protection and enhancement of children's potential through early child development efforts. PMID:22380973

  16. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  17. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  19. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system

    P Taraphdar


    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  20. Southcentral Alaska small hydroelectric projects, reconnaissance phase: Planning aid report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Planning Aid Report is based on information gathered from: 1 Kings River, 2 Tonsina River Tributary, 3 Placer River, 4 Bear Creek, and 5 Windy River. Specific....

  1. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Habib, Tufail


    of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning of...... sometimes also dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing......To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...

  2. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.


    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  3. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D’Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert


    Purpose To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+) adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning intervention. Patients and methods We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76). Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five...

  4. Expert system for aiding fuel exchange planning

    A fuel exchange plan is prepared based on intelligence bases such as a method of zoning a reactor core, a fuel arrangement rule and a procedure for fuel exchange, as well as initial data. Then, the fuel exchange plans are patterned to several groups based on the intelligence bases such as patterning of fuel arrangement. A typical pattern is analyzed by a reactor core analyzing code and allowance or rejection for the analyzed patterns is judged based on intelligence bases regarding life time of the reactor core, thermal limit value of fuels, burning of fuel for irradiation test. The result of the judgement is fed-back as an estimation information and the initial data and the intelligence data are added to prepare a plan again. A similar analysis is also conducted for the plan of the rejected group. The allowance or rejection is judged for all of the plans in the same manner. The intelligence bases are used and the result of the judgement is fed-back as a condition for estimation, thereby enabling to remarkably save labors and time and prepare non-typical exchange plans. (N.H.)

  5. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....

  6. Strategic management of family planning programs

    Green, Cynthia P.


    Program management has received insufficient attention among family planning leaders, possibly because of medical or demographic background of many leaders, a focus on other program priorities (such as sheer survival), the pressure to expand programs rapidly, and limited donor interest in the subject. As programs grow in complexity, the problems resulting from weak management systems become more obvious, and organizations are compelled to introduce rational systems. The more successful family...

  7. Motivational aspects of family planning in India.

    Talpallikar, M B


    The apathy of Indians regarding family planning acceptance is compared with that displayed with respect to other programs designed to induce changes in behavior to achieve socioeconomic development. It is felt that understanding motivation would provide the key to making any such venture a success. Motivation is defined and discussed in detail, including its relationship to the success of educational activities. In that context, learning theories and their relationship to family planning behavior are discussed. The need for a high degree of insight into human behavior and a high level of skill in interpreting it on the part of the effective educator or agent of change is noted. PMID:12259435

  8. How Do You Get HIV or AIDS?

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  9. Family Planning Services: An Essential Component of Preconception Care

    Klerman, Lorraine V.


    Family planning services are necessary for the widespread adoption of preconception care for two reasons. First, preconception care is more likely if pregnancies are planned, and family planning services encourage pregnancy planning. Second, family planning services usually include counseling, and counseling provides an opportunity to discuss the advantages of preconception care. However, the potential of family planning services to promote preconception care is limited by underutilization of...

  10. Grants-in-Aid Help Students from Impoverished Families



    @@ Beginning September when the new semester began for schools all over China,grantsin-aid will be given to 20% of the 5.6 million students from poverty-stricken families who were recruited through the 2007 national college entrance examinations in June.This compared with 3% for students recruited through last year's examinations.In concrete terms,each recipient will be entitled,on an average,to some 2,000 yuan each year from now to 2010 when they finish their study at universities and colleges.The authors work with China Central Television (CCTV).

  11. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  12. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  13. Career and Family Plans of College Students.

    Goff, Susan B.

    Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…

  14. Private sector joins family planning effort.


    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  15. Getting family planning and population back on track

    Potts, Malcolm


    After a generation of partial neglect, renewed attention is being paid to population and voluntary family planning. Realistic access to family planning is a prerequisite for women's autonomy. For the individual, family, society, and our fragile planet, family planning has great power.

  16. Maximizing citizen participation in family planning programme.

    Apte, J S


    The article begins with a brief history of family planning in India and points out that from 1951 to 1963, the program was clinic centered. This approach could reach only a small fraction of the population. The 1962-63 Report recommended extension education with the objectives of group acceptance of the small family norm, knowledge about family planning, and easy availability of contraceptives and adequate service facilities. The Family Planning Program is being implemented at 3 levels, governmental, voluntary agencies, and local self-government bodies. Creating an awareness of the urgency of the program, disseminating knowledge and information about methods, and motivating and educating local leaders and lay workers or volunteers for accepting some responsibility in the implementation of the program are all phases of citizen participation if the program. The author provides a list of agencies and organizations from which voluntary services may be drawn, and also enumerates the personal qualities desired in volunteers. There are recommendations as to the training of volunteers, and the specific tasks which they may be assigned. PMID:12338668

  17. Language, videos and family planning in the South Pacific.

    Winn, M; Lucas, D


    In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840


    Surekha Kishore; B S Garg; P R Deshmukh; Pradeep Aggarwal


    Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3...

  19. Research needs in family planning program promotion.

    Cernada, G P


    Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is

  20. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M


    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  1. Computer aids land reclamation plan in mine areas

    A land reclamation plan is a basic and complex work for land reclamation engineering. This paper introduces the technique of a computer-aided subsided land reclamation plan (CASLRP) and focuses on the suitability evaluation of subsided land. Through suitability evaluation, how much land is suitable for development can be determined and the border of different land utilization and the program chart of land use can be drawn by computer. A practical example is given in which the CASLRP technique is applied to a mined area of Jiangsu Province

  2. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  3. Family Perceptions of Student Centered Planning and IEP Meetings

    Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.


    Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…

  4. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.


    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…


    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  6. Computer aided planning and navigation for orbito-zygomatic reconstruction

    Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck


    This paper suggests a full protocol of Computer Aided Surgery as previously recommended in literature addressing the challenging task of primary or secondary reconstruction of orbito-zygomatic dislocation. First, on a specifically developed planning software, the best zygoma reduction and orbital boundaries reconstruction to achieve skeletal symmetry are determined. This treatment plan is then transferred to the 3D Navigation Systems within the operating room. After patient's anatomy registration to his preoperative CT scan data, the navigation system allows zygomatic guiding to its planned reduced location and bone orbital volume restoration control. The feasibility of this technique was checked in 3 patients with major orbito-zygomatic deformities. Preliminary clinical results are presented.

  7. Gay men with AIDS and their families of origin: an analysis of social support.

    Kadushin, G


    This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:8722141

  8. An introduction to family-centred services for children affected by HIV and AIDS

    Richter Linda


    Abstract Family-centred services in the context of HIV/AIDS acknowledge a broad view of a "family system" and ideally include comprehensive treatment and care, community agencies and coordinated case management. The importance of family-centred care for children affected by HIV/AIDS has been recognized for some time. There is a clear confluence of changing social realities and the needs of children in families affected by HIV and AIDS, but a change of paradigm in rendering services to childre...

  9. Power supply models as decision making aids in energy planning

    The present situation of energy supply is characterized by a great variety of interrelated problems such as depletion of reserves, import dependency, financing difficulties, environmental impacts, ect. Consequently those models allowing for the complex reciprocal effects involved, play an important role as decision making aids for energy planning. An energy model for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented as an example of application, which particularly illustrated the feedback processes between energy, economy, environment and society. In this connection, possibilities for development are pointed out, analysed and discussed on the basis of both conservative assumptions and crisis conditions. (orig.)

  10. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU


    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  11. Theoretical Foundation of Family Health Promotion—the Orientation of Family Planning Development in Urban Area

    Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO


    Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.

  12. On financial management of population and family planning programs.


    In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting. PMID:12334205

  13. A Mulditisiciplinary Model of Family Therapy with people living with HIV/AIDS

    Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza


    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.

  14. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.


    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  15. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    ... Emergencies › Pets Pets Your Plan Should Include All Family Members The best way to protect your household ... About Us Latest News Search for Jobs Military Families Disaster Relief International Services National Celebrity Cabinet Mission & ...

  16. Study on the Marketing Strategy of the Family Planning Policy

    Li, Yimin


    The marketing theory has important guidance and reference value in many fields in modern society, and is applied widely in practice. The study shows that the family planning work also has various attributes of the marketing, so the marketing can be widely used to carry out the marketing of family planning. Its basic framework is the 6Ps marketing mix of the family planning policy marketing.

  17. Poverty, Fertility Preferences and Family Planning Practice in the Philippines

    Aniceto C. Orbeta


    This paper looks at the interaction of poverty, fertility preferences and family planning practice in the Philippines using the series of nationally representative Family Planning Surveys conducted annually since 1999 augmented by census and other survey data. Its contribution lies on providing recent and nationally representative empirical evidence on the long running but largely unresolved debate in the country on the relationship between fertility preferences and family planning and socioe...

  18. Strategic Planning with Family Physicians: A Case Study

    Fried, Bruce; Nelson, Wendy


    Family physicians at Sunnybrook Medical Centre were engaged in a strategic planning process to develop a practice philosophy, mission statement, short-term goals, and plan for future programming. Numerous issues were identified in relation to the need for planning, the successful involvement of family physicians in the planning process, and the traditional relationship between physicians and managers which, in the past, has inhibited productive collaboration. Strategies were developed to over...

  19. Family planning in Latin America's barriadas.


    In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848

  20. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  1. Hearing Aids: A Review for the Family Physician

    Gaudry, Florent


    Hearing impairment is a common disability which can often be minimized by the use of hearing aids. Various types of hearing aids have been developed which are appropriate for most hearing losses that are not medically or surgically treatable, and these devices have been variously applied. Potential benefits and limitations of amplification need to be considered for each patient. Changes in technology, assistive devices, and the development of the cochlear implant have improved the ability of ...

  2. Differences in Counseling Men and Women: Family Planning in Kenya.

    Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David


    Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…

  3. New awareness campaign increases appeal of family planning.


    This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles. PMID:12319745

  4. Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication in Family Planning.

    Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura

    The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…

  5. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.


    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250

  6. Participation Rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program: Trends for 1967 through 1984.

    Ruggles, Patricia; Michel, Richard C.

    This report examines participation rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TRIM2, a microsimulation model that simulated the eligibility and benefit rules of the AFDC program on a state-by-state basis, showed that there had been a dramatic decline after 1981 in the rate at which AFDC families were applying for and…

  7. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  8. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Vitug, W


    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values. PMID:12280740

  9. Family planning in the reorganized N.H.S. (e) Community family planning services.

    Macqueen, I A


    Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028

  10. A dementia first aid course for family carers.

    Pogson, Richard

    Many people with dementia are cared for by family members, who may receive little advice or support. This article describes a course developed to help carers deal with frustrating and challenging behaviour. PMID:26647481

  11. Computer aided discovery of families of valid inequalities

    Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert

    We present a computer program that helps the user discovering new families of valid inequalities for any integer program. It does so by finding simple valid inequalities that are violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these inequalities further....... We present new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....

  12. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen


    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  13. China: women benefit from the family planning programme.

    Xiao, Z


    This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role

  14. Brazilian Constitution: The concept of family and family planning as a government strategy

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo; Daniel Dall'Igna Ecker


    In this paper we approached a study about the legal contexts of the Brazilian Constitution which we find the notion of family and family planning, as well as the laws regarding family planning that were promulgated after the 1988 Constitution. Guided through the Foucault’s perspective we questioning how the rationalities that underlie such legislations may produce effects in the organization and management of the population nowadays. We selected the material analyzed through systematic resear...

  15. Computer aided discovery of families of valid inequalities

    Røpke, Stefan

    When designing a branch-and-cut method for a specic problem class it is important to know classes of valid inequalities for the problem. We present a computer program that helps the user discovering new families of valid inequalities. It does so by finnding simple valid inequalities that are...... violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these examples further. We will present examples of new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....

  16. Culture and the management of family planning programs.

    Warwick, D P


    Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022

  17. Making family planning accessible in resource-poor settings

    Prata, Ndola


    It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken...

  18. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.



    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138

  19. On the efficiency of multiple media family planning promotion campaigns.


    This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449

  20. Reproductive Health, Family Planning and HIV/AIDS

    Richey, Lisa Ann


    the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? What have these meant for women's rights, including reproductive rights? The book presents detailed case studies from various countries ranging from India and China, to Egypt......, Tanzania, Uganda and across Africa to Argentina, Peru and throughout Latin America, as well as overarching themed essays. From the politics of abortion and immigration to rising levels of fundamentalist violence and sex selective abortions, the volume explores a range of issues from several vantage points....... It offers startling new insights into these issues by linking them to neo-liberal economic policies that have profoundly shaped health policies globally. This book is essential reading for students of gender studies, public health and demography, as well as policy-makers and activists....

  1. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.

  2. From experience of rendering of the psychological aid to families of migrants

    A mass moving of the population from the contaminated regions is the feature of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences . In result it in families has changed customary a way of life, a gap of family and friendly ties has taken place, prosperity has changed, family traditions have begun to vary and etc.. The correction of the family relations as the form of the psychological aid to the children is widely used by clinical psychologists, psycho physicians, psychiatrists, but last time by school psychologists and social teachers too. For achievement of the therapeutic effect it is necessary to decide two problems - both understanding by the members of family of a role of own personality features in a distortion of operation of family and correction of inadequate reactions of the members of family

  3. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane


    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237

  4. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    J. Tepić


    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  5. Current Literature in Family Planning, November 1972, No. 51.

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…

  6. Study of Families of Curves in the Euclidian Plan

    Belaib Lekhmissi


    Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.

  7. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses

    Susana Barbeito Roibal; Gerardo Domínguez Feijoó; Manuel Martínez Carballo; Eduardo Guillén Solórzano


    A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurr...


    Kuric, Ivan; Kuba, Jozef


    Classification of engineering parts is a very demanding activity especially in process planning. It is one of the important methods utilised in the group technology approach to computer aided process planning. This paper deals with a new method of classification, which extends the possibility of engineering part classification, especially for the process planning of non-cutting processes (forging, casting, etc.)

  9. Developing a business plan for a Family Logistics Company

    Zyrina, Daria


    The purpose of the study was to develop a business plan for a family logistics company in Finland. The work investigated the logistics business in Finland, and created the business plan according to the needs of the industry. The information was gathered from literature, newspapers and Internet. The empirical study contains the business plan. The survey was made using the qualitative method. It discusses the opinion of other logistics companies on today’s situation on the market. The st...

  10. A Gap in the Literature: The Influence of the Design, Operations, and Marketing of Student Aid Programs on College-Going Plans and Behaviors

    Perna, Laura W.


    This article describes what is known from prior research about the impact of student financial aid program design, operations, and marketing on the formation of family (including parents' and children's) college-going aspirations, expectations, and plans, and the resulting college-going behaviors of potential students. The review focuses on the…

  11. Brazilian Constitution: The concept of family and family planning as a government strategy

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo


    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about the legal contexts of the Brazilian Constitution which we find the notion of family and family planning, as well as the laws regarding family planning that were promulgated after the 1988 Constitution. Guided through the Foucault’s perspective we questioning how the rationalities that underlie such legislations may produce effects in the organization and management of the population nowadays. We selected the material analyzed through systematic research in the Brazilian Constitution and in the Portal of Legislation of the Presidency of Brazil. The results obtained indicate that the idea of family and family planning compose legal tools which constitute elements of retrenchment and disciplining of subjects by regulations that they establish. Thus, the jurisdictions operate as strategies to the Brazilian government that include goals that put the employment as the base of everything, and from this, directs people through the policies that produce.

  12. Is family planning an economic decision?

    Wunderink, S R


    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  13. Wisconsin's Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Child Support Enforcement Programs Could Be Improved.

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report from the General Accounting Office reviews selected aspects of Wisconsin's Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Chapter 1 describes AFDC and specifies the scope of the program review. In Chapter 2 the potential for increasing child support collections from parents is explored. Actions which could increase collections…

  14. Unconventional conceptions : family planning in lesbian-headed families created by donor insemination

    Green, Lisa Katherine


    This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...

  15. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide


    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  16. Need for focus on men's perspective in family planning.

    Rix, B A


    An April 1994 workshop involving 13 men associated with European Family Planning Associations emphasized the need for greater male involvement in family planning and sex education. The redefinition of traditional sex roles currently underway in Europe provides a basis for men to discuss sexuality more openly and assume a more active part in family planning activities. This will not occur under existing family planning clinic models, however. Family planning associations must train male educators to train their counterparts and consider the establishment of special facilities to reach and meet the needs of men. In countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Ireland, where male-specific services (e.g., sex education clinics for boys, courses on male sexuality for teachers and other role models, special educational materials) have been made available, the response has been overwhelming. Other suggested programs include peer-led boys' discussion groups, educational programs at sites such as sports clubs and army barracks, and open discussions of sensitive issues such as homosexuality, masturbation, and pornography. Also in need of revision is condom information. Such training should include advice to first try to masturbate with a condom and the experience of condom purchase. Realistic information on the difficulties of condom use should be offered, and young men should be given suggested phrases to use in situations when condom use is being negotiated with a partner. PMID:12289090

  17. Family relations in the context of HIV/AIDS in Southwest China.

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao


    In China, an estimated 780,000 people have been infected with HIV (China AIDS, 2012 ). Even as this stigmatized population rapidly grows, with the majority of reproductive age (20-40 years old), information about their daily experiences in the domestic sphere has been scarce. Because the family remains a central unit of social and ethical organization in China, the current qualitative study examines family relations among people living with HIV (PLWH) with the goal of identifying the effect of HIV on family relations and, conversely, the effect of family relations on those with HIV. We analyzed data from 90 in-depth interviews with PLWH and people around them (i.e., their children, health care providers, other community members) in southwest China (Guangxi province). Through analyzing the families' experiences with illness, three themes emerged: how individuals with HIV interact with their community; how they cope with stigma alongside and against their family; and how families can support those with HIV. Our data ultimately showed the critical role of family in the quality of PLWH's well-being. Because concealment of their serostatus was the primary coping strategy, stigma manifestation was most obvious in the domestic spheres. Yet, when help was received, PLWH regarded family support as the most helpful, as those who received empathy from their families remained more optimistic. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing efficacious intervention programs that could lead to maximize family support, involving the families of PLWH, with a particular attention to family dynamics in daily interactions. Despite our awareness of the significance of family in China, this study reveals a particular kind of role of family that has rarely been considered, namely the role of family in healing and sustaining social bonds within the context of stigmatization, when those bonds might otherwise be broken. PMID:27160680

  18. A family planning program that pays for itself.


    In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264

  19. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Susana Barbeito Roibal; Gerardo Domínguez Feijoó


    A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurr...

  20. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...

  1. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...

  2. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must:...

  3. AIDS

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  4. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Saurina Carme


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  5. [Family planning with different contraceptive methods].

    Dumitrache, F; Gheorghiţă, E


    Female hormonal contraceptives, introduced commercially in 1959, contained 10 mg of norethynodrel and .15 mg of mestranol. The estrogen and progesterone doses were progressively reduced over time. In 1989, approximately 60 million couples used oral contraceptives (OCs) ranging from 1% in Japan to 40% in the Netherlands. The monophasic pill contains .01 - .04 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), and the biphasic pill contains increasing doses of progesterone and estroprogesterone in the course of the menstrual cycle. Triphasic combined pills contain an initially dominant estrogen dose. In oral sequential pills, estrogen is given on days 14-16 followed by a estroprogesterone for 5-7 days. Micropills with progesterone, injectables with medroxyprogesterone, and 3rd-generation OCs such as gestoden with a low progesterone dose of .04 mg/day and reduced androgenic activity are among other OCs. The OCs are administered in 21-22 day packets. Absolute contraindications include history of venous thrombosis, atherogenic lipid profile, hormone-dependent cancer, and allergy. Relative contraindications include arterial ailments, smoking, hypertension, older age, obesity, and familial history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. Interactions with antibiotics (ampicillin and tetracycline) occur as the modified intestinal flora reduces the level of deconjugated EE. Most frequent side effects are depression, modification of libido, ocular disorders, headache, and urinary infection. Benefits include favorable modification of menstrual cycle, and reduction of endometriosis and endometrial and ovarian cancer. Systemic risks such as cardiovascular and blood coagulation effects occur mainly with high-dose OCs. Further topics addressed are the cancer risk and protective effect of OCs, postcoital OCs, traditional contraception, the IUD, RU-486, implants, vaccination with the human antigonadotropine, and the vaginal ring. PMID:1823414

  6. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning

    Ardiansyah .


    This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning) The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM). Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marke...

  7. Roles of nurse aides and family members in acute patient care in Taiwan.

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming


    To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals. PMID:15077835

  8. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Zuhlke, W


    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures. PMID:12316308

  9. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Koukoufilippou J; Koinis A.


    Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Goog...

  10. The Influence of Religion and Ethnicity on Family Planning Approval: A Case for Women in Rural Western Kenya.

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Mutombo, Namuunda; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva; Ezeh, Alex; Muga, Richard


    The role of sociocultural factors such as religion and ethnicity in aiding or hampering family planning (FP) uptake in rural Western Kenya, a region with persistently high fertility rates, is not well established. We explored whether attitudes towards FP can be attributed to religious affiliation and/or ethnicity among women in the region. Findings show that religion and ethnicity have no impact; the most significant factors are level of education and knowledge about the benefits of FP for the mother. FP interventions ought to include strategies aimed at enhancing women's knowledge about the positive impacts of family planning. PMID:25763505

  11. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.


    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs. PMID:12314467

  12. Family support is not a risk factor of negative self-esteem in HIV/AIDS women

    Jean Valeria; Surilena; Yanto Budiman; Samsuridjal Djauzi; Haridana Indah


    Background Women with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) have a complex psychosocial burden and a tendency to negative self-esteem, possibly resulting in mental and emotional problems. They need family support to deal with the HIV/AIDS infection and its psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine chacteristics of family support, self-esteem, and depression of WLWHA and the relationship between family support and self-esteem and depression. Method This was a cross-sectional study o...

  13. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong


    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families. PMID:26130963

  14. A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method

    Ayten Senturk Erenel


    Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390

  15. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 2 Number 11.

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…

  16. Training x Trainee Interactions in a Family Planning Intervention

    Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana


    This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…

  17. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Susana Barbeito Roibal


    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  18. An Architecture of Computer Aided Process Planning System Integrated with Scheduling Using Decision Support System

    Manish; Kumar; Sunil; Rajotia


    Process planning and scheduling are two major plann in g and control activities that consume significant part of the lead-time, theref ore all attempts are being made to reduce lead-time by automating them. Compute r Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a step in this direction. Most of the existin g CAPP systems do not consider scheduling while generating a process plan. Sched uling is done separately after the process plan has been generated and therefore , it is possible that a process plan so generated is e...

  19. Sprint Planning with a Digital Aid Tool: Lessons Learnt

    Engum, Erlend Agoy; Racheva, Zornitza; Daneva, Maya


    Managing the product’s backlog is a major task in agile projects. This case study reports on one organization’s experiences from the transition to a backlog management tool and its contribution to improving sprint planning.. Our key lessons learnt are that a tool is particularly appropriate to organ

  20. A Behavior Modification Plan for Aiding Slow Learners in Arithmetic.

    Pascale, Pietro J.

    The development and implementation of a behavior modification plan based on token learning schemes is described for use in teaching basic computational skills to low ability, poorly motivated fifth graders. The token system with its reward schedule is outlined; reinforcing activities such as team games, quizzes, and drills are discussed. A brief…

  1. The nurse practitioner in family planning services: law and practice.

    Roemer, R


    Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week

  2. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning.

    Stevens, Lindsay M


    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389

  3. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-Yong


    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared...

  4. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs

    Dubey, Archana


    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  5. Evaluation on the Effectiveness and Feasibility of Integrating STI/HIV Counseling with Existing Family Planning Service in Shanghai

    赵鹏飞; 周颖燕; 高尔生


    Objective To assess the impact of pamphlet distribution and counseling on STI/HIV/condom knowledge, attitudes towards STI / AIDS patients and condom use intention of married couples in Shanghai and explore the effective way of integrating STI/HIV prevention with family planning services.Methods Four hundred and five married women aged 20~39 and their husbands were recruited from 14 family planning stations at 7 administrative districts of Shanghai. They were randomly divided into two groups, the counseling intervention (CI) group with 199 couples and the pamphlet distribution (PD) group with 206 couples. For the PD group, only pamphlets containing information on STI/AIDS/ condom were distributed and condoms given free of charge, whereas for the CI group,they were provided with not only full counseling on STI /AIDS /condom and free condoms, but also followed by demonstration of correct condom use. The two modes of interventions were conducted following the baseline survey, and the follow-up data were collected one month later.Results 1. There was no statistical difference between the two groups on STI/AIDS/condom knowledge level, attitudes towards STI /AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline. 2. The follow-up findings indicated that: ① A significant enhancement in knowledge level was observed in the CI group, with 20% increase for husbands and 24% for wives. While for the PD group, only slight increase was observed : 2% for husbands and 3% for wives ; ② 93% husbands and 76% wives of the CI group changed their discriminatory attitudes towards STI patients, and towards AIDS patients, the percentages were 73% and 78%, respectively; ③ 68% husbands and 64% wives of the CI group expressed their intention for condom use; ④ For the PD group, however, there was no difference in attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline and follow-up. 3. The knowledge scores and attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients were mainly

  6. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul


    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  7. The concentration of substance use, criminal justice involvement, and HIV/AIDS in the families of drug offenders

    Barreras, Ricardo E.; Drucker, Ernest M.; Rosenthal, David


    Substance use (SU), criminal justice involvement (CJI), and HIV/AIDS co-occur in many urban families, but little is known about their intergenerational prevalence and the impact of their conjunction on these families. We determined lifetime prevalence of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS in 62 families with a member (the index case) on parole or probation for a drug offense and enrolled in the direct service arm of Family Justice, La Bodega de La Familia—a community support program in New York City’s Low...

  8. Family Planning Policy in China: Measurement and Impact on Fertility

    Wang, Fei


    The extent to which China's family planning policy has driven its fertility transition over the past decades is debatable. The disagreement is partly sourced from the different ways of measuring the policy. Most existing measures, constructed on the policy history, generally, do not include complete secular and cross-sectional policy variations, fail to heterogeneously reflect people's exposure to the policy, and often suffer from endogeneity. This paper reviews the entire history of China's ...

  9. An Evaluation of Family Planning Services in Southwest Virginia

    Lukyanova, Valentina Vladimirovna


    The goal of this study is to assess the quality of family planning services in rural areas of Virginia. Through interviews with the public and not-for profit clinics, I collected various facts and through client survey, I obtained women's perceptions and feeling about the services provided to them. The goal was to reconcile responses wherever possible, and furthermore, identify differences between facts provided by the clinics and perceptions of clients. From the client surveys, I found th...

  10. Family planning:what do adolescents know about this matter?

    Ana Paula Alexandre Bié; Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura


    Pregnancy during adolescence occurs almost always unexpectedly,and it might be related to the lack of information about contraceptive methods.The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge of adolescents about family planning and contraceptive methods,to describe the sources of information about the matter and verify the benefits of sexual education for adolescents.It was a descriptive research,with a qualitative approach,carried out from March through April 2005,with ten adolescents fro...

  11. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme.

    Zou, P


    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203

  12. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    Masoumeh Dejman; Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani; Bahareh Malekafzali; Ghobad Moradi; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya; Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari1; Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi; Minoo Mohraz


    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities ...

  13. Computer-Aided Disaster Recovery Planning Tools (CADRP

    Omar H. Alhazmi


    Full Text Available Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plans (DRPs are becoming an essential component for any organization with IT infrastructure. However, DRPs varies in performance and cost; therefore, based on requirements and resources, an organization can design their DRP. Typically, DRPs depends on data and/or system replication, data needs to be backed up frequently, and a plan to restore the system to running state within the allowed time. Hence, DRP designer must know the needed business requirements in terms of recovery time objective (RTO and recovery point objective (RPO. Then, the appropriate technical requirements will be set. At the same time, the cost factor can play a role in choosing the appropriate DRP. The industry has a widely accepted seven-tier system of how DRP can be designed. In this work, we design and implement a software tool that can simulate the IT DPR systems and therefore help designers to design, optimize, and test their design before it is physically implemented. This tool will run a simulated system with DRP specific design and the designer can exercise with the system to show it’s RTO, RPO, and cost that can significantly improve DRP design.

  14. Case Based Reasoning Intelligent System for Network Computer Aided Process Planning

    ZHAO Chunhua; WU Zhengjia; ZHOU Chengjun; ZHU Dalin; LI Haoping


    Computer aided process planning system played a key role for integrating design and manufacturing or assembly systems properly considering available resources and design constraints. To take advantage of the enterprise resource, the web CAPP framework was established. Case based reasoning and multi agent system were integrated in the system. The multi agent mechanism was discussed in the paper. And an instance of case base was introduced. They made the system run independently and continuously in the network environment of process planning problems.

  15. A mathematical aid decision tool for RT planning

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Santos-Miranda, J A; Desco, M M; Sotolongo-Costa, O; Antoranz, J C


    It is possible to find the optimized radiation dose per session for a radiotherapy (RT) treatment, using a population dynamics model. This has already been done in a previous work for a protocol with 30 sessions and a fixed dose per session. Extending this model to other protocols, with a variable number of sessions, we could change the radiation dosage while keeping the success probability of treatment at its maximum value. This could help the RT oncology service managers to plan the sequence of patients and treatments adapting it to the facilities of the oncology service. Besides, if tumor surrounding tissue is not able to afford a high dosage, it could be useful to extend the treatment to a higher number of low dose radiation sessions, keeping an optimal treatment.

  16. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  17. Applying New Computer-Aided Tools for Wind Farm Planning and Environmental Impact Analysis

    Lybech Thoegersen, Morten; Nielsen, Per; Soerensen, Mads V. [Energi- og Miljoedata (EMD) Aalborg (Denmark); Toppenberg, Per [County of Northern Jutland, Aalborg (Denmark); Soee Christiansen, Erik [Municipality of Nibe, Nibe (Denmark)


    The demand for an environmental impact analysis (environmental assessment study) in any major Danish wind farm project has initiated the development for a set of computer-aided tools for wind turbine planning purposes. This paper gives an introduction to the newly developed computer-aided tools integrated in the wind farm design and planning tool WindPRO. The new module WindPLAN includes three interrelated spatial planning models: a weighted visibility calculation model, a conflict check calculation and a wind resource weighted planning module. The application of the models is exemplified through a case study covering the municipality of Nibe - situated in the Northern Jutland, Denmark. The different analysis are heavily dependent on detailed GIS-data - showing objects such as local housing, leisure areas, preservation areas etc. Finally, a brief presentation of other valuable computer-aided tools integrated in the WindPRO/WindPLAN module is given, such as rendering of terrain profiles, user defined map composing and saved pollution calculation.

  18. The community state aid action plan and the challenge of developing an optimal enforcement system

    Zemplinerová, Alena

    Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2010 - (Lianos, I.; Kokkoris, I.), s. 521-535 ISBN 978-90-411-2692-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : state aid * EU control Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T.


    A series of facility-based surveys that mapped all sites providing family planning services and that assessed readiness to provide services, using mobile phones, was feasible in a low-resource setting, contributing to mobilization of partners and increased donor support. Between 2012 and 2013, readiness to provide services increased from 44% of sites to 63%. Three factors most associated with productivity: type of facility (clinics more than hospitals or health centers), more years in operati...

  20. A Methodology Integrating Petri Nets and Knowledge-based Systems to Support Process Family Planning

    Zhang, Linda; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Abstract Planning production processes for product families has been well recognized as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product family. This paper addresses process family planning for product families. In view of the advantages of Petri nets (PNs) for modeling large systems, the potential of knowledge-based...

  1. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Gilliam, Melissa L.; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Neustadt, Amy; Stulberg, Debra


    Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion) and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation. Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology. Results: Students desired education in family planning but per...

  2. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.


    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  3. Assessing the Impact of a Family Planning Nurse Training Program in Egypt.

    Halawa, M.; And Others


    Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…

  4. 77 FR 55891 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...


    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR... scientific topics, including antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and adherence/retention issues. The...

  5. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Koukoufilippou J


    Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.


    ZHANG Zhiying; LI Zhen; JIANG Zhibin


    Computer-aided block assembly process planning based on rule-reasoning are developed in order to improve the assembly efficiency and implement the automated block assembly process planning generation in shipbuilding. First, weighted directed liaison graph (WDLG) is proposed to represent the model of block assembly process according to the characteristics of assembly relation, and edge list (EL) is used to describe assembly sequences. Shapes and assembly attributes of block parts are analyzed to determine the assembly position and matched parts of parts used frequently. Then, a series of assembly rules are generalized, and assembly sequences for block are obtained by means of rule reasoning. Final, a prototype system of computer-aided block assembly process planning is built. The system has been tested on actual block, and the results were found to be quite efficiency. Meanwhile, the fundament for the automation of block assembly process generation and integration with other systems is established.


    Anand Mohan Dixit


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  8. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D


    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  9. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning



    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.

  10. Three-dimensional planning of remote gamma-therapy with the aid of personal computer

    Feasibilities of the 'OS3D plan' three-dimensional planning system for remote gamma-therapy with the aid of personal computer were described. The 'OS3D plan' system was made in the form of working place for medical radiologist. The system consists of modules and intended for patient general and diagnostic data acquisition as well as for development, analysis and storage of the remote gamma-therapy plans. The 'OS3D plan' system was realized on the basis of IBM PC/AT-286/287 computer. The calculation of isodose distribution is conducted taking into account the heterogeneous structures of dose distribution according to the pixel-by-pixel algorithm

  11. Family planning in developing nations: a global concern, our concern.

    Harriman, L


    Rapid population growth is a serious problem in many developing countries and family planning policies developed in response to the problem raise many ethical issues; home economists can help the citizens in their respective countries increase their knowledge of population dynamics and help them assess the ethical implications of population and family planning policies. Most developing countries have high population growth rates. The annual population growth rates for 1975-79 were 2.8% for Africa, 2.6% for Latin America, and 2.1% for Asia. Population grows exponentially: a population growing at an annual rate of 3% increases. 1900% in a century. If current population trends continue the world's population will stablize toward the end of the 21st century at about 10 billion persons, compared to the world's present population of 4.3 billion. Rapid population growth not only threatens the future welfare of society as a whole, but currently impedes the economic development of the world's poorest nations. Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age. Barriers to family planning acceptance include 1) high illiteracy rates 2) high infant mortality rates 3) the high economic and socialvalue placed on children in developing countries and 4)religious beliefs. Methods used by governments to alter population growth include 1) manipulating access to contraceptives, 2)developing programs to alter social determinants of fertility, 3) using propaganda to encourage or discourage birth control and repressing information contrary to the government's policies, 4) offering incentives to those who further government policies and imposing disincentives on those who do not comply with government policies, and 5) exerting

  12. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.


    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…

  13. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.


    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Mainstreaming risk reduction in urban planning and housing: a challenge for international aid organisations.

    Wamsler, Christine


    The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change. PMID:16689916

  15. President Mubarak, Turkish Family Planning Foundation receive UN population award.


    On June 14, 1994, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Vehbi Koc, President of the Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation (TFHPF) received 1994 UN Population Awards for outstanding work in increasing public awareness of population problems and their solutions. Mubarak was chosen for his national and international leadership in population issues, and the TFHPF was chosen for its achievements in improving the quality of family planning services in Turkey. In his presentation address, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali noted that the awards not only honor the individual recipients but also signal the continuing concern of the UN about achieving a peaceful balance among concerns of population, the environment, and development. Thus, the 20-year International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action will seek to integrate population concerns into every area of development. Mubarak accepted the award as recognition of Egypt's success in confronting population problems by striving for comprehensive development and by introducing policies to persuade people to participate freely in population programs. Koc reported that the TFHPF supports alternative and innovative solutions to the social and economic problems caused by rapid population growth and constructively influences national population programs and policies. PMID:12179003

  16. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward

    Ademola Adelekan


    Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.

  17. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

    Saroj Pachauri


    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  18. Family planning and maternal health care in Egypt.

    El-mouelhy, M T


    The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075

  19. A linear programming based decision support aid for Navy enlisted strength planning

    Rodgers, Philip D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A multi-objective linear program (MOLP) using goal programming is developed as a decision support aid in determining optimal levels of those areas of Navy enlisted strength planning which are subject to centralized management control. Over a multi-year period these decisions include monthly inventories in each paygrade, monthly total inventories, monthly advancements in the top six paygrades, and monthly recruiting goals. The mod...

  20. Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

    Meister H; Grugel L; Meis M


    Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behav...

  1. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility's physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables

  2. Re-focusing the Gender Lens: Caregiving Women, Family Roles and HIV/AIDS Vulnerability in Lesotho

    Harrison, Abigail; Short, Susan E.; Tuoane-Nkhasi, Maletela


    Gender and HIV risk have been widely examined in southern Africa, generally with a focus on dynamics within sexual relationships. Yet the social construction of women’s lives reflects their broader engagement with a gendered social system, which influences both individual-level risks and social and economic vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS. Using qualitative data from Lesotho, we examine women’s lived experiences of gender, family and HIV/AIDS through three domains: 1) marriage; 2) kinship and soc...

  3. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    Harvey, P D


    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954

  4. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    Furnas, Hannah E


    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. PMID:27517867

  5. Measuring Access to Family Planning: Conceptual Frameworks and DHS Data.

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob


    Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425

  6. China's Experience of Quality Care in Family Planning

    Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU


    Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.

  7. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz


    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  8. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    Chen, E C


    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception. PMID:12222468

  9. Introduction to the AFDC program. Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

    Page, S B; Larner, M B


    This journal issue discusses the policy challenges of helping parents move from welfare to work. As a foundation, this introductory article explains the federal-state program of cash assistance called Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), to which the term welfare refers in most of these articles. While a number of other social programs are sometimes included under the umbrella of welfare-such as the Supplemental Security Income program for the disabled, food stamps, and Medicaid-the program that has drawn the most public scrutiny and negative attention, and the centerpiece of the 1996 welfare reform legislation, is AFDC. This article explains the basic structure of the AFDC program, including eligibility criteria and benefits; discusses the characteristics of families that have received AFDC; describes trends in the program's size and cost from the 1970s to 1996; and indicates the major ways in which the block grant established in the 1996 welfare reform legislation compares to the AFDC program that it replaced. PMID:9170729

  10. Misconceptions about family planning of women in Turkey

    Meltem Demirgöz Bal


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause.  The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and  infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.

  11. Unmet need for family planning in South Africa 1998 Malawi 2000 / Tshegofatso Queen Molebatsi

    Molebatsi, Tshegofatso Queen


    Introduction: Unmet need for family planning is high in most African countries including South Africa and Malawi as witnessed by high levels of teenage pregnancies, unwanted births and unsafe abortion. As such unmet need for family planning was added to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as an indicator for tracking progress on improving maternal health. Objective: The primary objective of the study is to determine the correlates of unmet need for family planning among women of re...

  12. Women’s experience regarding the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba


    Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: T...

  13. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District.

    Farmer, DB; Berman, L.; Ryan, G.; Habumugisha, L; Basinga, P.; Nutt, C; Kamali, F.; Ngizwenayo, E; Fleur, JS; Niyigena, P; Ngabo, F; Farmer, PE; Rich, ML


    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...

  14. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E.; Rich, Michael L.


    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...

  15. Husband-wife communication about family planning in Assosa Town (Ethiopia)


    A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in Assosa Town, Ethiopia (2001-2002) to investigate what proportion of couples were discussing about family planning, if there was any association between husband wife communication and contraception, and couple’ s opinion about the subject. Among the 264 couples interviewed 10% had never heard about family planning. Among those who had heard about family planning in 98% of couples both wife and husband...

  16. Myths, misinformation, and communication about family planning and contraceptive use in Nigeria

    Ankomah A


    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005, was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-square tests and at the multivariate level using logistic regression.Results: Key myths and misinformation about family planning having significant negative effects on contraceptive use included: “contraception makes women become promiscuous”, “it is expensive to practice family planning”, and “family planning causes cancer”. Factual information having significant positive effects on contraceptive use includes the messages that family planning methods are effective and not against religious teaching. The type of people with whom respondents discussed family planning had a significant effect on use of contraception. Respondents who discussed family planning with their spouse, friends, and health workers were more likely to use contraception than those who discussed it with religious leaders. Other significant predictors of contraceptive use were region of residence, gender, and socioeconomic status.Conclusion: Family planning programs should focus on eliminating myths and misinformation, while strengthening factual information. Contraception programs should factor in the role of significant others, particularly spouses and friends.Keywords: contraceptive use, family planning, logistic regression, misconceptions, myths

  17. Determinants of Unmet Need for Family Planning In a Developing Country: An Observational Cross Sectional Study

    Saima Nazir, Anshu Mittal, Bhupinder K Anand, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Arshad Rashid


    Conclusion: Education, income, occupation, knowledge about contraception, communication with partner regarding family planning, media accessibility, gender preference were identified as the contributing factors for Unmet Need."

  18. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    Masoumeh Dejman


    Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.

  19. Decision Aids for Adversarial Planning in Military Operations: Algorithms, Tools, and Turing-test-like Experimental Validation

    Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray; Ground, Larry; Rebbapragada, Lakshmi; Langston, John


    Use of intelligent decision aids can help alleviate the challenges of planning complex operations. We describe integrated algorithms, and a tool capable of translating a high-level concept for a tactical military operation into a fully detailed, actionable plan, producing automatically (or with human guidance) plans with realistic degree of detail and of human-like quality. Tight interleaving of several algorithms -- planning, adversary estimates, scheduling, routing, attrition and consumptio...

  20. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  1. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    Roemer, R


    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  2. Family planning and sex education: the Chinese approach.

    Fraser, S E


    The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable

  3. Satisfaction with family planning services - interpersonal and organisational dimensions

    M.S. Westaway


    Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.

  4. The debate on family planning and reproductive rights in Bolivia.

    De La Fuente, M


    Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights. PMID:12284538

  5. Grandmother and household viability in Botswana: family planning, child care and survival in changing tswana society.

    Ingstad B


    Examines the roles and influence of grandmothers with respect to nutrition, breastfeeding, quality of child care and family planning usage; the maternal grandmother is much more involved with grandchildren than the paternal grandmother. Accordingly this category may be a target for programmes and activities to promote child welfare and family planning.

  6. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students

    Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.

  7. Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972).


    In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

  8. Concurrent Planning and beyond: Family-Centered Services for Children in Foster Care

    Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy


    Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative…

  9. The HIV / AIDS Alliance budgets $23 million for its 3-year plan as "linkman".


    The International Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Alliance, a London based nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a 1994 income of $3.5 million, is funding small organizations in developing countries via locally governed linking organizations, which review applications and provide technical support. The Alliance is headed by Jeff O'Malley, the founding executive director of Harvard's Global AIDS Policy Coalition and executive director of its 1992 "AIDS in the World" report. The result of a Rockefeller Foundation initiative, the Alliance has been operational since the beginning of 1994. 2 years of research, which focused on Mexico, the Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Egypt, indicated that the ideal funding arrangement was one where a northern NGO funded a southern NGO in a partnership. However, the southern NGOs soon outgrew this relationship. Critics suggest existing networks should be used instead of the new linking organizations. O'Malley cites 2 reasons for this new method of empowering the south: 1) smaller community groups are reached and 2) national debate on AIDS is catalyzed. Research shows that groups on the edge of being considered NGOs have little access to funds; however, they often are in a position to do important work on AIDS prevention and care. After piloting programs in Burkina Faso and the Philippines, the Alliance released a provisional 3-year plan for networks to be established in 14 countries (9 in 1994, 5 in 1995). Linking organizations are being formed in Bangladesh, Ecuador, and Senegal. Pakistan and Sri Lanka will be next. Work ranges from prevention and care to social science research and small scale drug supply. Staff have a variety of backgrounds: health, AIDS, development, the private sector, government, and NGOs. Linking organizations are bound by a Statement of Vision and Values. Whether a new linking organization is established (Philippines) or an existing network used (Bangladesh) varies

  10. The Individual Family Support Plan: A Tool to Assist Special Populations of Gifted Learners.

    Damiani, Victoria B.


    This article describes Project Mandela, a federally funded enrichment and family support program for special populations (such as culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged) of gifted learners. Eighty-seven families participated in development of Individual Family Support Plans to enhance children's educational progress. The project found…

  11. Curriculum Helps Families Discuss and Plan for Future of Their Woodland or Farm

    Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan


    Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…

  12. Transition to Adulthood for Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Shifting toward Person-Family Interdependent Planning

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Turnbull, Ann


    The transition from high school to adulthood is a major life change for most young adults and their families, and generally it is depicted as an especially stressful time for young people with disabilities and their families. Adequate planning is required to address the challenging impact of this stage of life on families. The purposes of this…

  13. An exploratory study of some of the determinants of managements succession planning in family businesses

    Susanna M Ellis; Van der Merwe, Stephan; Venter, Elmarie


    This study highlights the importance of management succession planning in small and medium-sized family businesses. The primary objective of this study is twofold : firstly to identify the potential influence of selected variables (determinants) on the management succession planning process in small and medium-sized family businesses, and secondly to make practical recommendations for actions that families can take to improve their chances of a successful succession and thereby ensure the sus...

  14. [Abortion: a public health or a family planning problem].

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R


    This work discusses various views of abortion and presents data on the legal aspects and incidence of abortion in Mexico as a contribution to a more productive dialogue on the problems of abortion. It is very difficult to deter women who have decided to seek an abortion, regardless of whether the procedure is legal or even safe. In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, an abortion has not been punishable since 1939 if it caused by "imprudence", if the woman is a victim of rape, or if the woman's life is endangered by pregnancy. The penal codes of most Mexican states and the Federal District contain similar provisions. In October 1990, the state of Chiapas decriminalized abortion for most indications in the 1st 90 days of pregnancy on the basis that the fertility and growth rates were too high, many children were in situations of extreme poverty, and the widespread practice of illegal abortion led to high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. The decree legalizing abortion in Chiapas was suspended in early 1991 by the Congress of Chiapas and is currently under further study by the National Commission on Human Rights. UNICEF estimates that in 1990, some 100,000 illegal abortions occurred daily in the world. 150,000-200,000 women may die each year as a result of illegal abortions. Today some 300 million couples throughout the world do not want more children but lack access to family planning. UNICEF estimates that the world rate of population growth would decline by 30% if all couples not desiring children practiced effective contraception. A large number of illegal abortions are believed to occur annually in Mexico. Abortions in Mexico are most common among married women of lower or lower middle class who already have children and who wish to avoid the economic hardships of a new baby. Perhaps because of their illegality, abortions represent a significant expense for a household. Unsafe abortions may cause serious health and fertility problems for women. The Mexican

  15. Minister Peng inspects family planning work in Shandong.


    Family planning (FP) programs in various villages in Shandong Province, China are discussed in terms of Minister Peng Peiyun's inspection. The visit by the State FP Commission officer was conducted with the Vice Governor and the Provincial FP Committee Director. 8 townships and villages in Yantai and Waihai prefectures were involved in the visits: Nanche Village of Shitou Town of Rongchen City, Zhangjia Township of Wendeng City, Yujia Village of Penglai County, and Xibeizhang Village of Pinglidian Town of Laizhou City. FP efforts and Minister Peng's comments are provided for these areas. IN Nanche village, Minister Peng said that farmers will support FP when the vast masses of the people of childbearing age are served. FP is important to political and social stability and economic development. In Zhangjia, Minister Peng visited a subcenter on education and said a solid basis for implementing FP is derived from paying sufficient attention to education on the basic principles of FP. In Yujia Village where there were no unplanned births, the village head answered the inquiry about FP success by saying the community persevered in developing the economy while simultaneously controlling population reproduction. A collective economy was formed with 7 small factories and 3 orchards. Annual income/capita in 1990 was 1,400 RMB Yuan. 300,000 RMB Yuan is devoted to the establishment of a kindergarten and primary school. An insurance system is operable. Childbearing desires changed with the relief from worries and the intensified education on population and FP. In Xibeizhang Village, which was designated a model for FP by governments in Shandong Province and Laizhou City, a provincial FP worker spoke directly to Minister Peng about the local activities. Encouragement on developing the 3 (educational and publicity, contraception, and daily management) to a new level and on surging ahead to bring about new achievement in FP was provided by Minister Peng to FP workers. PMID

  16. An Integrated Geometric Modeling Methodology for 2.5D Cylindrical Prismatic Part for Computer Aided Process Planning

    Viswa Mohan Pedagopu; Manish Kumar


    The field of solid modeling has created numerous techniques for unambiguous computer representations of three-dimensional objects. Its data structures and algorithms have been used in a broad range of applications: Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/ CAM), robotics, computer vision, computer graphics and visualization, virtual reality, etc. This research paper is used to generate process plan from feature-based modeling, based on an integrated geometric modeling syste...

  17. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi


    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  18. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa


    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  19. Family support plan for Middle Eastern countries following aircraft accidents

    Alahdal, Alhosain Abdullah


    Recent years have seen increasing acknowledgment that aircraft accidents affect not only those who are killed or injured, but also the families and friends of victims. Survivors, victims and their families require sensitive treatment in order to help them cope with what has occurred. Following high profile accidents including USAir 427 and TWA 800, the United State of America started a new program which they call it Family Assistance after Air Disaster. After that a several ...

  20. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control Among Patients with HIV/AIDS



    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to 4 subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the biological father with diagnoses of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in the biological mother. Cognitive control was evaluated during a tas...

  1. An Intelligent Master Model of Computer Aided Process Planning for Large Complicated Stampings

    Zheng Jinqiao; Wang Yilin; Li Zhigang


    Process planning for large complicated stampings is more complicated, illegible and multiform than that for common stampings.In this paper, an intelligent master model of computer aided process planning (CAPP) for large complicated stampings has been developed based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) and feature technology. This innovative model consists of knowledge base ( KB), process control structure (PCS), process information model (PIM), multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), model link environment (MLE) and simulation engine (SE), to realize process planning, optimization, simulation and management integrated to complete intelligent CAPP system. In this model, KBE provides knowledge base, open architecture and knowledge reuse ability to deal with the multi-domain and multi-expression of process knowledge, and forms an integrated environment. With PIM,all the knowledge consisting of objects, constraints, experience and decision-makings is carried by object-oriented method dynamically for knowledge-reasoning. PCS makes dynamical knowledge modified and updated timely and accordingly. MLE provides sev eral methods to make CAPP system associated and integrated. SE provides a programmable mechanism to interpret simulation course and result. Meanwhile, collaborative optimization, one method of MDO, is imported to deal with the optimization distributed for multiple purposes. All these make CAPP system integrated and open to other systems, such as die design and manufacturing system.

  2. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong


    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  3. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.


    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  4. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça


    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  5. The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of HIV/AIDS Patients’ Family toward Their Patients before and after Counseling

    Behnam Honarvar


    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.

  6. [How to expand and improve the coverage of family planning services: a Latin American viewpoint].

    Trias, M


    It is probably not possible to implant a family planning program that will have a reasonable demographic impact in areas lacking awareness of the disadvantages of overly high fertility. Rural-urban migration, increasing educational levels, women's labor force participation, and declining infant mortality are all factors that have been found to correlate with demand for family planning services. It has been recognized since the Bucharest World Population Conference in 1974 that development and family planning are both required for the fertility transition to begin. Where these conditions exist, a family planning program appropriate to the needs, limitations, preferences, and expectations of the target population has an excellent chance of success. Expanded and improved coverage results from tailoring programs to the specific groups served. Most programs are directed toward women. It has been found most effective to provide services for men in separate sessions. It is also useful to distinguish between services for adolescents, who require more information and fewer services, for mature women who require more services than information, and for premenopausal women whose needs for information and services are both declining. Contraceptive preferences vary with social class, but family planning programs in developing countries should concentrate on the lower middle and lower classes which comprise 80% of the population. Rural areas and marginal urban areas require special attention. In order to provide services that will attract all potential users, the maximum possible variety of methods should be available. A family planning program offering a variety of methods throughout the country and financially accessible to the population should be successful. Family planning programs, whether public or private, require adequate financial resources and the support or at least tolerance of the government. Knowledge of contraception is now almost universal. A major challenge of

  7. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi


    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.


    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes


    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that ...

  9. Assessing the effect of introducing a new method into family planning programs in India, Peru, and Rwanda

    Lundgren Rebecka; Sinai Irit; Jha Priya; Mukabatsinda Marie; Sacieta Luisa; León Federico R


    Abstract Background Introducing a new method into family planning programs requires careful attention to ensure it meets an actual need and has a positive effect on program goals. The Standard Days Method® is a fertility awareness-based method of family planning that is being introduced into family planning programs in countries around the world. It is different from other methods offered by programs, and may bring new couples into family planning, and increase contraceptive prevalence. The s...

  10. An Important Opportunity for Family Planning Education: Mothers with Children Hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospital, Diyarbakir-2004.

    Alpay Çakmak; Melikşah Ertem


    Family planning is an important tool to avoid maternal deaths. But unfortunately women have no chance to reach family planning services particularly in developing countries. All contacts with health professionals of women should be evaluate a opportunity for family planning education. In this study we aimed to show the fact that children hospital is also an important opportunity for family planning education. We interviewed 352 women with a child hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospita...

  11. The Behavioral Ecology of Family Planning : Two Ethnic Groups in Northeast India.

    Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S


    Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide. PMID:26181061

  12. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.


    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  13. Fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among unmarried youths in Cameroon: Do family environment and peers matter?

    Kuate Defo Barthelemy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Methods Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4 950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1 765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%. For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2 028 unmarried youths aged 12 - 29 years was utilized. Results Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. Conclusions This paper evidenced the limited

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Hemavarneshwari S.


    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  15. Community Dialogue to Shift Social Norms and Enable Family Planning: An Evaluation of the Family Planning Results Initiative in Kenya

    Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel


    Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its

  16. The power of information and contraceptive choice in a family planning setting in Mexico

    Ponce, E.; Sloan, N; Winikoff, B.; Langer, A; Coggins, C; Heimburger, A.; Conde-Glez, C.; Salmeron, J


    Objectives: This study measured the effect of information about family planning methods and STD risk factors and prevention, together with personal choice on the selection of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by clients with cervical infection.

  17. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Smith, C.; Vannak, U; Sokhey, L; Ngo, TD; Gold, J; Khut, K; Edwards, P.; Rathavy, T; Free, C


    BACKGROUND Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. METHODS/DESIGN A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Mari...

  18. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.


    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality, whether contraceptives are used after each birth, and birth intervals. Infant mortality is determined by the preceding birth interval and other covariates (such as socio-economic status). The decis...

  19. Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi District, Ghana

    Apanga, Paschal Awingura; Adam, Matthew Ayamba


    Introduction Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it's usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling ...

  20. Male Attendance at Title X Family Planning Clinics - United States, 2003-2014.

    Besera, Ghenet; Moskosky, Susan; Pazol, Karen; Fowler, Christina; Warner, Lee; Johnson, David M; Barfield, Wanda D


    Although both men and women have reproductive health care needs, family planning providers traditionally focus services toward women (1,2). Challenges in providing family planning services to men, including preconception health, infertility, contraceptive, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) care (3,4), include their infrequent use of preventive health services, a perceived lack of need for these services (1,5), and the lack of provider guidance regarding men's reproductive health care needs (4). Since 1970, the National Title X Family Planning Program has provided cost-effective and confidential family planning and related preventive health services with priority for services to low-income women and men. To examine men's use of services at Title X service sites, CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Population Affairs (OPA) analyzed data from the 2003-2014 Family Planning Annual Reports (FPAR), annual data that are required of all Title X-funded agencies. During 2003-2014, 3.8 million males visited Title X service sites in the United States and the percentage of family planning users who were male nearly doubled from 4.5% (221,425 males) in 2003 to 8.8% (362,531 males) in 2014. In 2014, the percentage of family planning users who were male varied widely by state, ranging from ≤1% in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama to 27.2% in the District of Columbia (DC). Title X service sites are increasingly providing services for males. Health care settings might want to adopt the framework employed by Title X clinics to better provide family planning and related preventative services to men (3). PMID:27309884

  1. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Montana Livia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  2. The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state.

    Shiffman, Jeremy


    Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. PMID:11989957

  3. Husband-wife communication and family planning practices among Malay married couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu.

    Azimi, Y Nor; Atiya, A S


    The role of husband-wife communication in the practice of family planning was studied among the rural Malay couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu. It was a cross-sectional study in which a cluster sampling was used to select the study sample. A total of 193 (100.0%) wives and 74 (38.3%) husbands responded to a face-to-face interview. Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of husband-wife communication. Husband-wife communication score was lower on family planning compared to other matters. There was a significant fair agreement on the scores between the husbands and the wives (p > 0.05) on family planning. There was a significant association between husband-wife communication on family planning and the current practice of family planning (p = 0.002). The 'likelihood' that couples who had had good husband-wife communication to practice family planning was about 2.8 times higher compared to those couples with poor husband-wife communication (95% C.I.: 1.4, 5.3). Further research need to be carried out, as the study was limited by certain constraints. PMID:14569742

  4. Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Henry, Kathleen

    Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

  5. Family participation in care plan meetings : Promoting a collaborative organizational culture in nursing homes

    Dijkstra, Ate


    In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in heal

  6. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  7. The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis

    Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho


    Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…

  8. Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

    Meister H


    Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample: Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results: The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion: The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. Keywords: hearing aid uptake, motivation, attitude, subjective norm, behavioral control

  9. Study on the application of computer-aided information systems in the planning and control of nuclear fuel cycle projects

    The report on hand presents possible applications of a project planning and coordination system for projects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle, with special regard to waste management. The relevant licencing procedures applied to said projects as well as basic elements of project planning systems, e.g. project structure plan, ''milestone-plan'' and network plan are dealt with in this report. For the licensing procedure under atomic law, a possible project structure is indicated. Furthermore, processes and occurances to be considered in the elaboration of particular network plans are listed. In addition, particulars for the schedules degree of specifications are given. To round up the report, recommendations are given for future lines of proceeding in the introduction of computer-aided information systems for use in projets on the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.)

  10. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Mauldin, W P


    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762